WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Biology and medicine division annual report, 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress for 1979-1980 is reported from the following research groups and/or areas: research medicine; Donner Pavilion; Peralta Cancer Research Institute; environmental physiology; radiation biophysics and structural biophysics. Abstracts have been prepared for the 61 separate research programs described in this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

1981-01-01

2

Ahogamiento y sumersión accidentales: mortalidad en Cuba, 1987-2002/ Accidental drowning and submersion: mortality in Cuba, 1987 - 2002  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los ahogamientos y sumersiones constituyen la tercera causa de muerte accidental en Cuba. Con el objetivo de identificar el comportamiento de la mortalidad por este tipo de accidente, se hizo un estudio descriptivo de las defunciones por ahogamiento y sumersión ocurridas en el país durante el período 1987-2002. Las fuentes de información fueron las bases de datos de la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública y los estimados de población (more) de la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. Las variables recogidas fueron: edad, sexo, causa del accidente, provincia de residencia y poblaciones. Los indicadores calculados: tasas de mortalidad, razón estandarizada de mortalidad y porcentajes. Las tasas de mortalidad por ahogamiento y sumersión accidentales en Cuba variaron de 3,4 x 100 000 habitantes en 1987 a 2,8 en el 2002. Entre las provincias con mayores tasas se destacaron Santiago de Cuba, Las Tunas, Holguín y el Municipio Especial Isla de la Juventud. Las edades más jóvenes y el sexo masculino fueron los más afectados. Todo esto denota la necesidad de fortalecer las medidas para prevenir este tipo de accidente. Abstract in english The drownings and submersions are the third cause of accidental death in Cuba. In order to identify the behavior of mortality from this type of accident, a descriptive study of deaths resulting from drowning and submersion ocurred in Cuba from 1987 to 2002 was made. The sources of information were the databases of the National Division of Statistics of the Ministry of Public Health and the population estimates of the National Office of Statistics. The variables collected (more) were: age, sex, cause of accident, province of residence and populations. The following indicators were calculated: mortality rates, standardized ratio of mortality and percentages. The mortality rates from accidental drowning and submersion in Cuba ranged from 3.4 x 100 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 2.8 in 2002. Santiago de Cuba, Las Tunas, Holguín and the Special Municipality of Isla de la Juventud had the highest rates. The youngest and the males were the most affected. All this shows the need to strengthen the measures to prevent this type of accident.

Hernández Sánchez, Mariela; García Roche, René; Valdés Lazo, Francisco; Díaz-Pereda Fernández, Georgia; Ferrer Ferrer, Lillian

2005-04-01

3

Biology and medicine division annual report, 1979-1980. [Lead abstract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress for 1979-1980 is reported from the following research groups and/or areas: research medicine; Donner Pavilion; Peralta Cancer Research Institute; environmental physiology; radiation biophysics and structural biophysics. Abstracts have been prepared for the 61 separate research programs described in this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

1981-03-01

4

New initiatives in energy legislation. A state-by-state guide: 1979-1980. [Monograph  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 50-state survey of state initiatives lists conservation and renewable energy initiatives enacted during the 1979-1980 legislative sessions. The guide is intended to disseminate information on innovative approaches. The list is divided into 15 categories covering buildings, loans and grants, tax credits, solar incentives and planning, cogeneration, hydroelectric, recycling and solid waste, meeting low-income energy needs, alcohol fuels/transportation, consumer protection, utility policy, new institutional vehicles, and miscellaneous. (DCK)

1981-01-01

5

Fraturas vertebrais em grandes animais: estudo retrospectivo de 39 casos (1987-2002) Vertebral fractures in large animals: retrospective study of 39 cases (1987-2002)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo (1987-2002) dos aspectos clínicos das fraturas vertebrais em eqüinos, bovinos, ovinos, caprinos e suínos atendidos no hospital veterinário da FMVZ-Unesp de Botucatu. Todos os casos tiveram confirmação radiográfica ou post-mortem. Segundo a espécie, a ordem de acometimento foi: bovina, eqüina, ovina, caprina e suína. As lesões ocorreram desde os 12 dias de idade até os 10 anos, com maior freqüência até os 12 meses. O segmento torácico foi o mais comprometido seguido dos segmentos lombar, cervical e sacral. As fraturas vertebrais devem fazer parte da lista de diagnósticos diferenciais de animais em decúbito, independente da espécie, sexo ou idade.It was performed a retrospective study (1987-2002) of clinical features of spinal fractures in the equine, bovine, ovine, caprine and swine referred to the Veterinary Hospital - FMVZ-Unesp in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. All the cases were confirmed by necropsy or radiographic evaluation. Bovines were the most affected species, followed by horses, sheep, goats and swines, and lesions occurred from 12 days to 10 years of age, being more frequent up to 12 months of age. Thoracic vertebrae were the most affected, followed by lumbar, cervical and sacral segments. Vertebral fractures should be included for differential diagnosis of recumbent animals, independently on species, sex or age.

A.S. Borges; D.P.G. Silva; R.C. Gonçalves; S.B. Chiacchio; R.M. Amorim; M.R.G. Kuchembuck; L.C. Vulcano; E.P. Bandarra; R.S. Lopes

2003-01-01

6

Fraturas vertebrais em grandes animais: estudo retrospectivo de 39 casos (1987-2002)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo (1987-2002) dos aspectos clínicos das fraturas vertebrais em eqüinos, bovinos, ovinos, caprinos e suínos atendidos no hospital veterinário da FMVZ-Unesp de Botucatu. Todos os casos tiveram confirmação radiográfica ou post-mortem. Segundo a espécie, a ordem de acometimento foi: bovina, eqüina, ovina, caprina e suína. As lesões ocorreram desde os 12 dias de idade até os 10 anos, com maior freqüência até os 12 meses. O segmento torácico foi o mais comprometido seguido dos segmentos lombar, cervical e sacral. As fraturas vertebrais devem fazer parte da lista de diagnósticos diferenciais de animais em decúbito, independente da espécie, sexo ou idade.

Borges A.S.; Silva D.P.G.; Gonçalves R.C.; Chiacchio S.B.; Amorim R.M.; Kuchembuck M.R.G.; Vulcano L.C.; Bandarra E.P.; Lopes R.S.

2003-01-01

7

Dispersal and dispersion of southern elephant seals in the Kerguelen province, Southern Ocean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina within the Kerguelen province disperse between Marion Island (MI), Iles Crozet (IC) and Iles Kerguelen (IK) despite the high site fidelity characteristic of this species. From 1987–2002, 199 IC individuals, or 11.63% of the tagged population there, were resig...

Oosthuizen, W. Chris; Bester, Marthan Nieuwoudt; Tosh, Cheryl A.; Guinet, Christophe; Besson, Dominique; De Bruyn, P.J. Nico

8

Annual report 1979/1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The annual report concentrates result of investigations in the field of the production of radioisotopes, the synthesis of radioactive compounds and their characterization. Main topics are the production of 99Mo and the application of radioactive compounds in nuclear medicine especially as radiopharmaceuticals. A list of publications and lectures is enclosed. (author)

1981-01-01

9

Technical documentation for the Nonresidential-Buildings Energy-Consumption Survey: 1979-1980, building characteristics, energy end use and fuel oil tank data, public use data tapes. Users' guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides basic information and technical specifications necessary for using the machine-readable magnetic tapes containing the Building Characteristics, Energy End Use and Fuel Oil Tank data from the 1979-1980 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS). Included in this document are a brief overview of the NBECS, technical specifications for reading the tapes and descriptions of the contents of each of the files contained on the tape. The remaining sections are devoted to technical topics of special interest to users of the data. Appended to this document are copies of the questionnaire used in the survey, a listing of the contents of the SPSS labels file, COBOL file description and TPL codebook. The results of the NBECS have been reported in a series of publications which are available to the public. A list of the reports currently available is included here as Appendix H.

1982-02-01

10

VGB activity report 1979/1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a detailed technical and scientific report on the safety, reliability, and economics of power plants and on availability and failure statistics of power plant operators. VGB activities in the field of R-D projects are reviewed. The members' committees and their activities are listed as well as VGB meetings and seminars. (GL)

1980-01-01

11

Motor gasolines, winter 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical data for 1857 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report shows marketing areas districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas, 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R+M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.9, 92.1, 89.0, and 93.3 unleaded below 90.0, unleaded 90.0 and above, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-07-01

12

Energy use in the dairy industry, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of an energy consumption survey conducted in the New Zealand dairy industry, during the 1979/80 dairying season are detailed and discussed. The survey concerns energy use in the collection of milk, in the processing of town milk and speciality products, and in the manufacture of all dairy products. It was undertaken to update the information provided in the dairy industry energy survey report of the 1974/75 season by Vickers and Shannon (1977). It is proposed to forward a copy of this report to the manager of every dairy manufacturing plant and milk treatment station in New Zealand with a covering letter containing information concerning the apparent energy efficiency, defined by the energy-use index, for his particular factory. It is hoped that managers will then set up an energy group for their own plant to continue energy auditing and introduce energy conservation schemes such as those outlined and recommended. The New Zealand Dairy Research Institute is prepared to determine the energy-use index annually and make additional energy conservation information available to all plants which in future forward their annual energy consumptions and production statistics to the Institute for evaluation.

Vickers, V.T.; Miller, E.J.

1983-01-01

13

1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

1980-01-01

14

Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

1982-01-01

15

Bauxite provinces of the world  

Science.gov (United States)

Phanerozoic bauxite provinces are contoured and characterized. The relations to large tectonic units—ancient and young platforms, island arcs and foldbelts, active continental margins, etc.—are chosen as the major criterion for the recognition of bauxite provinces; 19 provinces of different age and conditions of bauxite deposition are described. Single- and multistage as well as single- and multilevel provinces are distinguished depending on the type of tectonic and geomorphic structure. The most productive bauxite provinces are located in the present-day tropical zone within ancient Gondwanan platforms. Three-level provinces with Cretaceous bauxite at the highest and oldest (post-Gondwanan) surface and Cenozoic deposits at lower and younger planation surfaces are predominant. The most complex, two- and three-stage and multilevel provinces are related to ancient fold regions. The single-level provinces are localized in young island arcs and oceanic islands. The prevalent genetic types of bauxite deposits—lateritic, sedimentary, and karst—are shown in the map of bauxite provinces.

Bogatyrev, B. A.; Zhukov, V. V.

2009-10-01

16

Study on Jilin Province’s Population Growth Trend Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the population data of Jilin Province from the year 1949 to 2009 and valid population growth change rates, this paper intends to predict the population growth trend of Jilin province by a comparative study conducted under the Malthusian Population Model and Logistic Model and to explore the ...

JIN Yuzi

17

Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

Van Middlesworth, L.

1980-01-01

18

Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

1980-01-01

19

Bioclimate of the Research Station at Studsvik During the Period 1979-1980.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioclimate data from the Studsvik research station of energy forestry project are presented in tables and figures with a resolution that enables adequate climatic information to be supplied easily supplied to other scientists in the project. The climatic ...

H. Eckersten K. Pertuu

1981-01-01

20

Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

none,

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Study of mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion in separation devices. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main results are in the following three areas: (1) examination of a diffusion model for PdH system, (2) connection between the diffusion model and other physical models, (3) related problems. Advances made during the third year of this project, particularly in understanding the physical model for hydrogen diffusion, make it possible to begin to meet some of the long-range objectives described in the initial proposals of 1977-1978.

Lee, M.H.

1980-04-05

22

Physics and medicine: the Bevatron/Bevalac experience, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy ion radiobiology has been integrated successfully into the research program at the Bevatron/Bevalac for the past several years. During the 1979 to 1980 year radiotherapy trials have been conducted side-by-side with the demanding program of heavy ion nuclear science research at this national facility. Careful attention is given to the scheduling of research on the SuperHILAC and Bevatron/Bevalac so that the nuclear science and biomedical programs at the Bevatron/Bevalac and the program at the SuperHILAC are served to maximum effect. Efforts to maximize the researchers' time have resulted in hardware, software, and operating improvements that offer a total machine availability of about 90% and a user availability of about 80%. Fast beam switching and beam sharing permit virtually simultaneous use of the Bevatron/Bevalac by two or more users. Current beam delivery systems will be augmented in FY 1981 to provide two ion energies per Bevatron/Bevalac pulse.

Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Force, R.; Grunder, H.; Lewis, S.; Miller, R.; Tekawa, M.

1981-01-01

23

Study of mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion in separation devices. Third annual report, 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main results are in the following three areas: (1) examination of a diffusion model for PdH system, (2) connection between the diffusion model and other physical models, (3) related problems. Advances made during the third year of this project, particularly in understanding the physical model for hydrogen diffusion, make it possible to begin to meet some of the long-range objectives described in the initial proposals of 1977-1978

1980-01-01

24

Progress report on research program in elementary particle theory, 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed

1980-01-01

25

AMERICAN BUSINESS AND NORMALIZATION OF US-CHINA COMMERCIAL RELATIONS, 1979–1980  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a strategic alignment against the Soviet Union was in the late 1960s the driving force behind Sino-American rapprochement. In 1978 Cold War politics prompted the Carter administration to recognize the People’s Republic. In 1979—80 military and strategic cooperation dominated Sino-Amthcan relations; economic and cultural ties were secondary. Yet growing trade and cultural exchanges were useful means for broadening the basis of the relationship and generating a perception of progress.

Kailai Huang

2005-01-01

26

Bioclimate of the research station at Studsvik during the period 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioclimate data from the Studsvik research station of energy forestry project are presented in tables and figures with a resolution that enables adequate climatic information to be supplied easily supplied to other scientists in the project. The climatic data are stored on discs and magnetic tapes for easy availability via the ECODATA-system if more specific information is needed. The growing season of 1979 at Studsvik started on May 6 and ended on October 21, covering a period of 169 days. The corresponding dates for 1980 were April 28 to October 19, i.e., 175 days. The day-degrees above the threshold value of +5/sup 0/C and the growth units (according to Mork), were lower in 1979 than in 1980. The cumulative sums of day-degrees reached 1197 during 1979 and 1296 during 1980. The corresponding growth units were 495 and 556, respectively. The normal annual amount of precipitation in the Studsvik area is about 550 mm. The spring months, March-May, are rather dry (25 to 35 mm), while the late summer months, July-September, are wetter (55 to 70 mm). Large variations occur from place to place and between years. The radiation decreases rather rapidely when penetrating a stand of Salix. Less than 10% of the incoming light (450 to 700 mm) reaches the ground. The lowest values were obtained in early of September when the stand had almost finished its shoot elongation and the leaves were still summer green. When the leaves start falling in September and October the relative amount of radiation beneath the stand encreases. The albedo of the stand is rather constant, about 30% for Salix smithiana (666).

Eckersten, H.; Pertuu, K.

1981-01-01

27

Strontium-90 content in the reindeer meat, 1965-1975, 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of strontium-90 in reindeer meat is presented. The meat samples were taken from the autumn and winter slaughters in the northern part of Sweden after the fallout from the nuclear tests during the 1960s and 1970s. The strontium activity measurements were performed using a chemical analysis. The content of cesium-137 and the Sr/Cs activity ratio for the reindeer meat samples is also presented and the Sr/Ca ratio is discussed. (Authors)

1986-01-01

28

Levels of strontium 90 in the environment at PINSTECH (Period 1979-1980)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Strontium 90, a most toxic among the beta emitting radionuclides, is found in the environment originating mostly from the global fallout from nuclear tests. Radioactive concentration of this radionuclide was measured in air-borne particulates, precipitation, surface water, seasonal vegetables and other items of diet. The report describes a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Y 90 by solvent extraction leading to the determination of Sr 90 content in the environmental and biological samples. The report also presents data on the concentration of Sr 90 in the biomedia at PINSTECH during 1979-80. The values of these concentrations are fairly comparable to those published in the current literature. (author)

29

Interior provinces in Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

1985-04-01

30

Brazilian structural provinces: An introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The territory of Brazil coincides almost entirely with the South American Platform, the crystalline core of the continent. Its basement is composed of ancient metamorphic and igneous rocks and it has not suffered any tectonic regeneration since the beginning of the Phanerozoic. Sedimentary rocks with almost horizontal bedding cover this crystalline basement. This latter shows ages as old as Early Precambrian, although ages between 500 and 1000 m.y. are conspicuously frequent. The cratonic areas became consolidated more than 1700 m.y. ago, whereas the fold belts formed essentially between 500 and 1700 m.y. ago. The sedimentary cover accumulated from the Early Silurian in three large intracratonic basins, until the platform became completely stabilized. A Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous reactivation, caused by the break-up of the ancient Gondwana continent, created another basin sequence chiefly along the Atlantic continental margin. Based on the nature of the crystalline basement rocks and the sedimentary cover, ten structural provinces can be distinguished: Rio Branco Province, in the north of the country, occupied by the Guyana Shield and still only poorly known, with an important fold belt developed during the so-called Transamazonian Cycle (2000 ± 200m.y.) with high-grade metamorphic rocks and only slight influence of later events. Tapajós Province, in central Brazil, corresponding to the Amazonas or GuaporéCraton, showing chiefly Precambrian crystalline rocks and behaving as an cratonic area during the Phanerozoic. Sa˜o Francisco Province, located on the Atlantic Shield, with its basement covered by rocks of different ages, chiefly affected by the Brasiliano Cycle (between 1000 and 500 m.y.) and constituting another cratonic area. Tocantins Province, between the Amazonas and Sa˜o Francisco Cratons, with the oldest rocks in its centre (ages over 2600 m.y.), and at the eastern and western borders metamorphic sequences of various fold belts, and almost no Phanerozoic deposits. Mantiqueira Province, located along the southern part of the Atlantic coast, affected chiefly by the Brasiliano folding cycle. Borborema Province, in the northeast Brazilian fold belt, affected by the Brasiliano Cycle in a very complex way, and with important faulted zones. It was reactivated in Phanerozoic times, when also sedimentary covers accumulated. Amazonas Province, represented by the Amazonas sedimentary basin (syneclise), and subdivided into four parts by three important arcs. Parnaiba Province, coinciding with the Piauf — Maranha˜o syneclise, and filled with a rather thick sedimentary sequence. ParanáProvince, the sedimentary basin of southern Brazil, in which the well-known Late Paleozoic glaciation features are found, and which possesses an extensive cover of basaltic rocks of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. Coastal Province and Continental Margin, the youngest structural unit, developed during the separation of the continent and represented by rift-valleys and coastal basins filled with Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of various kinds.

de Almeida, F. F. M.; Hasui, Y.; de Brito Neves, B. B.; Fuck, R. A.

1981-04-01

31

Tipos de hogar, ciclo de vida familiar y pobreza en Costa Rica 1987-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue el de explorar las condiciones vulnerabilidad sociodemográfica en Costa Rica, a partir del análisis de los cambios en los tipos de hogar y el ciclo de vida de las familias en condiciones de pobreza, utilizando información de las Encuestas de Hogares de 1987, 1994 y 2002. Los principales hallazgos revelan modificaciones importantes en la estructura y composición de los hogares y familias en el periodo de estudio, asociado a cambios en la dinámica sociodemográfica de la sociedad costarricense. La evolución en la incidencia de la pobreza por tipo de hogar muestra que ésta es mayor entre los hogares nucleares que cuentan con hijos y al convertirse en monoparentales. La incidencia es más alta en 1987, se reduce para 1994 y prácticamente se mantiene para el 2002. No obstante que en todas las fases del ciclo de vida familiar la incidencia de la pobreza disminuyó en el periodo 1987-1994, en el periodo más reciente al 2002 la incidencia es mayor en las etapas en que las familias poseen más hijos dependientes menores de 18 años, lo que expone a estas familias a una mayor vulnerabilidad a situaciones de pobreza. Los hogares y familias con mayor riesgo de vulnerabilidad ante la pobreza, se hallaron entre aquellos con mayor cantidad de miembros dependientes menores de edad y jefeados por mujeres. No se encontraron evidencias significativas para afirmar que el estancamiento observado en los niveles de pobreza en el país hasta el 2002, fuese producto de los cambios encontrados en los patrones familiares, aunque ciertamente se hace necesario profundizar el análisis de las interrelaciones entre pobreza y cambios demográficos.

Barquero, Jorge; Trejos, Juan Diego

2004-01-01

32

Technological capabilities and late shakeouts : Industrial dynamics in the advanced gas turbine industry, 1987-2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on technological discontinuities and late shakeouts in mature industries. The empirical case is combined cycle gas turbine technology in the power generation industry, where two of four main incumbents (GE, ABB, Siemens, and Westinghouse) exited the industry after several years ...

Bergek, Anna; Tell, Fredrik; Berggren, Christian; Watson, J.

33

Neotectonics in the maritime provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

1988-01-01

34

Effect of climatic conditions and irrigation on sugarbeet production in the Vojvodina Province, Serbia and Montenegro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climatic conditions in the Vojvodina Province, the main agricultural region of Serbia and Montenegro, are generally favorable for crop production, but the rainfall during growing season is frequently too low or irregular to secure high and stable yields of agricultural crops including sugarbeet. In climatic conditions where there is an uneven amount and distribution of precipitation, as is the case with this region, sugarbeet yield performance is directly dependent on weather conditions. Sugarbeet yields vary not only from one year to another but also from one region to another within the single growing season. The average sugar beet water requirement for the period 1987-2002 was 586 mm, with fairly small variations by either the region or the year. About 10-20% of the total sugarbeet requirement for water comes from reserve soil water, while the rest is provided by rainfall and irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration is 392 mm on the average, ranging from 198 mm in dry years to 542 mm in rainy years. The average precipitation sum for the growing season at Rimski Sancevi site was 360 mm, with high annual variation - from 138 to 683 mm. The average water deficit relative to the sugar beet water requirement was 190 mm, ranging from 24 to 367 mm. The deficit was especially pronounced in July and August, when it ranged between 0 and 282 mm, averaging 146 mm, or 75% of the total requirement. Sugarbeet root yield is directly proportional to the amount of rainfall during growing season and the amount of available water spent for actual evapotranspiration. Relatively high yields have been obtained in years with high amounts of rainfall (from 500 to 650 mm) and favorable distribution of rainfall during growing season. High yields were also obtained in years with relatively low amounts of rainfall but moderately favorable or favorable distribution of rainfall. In the period 1990-1999, root yields in commercial production varied significantly, from the average of 22.7 t/ha in 1993 to the average of 46.62 t/ha in 1999. In the period 1987-2001, root yields in an irrigation experiment conducted at the experiment field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops exhibited large variations. In the non-irrigated variant, root yields were below 60 t/ha in 6 years (40%), from 60 to 80 t/ha in 4 years (27%) and above 80 t/ha in 5 years (33%). In irrigation variants, root yields were below 80 t/ha in 5 years (33%), from 80 to 100 t/ha in 3 years (20%), from 100 to 120 t/ha in 6 years (40%) and above 120 t/ha in 1 year (7%). In other words, the effect of irrigation was below 20% in 5 years (33%), from 20 to 45% in 3 years (20%) and above 45% in 7 years (47%). (Author)

35

Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author).

1990-11-01

36

THE CONGRESS IN PUNJAB PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study Indian National Congress in Punjab during 1900-1929, it is necessary to give an idea about the foundation and growth of Congress at all India level, without which the picture in different provinces about the growth of Congress activities would not be clear. The regional study is closely interlinked with the wider growth of All India National Congress. No picture of regional and local level organization can be properly constructed without forming a picture of National Level organization.

DR. JAGDEEP SINGH; DR. MUMTAZ

2012-01-01

37

Status of Shanxi Province`s power and coal reserves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An introduction to Shanxi`s coal reserve, production, transportation utilization, electric power generation and transmission capacities is presented with the intention of providing outsiders a clear understanding of Shanxi`s coal and power industries. Quantitative sketches of Shanxi`s role in China`s energy resource production and power generation are included. The province of Shanxi invites investors to visit Shanxi to gain first-hand knowledge. The authors have also taken the liberty of providing the high points of Shanxi`s indigenous sceneries and local customs. They believe that in the future, Shanxi`s coal based power development will be one of the principal drivers of China`s economic growth.

Wu, D.C. [Shanxi Energy Research Committee, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Shang, J.Y. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

38

Floristic Lichen Records from Usak Province, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey presented. A total of 123 lichen species belonging to Ascomycotina are reported from 7 different localities in Usak Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Of these, 115 are new for Usak Province. For every each species, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

K. Kinalioglu

2008-01-01

39

Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U3O8). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

1988-01-01

40

A Positive and Comparative Research on Enterprise Competitiveness between Hubei Province and Coastal Provinces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the three index dimensions which include index value of enterprise scope competitiveness, enterprise management competitiveness and enterprise innovation competitiveness, this article proceeds the comparison and analysis the index mean-values of enterprise competitiveness between in Hubei Province and 31 provinces and cities of China and six coastal provinces in 2005. The result shows that in 2005, the index value of enterprise competitiveness in Hubei Province was ranked No.15 in the whole country, scale competitiveness was ranked No.12, management competitiveness was ranked No.20, innovation competitiveness was ranked No.13, comparing with coastal provinces, scale competitiveness and innovation competitiveness only were 26% of latter average values, management competitiveness was 95% of latter mean value. Enterprise competitiveness in Hubei had a wide gap comparing with coastal provinces, so it need promote such as management competitiveness in Hubei Province.

Yonghua Zhu; Yanyan Wang

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

1995-01-01

42

An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

Omid Safa; Mohammad Amin Soltanipoor; Soheil Rastegar; Mahnaz Kazemi; Khadijeh Nourbakhsh Dehkordi; Alireza Ghannadi

2012-01-01

43

1979-1980 operation and performance of two domestic-sized stoker-fed wood chip heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three projects in Eastern North America demonstrating home heating systems firing particulate biomass fuels (wood chips, pellets). The New Brunswick project has one hot water installation and one hot air installation, both fueled with 1-cm chips produced by a farm-tractor mounted chipper. The hot water system provides all space heat and hot water; the hot air system all space heat and some hot water. The hot water system was imported from Sweden, and the hot air stoker and furnace were made locally. Fuel consumption in both units has been comparable to the oil used previously, requiring approximately 0.09 kWh/dd/sq.m. There has been no flue creosote and emissions have been negligible. House temperature is maintained at constant set values by a conventional thermostat.

Schneider, M.H.; Short, C.A.

1982-07-01

44

Geothermal assessment activities in Oregon, 1979-1980, and a case study example at Powell Buttes, Oregon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geothermal assessment activities in Oregon are reviewed briefly. An isogradient map, a lithologic and temperature log, and a finite difference thermal conductivity model of Powell Buttes area are presented. (MHR)

Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.; Blackwell, D.D.; Brown, D.E.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

1981-05-01

45

Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout production at the Gallatin Waste Heat Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste heat effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum production was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.

Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.

1984-02-01

46

Investigation of free-forced convection flows in cavity-type receivers. Final yearly report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is provided of the first of three years of experimental and theoretical research on free-forced convection flows in cavity-type solar receivers. New experimental and theoretical results are presented and discussed. The implication of these findings, with respect to the future thrust of the research program, is clarified as well as is possible at the present time. Following various related conclusions a summary and tentative schedule of work projected for year two of research are presented.

Humphrey, J.A.C.

1982-01-01

47

Genetic and developmental study of a complex locus in the house mouse. Progress report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 50 T/t-complex and other mouse chromosome variants have been maintained for genetic study, and for distribution to other investigators. Deletion mapping has been used to analyze a lethal t-haplotype, t/sup w73/, and has shown that the t/sup w73/ chromosome carries an additional parasitic lethal factor separate and different from the t-lethal factor. In other mapping experiments it was shown that the dominant mutation Kb (knobbly) is allelic to the previously described mutation Ki, although their embryonic lethal effects are different. Experiments to extract and analyze t-haplotypes from wild populations and to determine their H-2 types, as well as to characterize viable t-haplotypes produced by existing t-lethals have been continued.

Bennett, D.

1980-01-01

48

Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Technical annual progress report, 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following results are reported: (1) extremely good theoretical-experimental correlation was found between our theoretical predictions based on asymptotic analysis with numerical finite element studies and the experimentally monitored crack growth for a large range of stable crack growth in 4140 steel; (2) a theoretical model was developed for the critical conditions of crack initiation at rigid particles as a precursor of ductile rupture in steels; (3) as part of environmentally sensitive fracture mechanisms, it was found that hydrogen can promote a ductile-to-brittle fracture transition with increasing charging current density in low carbon steel; and (4) a new variational principle has been established for the combined processes of plastic creep flow and grain boundary diffusion and has been constructively applied to the problem of cavity growth under creep conditions.

1980-01-01

49

Combined macroscopic and microscopic approach to the fracture of metals. Technical annual progress report, 1979-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following results are reported: (1) extremely good theoretical-experimental correlation was found between our theoretical predictions based on asymptotic analysis with numerical finite element studies and the experimentally monitored crack growth for a large range of stable crack growth in 4140 steel; (2) a theoretical model was developed for the critical conditions of crack initiation at rigid particles as a precursor of ductile rupture in steels; (3) as part of environmentally sensitive fracture mechanisms, it was found that hydrogen can promote a ductile-to-brittle fracture transition with increasing charging current density in low carbon steel; and (4) a new variational principle has been established for the combined processes of plastic creep flow and grain boundary diffusion and has been constructively applied to the problem of cavity growth under creep conditions.

Asaro, R.J.; Gurland, J.; Needleman, A.; Rice, J.R.

1980-06-01

50

Progress report on research program in elementary particle theory, 1979-1980. [Univ. of Texas at Austin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed. (RWR)

Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.

1980-01-01

51

Martian Provinces From Neutron and Gamma Spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intends to identify and characterize the major provinces at the surface of Mars. We used the data from the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the Gamma-ray Sensor Head (GSH) aboard Mars Odyssey. NS data help to define broad provinces that should present uniform composition. GSH data can be then summed over these provinces to derive their chemical compositions with good statistics. At the present stage, we manage to conduct the first step that identifies the provinces, while the second step is still under progress to characterize them. Variations in NS epithermal and fast neutron data are largely dominated by the distribution of hydrogen and carbon at the surface or at shallow depths. Neutrons are also affected by the presence of an atmosphere. To limit these effects, we chose frost free data (i.e. measured during the summer at high-latitudes), between -60 and +60 degrees latitude, and corrected for atmospheric thickness (normalization to 16 g/cm2). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that neutron fluxes can be used as a proxy for composition: thermal neutrons are strongly attenuated by absorbing elements such as iron, titanium, chlorine, gadolinium, and samarium; on the contrary, the fast neutron flux increases in presence of high-atomic mass elements such as iron or titanium. For a dry and airless body it is known that the ratio of epithermal over fast neutron counts is correlated to the ratio of thermal over fast neutron counts. This correlation leads to a unique parameter, which characterizes the various soil compositions. A similar behaviour has been observed within our subset of NS data. Effects of hydrogen and carbon are quite obvious, allowing us to focus on secondary components, which are driven by soil composition. From there, we derived four provinces besides the poles. The first province is made of H-rich equatorial regions (Arabia Terra and south of Lucus Planum). The second and third provinces are found north and south of the crustal dichotomy corresponding to lowlands and highlands, respectively. In particular the second province includes Acidalia Planitia and Utopia Planitia (Amazonis Planitia is an exception as it falls into the third province). Finally the fourth province covers the highest terranes (above 5-6 km): Tharsis Montes, Olympus Mons and Alba Patera. One possibility to explain these distinctive neutron signatures can be variations of iron and chlorine contents in the soil. Indeed, iron and chlorine are the neutron absorbers having the most significant abundance on Mars. Preliminary GSH analysis reveals that the second province (lowlands) is richer in iron, as well as in potassium and thorium, then the other provinces. The fourth province (high elevations) is richer in chlorine than the others [see J. Keller abstract, same session]. This analysis is still under progress, and more datasets may be included as they will become available.

Gasnault, O.

2003-12-01

52

Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%). Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2%) were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

Fatemeh Shobeiri; Parisa Parsa; Mansour Nazari

2012-01-01

53

[Development of health service in Hunan Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the health service development in Hunan Province, and to find out the advantages and disadvantages, and to make tentative specific suggestions. METHODS: Comparison was made in Yunnan, Hunan, and Zhejiang Provinces in 4 major areas: health institutions, personnels, facilities, and funding. RESULTS: The overall health service of Hunan Province was good: The health resources increased, the allocations were reasonable, and the health expenditure decreased. Some problems appeared, such as backward primary health, shortage of medical talents, inefficient use of hospital beds, deducted government investment, increased business income, and large urban-rural gap. CONCLUSION: There is urgent need to further develop health institutions and increase personnels, particularly improving the primary health care and making use of traditional Chinese medicine; improving the management of hospital beds to increase efficiency, increasing financial support to reduce the patients' burden, and ensuring the need of rural health care.

Hu M; Guo G; Zhao X; Sun Z; Guo H; Gao M; Xu D; Xiao Y; Zeng F; Zeng Y

2011-07-01

54

Anaesthetic technicians in the province of Quebec.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

I have described the recent history of the development of anaesthetic technicians in the Province of Quebec. Anaesthetic technicians will have the same training program as inhalation therapists. This program is organized through the CEGEP (College D' Enseignement General et Professionnel) system in Quebec. The Association of Anesthetists of the Province of Quebec (AAPQ) has sponsored inhalation therapy and now sponsors fully the program for training anaesthetic and technicians. The Government has approved the program. It is now in operation and the first anaesthetic technicians in Quebec have in fact graduated in 1973.

McCaughey TJ

1975-01-01

55

Bambusoideae flora and distribution characters in Hunan province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There were 73 species of 19 genera of bambusoideae (including varieties and forma) in Hunan province. Analysis was made onproperties and characteristics of flora of bambusoideae in Hunan, relationship between adjacent regions and distribution difference in the province.

Zuo Jiafu

1994-01-01

56

Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

1999-01-01

57

Paleozoic Paleobiogeographic Provinces and Paleogeographic Changes in the Eastern Qinling  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the analysis of the Paleozoic paleobiogeographic provinces of the eastern Qinling, this paper points out that in the Erlangping trough of the northern Qinling folded belt the Cambrian radiolaria and microphytoplankton belong to the South China province, the Ordovican cephalopods, gastropods and coral belong to the North China province and the Silurian coral to the South China province; spores of the Middle Devonian to Permian in the Shishuyuan trough are mainly discovered in the South China province; and the coral and crinoids in the Ganjianghe trough belong to the South China province. In the Xichuan shelf of the southern Qinling folded belt, Cambrian trilobites belong to the North and South China provinces, Ordovician conodonts, cephalopods evolved from the South China province to the North China province, and the Late Ordovician brachiopods, trilobites and coral are from the North China province, while the Early Silurian graptolite and the Middle Devonian coral, brachiopods and plant as well as the Early Carboniferous coral and fusulinids are all from the South China province, and the spores in the Nanwan trough belong to the South China province. On this basis the paleogeographical changing process during the Paleozoic in the eastern Qinling is discussed.

Wang Jianping; Pei Fang

2002-01-01

58

Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

2010-03-01

59

GIS Applications in Land Management: The Loss of High Quality Land to Development in Central Mississippi from 1987-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic trends and history of Central Mississippi reveal a major rural influence based upon a dependence on agricultural activities as part of the economic engine driving the state’s economy. Yet, in the last several years, the amount of agricultural land in the counties continues to decline. Similar changes in other variables associated with agricultural land use and the continuity of farming in the state have also been changing. Indeed, under the pressure of urban growth, some farmers are forced to use less productive soils or have abandoned the agricultural business. Considering the gravity of the problem and the implications for sustainable development, public concern has increased in the state of Mississippi that urbanization and other factors may be eroding potential farmland. Given the effects of the current trends on the future capacity to produce food items, there are concerns that the growing incidence of farmland loss may also erode the basis for sustainable use of agricultural land, biodiversity and protection of the state’s ecological treasures. Notwithstanding the gravity of these trends, no major effort in the literature has aimed at documenting the incidence of agricultural land loss and the linkages to urbanization in the region of Central Mississippi. What changes have taken place in the size of agricultural land within the counties and what factors are responsible for it? This paper examines the issue of farmland loss in Central Mississippi with a focus at the county level between 1987 and 2002 from a temporal-spatial perspective. In terms of methodology, the paper uses a mixed scale approach based upon the existing literature. Data were drawn from the United States Census databases of Population and Agriculture. This information is analyzed with basic descriptive statistics and GIS with particular attention to the spatial trends at the county level. Results indicate that the counties under consideration have experienced considerable change in the amount of agricultural land and other variables associated with the use of farmland, due to urbanization. With the types of changes occurring, instituting effective policies anchored in sustainability, community participation, and growth management will go a long way in addressing the situation. Other strategies for farmland protection based upon land information inventory and mapping in the region, are also recommended. The paper stands as an update of the existing literature and offers a valuable tool for decision makers within the domain of natural resources management.

Yaw A. Twumasi; Edmund C. Merem

2005-01-01

60

The Opening of the Roads from Yunnan to Huguang Province Produced Great Influences on Economy of Yunnan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yuan Dynasty was an important period for Yunnan Province in history. The roads access to Huguang Province did not only promote the great development of the politics and economy of Yunnan Province, which actually surpassed any dynasty previous to it, but also strengthened the contacts with the inner parts of China, promoted the national amalgamation, and enhanced the centripetal force of Yunnan Province, finishing the situation of 500-year separation and leading the growth of Yunnan Province to a new stage.

Qianfang Shen

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Earthquake Studies In Oaxaca Province, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

GEM Systems and UNAM of Mexico operate a potassium Supergradiometer with sub pT sensitivity in Oaxaca Province in an attempt to study local earthquakes. Recently a study of the past records reveals precursors to moderate earthquakes (4.2 and 4.7) in the vicinity of the instrument (20 - 35 km. distance to hypocenters). The search and analysis of data continues, and we will report case histories with some details.

Hrvoic, I.; Wilson, M.; Lopez, F. G.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral, E.

2010-12-01

62

Pharmacovigilance in children in Camaguey Province, Cuba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. METHODS: Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity. RESULTS: There were 533 reports involving suspected ADRs in children in the period. Almost one third of the reports received were classified as moderate (155, 29%) or severe (10, 2%). There was one fatality in association with the use of ceftriaxone. Vaccines and antibiotics were responsible for most of the ADR reports (392, 74%) and for all ten severe ADRs. After an intensive educational package, both within the community and the Children's Hospital, the number of reports increased from 124 in 2008 to 161 in 2009 and 372 in 2010. This was equivalent to a reporting rate of 879 and 2,031 reports per million children per year for 2009 and 2010, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ADRs in children Camagüey Province, Cuba, is greater than previously reported. An educational intervention about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children can improve the reporting of ADRs.

Bárzaga Arencibia Z; López Leyva A; Mejías Peña Y; González Reyes AR; Fernández Manzano E; Choonara I

2012-07-01

63

Provinces and Rock Types of Pennsylvania  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will: observe features on a map and identify the five general physiographic provinces of Pennsylvania; learn something about elevation in the state; identify patterns of mountains and valleys, and then relate that pattern to anticlinal and synclinal rock formation; observe samples of sandstone, shale and limestone; and identify two major Pennsylvania watersheds. This lesson plan is designed to accompany the Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Pennsylvania and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Land Cover Map, both published by the United States Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and available for free upon request.

Burton, Meg

64

Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

1986-01-01

65

Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau physiographic province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsurface hydrologic conditions in the Pacific Northwest are strongly controlled by the structural and stratigraphic framework of subregions. A significant portion of the Pacific Northwest is underlain by the Columbia River Plateau basalt sequence. This discussion is limited to hydrologic conditions as they relate to the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province and specifically to the Pasco Basin in the central part of the province

1979-01-01

66

The Magellan mound province in the Porcupine Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Magellan mound province is one of the three known provinces of carbonate mounds or cold-water coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight, west of Ireland. It has been studied in detail using a large and varied data set: 2D and 3D seismic data, sidescan sonar imagery and video data collected during RO...

Huvenne, V.A.I.; Bailey, W.R.; Shannon, P.M.; Naeth, J.; di Primio, R.; Henriet, J.P.; Horsfield, B.; de Haas, H.; Wheeler, A.

67

Sm-Nd isotope province of Crust of Central Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results on the Sm-Nd isotope systematic studies of granitoid rocks in the Central Asia are presented. The Sm-Nd isotope provinces, characterized by various Sm-Nd model ages of intrusive granitoids, are separated. The Doriferian, Caledonian, and Hercynian provinces refer to the main ones. 7 refs., 1 fig

1996-01-01

68

Measuring Convergence using Dynamic Equilibrium Models: Evidence from Chinese Provinces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We propose a model to study economic convergence in the tradition of neoclassical growth theory. We employ a novel stochastic set-up of the Solow (1956) model with shocks to both capital and labor. Our novel approach identifies the speed of convergence directly from estimating the parameters which determine equilibrium dynamics. The inference on the structural parameters is done using a maximum-likelihood approach. We estimate our model using growth and population data for China’s provinces from 1978 to 2010. We report heterogeneity in the speed of convergence both across provinces and time. The Eastern provinces show a higher tendency of convergence, while there is no evidence of convergence for the Central and Western provinces. We find empirical evidence that the speed of convergence decreases over time for most provinces.

Pan, Lei; Posch, Olaf

2012-01-01

69

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2006-12-12

70

[Outbreak of human leptospirosis in Guantánamo Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

A characterization of the epidemic occurred in Guantánamo province during October and November 2005, and as well as of the activities developed for its control was made. The existence of favourable factors was confirmed, and as a result from the 42nd statistical week on there was an increase in the number of medical attentions with clinical pictures and epidemiologic elements. 885 suspected cases were notified, 61 were microbiologically confirmed, accounting for a positivity of 69%. The municipalities with the highest risk were Niceto Pérez, Guantánamo city, and Manuel Tames. Some activities were immediately carried out, with the multisectorial and interdisciplinary support from different organizations, allowing the control of the situation in less than a month. The study of this outbreak showed that leptospirosis is still a health problem in Cuba, and that it is necessary to join efforts and resources to control it. PMID:23427414

Berdasquera Corcho, Denis; Rodríguez González, Islay; Obregón, Ana Margarita; Fernández Molina, Carmen; Segura Prevost, Remigio; Bustabad Arigas, Estela de la Caridad; Sánchez Falcón, Carlos Manuael

71

[Outbreak of human leptospirosis in Guantanamo Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A characterization of the epidemic occurred in Guantánamo province during October and November 2005, and as well as of the activities developed for its control was made. The existence of favourable factors was confirmed, and as a result from the 42nd statistical week on there was an increase in the number of medical attentions with clinical pictures and epidemiologic elements. 885 suspected cases were notified, 61 were microbiologically confirmed, accounting for a positivity of 69%. The municipalities with the highest risk were Niceto Pérez, Guantánamo city, and Manuel Tames. Some activities were immediately carried out, with the multisectorial and interdisciplinary support from different organizations, allowing the control of the situation in less than a month. The study of this outbreak showed that leptospirosis is still a health problem in Cuba, and that it is necessary to join efforts and resources to control it.

Berdasquera Corcho D; Rodríguez González I; Obregón AM; Fernández Molina C; Segura Prevost R; Bustabad Arigas Ede L; Sánchez Falcón CM

2007-01-01

72

Enteric Fever in South China: Guangxi Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guangxi is a province of China endemic for enteric fever. Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A has been found to be causing more and more enteric fever episodes in the last 10 years, evident not only from routine surveillance but also from prospective population-based surveillance. The prevalent pattern of paratyphoid seen was different from typhoid since it mainly occurred in outbreaks. Almost all strains collected from different areas and years in Guangxi were resistance to nalidixic acid, which is an indicator of reduced efficacy of ciprofloxacin treatment. The emergence of epidemic paratyphoid fever occurred after large-scale use of the typhoid Vi vaccine, but little is know about why it emerged. This is of particular concern in the post Vi vaccine era due to the emergence and worldwide spread of multi-drug resistant S. Paratyphi A strains and the lack of a vaccine.

Jin Yang

2008-01-01

73

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%).

Kültür S

2007-05-01

74

Renewable energy sources in the The Walloon provinces provinces in Belgium; Hernieuwbare energiebronnen in Wallonie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar energy is the most abundant source, since it is the most essential one, but also without doubt one of the hardest to exploit at the present position of the technology. The possibilities for development of solar energy in The Walloon provinces are limited. Wind energy is also omnipresent and not bound to specific places, but very unstable and whimsical. In the present situation an average of 5.5m/s is the minimum requested to install a windmill. The Walloon provinces (3.6 a 4 m/s) is not the most ideal region. Geothermal contains the exploitation of heat sources in the earth's crust. These sources can be used for heating and the production of electricity. Only in Saint-Ghislain exploitation takes place. There are more forms for use possible if new sources will be striked, which is not the case. In Belgium, the Walloon provinces are the region with the most hydroelectric sources. This is linked to the relief and the water management of this area. In contrast to wind, this source is easy to localize. The marks of the place where this has to happen, are easy to determine, the only thing that varies is the available amount of water. At the present there are 35 hydroelectric plants with a capacity of 95 MW. The Walloon provinces is full of biomass and this represents the biggest stock which is easy to exploit and develop. The development of renewable energy sources depends of different factors, technological and socio-economic. Of course, there can also be problems of legal and administrative nature. The economic aspect enforces the biggest limitation on the development of renewable energy because the costs of traditional fossil and nucleair energy are much lower.

Switten, S.

1997-08-01

75

Prostate cancer incidence in Golestan province, Iran (2004)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and therefore represents a major problem in public health.The aim of this study was to find and evaluate province-specific estimate of incidence in males by age groups for prostate cancer in Golestan province, Iran. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry program that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province in IRAN for a period of 1 year (2004). Prostate cancer data was identified and collected in the population based cancer registries through the 18 Pathology Laboratories (where male populations referred to these centers) and using a structured questionnaire, trained personnel conducted in-person interviews to collect information on prostate cancer in Golestan province. Prostate cancer incidence among males in Golestan province was 5.17/100000 in gerenal. But the highest rate (ASR: 215.87/100,000) among males were showen to be in age 80-85. The incidence of prostate cancer in age 80-84 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 50-54 (ASR: 5.18/100,000). According to this information Golestan province harbor a rather incidence for prostate cancer (in age 80-84), comparable to the lower incidence rate reported in the world. For the present time it can be said that prostate cancer in males appear to be one of the most prevalent and serious type of cancer in Golestan province.

Abdoljalal Marjani; Mohammad J. Kabir

2008-01-01

76

Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces

BjØrnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

2009-01-01

77

Ocean anoxia and large igneous provinces  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth's history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and potentially into the open ocean realm. These events often coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) extinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic conditions is often, however, poorly constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes. We studied ocean redox change over two major mass extinction events in Earth history, the Permian-Triassic (at ~252 Ma) and Triassic-Jurassic (at ~201.3 Ma) mass extinctions. Both extinction events are marked by a major perturbation of the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing of the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), respectively. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. We show strongly enhanced sedimentary redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo) during both events. However, increased Permian-Triassic values are in all localities distinctly delayed relative to the associated negative CIE. Triassic-Jurassic values are only delayed in the oceanographically restricted western Germanic basin (UK) while increased Mo-values in the north-western Tethys Ocean (Austria) directly match the onset of the associated negative CIE. Speciation of iron [giving (Fe-HR/ Fe-T) and (Fe(Py)/ Fe-HR)] in the Triassic-Jurassic western Germanic basin (UK) however shows close coupling between the onset of the global carbon cycle perturbation and a shift to anoxic and even euxinic conditions. Delayed molybdenum enrichment in this basin suggests strong initial depletion of the molybdenum reservoir. Triassic-Jurassic molybdenum drawdown does however occur in more well-connected marine basins along continental margins. Iron speciation and delayed Mo-enrichments along Permian-Triassic continental margins in different geographic regions suggest more widely, potentially global ocean, molybdenum drawdown and more widespread ocean anoxia. Further, our data shows that anoxic (and euxinic) conditions directly matches extinction of marine organisms, suggesting ocean anoxia as contributor to marine ecosystem collapse.

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

2013-04-01

78

Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province, 1990 to 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of indicators of the ecological condition of bays, tidal rivers, and estuaries within the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Henry, Virginia) was conducted annually by the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and A...

C. J. Strobel D. R. Reifsteck E. A. Petrocelli H. W. Buffum S. J. Benyi

1995-01-01

79

Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional ...

Wellhoner Mary; Lee Anne CC; Deutsch Karen; Wiebenga Mariette; Freytsis Maria; Drogha Sonam; Dongdrup Phuntsok; Lhamo Karma

80

The Dynamic Analysis on Tourism Ecological Footprints in Liaoning Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article uses the concepts and calculation models of “Ecological Footprint” and “Tourism Ecological Pressure” to conduct quantitative analysis on the tourism ecological footprints, tourism ecological deficits, and the dynamic changes of tourism ecological pressures in Liaoning Province from year...

Qiu-mei FAN; Tie-heng SUN

 
 
 
 
81

Composition of Waters from Ubol Province, Bangkok, and Surrounding Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder stone disease occurs with considerable frequency in the Northern and Northeastern Provinces of Thailand, whereas the Central and Penisular areas are relatively free of the disease. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composi...

S. Dhanamitta R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi

1968-01-01

82

The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

1991-01-01

83

The suicide rates in the Yunnan Province, a multi-ethnic province in southwestern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown a high rate and a unique pattern of suicide in China. We aim to present the current suicide rates and patterns in the Yunnan province, a multi-ethnic region in Southwestern China. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based on the 3rd Chinese national mortality survey. We reported the suicide rates by sex, 5-year age group, region (urban or rural), and minority group from 2004 to 2005 in the Yunnan province. RESULTS: We estimated a mean annual suicide rate of 19.82 per 100,000 and a total of 8751 suicide deaths per year. Sex-specific rate estimates were 21.09 per 100,000 and 18.46 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. The male/female ratio was 1.14. Region-specific rate estimates were 20.60 per 100,000 and 19.18 per 100,000 for rural and urban regions, respectively. The rural-to-urban ratio was 1.07. Suicide accounted for 4.83% of all deaths in the Yunnan province and represented the fifth leading cause of death. In minority groups, the highest suicide rates were found in the Li su minority (50.75 per 100,000), the Jing po minority (36.38 per 100,000), the Meng gu minority (32.65 per 100,000) and the Miao minority (30.75 per 100,000). The lowest rates were found in the Hui minority (0.96 per 100,000) and the Ha ni minority (1.64 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: The suicide characteristics of this multi-ethnic region of China are different from those of the rest of China and the world, which indicates that the development of a special intervention strategy in multi-ethnic areas for suicide prevention is needed.

Lu J; Xiao Y; Xu X; Shi Q; Yang Y

2013-01-01

84

Bartonellosis in Zamora Chinchipe province in Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human bartonellosis was investigated in the Ecuadorian province of Zamora Chinchipe; 17 cases were identified retrospectively from hospital records over the period 1984-1995, mostly from 6 communities in the provincial district of Zumba. A questionnaire concerning risk factors for disease transmission was administered in these 6 communities. Blood samples were taken from individuals with current febrile illnesses or skin lesions suggestive of bartonellosis. Samples for detection of Bartonella bacilliformis were also taken from all school-age children in communities where historical cases had been identified by questionnaire. No bacteriologically positive case was identified and no evidence of asymptomatic infection was detected. Risk factors for disease transmission, identified by the questionnaire, included the presence of sick or dying chickens and guinea-pigs. It was suggested that bartonellosis is a zoonosis with wild animals, probably rodents, as the reservoir. The widespread use of residual insecticides and the easy availability of antibiotics is likely to have modified the epidemiology of this disease over the last decade.

Cooper P; Guderian R; Paredes W; Daniels R; Perera D; Espinel M; Valdez M; Griffin G

1996-05-01

85

Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy) has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO) offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia) in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae) and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella) are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990), modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

Gert HANSEN; Giovanna FLAIM

2007-01-01

86

[Tungiasis acquired in Chaco Province, Argentina].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A four-year old girl and her mother were assisted at the Hospital de Clínicas for 0.7 cm wide papules with a black central core and a white hyperkeratotic halo of fourteen days of development. The girl presented these lesions on the second and fourth toe of one of her feet, and her mother on the ankle. Among the known antecedents were a trip to Chaco Province and their habit of walking barefooted. After the papule incision, both antiseptic treatment and cleaning of the lesion, were performed. The exudate extracted from the wound was sent to the Parasitology laboratory for diagnosis. With low-power amplification (100 X), portions of an arthropod with numerous characteristic Tunga penetrans eggs were identified. The patients received antibiotic therapy and tetanus immunization. Tungiasis, which originated in America, is a cutaneous parasitosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In endemic areas, it is advisable to wear shoes in order to avoid the penetration of the flea into the skin. The presence of this flea should be suspected whenever hyperkeratotic papules with a black central core appear, mainly in the sub and periungual areas, soles, ankles and/or heels of the feet.

Menghi CI; Comunale E; Gatta CL

2009-06-01

87

[Tungiasis acquired in Chaco Province, Argentina].  

Science.gov (United States)

A four-year old girl and her mother were assisted at the Hospital de Clínicas for 0.7 cm wide papules with a black central core and a white hyperkeratotic halo of fourteen days of development. The girl presented these lesions on the second and fourth toe of one of her feet, and her mother on the ankle. Among the known antecedents were a trip to Chaco Province and their habit of walking barefooted. After the papule incision, both antiseptic treatment and cleaning of the lesion, were performed. The exudate extracted from the wound was sent to the Parasitology laboratory for diagnosis. With low-power amplification (100 X), portions of an arthropod with numerous characteristic Tunga penetrans eggs were identified. The patients received antibiotic therapy and tetanus immunization. Tungiasis, which originated in America, is a cutaneous parasitosis caused by Tunga penetrans. In endemic areas, it is advisable to wear shoes in order to avoid the penetration of the flea into the skin. The presence of this flea should be suspected whenever hyperkeratotic papules with a black central core appear, mainly in the sub and periungual areas, soles, ankles and/or heels of the feet. PMID:19831312

Menghi, C I; Comunale, E; Gatta, C L

88

[Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae in Guangdong province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae collected from Guangdong province, China and to analyze the routes of leprosy transmission both inside and outside of Guangdong. The impact of emigrant leprosy patients to the endemic nature of the disease in Guangdong was also studied. METHODS: Typing on strains with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were performed on the local cases and emigrant cases based on skin biopsy. RESULTS: Most isolates from local patients belong to SNP type 1 and SNP type 3 isolates were found just in a small part of local isolates. However, all the emigrants were carrying SNP type 3. Within the SNP type 1 strain from Guangdong, alleles at the 18-8, 12-5, ML-1, (TA) 10 and (GGT) 5 differed from SNP 3 strains collected from other areas in China. However, all the SNP type 1 and SNP type 3 local isolates identified from Guangdong were having close VNTR profiles and the main differences appeared in the alleles at ML-1, (TA) 10 and (GGT) 5. CONCLUSION: The transmission of strain with SNP type 1 seemed to be associated to the "Silk Road on the Sea", calling for monitoring and confirming the transmission of patients with SNP type 3 in Guangdong were from the secondary transmission, by the emigrant patients. Further study on the historic spread and phylogenetic relationships between SNP type 1 and novel SNP type 3 in Guangdong is needed.

Li M; Wang XH; Su T; Xing Y; Weng XM

2013-05-01

89

Chihuahua City uranium province, Chihuahua, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three uranium districts and many uranium occurrences and anomalies constitute the Chihuahua City uranium province. The districts are: (1) Pena Blanca, in ignimbrites and volcaniclastics, some initial geological studies have been undertaken; (2) Sierra Gomez, in carbonates, preliminary geological studies accomplished; (3) San Marcos, in caldera margin ignimbrites, preliminary geological studies accomplished. The Chihuahua City region lies on a hinge line between a stable cratonic block on the west and a more mobile zone to the east. This characteristic has been present repeatedly through the Phanerozoic. Within the last 100 million years, subduction occurred from the west, with the formation of the lower volcanic series of the Sierra Madre, followed by tensional environments and upper volcanic series caldera flare-up. Basin and Range-Rio Grande Rift tectonism is a post-29 million years phenomenon. Chemical analyses for 152 lithogeochemical samples from 12 different geological families and for 171 stream sediment samples (36 and 32 chemical species, respectively) are summarized. The Pena Blanca uranium deposits are believed to have been formed from source rock of 30 million years, with approximately 18 to 20 ppm U; the uranium was transported eastwest from the Sierra del Nido block via clastic and solution processes. These materials within the Ojo Laguna Graben, with its high heat flow, were pressure cooked. Epithermal-geothermal systems using these heated waters as their source solutions moved hydrologically southeastward through Pena Blanca range faults to favourable precipitation sites in the Pena Blanca deposits of Margaritas and Nopal I. (author)

1985-01-01

90

The Development Measures of Circular Economy in Jilin Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of circular economy is the strategic choice of Jilin Province to improve overall competitiveness. This article described specific measures of the development of circular economy in Jilin Province from five aspects as follows: the building of circular economy industrial park and business groups, the development of modern agriculture, improve the utilization of water resources, as well as the construction of laws and regulations.

Juan Zhang

2010-01-01

91

Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Tehran Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: The objectives of this project was to conduct an epidemiological study of psychiatric disorders in people aged 18 or older residing in urban and rural areas of Tehran province. Method:5311 residents of Tehran province were selected randomly and through systematic clustered sampling method as the subjects of the study. They were assessed by Schedule for Affective Dis-orders and Schizophrenia Questionnaire (SADS). The diagnosis of disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.Findings:Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was at 14.29% in province of Tehran.The prevalence was 19.57% in women and 9.32% in men. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with 6.83% and 4.46% respectively. The prevalence of psychotic disorders was 0.65% neuro-cognitive disorders were at 2.11% and dissociative disorders were at 0.26%. In the mood disorders, major depression had the highest rate of diagnosis (3.28%) in anxiety dis-orders, panic disorder had the highest rate (1.79%). Results: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent in the 41-55 year age-group, widowers, illiterates, and residents of the other province’s towns than Tehran.The results of this research revealed more than ever the responsibility of the policy makers and health program planners in the province of Tehran in regard to compilation and execution of a practical mental health plan.

M. R. Mohammadi; M. Rahgozar; A. Bagheri Yazdi; H. R. Naghavi; H. R. Pour Etemad; H. Amini; M. R. Rostami; F. Khalajabadi farahani; B. Mesgarpour

2003-01-01

92

Spatial analysis of malaria in Anhui province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has re-emerged in Anhui Province, China, and this province was the most seriously affected by malaria during 2005–2006. It is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of malaria cases and to identify highly endemic areas for future public health planning and resource allocation in Anhui Province. Methods The annual average incidence at the county level was calculated using malaria cases reported between 2000 and 2006 in Anhui Province. GIS-based spatial analyses were conducted to detect spatial distribution and clustering of malaria incidence at the county level. Results The spatial distribution of malaria cases in Anhui Province from 2000 to 2006 was mapped at the county level to show crude incidence, excess hazard and spatial smoothed incidence. Spatial cluster analysis suggested 10 and 24 counties were at increased risk for malaria (P Conclusion The application of GIS, together with spatial statistical techniques, provide a means to quantify explicit malaria risks and to further identify environmental factors responsible for the re-emerged malaria risks. Future public health planning and resource allocation in Anhui Province should be focused on the maximum spatial cluster region.

Zhang Wenyi; Wang Liping; Fang Liqun; Ma Jiaqi; Xu Youfu; Jiang Jiafu; Hui Fengming; Wang Jianjun; Liang Song; Yang Hong; Cao Wuchun

2008-01-01

93

The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

2001-01-01

94

Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. FINDINGS: By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The certification program is an important mechanism for addressing inadequate knowledge, budget, planning, policy and staff required to improve laboratory services.

Kanitvittaya S; Suksai U; Suksripanich O; Pobkeeree V

2010-01-01

95

Primary care morbidity in Eastern Cape province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Primary health care in rural South Africa is predominantly provided by remote clinics and health centres. In 1994, health centres were upgraded and new health centres developed to serve as a health care filter between community clinics and district hospitals. AIM: To describe the spectrum of clinical problems encountered at a new health centre in an area of high economic deprivation and compare this with an adjacent community clinic and district hospital. DESI (more) GN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A rural clinic, health centre and district hospital in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: The International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2) was used to code data collected over a 13-week period from patients presenting at a community clinic, health centre and district hospital. RESULTS: Altogether, 4 383 patient encounters were recorded across all three sites. Most contacts at the clinic (97%) and the health centre (80%) were with a nurse. Females over 15 years of age comprised over half of all contacts at health facilities (53%). The most common diagnosis category was respiratory (23%). Cough was the most common symptom. Thirty per cent of children up to 5 years of age were seen for immunisations. Most childhood immunisations (79%) were carried out at the health centre. CONCLUSION: Of all the health care facilities surveyed, the health centre had the highest throughput of patients, indicating that the health centre is an efficient filter between the community and hospital. The ICPC-2 can be successfully used to monitor encounters at similar African health care facilities.

Brueton, Valerie; Yogeswaran, Parimalarani; Chandia, Jimmy; Mfenyana, Khaya; Modell, Bernadette; Modell, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin

2010-05-01

96

Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater in Isfahan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and urban wells of Isfahan, Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Natanz and Kashan during January-May 2001. The results indicated that NO3-N concentrations in most of the regions studied were higher than the standard level (10 mg/l) and nitrate pollution must be reckoned among the most serious problems of sustainable agriculture and exploitation of groundwater resources. Average NO3-N concentration in different wells ranged from 1.03 to 50.78 mg/l (4.64 to 228.5 mg/l as nitrate). The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Isfahan and Natanz-Kashan was 17.56, 14.6, 16.04, and 8.24 mg/l and 95.5, 100, 84 and 33.3 % of total wells in these regions had nitrate concentrations above the standard level, respectively. Maximum NO3-N concentration was detected in the agricultural region south of Najaf-abad (64.6 mg/l). Nitrate pollution in most of the sampling areas was mainly linked to agricultural activities. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of all agricultural, industrial, and urban regions, except for urban regions of Natanz and Kashan, were above the standard level. Generally, nitrate concentration level in groundwater increased with time and was maximum in March and April.

A. Jafari Malekabadi; M. Afyuni; S. F. Mousavi; A. Khosravi

2004-01-01

97

Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Received 11 April, 2009 ; Accepted 8 July, 2009)AbstractBackground and purpose: Cancer is the second most common cause of death in developed countries and third in less developed countries. The incidence of the different histological types of cancer varies greatly between various populations and is attributed to occupational, social, cultural, racial, and geographic influences. The objective of this study was to determine and register all cases of cancer among population of Mazandaran province, during the year of ????.Materials and methods: Characteristics of all registered malignancies were obtained from records in histopathology and radiology clinical, hospitals and deaths certificated in Mazandaran using the International Classification of Disease (ICD), with data being analyzed using ASR, Excel and spss soft ware.Results: A total of ?.??? patients with cancers were found during this study. These, ?.??????.???? were males and ?.??? (??.??%? females. Age standardized rate (ASR) for all cancers in males and females were ?1?.????????? and ???.????????? Respectively. The most common malignancies among females were breast (??.????? skin (??.????, colon and rectum cancers (??.????.In men, stomach (42.41??, skin (??.???? and esophagus (?.???? were the most common cancers respectively. Infiltrating duct carcinoma, was the most common histopathological types of tumors (69.???? in breast cancer. The most common morphology in stomach cancer was adenocarcinoma, (??.????.Conclusion: Distribution of malignant disorders in our population is different from other regions. Therefore, it appears necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention. Consequently, it is necessary to have a valid health policy for prevention and control of this problem.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(72): 61-65 (Persian).

Faezeh Norouzi Nejad1; Rashid Ramezani Daryasari2; Fatemeh Ghafari

2009-01-01

98

Male skin cancer incidence in Golestan province, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate province-specific estimates of incidence in males by age groups for skin cancer in the Golestan province, Iran. METHODS: Data was collected from a cancer registry that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province for a period of one year (2004). Age-specific rate and age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) were determined. Age-specific rate and age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of skin cancer was compared with Mazanderan province and Iran. The age distribution was collected according to the following age strata: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84 and 85 above. Skin cancer data was identified and collected through 18 Pathology Laboratory centers, where the cases had been referred in the Golestan province. RESULTS: A total of 409 primary cancer cases were captured. From these 64 cases were skin cancer. ASR skin cancer incidence among males in Golestan province was: 13.23/100000. But skin cancer with the highest ASR (ASR: 161.90/100,000) among males were in the age group 80-84 years. The lowest incidence was in age 30-34 years. (ASR: 1.88/100,000). CONCLUSION: The incidence of skin cancer in Golestan Province is rising especially in the age group 80-84 years. It is the highest incidence reported in the world.

Marjani A; Kabir MJ

2009-05-01

99

11 January 1991-Act replacing section 179(2) of the Act of 8 August 1980 concerning budget proposals for 1979-1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ONDRAF, the National Body for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials, has been given new duties mainly regarding management of foreign waste on national territory, management of spent fuel and decommissioning of nuclear installations. The purpose of the amending Act is also to secure financing of the safe management of nuclear waste, enriched fissile materials and certain plutonium-bearing material as well as that of fresh and spent fuel the use of which has not been decided. The 1991 Act further provides for the financing of decommissioning operations and for the constitution of funds to meet cases of bankruptcy or default by producers. (NEA)

1980-08-08

100

[Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

Liu H; Wang Q; Li XJ; Song Y; Li GJ

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes. PMID:18533536

Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

2008-03-01

102

Strategies Formulation for Championship Sports In Zanjan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design and develop strategies of championship sports in Zanjan Province- Iran. Here, the descriptive methodology would be applied based upon the case study. The Statistical population includes the physical education professors, the managers of Physical Education departments, educated coaches and M.A students in the province. The statistical sample encompasses 36 individuals selected totally due to limited Statistical population. To collect the data, we used library resources, literature and background review,interviews and open as well as closed questionnaires. Having developed the closed questionnaire, we had the validity confirmed by the professors and their reliability wasconfirmed using Cronbach alpha Coefficient (a=0/94). For research findings analysis purpose, Friedman test and group discussion were taken into account. After identifying the most important strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the field of championship sport and ranking them in the existing order, we selected most important ones through group discussion. Based upon the internal factors evaluation matrix (2/30) and external factors evaluation matrix (2/38), it was shown that the strategic position of the province is in WT area. Finally, regarding the research findings, specifically, the strategic status of the province, we would develop the necessary strategies for the championship sport development in theprovince through group discussion with the province authorities and elites.

Nasser Taghibigloo; Mehdi Kohandel; Hossein Darbani; Akbar Heidary

2011-01-01

103

Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type) at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition occurred in the fire behavior at different level of peat decomposition.

BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

2006-01-01

104

Abortion admissions in rural Matebeleland north province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, clinical features and management of women admitted with an abortion in rural Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Four government and two mission hospitals in rural Matebeleland North province. SUBJECTS: Hospital records of 355 consecutive women admitted with the diagnosis abortion from May to October 2000, and delivery registers covering the same six month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, marital status, reproductive history, referral status, distance home to hospital, presenting symptoms, findings on examination, complications, management in hospital, final diagnosis, length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Abortion patients tended to be older and of higher parity than women who delivered in the same period. Fifteen percent were teenagers, 81.2% were married and 2% nullipara. Mean period of gestation was 11.3 weeks. About half of the women had been referred and 74.4% lived within a 50 km radius from the hospital. Forty two percent had never used contraception. Of the users, 38.6% had discontinued in order to conceive and 19.3% had fallen pregnant on the method. Thirty one percent of the women wanted no more children. One third of the abortion patients had a temperature above 37.6 degrees C; 25.9% offensive vaginal discharge and 7% a haemoglobin of less than 6 g/dl. Eighty percent were given antibiotics and 4.2% received a blood transfusion; 73.2% had an evacuation of the uterus for incomplete abortion, with a mean delay between admission and evacuation of 32.5 hours. Only 17.5% of the women had on record that they were given a contraceptive method on discharge. Mean length of hospital stay was 3.1 days. The case fatality rate was more than 1%. An estimated 43.4% of the women had a possibly unsafe induced abortion prior to admission. CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the high morbidity and mortality, abortions are a serious public health problem in rural Matebeleland North. Taking into account that only a minority of the women with both unsafe and spontaneous abortions present to a hospital, it is imperative that the reproductive needs of the women who do come are addressed. No opportunity should be missed to offer contraceptives to a group of women whose use of contraception is lower than average. Clinical management of abortion patients could improve by earlier evacuation of the uterus in cases of incomplete abortion, use of local or no anaesthesia and by increased availability of suction cannulas in district level hospitals, which would also reduce length of hospital stay.

Rutgers S

2001-09-01

105

Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

106

Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Yunnan Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatio-temporal distribution pattern of malaria in Yunnan Province, China was studied using a geographic information system technique. Both descriptive and temporal scan statistics revealed seasonal fluctuation in malaria incidences in Yunnan Province with only one peak during 1995-2000, and two apparent peaks from 2001 to 2005. Spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that malaria incidence was not randomly distributed in the province. Further analysis using spatial scan statistics discovered that the high risk areas were mainly clustered at the bordering areas with Myanmar and Laos, and in Yuanjiang River Basin. There were obvious associations between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodoium falciparum malaria incidences and climatic factors with a clear 1-month lagged effect, especially in cluster areas. All these could provide information on where and when malaria prevention and control measures would be applied. These findings imply that countermeasures should target high risk areas at suitable times, when climatic factors facilitate the transmission of malaria. PMID:19706922

Hui, Feng-Ming; Xu, Bing; Chen, Zhang-Wei; Cheng, Xiao; Liang, Lu; Huang, Hua-Bing; Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Hong-Ning; Yang, Heng-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gong, Peng

2009-09-01

107

Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Yunnan Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spatio-temporal distribution pattern of malaria in Yunnan Province, China was studied using a geographic information system technique. Both descriptive and temporal scan statistics revealed seasonal fluctuation in malaria incidences in Yunnan Province with only one peak during 1995-2000, and two apparent peaks from 2001 to 2005. Spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that malaria incidence was not randomly distributed in the province. Further analysis using spatial scan statistics discovered that the high risk areas were mainly clustered at the bordering areas with Myanmar and Laos, and in Yuanjiang River Basin. There were obvious associations between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodoium falciparum malaria incidences and climatic factors with a clear 1-month lagged effect, especially in cluster areas. All these could provide information on where and when malaria prevention and control measures would be applied. These findings imply that countermeasures should target high risk areas at suitable times, when climatic factors facilitate the transmission of malaria.

Hui FM; Xu B; Chen ZW; Cheng X; Liang L; Huang HB; Fang LQ; Yang H; Zhou HN; Yang HL; Zhou XN; Cao WC; Gong P

2009-09-01

108

[Lymphatic filariasis in Hubei Province: from prevailing to elimination].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphatic filariasis used to highly prevalent in 69 counties (cities) with 29 million people at the risk of infection in Hubei Province. There were 2 million people infected either by B. malayi or W. bancrofti that 1.6 million microfilaremia cases and 0.4 million chronic patients. The average rate of microfilaremia among population was 5.94%. Anopheles sinensis and Culex quinquefasciatus were the principal transmitting vectors. Since 1970s, with the strategy of taking elimination of infection source as a major focus, the average rate of the microfilaremia reduced to 0.048% with a village as the unit in 1988, and reached the standard of transmission interruption. With continuous surveillance for over a decade, the province reached the goal of filariasis elimination in 2001. This paper reviews the prevalence, control and elimination process of filariasis in Hubei Province since 1950s.

Zhan FX; Zhang SQ; Wang LL; Yuan FY; Zhang HX; Dong XR; Li KJ; Yu PH

2012-02-01

109

The Dynamic Analysis on Tourism Ecological Footprints in Liaoning Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article uses the concepts and calculation models of “Ecological Footprint” and “Tourism Ecological Pressure” to conduct quantitative analysis on the tourism ecological footprints, tourism ecological deficits, and the dynamic changes of tourism ecological pressures in Liaoning Province from year 2000 to year 2005. Results indicate: rapid economic development, especially the tourist size increase, introduces huge pressure on tourism ecological environment. Both tourism ecological deficits and tourism ecological pressure present an annually increasing trend, and the future perfection of ecology construction in Liaoning Province is therefore the approach to reduce tourism ecological deficits and ensure the sustainable development of tourism industry. Key words: tourism ecological footprint; tourism ecological deficit; tourism ecological pressure; Liaoning Province

Qiu-mei FAN; Tie-heng SUN

2010-01-01

110

The Subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kerman Province, Southern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are some arboviral and parasitic diseases which are transmitted by culicine mosquitoes in Iran. Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping method and identified in Kahnooj district, Kerman province, south-eastern Iran, during October and November, 2003 including; Culex (Culex) bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. (Maillotia) deserticola, Cx. (Cux.) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx.(Cux.) quin- quefasciatus, Cx.(Cux.) sinaiticus, Cx.(Cux.) theileri, Cx.(Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta (Allotheobaldia) longiareolata, and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) unguiculata. In this study, Ur.unguiculata was identified in Kerman province for the first time. Fauna and ecology of Culicinae need more investigations in this province.

S Azari-Hamidian; MR Abai; M Mashayekhi; H Ladonni; H Vatandoost; AA Hanafi-Bojd; F Faghih-Naini; M Jedari

2005-01-01

111

Nurses’ professional burnout in Athens and province areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: It was to record the level of professional burnout in health professionals working in hospitals of Athens and provincial towns, targeting to track differences between work sector , as well as between Athens and province areas. Material and Methods: 448 nurses of Athens’ and provincial hospitals, working in internal medicine department, surgery and emergency department were included in the study. Descriptive statistics was performed, while T-test was used for within groups’ comparison. Statistical significance level was set at p=0.05. SPSS 16.0 was used. Results: 34% exhibited high emotional exhaustion, 44% high depersonalization and 60% low personal achievement. Nurses in province areas exhibited higher depersonalization. Workers in the surgery department exhibited statistically lower mean values in the subscales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization compared to those working in the two other sectors. Conclusion: Nurses working in province areas and in medical/ emergency departments were the most vulnerable to professional burnout syndrome.

Noula M.; Mouchaki S.; Argyropoulou D.; Yfani E.; Kyriakidou B.; Tsiriga S.; Gesouli E.

2010-01-01

112

GAME RESEARCH ON STRATEGIC INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT IN PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to make an in-depth analysis to mutual relations and multi-interest of the strategic investment management model in province, it utilizes the game theory, and researches the basic elements in the game model, which it establishes, including the assumptions, strategies, objectives and functions of the two players. Finally, it quotes the imperfect information static game model, and takes the first level sealed price auction game model as the quintessence to describe and analyze the game behavior in the strategic investment management in province, so that it can provide the opinion and suggestion for all the gambling players’ decision-making, meet with the economical globalization and the dog-eat-dog new situation, grasp the strategic opportunity, strengthen the management from the strategic perspective unceasingly, and upgrade the provincial economic development strength. Key words: Province, Strategic Investment Management, Game Theory

Ke-yi WANG; Lian-sheng DONG

2010-01-01

113

The temperature change of regional difference in Anhui Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Three regions, Huaibei, Jianghuai, Jiangnan, are divided based on the topography, climatic characteristics, as well as surface temperature from 1957 to 2006 of 16 stations in Anhui province. The change with the year, season and month is analyzed in Anhui province and three areas. Some conclusions are as follows. Anhui province had the lowest temperature in 1980s, but after that the temperature raised step by step. The warming fastest region is Jianghuai. The same pace of warming is in three areas: the greatest warming in spring, then that in autumn, the last in summer. It is warming remarkable in February and the cooling time occurs in July and December. But the fluctuation in three areas is different in some details. The heat island in Hefei is also researched. It suggests that the urban heat island intensity in 1990s in Hefei was the maximum, and then weakened. At the meanwhile, the summer is cooling and the winter is warming in Hefei.

Liu, Ke; Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

2009-08-01

114

The geology of the Litchfield province, N.T  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Litchfield province is herein defined as the westernmost outcropping unit of the Pine Creek Geosyncline extending from the Giant's Reef Fault at about longitude 130050'E westerly to the edge of the Bonaparte Gulf basin. The northern half of the province has been remapped using company drillhole data and a Bureau of Mineral Resources air magnetic-radiometric survey. Five areas have been found to be entirely granitoid, garnetiferous and gneissic in part, with composition in the range adamellite to granodiorite. A single Rb/Sr age of about 1800 m.y. has been published. The granitoid margins are migmatised and transitional into large areas of metasediments, varying in metamorphic grade from greenschist (fine grained chloritic graphitic schist) to upper amphibolite/granulite grade (course grained quartz - feldspar gneiss). The regional strike is northerly to northwesterly, and these metasediments are thought to merge into the Burrell Creek Formation beyond the border of the province. Two periods of metamorphism affected the Litchfield province metasediments, but only one phase can be detected in the granitoids, thus these are assumed to be younger, probably formed during the 1800 m.y. orogenesis known elsewhere in the Geosyncline. Minor areas of unmetamorphosed gabbro, dolerite and quartz-diorite occur, probably of Middle Proterozoic age. Cover rocks include quartz sandstones of the Middle Proterozoic Moyle River Formation and Depot Creek Sandstone, and Cambro-Ordovician sandstones of the Daly River Basin. The formation boundaries in the Litchfield province are not particularly confused or complicated, nor are the igneous lithologies particularly diverse. There is no evidence for an Archaean age for the part of the Litchfield province north of the Daly River, and it is thus proposed that the term 'Litchfield Complex' should be abandoned. (author)

1979-06-08

115

Seroepidemiology of Human Hydatidosis in Golestan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases worldwide. So far no survey was conducted to deter¬mine the rate of human hydatidosis in Golestan Province, so using IFA and ELISA tests the prevalence of this disease was detected in patients referred to health centers in this province. Methods: Totally 1024 serum samples were collected from patients referred to different health centers in 4 cities of Gloestan Province including Gorgan, Gonbad kawoos, Aliabad Katool and Kordkoy. All the sera were examined using IFA and ELISA tests. Results: Twenty four cases (2.34%) were positive for hydatidosis in Golestan Province using IFA, whereas 22 cases (2.15%) showed positivity using ELISA. Gorgan, Gonbadkaoos, Aliabad Katool and Kordkoy demonstrated the rate of positiv¬ity as 1.41%, 2.40%, 5.36% and 2.30%, respectively, but no significant difference was seen. As to positivity, there was no significant difference between age groups, sex, different cities and rural or urban life, but a significant different was seen according to job and literacy (P< 0.001). According to Job and literacy, housewives and illiterates had the highest rate of infection as 3.67% and 3.72%, respectively. As regards residency, urban life showed no significant difference with rural life (2.47% vs. 2.45%). Age group of 40-49 years old had the highest rate of positivity (3.95%). Females were more infected than males (3.16% vs. 1.93%). Conclusion: The rate of prevalence in this province shows somehow a resemblance with the other cities in Iran. Consider¬ing the lifestyle in this province a complementary study is suggested in all related cities.

M Baharsefat; J Massoud; I Mobedi; A Farahnak; MB Rokni

2007-01-01

116

??????????? Analytical Investigation of New Energy Power Generation in Yunnan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Facing the increasingly serious problems of environmental pollution and resource depletion, new energy power generation which is economic and environmental attracts more and more attention of us. Yunnan Province has huge reserves of new energy, such as wind, solar, biomass, and shale gas, and its potential development is considerable. This paper analyzes the problems of new energy development in Yunnan Province from two aspects: advantages and challenges in the development of new energy, and introduces a kind of wind-light-storage complementary system which is suitable for the characteristics of Yunnan power grid.

???; ???; ???; ???; ???; ??

2013-01-01

117

Patterns of Rainfall in Pattani Province from 1982 to 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated daily rainfall data collected from 14 meteorological measurement stations in Pattani Province of Southern Thailand with respect to their spatial and seasonal variation. We propose a method, based on five-day aggregation and zero-adjusted log-transformation, that makes such data more amenable to standard statistical analysis, and we use this method to compare the patterns of variation in the data at different locations in the province. We also display methods for graphing the data using a geographical information system, and propose a new plot for simultaneously revealing patterns of variation in both area and season.

Chanchai Chaiwanawut; Krongchai Hattha; Padoongyot Duangmala

2005-01-01

118

76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...southern half of Mendoza Province in Argentina as pest-free areas for Mediterranean...review of the documentation submitted by Argentina's national plant protection...

2011-12-27

119

Trials on Bamboo Introduction in Sanming, Fujian Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growth and adaptability of bamboos that were introduced in 1993, including 204 species in 19 genera in Sanming city, Fujian province were summarized. The trial has provided technical information for regional biodiversity protection and for the exploitation of bamboo resources. At the same time, it has formed a practice and demonstration base for bamboo production and teaching.

Fan Mingqing

2004-01-01

120

Schistosomahaematobium Control In Khoozestan Province In Iran: Prosperities And Failures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Schistosoma haematobium is a parasite that is carried by freshwater snails and induces gastrointestinal and urinary disease, depending on its species. In Khoozestan, one of the provinces in Iran, schistosomiasis was endemic. This study reports the results of schistosomiasis control in th...

Hayate Mombeni; Alireza Kheradmand

 
 
 
 
121

Petroleum geology and resources of Volga-Urals province, USSR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Volga-Ural petroleum province generally coincides with the Volga-Ural regional high, a broad upwarp of the east-central part of the Russian (East European) platform. The central part of the province is occupied by the Tatar arch, which contains the major share of the oil fields of the province. The Komi-Perm arch forms the northeastern part of the regional high, and the Zhigulevsko-Pugachev and Orenburg arches make up the southern part. These arches are separated from one another by elongate trenchlike downwarps. The platform sedimentary cover overlies an Archean crystalline basement and consists of seven main sedimentation cycles of late Precambrian through Triassic age. Approximately 600 oil fields and gas fields and 2000 pools have been found in the Volga-Ural province. Nine productive sequences are recognized; these are, in general, the same as the sedimentation cycles, although some subdivisions have been added. The clastic section of Middle and early Late Devonian age contains the major recoverable oil accumulations, including the supergiant Romashkino field. Cumulative production to 1980 is estimated at 30-35 billion bbl of oil equivalent, identified reserves at about 10 billion bbl of oil equivalent, and undiscovered resources at about 7 billion bbl of oil equivalent. Identified reserves of natural gas are estimated at 100 tcf and undiscovered resources at 63 tcf.

Peterson, J.A.; Clarke, J.W.

1986-05-01

122

Studies on possibility of building radiation centre in Hunan Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 105 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre

1987-01-01

123

Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

M F AYDIN; A SAHIN

2013-01-01

124

[Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in Henan province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in Henan province. METHODS: Multistage sampling was used to investigate a group of 1-75 year-old general population, living in 30 districts of 18 cities, Henan province. Blood samples were collected and tested for anti-HCV and hepatitis C virus(HCV), from April to July 2012. RESULTS: 32 203 persons were investigated. Among the general population aged 1 to 75 years old, the overall prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.64% and 0.35% respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV among males and females were 0.60%, and 0.68% respectively, with the rates of HCV RNA as 0.37%, and 0.33% respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were increasing with age. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA in urban area were 0.58% and 0.32%, and in rural area as 0.41%, and 0.19% respectively. CONCLUSION: After the implementation of comprehensive measures for HCV control and prevention, Henan province became low prevalent for HCV infection. Our data revealed that the overall prevalence remained low, but the epidemic was severe in some geographical regions in Henan province.

Fan PY; Sun DY; Ma YM; Sun GQ; Cui WG; Zhu Q; He JY; Zhou G; Xu J; Wang Z

2013-06-01

125

The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape prov...

Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Van der Merwe, Petrus

126

Peculiarities of sulphur functionalities in the Thracian coal province, Bulgaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Thracian coal province in Bulgaria is comprised of three main coal basins, Maritza East, Maritza West and Elhovo, with extremely immature coals (Rr = 0.18-0.21%). These Miocene-Pliocene aged low rank coals (lignites) are characterized by high ash and sulphur contents, and ...

Marinov S P; Stefanova M; Kostova I; Stamenova V; Carleer R; Yperman J

127

A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study.

Wang ZH; Bai YH; Zhang SY

2005-01-01

128

A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

2005-01-01

129

Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to d...

Yagoob Garedaghi

130

Malaria epidemiology in mersin province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate. METHODS: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope. RESULTS: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad. CONCLUSION: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province.

Aydin MF; Sahin A

2013-04-01

131

Statistical Analysis of Different Cancers in Kermanshah Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, which was performed in 2007 a statistical investigation has been performed on the occurrence frequency, type of cancer and the relevance of this disease with age and sex in Kermanshah Province. Gathering the information of patient’s medical reports between 2002 and 2006 and analyzing ...

M.H. Mirmomeni; F. Mohammadi; S. Sisakhtnezhad; R. Hashemi; Gh. Nazari

132

Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

1992-01-01

133

An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Canada is usually considered to be a country with abundant freshwater, but in its western prairie provinces (WPP), an area 1/5 the size of Europe, freshwater is scarce. European settlement of the WPP did not begin until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortuitously, the period since European ...

Schindler, D. W.; Donahue, W. F.

134

"INVESTIGATION OF PREVALENCE OF BETA THLASSEMIA IN IRANIAN PROVINCES "  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

14,849 affected cases of beta thalassemia have been registered in 1995 in all provinces of Iran. It is estimated that there are about three million carriers in Iran. The provincial distributions of the affected cases show that the highest incidence in 100 thousand individuals was in Mazandaran (71.2...

D.D. Farhud; H. Sadighi

135

Environmental quality in the Dutch province North-Holland 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport)

2002-01-01

136

Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while incr...

Stojšin Vera B.; Mari? Adam A.; Jasni? Stevan M.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Marinkovi? Branko J.

137

Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part I. Khoozestan Province.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collections made by a team of Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran) include 17 of the 19 species known to inhabit Khoozestan Province, and form the basis of this paper. Among them are two new species (Hottentotta khoozestanus sp. n. and Vachoniolus iranus sp. n.), Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003 previously known only from Iraq, and five species representing first records for the province: Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828); Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pézier, 2002; Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987); Orthochirus stockwelli (Lourenço et Vachon, 1995) comb. n.; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900). In contrast, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, as described from Khoozestan, stands corrected to Kohkiloye & Boyer Ahmad, Esfahan, Fars, Kerman, and Yazd Provinces. Occurrences of Hottentotta schach (Birula, 1905) and Compsobuthus garyi Lourenço et Vachon, 2001 could not be verified for Khoozestan, but are nevertheless included, and the uncertain taxonomic position of the latter is discussed. A large collection of Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004 allowed the study of intraspecific variation and resulted in the observation that trichobothrium d2 on the dorsal surface of pedipalp femur may be fully developed, reduced, or absent. Since the presence or absence of trichobothrium d2 is the only character separating Orthochirus Karsch, 1892 from Paraorthochirus Lourenço et Vachon, 1995, it follows that Paraorthochirus is a synonym of Orthochirus, syn. n. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.

Navidpour, S.; Kova?ík, F.; Soleglad, M.E.; Fet, V.

2008-01-01

138

Coxsackievirus B3, Shandong Province, China, 1990-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the cause of a 2008 outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, we analyzed samples from outbreak patients and coxsackievirus B3 samples collected during 1990–2010 surveillance. The cause of the outbreak was coxsackievirus B3, genogroup D. Frequent travel might increase importation of other coxsackievirus B3 genogroups.

Tao, Zexin; Song, Yanyan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ping; Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Guifang; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Haiyan

2012-01-01

139

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, Shandong Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, which results in severe illness and has a high case-fatality rate, is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. We found that samples from 2/237 (0.8%) healthy persons and 111/134 (83%) goats in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China, were seropositive for this virus.

Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Wen, Hongling; Cui, Feng; Chi, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ling; Xue, Fuzhong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Shoufeng; Song, Yanyan; Du, Jun

2012-01-01

140

Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4%) were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

Zhao GH; Ren WX; Gao M; Bian QQ; Hu B; Cong MM; Lin Q; Wang RJ; Qi M; Qi MZ; Zhu XQ; Zhang LX

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Dairying and its contribution to farm economy in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia ?Article?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article tries to explore the situation of dairying in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province (here-after DIY Province), Indonesia. The study has shown that dairying in DIY Province is labor intensive.The data reveals a greater use of family labor in rural and sub urban areas compared to that of hi...

Sulastri, Endang; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

142

An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men). The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers in prevention, treatment and medical education more than before , in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Hamadan province for mental health.

M.R. Mohammadi; S.A. Bagheri Yazdi; M. Rahgozar; B. Mesgarpour; A. Babolhavaegi; A. Lotfi; M.K. Zarabian

2004-01-01

143

[Epidemiological analysis of malaria epidemic situation in Guangdong Province, 2011].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the features of malaria epidemic in Guangdong Province in 2011 so as to provide the evidence for the elimination of malaria in Guangdong Province. METHODS: The data from the Disease Reporting Information System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed with the descriptive epidemiological method for the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Guangdong Province in 2011. RESULTS: A total of 96 malaria cases were reported in Guangdong Province in 2011, with an annual mean incidence of 0.092 per 100 thousand. There were 40 cases of Plasmodium vivax infection, 36 cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection and 20 cases of undivided malaria. There were 2 death cases. There were cases reported in 34 counties/cities/districts of 17 prefecture-level cities in the whole province. The cases distributed mainly in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, where there were 57 cases, reaching 59.38% of the cases of the whole province. There were cases reported every month in the whole year. From May to November, 73 cases were reported, accounting for 76.04% of the cases of the whole year. The ratio of male to female cases was 5.86: 1. The age distribution concentrated mainly on 20-50 years old. The youngest patient was 1 years old and the eldest was 65 years old. The occupation distribution concentrated mainly on the worker, commercial service, peasant, housekeeper and unemployed people (68 cases, 70.83%). In addition to the aforementioned 96 cases of local census register population, there were 32 cases of nonlocal census register population found in Guangdong, 2011. Of the total 128 cases, the main original areas of the imported cases were Africa (77, 60.16%) and Asia (30, 23.44%). The country with the most cases was Nigeria in Africa (36 cases), the second was Angola in Africa (19 cases), and the third was Myanmar in Asia (11 cases). CONCLUSION: The malaria epidemic situation in Guangdong Province is relatively stable in 2011, but the imported cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection increase. Therefore, the surveillance, prevention and control for imported cases of P. falciparum infection should be strengthened.

Pan B; Ruan CW; Lin RX; Pei FQ; Zhang QM

2013-02-01

144

Prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in Golestan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Human T-Lymphocyte Virus-1 (HTLV- 1) is known as the etiologic factor of acute T-Lymphocytic Leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paralysis. (TSP). Endemic factors causing infection with Human T Lymphocyte Virus-1 (HTLV-1) is based on environmental, socio-economical and health behaviors of the individuals. This virus is well distributed in families with involved members. Golestan province is located in North West part of Northern Khorasan province that had already been known as an endemic area for HTLV-1. This virus is also known as the main etiologic factor for cancers and ATL, therefore; we studied the prevalence of HTLV-1 seroepidemiology in Golestan province. Material and Methods: The subjects selected by cluster sampling were 2034 healthy cases residing in different parts of Golestan province. ELISA method using Dia- pro anti HTLV-1 antibody kits was applied for serological assessment. Western Blot (HTLV BLOT 2.4) was used for confirmation purposes. Results: The subjects aged 38.66±16.54 were 2034 healthy persons. Forty-one point seven of these cases were males and the rest females. Based on ELISA method there were15 HTLV-1 positive cases (0.7%). -1. (0.7%) Six out of 15 were confirmed by western blot method (95%, CI: 0.06-0.53%). The highest prevalence sigllificant) aiology is in the highat rate in 31-40 year old gro0.7%). onclusion: This study shows that HTLV-1 is prevalent in Golestan the same as the other parts of the world. There fere: we urse on performing screening test (HTLV-) on donated blood components before delivering (OK labeling). Key words: HTLV-1, Seroepidemiology, ELISA, Western Blot, Golestan ATL(Acute T lymphocytic Leukemia) Six cases out of 15 were confirmed by western blot method (95%, CI: 0.06-0.53%). The highest prevalence was 2.6% seen in Kalaleh city (east part of the province) [95%, Cl: 0.06-0.53%). There was significant difference between the prevalence of HTLV-1 and the dwelling place. (p=002). HTLV-1 seroepidemiology was in the highest rate in 31-40 year old group (0.7%). Conclusion: This study shows that HTLV-1 is prevalent in Golestan province, the same as the other parts of the world. Therefore, we recommend performing screening test (HTLV-) on donated blood components before delivering (OK labeling). Key words: HTLV-1, Seroepidemiology, ELISA, Western Blot, Golestan province, ATL (Acute T lymphocytic Leukemia)

kalavi KH; A Moradi, AR Ahmadi; AJ Sarikhani, M Bazoor; Mr Kyaee

2008-01-01

145

Epidemiological Features of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To describe the epidemiological features of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in southern Iran.Methods: This retrospective study was carried out using local hospital records of VL patients from 2001 through 2009. Data such as age, gender, place of residence, clinical signs and symptoms, treatment, history of recurrence were recorded. The collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software.Results: A total of 260 cases of VL have been recorded during 2001 to 2009 in south of Iran, based on hospital records. Mean age of patients was 3.5 years with the highest prevalence in 2 years old patients. The diseases have been more common in males (60%). The main clinical signs and symptoms of the patients were fever (96.2%), hepatosplenomegaly (68.8%) and abdominal protrusion (71.9%). Most of cases were from Kazeroun County (17.5%) in Fars Province followed by Borazjan in Boushehr Province.   Bone marrow aspirations have been performed in 178 of cases and Leishmania amastigotes were detected in only 50 (28.1%) cases. Glucantime has been the first drug treatment while 19.3% of cases have been treated with amphotericin B. Mortality rate was 6.2% and children under 1 year old have been the main victim of the disease. Relapse has been noted in 7.3% of patients.Conclusion: VL is still endemic in South of Iran, especially in Fars Province with a noticeable mortality rate. Moreover, cases of the diseases are reporting from neighboring provinces and this might be due to the spreading of the diseases to the adjacent provinces.

B Sarkari; G Hatam; MA Ghatee

2012-01-01

146

Eruption frequency record of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Syrtis Major is one of the most prominent Hesperian-aged volcanic provinces on Mars, located near the dichotomy boundary, west of Isidis Planitia. It extends over approximately 740,000 km² and has a N-S elongated central depression containing the calderas of Meroe Patera and Nili Patera. Lava thicknesses range from approximately 0.5-1.0 km and total volume of erupted material has been estimated at about 320,000 km³. This province is another target area of our ongoing study to quantify the global volatile release during volcanic eruptions on Mars. Estimates of eruption frequency, associated volume of erupted material, and gas release to the atmosphere are the key parameters of this research. Reconstruction of the eruption history of volcanic provinces is one of the steps to be taken in order to constrain these parameters. In total, 58 lava flows were mapped of which 39 were suitable for age determination using crater size-frequency distributions. In addition, the caldera of Meroe Patera was also dated using crater statistics. Model ages range between 0.87 Ga and 3.63 Ga. There is no apparent time-space correlation observed. The broad spectrum of model ages, ranging from Early Hesperian to Middle Amazonian, points to long-lasting volcanic activity of the studied province. This fact together with post-emplacement deformation of lava flows indicates a much longer eruption and volcano-tectonic history of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province than previously thought, extending it to the Middle Amazonian period

Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Michael, Gregory

2013-04-01

147

Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%). The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000): 581-586

Yagoob Garedaghi

2013-01-01

148

Females’ esophagus cancer incidence in Golestan Province, Iran (2004)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province for a period of 1 year (2004). The age distribution was collected according to the following age strata: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84 and 85 above. Esophagus cancer data was identified and collected through the 18 Pathology Laboratory centers (where female populations were referred to these centers) in Golestan province. A total of 348 primary cancer cases were captured. From these 32 cases were of esophagus cancer. There were 26 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (81.25%), and 1 adenocarcinoma (3.12%). Esophagus cancer incidence among females in Golestan province was 7.62/100000. But esophagus cancer with the highest ASR: 127.91/100,000 was in age 75-79. The incidence of esophagus cancer in age over 75-79 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 30-34 (ASR: 1.68/100,000). Presently it can be said that esophagus cancer in females appears to be one of the most prevalent and serious types of cancer (especially squamous cell carcinoma) in Golestan province and esophagus cancer is rising with ageing.

Dr. Abdoljalal Marjani; Mr. Mohammad Javad Kabir; Dr. Shahriyar Semnani; Dr. Seyyed Mehdi Sedaghat; Mr. Abbas Moghaddami

2008-01-01

149

Esophagus Cancer Incidence among Females in Golestan Province, Iran (2004)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer registry that was conducted by Health Deputy of Golestan province for a period of 1 year (2004). The age distribution was collected according to the following age strata: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84 and 85 above. Esophagus cancer data was identified and collected through the 18 Pathology Laboratory centers (where female populations referred to these centers) in Golestan province. A total of 348 primary cancer cases were captured. From these 32 cases was esophagus cancer. There were 26 squomous cell carcinoma (81.25%), 1 adenocarcinoma (3.12%). Esophagus cancer incidence among females in Golestan province was 7.62/100000. But esophagus cancer with the highest ASR: 127.91/100,000 was in age 75-79. The incidence of esophagus cancer in age over 75-79 has risen sharply and it was the lowest in age 30-34 (ASR: 1.68/100,000). For the present time it can be said that esophagus cancer in females appear to be one of the most prevalent and serious type of cancer (especially squomous cell carcinoma) in Golestan province and esophagus cancer is rising with ageing.

Abdoljalal Marjani; Mohammad Javad Kabir; Shahriyar Semnani; Seyyed Mehdi Sedaghat; Abbas Moghaddami

2008-01-01

150

Research on the Effects of Logistics Industry on Economic Growth in Jilin Province in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper constructs the econometrical model of the relationship between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, analyzes quantitative relation between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, measures the contribution of logistics industry on economic growth in Jilin province. The results show the status of logistics industry in economic development in Jilin province. The conclusions will supply some necessary proposals for decision-making of the development programming of logistics industry in Jilin province.Key words: Logistics industry; Economic growth; Econometric model

Yang SHAO; Jianguo ZHENG

2011-01-01

151

Serological study of hantavirus in the rodent population of Nakhon Pathom and Nakhon Ratchasima Provinces Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A serological survey has been carried out to detect evidence of hantavirus infection in rodents from two provinces of Thailand. This study aimed to examine virus antibody in 354 rodents trapped among 6 different villages of Nakhon Pathom Province (February-March, 1998) and in 326 rodents trapped among 14 villages of Nakhon Ratchasima Province (August-October, 1998). Seroprevalence among rodents from Nakhon Pathom Province (2.3%), was mostly find in Rattus norvegicus (3.8%) and Bandicota indica (2.6%). In Nakhon Ratchasima Province seroprevalence (4.0%) was mostly in Bandicota indica (19.1%) and Rattus exulans (3.5%).

Nitatpattana N; Chauvancy G; Dardaine J; Poblap T; Jumronsawat K; Tangkanakul W; Poonsuksombat D; Yoksan S; Gonzalez JP

2000-06-01

152

Serological study of hantavirus in the rodent population of Nakhon Pathom and Nakhon Ratchasima Provinces Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological survey has been carried out to detect evidence of hantavirus infection in rodents from two provinces of Thailand. This study aimed to examine virus antibody in 354 rodents trapped among 6 different villages of Nakhon Pathom Province (February-March, 1998) and in 326 rodents trapped among 14 villages of Nakhon Ratchasima Province (August-October, 1998). Seroprevalence among rodents from Nakhon Pathom Province (2.3%), was mostly find in Rattus norvegicus (3.8%) and Bandicota indica (2.6%). In Nakhon Ratchasima Province seroprevalence (4.0%) was mostly in Bandicota indica (19.1%) and Rattus exulans (3.5%). PMID:11127326

Nitatpattana, N; Chauvancy, G; Dardaine, J; Poblap, T; Jumronsawat, K; Tangkanakul, W; Poonsuksombat, D; Yoksan, S; Gonzalez, J P

2000-06-01

153

Liberalización económica y desigualdad salarial en 12 áreas urbanas de México, 1987-2002: la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad del ingreso salarial, medida por el coeficiente de Gini en 12 áreas urbanas del país -por tamaño de población y producto interno bruto (PIB) estatal- de 1987 a 2002, y su relación con otras variables asociadas al proceso de liberalización económica, como la apertura comercial (AC), las exportaciones, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) nacional y el PIB manufacturero estatal. Se contrasta la relación (more) entre variables con la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets, mediante datos en panel, corte trasversal y series de tiempo en el análisis regional (zonas urbanas y entidades federativas). Abstract in english This article analyzes the evolution of income wage inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, in 12 urban areas of Mexico- by population and state gross domestic product (GDP)-from 1987 to 2002, and the relationship with other variables associated with the process of economic liberalization, such as commercial openness (CO), exports, foreign direct investment (FDI), and gdp by state manufacturer. We contrast the relationship between variables with the Kuznets' inverse (more) "U" hypothesis using panel data analysis, cross section and time series in the regional analysis (urban zones and federal states).

Plascencia López, Ismael

2009-04-01

154

Liberalización económica y desigualdad salarial en 12 áreas urbanas de México, 1987-2002: la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad del ingreso salarial, medida por el coeficiente de Gini en 12 áreas urbanas del país -por tamaño de población y producto interno bruto (PIB) estatal- de 1987 a 2002, y su relación con otras variables asociadas al proceso de liberalización económica, como la apertura comercial (AC), las exportaciones, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) nacional y el PIB manufacturero estatal. Se contrasta la relación entre variables con la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets, mediante datos en panel, corte trasversal y series de tiempo en el análisis regional (zonas urbanas y entidades federativas).

Ismael Plascencia López

2009-01-01

155

Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

2004-06-29

156

Advances and prospects for induced mutation breeding in Helongjiang Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation breeding employed on soybean, spring wheat, maize, millet, fiber flax, chinese cabbage, kidney been and garlic in Heilongjiang province. Thirty-six new varieties had introduced and released from 1980 to 1994, made up 20.6% of total released varieties for the same period, accumulated cultivated area of 3.746 million hm2, and increased the income of formers to US dollar 168 million; 72 mutants having specific and utilizing values and traits have also been bred in the province. Basic research such as radiation breeding in combination with distant hybridization, biotechnology, and application new induced factors, improving selection methods, have been achieved; 91 articles have been published. These researches play an important role for increasing induced mutation breeding. Three items of suggestion to develop induced mutation breeding are made. (1 tab.)

1995-01-01

157

Accounting for variation in wind deployment between Canadian provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Wind energy deployment varies widely across regions and this variation cannot be explained by differences in natural wind resources alone. Evidence suggests that institutional factors beyond physical wind resources can influence the deployment of wind energy systems. Building on the work of , this study takes a historical institutionalist approach to examine the main factors influencing wind energy deployment across four Canadian provinces Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Our case studies suggest that wind energy deployment depends upon a combination of indirect causal factors-landscape values, political and social movements, government electricity policy, provincial electricity market structure and incumbent generation technologies and direct causal factors-grid architecture, ownership patterns, renewable incentive programs, planning and approvals processes and stakeholder support and opposition. - Research highlights: ? Examines the reasons for variations in wind deployment between Canadian provinces. ? Employs a historical institutional approach to the analysis. ? Discusses social factors that affect wind deployment across Canadian jurisdictions.

2011-01-01

158

Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars. PMID:24091975

Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

2013-10-01

159

Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

Michalski JR; Bleacher JE

2013-10-01

160

Diversity of the important protected mammals in Hunan Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

82 wild species of mammalia have been found in Hunan up to now. Among them, 4 and 18 species belong respectively to the first-and second-ranked protected wildlife of national importance of China, and Macaca mulatta, Selenarctos thibetanus, Cervus unicolor, Hydropotes i. inermis and Capricornis sumatraensis argyrochaetes are relatively rich in the resources. 4 species belonging to the first-ranked protected category are Neofelis nebulosa, Panthera pardus, Panthera tigris amoyensis, Lipotes vexillifer respectively. 14 species of mammalia belong to the regional important protected wildlife of Hunan Province. Among them, Lepus sinensis, Rhizomys pruinosus, ustela sibirica, Paguma larvata et al are obviously rich in the resources. Every species^ distribution is briefly discussed, These mammals mainly inhabit in the important mountainous and hilly forest regions, especially in natural reserves. At last, the conservation measures for mammal resources are suggested in order to promote the work of biodiversity conservation of Hunan Province.

Yang Daode; Shen Youhui; Ye Yiyun; Liu Hongqing

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Statistical Analysis of Different Cancers in Kermanshah Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, which was performed in 2007 a statistical investigation has been performed on the occurrence frequency, type of cancer and the relevance of this disease with age and sex in Kermanshah Province. Gathering the information of patient’s medical reports between 2002 and 2006 and analyzing those using SPSS software showed that in this province after skin cancer, bladder cancer has the highest rate of occurrence unlike the world statistics. This analysis indicated that urban cancer rate is nearly twice rural rate and also showed that approximately 60% of infections are spotted among men and 40% among women. However in the age of 17 till 50, women are attacked more than men. The highest shown figures are in men at the age of 70 and women at the age of 60.

M.H. Mirmomeni; F. Mohammadi; S. Sisakhtnezhad; R. Hashemi; Gh. Nazari

2009-01-01

162

Atmospheric PCO? perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO?) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO? from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO? values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO? increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO? after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO? by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

Schaller MF; Wright JD; Kent DV

2011-03-01

163

Atmospheric PCO? perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO?) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO? from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO? values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO? increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO? after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO? by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics. PMID:21330490

Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

2011-02-17

164

The fauna of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Vojvodina province, Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many hoverfly species of faunal and zoogeographical interest are found in Serbia's northern province of Vojvodina due to the diversity of its biotopes. In this paper, the presence of 252 species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) from 69 genera is documented. Five species are here recorded for the first time in Serbia: Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp Pedersen, 1980; Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus, 1758); Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794); Helophilus hybridus Loew, 1846; and Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794). One species is recorded for the first time in Vojvodina: Cheilosia brunnipennis (Becker, 1894). The records of 12 species from Vojvodina Province are the only ones on the Balkan Peninsula, while the records of 15 species are the only ones in Serbia.

Nedeljkovi? Zorica; Vuji? A.; Šimi? Smiljka; Radenkovi? Snežana

2009-01-01

165

"INVESTIGATION OF PREVALENCE OF BETA THLASSEMIA IN IRANIAN PROVINCES "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 14,849 affected cases of beta thalassemia have been registered in 1995 in all provinces of Iran. It is estimated that there are about three million carriers in Iran. The provincial distributions of the affected cases show that the highest incidence in 100 thousand individuals was in Mazandaran (71.29) and Gilan (57.61), respectively, both near the Caspian sea (north), followed by Hormozgan (50.22), Khouzestan (48.79) , Kohkiluyeh & Boyr-Ahmad (48.42), Fars (47 20) (south) and the lowest in the north eastern province , Khorassan (1.23) followed by east and west Azerbaijan (2.21 , 2.91) in the north west of Iran.

D.D. Farhud; H. Sadighi

1997-01-01

166

Molecular spectrum of ?-thalassemia in Fujian Province, Southeastern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide basic information for ?-thalassemia (?-thal) screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND), we characterized ?-thal mutations in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. A total of 16 different ?-thal gene mutations were identified from 1058 patients. Of these, the IVS-II-654 (C>T) and codons 41/42 (-TCTT) were the most prevalent, accounting for 76.3% of the total mutations. Six gene mutations, IVS-I-1 (G>T), Cap +40 to +43 (-AAAC), codon 30 (A>G), +22 (G>A), codons 54-58 (-TTATGGGCAACCC) and the initiation codon (ATG>AGG) were characterized for the first time in the Fujian population. Furthermore, the following mutations, +22 (G?>A), codon 36 (-C) and codon 30 (A>G), were identified for the first time in Chinese individuals. This was the first comprehensive mutation spectrum of ?-thal mutations studied in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China (PRC). PMID:23682686

Huang, Hailong; Xu, Liangpu; Lin, Na; He, Deqin; Li, Yin; Guo, Danhua; Wang, Linshuo; Wang, Yan; Zhen, Lin; Xu, Jinbang; Lin, Yuan

2013-05-20

167

Olive Existence in Akhisar District in Manisa Province in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Turkey which is one of the main olive producing countries in the world, in the Aegean Region some provinces are coming forth in respect of olive existence. Since Akhisar district constitutes half of the olive existence in Manisa province it was found to be worth research. In order to detect olive existence and sector improvement in Akhisar and in selected villages a face to face survey has been held among farmers. Survey results were evaluated by the SPSS programme. At the end of the evaluation it was determined that; there was an increase in lands reserved for olive growing, olive is being preffered against tobacco which is an important agricultural product, farmers are leaning towards the Domat type whose origin is in Akhisar, intensive agricultural techniques are implemented, diseases and harmful activities are at a minimum level in olive groves.

Meltem Sesli; Aysun Tokmakoglu

2006-01-01

168

Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

Michalski, Joseph R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

2013-10-01

169

[Survey and pathogen identification of rhubarb diseases in Gansu province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate diseases occurring in Rheum palmatum in Gansu province and identify pathogen. METHOD: Field survey in the main R. palmatum producing area and the pathogens were identified on the base of morphology. RESULT: Eight fungal diseases have been found after disease surveys on R. palmatum in Gansu province from 2004 to 2007. They were leaf smut (Thecaphora schwarzmaniana), leaf spot (Septoria sp.), rust (Puccinia rheipalmati), ring spot (Ascochyta rhei), powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni.), grey mold (Botrytis sp.), root rot(Fusarium oxyxporium) and a virus disease. CONCLUSION: Leaf smut, a severe disease with the incidence of 14%-26%, is the urgent problem waiting to be solved effectively. Powdery mildew and grey mold were reported for the first time in China.

Wang Y; Chen X; Li Y

2009-04-01

170

Molecular spectrum of ?-thalassemia in Fujian Province, Southeastern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To provide basic information for ?-thalassemia (?-thal) screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND), we characterized ?-thal mutations in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. A total of 16 different ?-thal gene mutations were identified from 1058 patients. Of these, the IVS-II-654 (C>T) and codons 41/42 (-TCTT) were the most prevalent, accounting for 76.3% of the total mutations. Six gene mutations, IVS-I-1 (G>T), Cap +40 to +43 (-AAAC), codon 30 (A>G), +22 (G>A), codons 54-58 (-TTATGGGCAACCC) and the initiation codon (ATG>AGG) were characterized for the first time in the Fujian population. Furthermore, the following mutations, +22 (G?>A), codon 36 (-C) and codon 30 (A>G), were identified for the first time in Chinese individuals. This was the first comprehensive mutation spectrum of ?-thal mutations studied in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China (PRC).

Huang H; Xu L; Lin N; He D; Li Y; Guo D; Wang L; Wang Y; Zhen L; Xu J; Lin Y

2013-01-01

171

Natural division of bamboo forests in Anhui province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the status of climate, topography, vegetation, and combined with the characteristics of bamboo distribution and management, the bamboo forests in Anhui Province are divided into the following four regions: 1. the region of hill-mountain bamboo forest in the south Anhui, 2. the region of mountain bamboo forest in the Dabie mountain 3. the region of hill bamboo forest in the Jianghuai, 4. the region of plain bamboo forest in the Huaibei.

Guan Chuanyou

1997-01-01

172

Classification and ecological properties of Shibataea Makino from Anhui Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shibataea Mkaino is an endemic bamboo species in Anhui province. According to investigations, there is only one species of Shibataea Makino in Anhui, which is Shitatea hispida McCl., it is distributed in low mountains and hills between Huangshan and Tianmushan mountain range below 500 meters. it is resistant to water-rot, and can conserve water and soil. It can be used to make potted plant and asground layer species.

Huang Chenglin; Chen Yinglong; Wang Wuxing; Ji An; Liu Yousheng

1995-01-01

173

Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. "nResults: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%), mainly from Afghanistan (56.5%) and Pakistan (16.3%). Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%). More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%). Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. "nConclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case), shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area. "n  "nKeywords: Malaria, Iran, Epidemiology

B Farzinnia; A Saghafipour; MR Abai

2010-01-01

174

The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10'to 23 deg 25'of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10' to 58 deg 00', having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

1996-01-01

175

Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

Westaway, R. (Univ. of Durham (England))

1989-09-01

176

[Epidemiology of Paget's disease. Peculiarities in the province of Zamora  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some paramyxovirus (measles, respiratory syncytial virus, and dog's distemper virus) are currently considered to be responsible for Paget's disease of the bone. A relevant role is also given to inheritance as predisposing factor. Some authors have found an association between HLA antigens with this disease, but without unanimous agreement. Although this hypothesis of an interaction between a genetic factor and a viral infectious agent is the most accepted universally, there is not yet a definitive cause for the disease. The participation of some other environmental factors has not been ruled out. METHODS: One hundred and forty patients in the Zamora province were studied. The geographic distribution in the different areas of the province was analyzed and also whether there was family aggregation all cases. HLA-I was determined in 59 patients and HLA-II in cases with aggregation. The mineral composition (calcium, fluorine, magnesium, nitrates, and chlorine) analysis of public running water was carried out in all population centers in the province. RESULTS: Aggregation was found in four families (four, two, four, and three siblings, respectively). Although HLA-I antigens were determined in 59 patients, no association was found. HLA-II antigens were also determined in the involved patients with family links and no association was found between these antigens and the disease. A much higher aggregation was found in some particular areas in our province and these foci coincided with some characteristics of mineral composition of public running waters. CONCLUSIONS: There is a genetic factor predisposing to the disease, as family aggregation occurs with a higher frequency than would otherwise be expected. Nevertheless, no association with HLA antigens was found. This disease is more common in some particular geographic areas, thus supporting the hypothesis of an environmental factor as trigger. An association was found between mineral composition of public running waters and patient geographic distribution.

Arias Paciencia M; Ochoa Sangrador C; Portero Sánchez JA; Fernández Clemente JJ; de Diego Gómez JM

1998-02-01

177

Hydrogeologic characteristics of Ordovician system in west Yanzhou, Shandong Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carbonate rocks of the Ordovician system in north China is thick, widely distributed and rich in water. Based on the information obtained from exploration of water resources in the west of Yanzhou and water sampling data, and comprehensive study of the hydrogeologic characteristics of Ordovician system in this area, the Ordovician system carbonate has been divided into 7 water-bearing members. This approach is widely used in the southwest of Shandong province. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, X.; Yu, K. [The First Exploring Team of Shandong Coal Geological Bureau, Tengzhou (China)

2002-02-01

178

Potential for private wind capacity in the Dutch province Friesland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The results of a study on the problems and bottlenecks and possible solutions with regard to the implementation of wind energy for private persons in the Dutch province Friesland are presented and discussed. The problems are the fitting in of the wind turbine capacity into the grid, the processing of the large number of requests for subsidies, the danger of proliferation, and the availability of sufficient sites. Recommendations to solve these problems are formulated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

1993-01-01

179

A preliminary study of Agromyzidae (Diptera) in Fujian Province, China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty species belonging to 12 genera in the family are recently known, of which Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Calycomyza artemisiae (Kalt.) are recorded for the first time in Fujian Province. The information of the distribution and host plants for each species are given. In the meantime, the degree of damage caused to cultivated plants by several leaf-miners and stem-or root-feeders are tentatively analysed.

Zhang Qingyuan; Lin Zhenji; Chen Huazhong; Wang Xingjian; Chen Xiaolin

2001-01-01

180

Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their [sup 226]Ra, [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

Baeza, A.; Del Rio, M.; Miro, C.; Paniagua, J.M. (Extremadura Univ., Caceres (Spain). Facultad de Veterinaria)

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

Bishop, Michele G.

2002-01-01

182

Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective:This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006.Methods:GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis.Findings:Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0-14 years) with mean (?SD) age of 8.06 (?4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively.Conclusion:The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area.

Abdolvahab Moradi; Shahryar Semnani; Gholamreza Roshandel; Narges Mirbehbehani; Abbasali Keshtkar; Mohsen Aarabi; Abbas Moghaddami; Fatemeh Cheraghali

2010-01-01

183

Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars Province, South Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods: In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withdrawn from all newborns born in Fars province for measurement of serum phenylalanine. The samples with a serum level of ³ 2 mg/dl were referred to pediatric endocrine clinic for confirmation and determination of the type of hyperphenylalaninemia by quantitive serum phenylalanine measurements by using High-Pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.Findings: Nine out of 76966 newborns had a serum phenylalanine level ³2mg/dl, of which 8 cases were confirmed by HPLC. The incidence of the disease was 1:10000. The incidence of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and phenylketonuria (PKU) among the patients was 62.5% and 37.5% respectively and the incidence of BH4 deficiency was 1/76966.Conclusion: These findings indicate a high incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia, in the newborns from Fars province. The high incidence makes a comprehensive screening program for management of the disease necessary.

Hamdollah Karamifar; Mahtab Ordoei; Zohreh Karamizadeh; Gholamhossein Amirhakimi

2010-01-01

184

Lena-Tunguska Proterozoic-Paleozoic petroleum province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lena-Tunguska petroleum province lies within the ancient craton of the Siberian platform and occupies an area of 2,570,000 km{sup 2}. It includes the Anabar, Baikit, Nepa-Botuoba, Aldan anteclises, Turukhan-Norilsk uplift, Angara-Lena step, Kureika, Pre-Sayany-Yenisei syneclises, and Predpatomskii regional trough. The sedimentary cover of the Lena-Tunguska province is divided into the following large petroleum-bearing complexes: Riphean, Vendian, upper Vendian-Lower Cambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician-Devonian, and Carbonaceous-Triassic complexes. More than 80% of initial oil gas resources are found in the upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian. The main source rocks are confined to the Riphean, Vendian, and Cambrian. Five percent of hydrocarbon resources are converted into reserves. The province is divided into twelve petroleum-bearing regions; North Tunguska, South Tunguska, Baikit, Katanga, Pre-Sayany-Yenisei, Angara-Lena, Nepa Botuoba, Predpatoma, Syugdzhersk, Anabar, West Vilyui, and North Aldan regions, and Turukhan-Norilsk individual petroliferous area. Oil and gas pools in the Riphean complex are in the Baikit and Predpatoma petroliferous regions. The Vendian petroliferous complex is commercially important in the Baikit, Katanga, Angara-Lena, Nepa, Botuoba, and Predpatoma petroliferous regions. In the Vendian-Cambrian petroliferous complex oil, oil and gas and gas pools are in the South Tunguska, Nepa-Botuoba, Baikit and Predpatoma petroliferous region. The Cambrian petroliferous complex produces gas in the South Tunguska and Angara-Lena petroliferous region and the Turukhan-Norilsk petroliferous area.

Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Maldenbaum, M.M.; Melinkov, N.V.; Rybyakov, B.L.; Staroseltsev, V.S.; Surkov, V.S.; Trofimuk, A.A. (Ministry of Geology, Moscow (USSR))

1991-08-01

185

Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran). 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene) was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis) and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1%) and 260 (67.1%)respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.

Razmaraii, N.; Sadegh-Eteghad, S.; Babaei, H.; Paykari, H.; Esmaeilnia,K.; Froghy, L.

2013-01-01

186

The Spectrum of ? -Thalassemia Mutations in Isfahan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: ? -thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive disorder resulting from over 200 different mutations of beta globin genes. The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and frequency of the most common ? -thalassemia mutations among the population of Isfahan Province in central Iran. Methods: The data presented here were derived from a total of 114 ? -thalassemia chromosomes of 18 affected patients and 78 unrelated carriers identified in our screening program. Furthermore, 23 pregnant women were analyzed among couples with a PND request for ? -thalassemia. Allele identification was carried out using routine Reverse Dot Blot, ARMS, and genomic sequencing. Results: The most common mutation, IVS-II-I, followed by FSC-36-37, IVS-I-5, FSC-8-9, IVS-I-110, IVS-I,3end; -25bp, IVS-II-745, FSC-8, Cd-39, FSC-22-24, IVS-I-1, Cd-44, IVSII-2,3 (+11/-2), IVS-I-6, and FSC-16, respectively. The present study not only provides a guide for distribution and frequency of both recurrent and uncommon mutations, but also for the first time, reports a rare b-thalassemia mutation, IVSII-2, 3 (+11/-2), in the Isfahan province of Iran. Conclusion: The information presented here could greatly facilitate screening for ? -thalassemia and prenatal diagnosis in the province of Isfahan.

P Derakhshandeh-Peykar; H Hourfar; M Heidari; M Kheirollahi; M Miryounesi

2008-01-01

187

[Endemic goiter in school children of Salta Province, Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Province of Salta, located in the northwest of Argentina, showed severe endemic goiter-cretinism. The purpose of our work, therefore, was to evaluate the results of the iodized salt prophylaxis measure implemented since 1963. In 1980-1981 the prevalence of goiter was determined in 16,935 school children whose ages ranged from four to 15 years. The urinary iodine/creatinine index was also determined in a subsample of 401 children. Findings revealed that the goiter prevalence in the Province was 16.1%. In 10 Departments of the Province, those with greater socioeconomic development and denser population, the prevalences found were below 10%, limit established as endemic. In the remaining 13 Departments, especially in those less developed--where mountainous regions make their access difficult and hence, their populations consume non-iodized salt obtained from natural salt basins--values exceeded this limit. The average ioduria was 104.0 micrograms I/g Cr, with 4.5% presenting values below 25 micrograms. After 20 years of prophylaxis, endemic goiter has therefore been partially eradicated. It is suggested, however, that consumption of iodized salt and, even the supply of iodized oil in those areas where prevalence is high, be recommended.

Morón C; Pérez Somigliana MC; Nordera JV; D'Andrea S; Katz R; Virgili E; Córdoba B; Giménez G

1985-09-01

188

Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

2009-04-01

189

A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

Christia H. Newbery

1999-01-01

190

On Marketization Mode of College and University Sports Grounds and Stadiums in Shandong Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyze the present situation and main problems of management of college and university sports ground andstadiums of Shandong province, by means of literature review, investigation and logic analysis. Furthermore,combining with social sports development status of Shandong Province, we propose the ideas and mode ofmarketization of college and university sports ground and stadiums, and establish the marketization mode ofcollege and university sports ground and stadiums in Shandong Province.

Yun Ma

2011-01-01

191

Determination the frequency of Ixodid ticks on the sheep in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate the frequency of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on sheep inKhorasan Razvi province. A total of 812 ticks were collected from the sheep of different areas of KhorsanRazavi province five species were identified as follow: Rhipicephalus turanicus (59.23%), Hyalomma.marginatum turanicum (25.73%), Hyalomma excavatum (14.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum(8.3%), and Dermacentor niveus (4.8%). The frequency of tick infestation in southern parts was greater than northern parts of the province. R. turanicuss and H. m. turanicum. Were dominant ticks in the province.

Razmi, G.R.; Najarnejad, V.; Rashtibaf, M.

2011-01-01

192

???????????????? System Analysis on Sustainable Development of Shandong Province Oil and Gas Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????ISM????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Shandong province is regarded as the mayor province afflicting the sustainable development of our oil and gas. Studying on the oil and gas resources of sustainable development in Shandong province has many guidelines and examples meaning. This article is based on the theory of sustainable development of oil and gas, using the method of ISM to build multi-level model and establishing the factor weight by entropy value method. In the end, the article takes the need of oil and gas in Shandong province as a example to analyze it.

??; ???; ???

2011-01-01

193

Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996–2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Methods Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6%) was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Results Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79%) were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%–10.4%); 5.4% (range 2.1% – 10.4%) among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%–36.9%) among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. Conclusion MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.

He Guang; Zhao Yan; Jiang Guang; Liu Yu; Xia Hui; Wang Sheng; Wang Li; Borgdorff Martien W; van der Werf Marieke J; van den Hof Susan

2008-01-01

194

Hospital Preparedness of Semnan Province to Deal with Disasters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Hospitals are major health service places which deal with disasters and whose preparedness and offering on time services play vital role in reduction of injuries and death. This research was conducted to determine preparedness of hospitals in Semnan province to deal with disasters (2010). Methods: In this practical, cross-sectional study, all head managers of hospitals in Semnan Province were selected through the census method, and a questionnaire comprising 40 questions and a checklist include of 133 questions were completed through observation and interview. The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Out of the 10 studied hospitals, 50% were teaching hospitals and the rest were therapeutic. Average preparedness of programming support for vital services was 80%, for natural disasters management programs in hospital was 65%, for programming for environmental health activities against disasters was 56.2%, for security of equipments and hazardous material was 64.2%, for programming for reduction in structural dangers was 43.8%, for evacuation and field treatment was 49.5%, and average score for hospital educational planning to deal with disasters was 42.2%. ANOVA test has shown significant relationship between manager’s awareness and hospital preparedness, (P=0.001). Hence province hospitals with 58.4±15.7% average, attain medium level against disasters. Conclusion: Results indicate that managers require to be trained in confronting disasters and it is essential to retrain managers in all the fields including environmental health activities against disasters reduction in structural dangers and programming for evacuation and field treatment for confronting disasters.

Mohammad Amiri; Gholamreza Mohammadi; Ahmad Khosravi; Reza Chaman; Mohsen Arabi; Elham Sadeghi; Mehrdad Kalatejari

2011-01-01

195

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis e Virus Varies Considerably Among Chinese Provinces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E is a common infection in China, but few studies have been carried out to compare regional and ethnic factors in its prevalence.Objectives: To characterize the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG in the general population of 11 Chinese provinces and in the people from different ethnic minorities.Materials and Methods: Sera from 14208 people including 723 people from four ethnic minorities were screened for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For the anti-HEV IgM positive samples, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out for the detection of HEV RNA.Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 19.7%. The highest rate was 35.7% in Guizhou, while the lowest rate was 5.5% in Shanxi. Significantly higher rates were found among males compared to females in Hebei and Hunan province, and among females compared to males in Chongqing and Shannxi. In Guizhou, the prevalence rates among the Buyi, Miao, Shui and Han ethnic groups were 41.8%, 32.0%, 37.5% and 34.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different. The results also showed that the anti-HEV IgG detection rates increased with age for each ethnic group. Additionally, four samples were tested positive for anti-HEV IgM but HEV RNA was not detectable.Conclusions: HEV prevalence varies considerably among Chinese provinces. Thus, prevention and control programs including vaccination could be specifically targeted to people living in regions with relatively higher prevalences..

Chen Dong; Xing Dai; Jiuhong Liang; Min Dong; Jihong Meng

2012-01-01

196

[Tobacco smoking in small communes of Lodz province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco smoking sill remains a dominating, single and variable risk factor of circulatory system diseases (CSD) morbidity and mortality. The population studies conducted over the last years in Poland makes the monitoring of CSD risk factors, including smoking frequency, possible, however mainly in urban populations. The purpose of the study was to determine the tobacco smoking frequency in rural population of Lodz province depending on such demographic-social features as: sex, age, marital status, education level, professional activity and income. The study, which is a part of the Multi-Center Representative Nationwide Health Survey of Population (WOBASZ), included 324 inhabitants of two randomly chosen, small (up to 8.000 inhabitants) communes in Lodz province - Zloczew and Ostrowek. The tobacco smoking frequency (regular and occasional) in the investigated group was 24.7%, among men--34.7%, among women--16.1%. Women who smoke cigarettes were usually aged under 34 whereas men-smokers were most frequently under 55. Regular smokers smoked on average 14.6 +/- 7.23 cigarettes per day (men constitute significantly larger statistical group than women). The average duration of regular smoking was 21.8 +/- 13.01 years. Persons who had never smoked constituted 62.3% of the investigated group (50.0% of men and 73.0% of women). Among the inhabitants of small communes of Lodz province, persons with a low level of education (vocational education) and higher (or incomplete university) education smoked most frequently. In the latter education-level category, only a small group of men smoked (0.15) and as many as ? of women. No statistically characteristic dependence between tobacco smoking and professional activity, education level, marital status or month income was found (although men-smokers were most frequently unemployed and least frequently farmers).

Suwa?a M; Drygas W; Gwizda?a K

2009-01-01

197

QUALITY AND QUANTITY SURVEY OF HOSPITAL WASTEWATERS IN HORMOZGAN PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hospital wastewaters are one of the most contaminating wastewaters and need to be paid more attention due to containing infectious agents. In this study, which had been conducted in a period of one year, 7 public hospitals were selected out of 12 public hospitals in Hormozgan Province of Iran. For studying quality of wastewater in hospitals, both influent and effluent wastewaters of treatment plant, if any, were sampled once in each season and totally 30 mixed samples were obtained. In order to determine the quality of hospital wastewaters in all samples, parameters such as pH, BOD5, COD, TSS and temperature were measured. Results of investigation on annual water consumption indicated that average water consumption in hospitals of the province was 194m3/d., considering water-to-wastewater conversion ratio of 0.8 and green yard ratio of 0.3. Wastewater production rate had been estimated to be 47m3/d and 0.362 m3/d.bed. Results indicated that in 7 hospitals of Hormozgan province, mean values of BOD5 ,COD ,TSS in raw wastewater were 242.25 mg/L, 628.1 mg/L and 231.25 mg/L, respectively, pH=7.42 and temperature=30.17 ºC. In Khalij-e-Fars hospital which had wastewater treatment plant, values of these parameters in effluent were 12.53 mg/L and 51.7 mg/L, 19.68 mg/L, respectively, with pH=7.39 and temperature=26.1 ºC. Comparison between values of influent and effluent wastewaters indicated that in understudy cases, contamination rate was higher than determined limits, as compared to environmental standards of the country and it was necessary to establish appropriate treatment plants in these units.

Sh. Sarafraz, M. R. Khani, K. Yaghmaeian

2007-01-01

198

Estimating the Efficiency of Apple Producers in Khorasan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, efficiency of apple producers in Khorasan Province was determined by a cross sectional data of 212 apple producers. Mean technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies were estimated to be around 31, 28, and 9 percent, respectively. A high potential was also detected for increasing these efficiencies. Apple producers’ age and education had positive effects and risk aversion had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Waste reduction, optimal use of inputs, introduction of technical-extension services, and apple insurance are suggested to increase efficiencies.

S. Dehghanian; M. Ghorbani

2003-01-01

199

Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province). This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD), hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG).Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements) being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.How to cite this article: Van Deventer C, Couper I, Sondzaba N. Chronic Patient Care at North West Province Clinics. Afr J Prm Health Care & Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #8, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.8

Claire van Deventer; Ian Couper; Nontsikelelo Sondzaba

2009-01-01

200

Spatial Evolution of Industrial Structure in Hebei Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study contributes to empirical literature concerning the spatial evolution of industrial structure. We use the GIS technology and the deviation range method to analyze the spatial evolution of industrial structure in 11 cities in Hebei province in the year 2002 and 2010. Our empirical analysis indicates four major problems: the industrial layout is too concentrated, the optimization of industrial structure is relatively low, the industrial structure is similar and diseconomies of scale and the industrial structure are similar and diseconomies of scale. Then we give specific recommendations to the above problems. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice and indicate avenues for future research.

Dongchu Cui; Yue Yu; Zhijie Song

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Surveying black pine plantations in the province of Rieti (Italy)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last century large afforestation programs were carried out in the Apennines to recover degraded lands, mainly by Pinus nigra plantations. Currently, many Authors have proposed management guidelines to foster the naturalization of such woodlands. However, such an option requires the availability of detailed surveys. The aim of this note is to propose a survey protocol for qualifying the landscape pattern of pine reafforestations and for mapping their growing stock on the basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) techniques. A case study application by Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery is here reported concerning the Pinus nigra plantations in the province of Rieti (Central Italy).

Andrea Lamonaca; Paolo Calvani; Diego Giuliarelli; Piermaria Corona

2008-01-01

202

Study of Donghe sapropelic coal in Pu County, Shanxi Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Donghe sapropelic coal from Pu County, Shanxi Province, is composed of boghead and cannel boghead coal. Alginite is densely distributed throughout the coal and it can be compared to some typical sapropelic coals abroad. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the chemical and geological studies carried out on this coal. The seam profile typifies marshification of a water body, and consists of sapropelic coal, oil shale, and humic coal. Changes in the atomic ratio of H/C and O/C represent the rank of Sapropelic coal and its interrelation with humic coal. Also it is not feasible to extract alginite from liptinite (exinite). 9 references

Li Tairen

1983-01-01

203

Pathogenic Fungi from the Weeds in Field in Guangdong Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twelve species of pathogenic fungi from the weeds in field in Guangdong province were found and described. They were Nimbya alternantherae from Alternanthera philoxeroides, Piricularia grisea from Digitaria adscendens, Pseudocercospora oxalidis from Oxalis corymbosa, P. oenotherae from Ludwigia prostrota, P. avicularis from Polygonum hydropiper, Cercospora beticola from Chenopodium ambrosioides, Septoria centellae from Centella asiatica, Sporisorium lepturi from Hemarthria compressa, Uromyces alopecuri from Alopecurus aequalis, Puccinia paspalina from Paspalum conjugatum, Physalospora commelinae from Commelina nudiflora, and Albugo bliti from Alternanthera sessilis. Among them, N. alternantherae, P. oxalidis, C. beticola and U. alopecuri could be potential mycoherbicides in future.

Xiang Meimei

2002-01-01

204

Paleomagnetic study of Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measured direction of the stable remanence of Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, is D = 355.8 deg., I = 47.1 deg. According to the axial geocentre dipole model, the paleolatitude there during Miocene was 28.3 deg. N. The corrected value based on far-sided effect is 32.4 deg. N. The uncorrected and corrected pole positions were (81.0 deg. N, 323.1 deg. E) and (84.6 deg. N, 339.7 deg. E) separately. Comparing them with paleo-flora shows that the corrected value of paleolatitude is probably reasonable. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

1989-01-01

205

Malaria control and fever management in Henan Province, China, 1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

Henan Province, which once had the highest malaria prevalence in China, had only 318 reported cases in 1992. Our purpose was to investigate this late 'consolidation phase' of malaria control in Henan with reference to malaria surveillance. We conducted a questionnaire survey of village doctors in Shang Shi Qiao Township during the transmission period of 1992. Of the 732 recorded fever cases, 16 were probable malaria cases by clinical and treatment response criteria, but only one received a full course of antimalarials. Of the 732 patients, 61% had fever every day, 37% went for treatment the first day, 52% waited 2-3 days and 10% waited longer. One hundred and twenty-eight patients took self-medication before seeing the doctor. Blood examination was carried out in 526 (71%) fever cases but only four were positive, all for Plasmodium vivax. Our findings highlight problems relating to patient behaviour and motivation of village doctors, malaria treatment, surveillance and microscopy, rural migration, economic development and malaria transmission. All need to be considered for reforming the malaria control strategy in Henan Province. PMID:8673815

Liu, X; Jackson, S; Song, J; Sleigh, A C

1996-02-01

206

Malaria control and fever management in Henan Province, China, 1992.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Henan Province, which once had the highest malaria prevalence in China, had only 318 reported cases in 1992. Our purpose was to investigate this late 'consolidation phase' of malaria control in Henan with reference to malaria surveillance. We conducted a questionnaire survey of village doctors in Shang Shi Qiao Township during the transmission period of 1992. Of the 732 recorded fever cases, 16 were probable malaria cases by clinical and treatment response criteria, but only one received a full course of antimalarials. Of the 732 patients, 61% had fever every day, 37% went for treatment the first day, 52% waited 2-3 days and 10% waited longer. One hundred and twenty-eight patients took self-medication before seeing the doctor. Blood examination was carried out in 526 (71%) fever cases but only four were positive, all for Plasmodium vivax. Our findings highlight problems relating to patient behaviour and motivation of village doctors, malaria treatment, surveillance and microscopy, rural migration, economic development and malaria transmission. All need to be considered for reforming the malaria control strategy in Henan Province.

Liu X; Jackson S; Song J; Sleigh AC

1996-02-01

207

Economic Analysis of Production of Greenhouse Products in Kerman Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kerman province is the largest producer of greenhouse cucumber and tomato in Iran. This paper calculates the interest rate of return (IRR) and return period of investment (RPI) in vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse and compares them with vegetable grown outdoors. To do the study, a random sample of 309 farmers was selected in the province of Kerman in 2005. Results showed that IRR for vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse was about 20, 14 and 23 respectively, and it was 45/8 percentage per year for vegetable outdoors. RPI for vegetable, cut flowers and strawberry in greenhouse was about 8, 29, and 7 years, respectively. Vegetables Production under greenhouse produces more employment opportunities, has better yields, higher price and efficient use of factors, but it has lower IRR, higher production cost, higher pesticide residue and is more capital intensive in comparison with outdoor production. Improvement of greenhouse credits, enlargement of metal greenhouses, research on yield and development of greenhouses at region 5 are the important policy-making implications of this paper.

H. Mehrabi Basharabadi

2008-01-01

208

Evaluation of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Fars Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In Iran thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) based neonatal screening program is included in health care services from 2005 for detection of patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This study was performed for a critical evaluation of the screening program primary congenital hypothyroidism in Fars province,Iran.Methods: From November 2006 to September 2007, TSH serum concentrations of 63031 newborns, 3 to 5 days old born in Fars province, were measured by heel prick. The newborns with TSH ?5mIU/L were recalled for measurement of serumT4 and TSH in venous blood samples Findings: Of 127 recalled subjects, 43 were confirmed to be hypothyroid, showing a prevalence of 1:1465 with F:M ratio of 1.05:1. The most common clinical and radiological findings were prolonged jaundice (73%), large anterior fontanel (56%), wide posterior fontanel (55%), absence of distal femoral epiphysis (20%), andumbilical hernia (11%). Scintigraphy of the thyroid with 99mTC revealed eutopia (67.4%), hypoplasia (23.3%),agenesis (4.7%) and ectopia (2.3%).Conclusion: It is concluded that a cut off value of TSH?5mIU/L overestimates recalling the number of patientswith CH. The most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is not dysgenesis of the gland and perhaps dyshormonogenesis in Iran is more common than what is reported in other countries.

Zohreh Karamizadeh; Hedyeh Saneifard; Golmhossein Amirhakimi; Hamdollah Karamifar; Mehrsadat Alavi

2012-01-01

209

PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF WELLS DRINKING WATER IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Direct method and Gram staining procedure were used to identify the parasites. If cryptosporidium was seen, floatation (sheather’s sugar) and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method were performed. Parasites count was undertaken using McMaster counting slide (0.3 mL). 197 out of 989 water samples were contaminated with different parasites. From 197 contaminated samples, 20 different types of parasites were separated of which 53 (26.9%) were pathogenic, 100 (50.8%) non pathogenic, and 44 non-infective stages of parasites. Distance between wells and sources of contamination, type of water distribution systems, city and chlorination status had significantly statistical relationship with contamination prevalence (p<0.001). According to the results and considering the direct correlation between safe water and human health, proper implementation of providing hygienic drinking water should be enforced.

Z. Yousefi ? H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ? A. A. Enayati ? R. A. Mohammadpoor

2009-01-01

210

An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 ?g/kg) to 4946 ?g/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.How to cite this article: Arnot LF, Duncan NM, Coetzer H, Botha CJ. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Jl S Afr vet Ass. 2012;83(1), Art. #2, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v83i1.2

Luke F. Arnot; Neil M. Duncan; Heleen Coetzer; Christo J. Botha

2012-01-01

211

[Esophageal cancer morbidity of the population of Guryev Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on a statistical analysis of 1296 cases of esophageal cancer for the period of 1970--1972, there was noted an irregular incidence of this lesion in the Gur'evsk Province administrative districts: high rates of esophageal cancer incidence (from 129,0 +/- 3,9 to 154,3 +/- 3,6 cases per 100,000 of population) were found in Balkashinsk, Kzyl-Kugisnk, Makatsk, Embinsk districts and the Shevchenko Fort. As a whole, the rate of esophageal cancer incidence in the Province remains as high as before, being 79,4 +/- 6,2 for males and 90,5 +/- 4,0 for females, the standardized indices--126,6 +/- 1,4 and 112,7 +/- 6,2 accordingly per 100,000 of population of the corresponding sex group. Esophageal cancer most frequently affected persons of both sex aged 50 and over, but especially high rates were noted in persons aged 60 and over. With regard to the ethnic factor esophageal cancer is observed in Kazakhs 5 times as frequently as in Russians and 9.5 times as in other nationalities.

Ka?rakbaev MK; Nasipov SN

1980-01-01

212

Parasitic Infections of Free –Range Chickens from Golestan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and species of internal and external parasites of native fowls from Golestan Province, north of Iran. "nMethods: During 2007, different organs of 26 and 24  adult female native fowls  collected   from hu­mid parts (Gorgan, Kord Kooy, Ramian and Bandar Gaz) and dry regions  (Gonbad Kavoos, and Ban­dar Torkaman) of Golestan Province,  respectively were searched for parasite. Two blood smears taken from each bird were stained with Geimsa. External parasites and nematodes were preserved in 70 % alcohol containing 5% glycerin. Cestodes were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine acid for further studies. "nResults: Fifteen species of parasites were collected from alimentary canals, lungs, feathers and subcu­ta­neous nodules as follows: Alimentary canal: Ascaridia galli (56%), Heterakis gallinarum (24%), Capil­laria anatis (4%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (4%), Raillietina tetragona (58%), R. echinobothrida (6%), and Choanotaenia infundibulum (8%); Lungs: Syngamus trachea (16%); Feathers: Monopon gallinae (40%), Menacanthus stramineus (40%), Liperus caponis (32%), Goniodes dissimilis (38%), Cuclogaster heterographus (8%), Dermanissus gallinae (20%) and subcutaneous nodules: Lami­nosioptes cysticola (6%). "nConclusion: The frequency distribution of most species was low. L. cysticola is the first host and distri­bution record for Iran

A Eslami; P Ghaemi; S Rahbari

2009-01-01

213

Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran.Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated.Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%.Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.

Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Narges Moslemizadeh; Sepideh Peivandi; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee

2011-01-01

214

[Dietary patterns of Chinese adults in nine provinces].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine and characterize the dietary patterns of Chinese adults in nine provinces. METHODS: The subjects were selected from the 'China Health and Nutrition Survey' within age group of 18 - 70 years old in 2009. 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect information on food intake. RESULTS: Major dietary patterns of Chinese adults in nine provinces were labeled "rice/pork" in both men and women while "fruit/egg", "beef, mutton/poultry"and "ethnic food/legumes" in men and "fruit/milk", "tubers/grains" in women. Urban or rural life style and related characteristics of the population showed an influence on the dietary pattern (men: ? = -0.153 24, -0.153 24, 0.376 62, 0.148 10, P < 0.01; women: ? = -0.139 43, 0.222 00, -0.308 36, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The dietary patterns of Chinese adults varied by sex and "Rice/Pork" had been the typical dietary pattern among the Chinese adults.

Zhang JG; Zhang B; Wang HJ; Wang ZH; Du WW; Su C; Zhang J; Zhai FY

2013-01-01

215

Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications.

Alper OM; Erengin H; Manguo?lu AE; Bilgen T; Cetin Z; Dedeo?lu N; Lüleci G

2004-04-01

216

PHYSIC NUT ( JATROPHA CURCAS L.) DISEASES IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensifi ed cultivation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) could raise the importance of plant diseases. h e objectives of this research were to diagnose diseases occurring on physic nut in Lampung Province and to determine their intensity. Field observation was conducted in four districts: South Lampung, Tanggamus, Bandarlampung, and Tulang Bawang. Disease intensity, whether expressed as disease incidence or severity, was recorded from plant samples determined by making diagonal lines across the fi eld on which fi ve observation spots were made. On each spot, fi ve plant samples were observed. Specimens were also collected and placed individually in plastic bags for laboratory observation. h e diseases found on physic nut in Lampung Province were cercospora leaf spot, alternaria leaf spot, fusarium wilt, and bacterial wilt. In addition, leaf malformation fi rst thought to be viral disease was commonly found in many locations. Further mechanical transmission failed to produce similar symptom on tested plants and higher population of mites were found on malformed leaves than that in normal leaves. Based on the disease distribution and intensity, the most likely threatening disease in physic nut cultivation is bacterial wilt. Fusarium also caused wilt, but it was only found in one subdistrict with low incidence.

CIPTA GINTING; TRI MARYONO

2009-01-01

217

Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight (LBW) has an important role in the mortality and morbidity of neonates and the incidence of LBW may vary across different environments. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and some related factors of LBW in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal study, all live births that were born in 5 maternity hospitals in Mazandaran province, north of Iran in 2011, were evaluated. Data including birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, living location, number of pregnancy and delivery, as well as multiple births were recorded in medical files. LBW neonates were compared with neonates whose birth weight was more than 2,500 gram (control group).Results: Out of 3792 infants, 2.9% (CI 95%: 2.3-3.3) were of low birth weight. Sixty percent of the infants in the LBW group and 8.3% in the control group were preterm, (p0.05).Conclusion: Results show that the incidence of LBW in Mazandaran was low and prevention of preterm labor, educational intervention programs for high risk can be effective in the prevention of low birth weight.

Mohammad Khorshidi; Peyvand Nooshirvanpour; Siamak Najafi

2013-01-01

218

Incidence of low birth weight in mazandaran province, northern iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Low Birth Weight (LBW) has an important role in the mortality and morbidity of neonates and the incidence of LBW may vary across different environments. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and some related factors of LBW in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, all live births that were born in 5 maternity hospitals in Mazandaran province, north of Iran in 2011, were evaluated. Data including birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, living location, number of pregnancy and delivery, as well as multiple births were recorded in medical files. LBW neonates were compared with neonates whose birth weight was more than 2,500 gram (control group). RESULTS: Out of 3792 infants, 2.9% (CI 95%: 2.3-3.3) were of low birth weight. Sixty percent of the infants in the LBW group and 8.3% in the control group were preterm, (p<0.001). In the LBW group, 22.2% were multiple births, while 0.5% in control group were multiple births (p<0.001), but other variable distributions such as sex, living location and mother's age did not differ between the LBW and the control groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Results show that the incidence of LBW in Mazandaran was low and prevention of preterm labor, educational intervention programs for high risk can be effective in the prevention of low birth weight.

Khorshidi M; Nooshirvanpour P; Najafi S

2013-01-01

219

Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran. METHODS: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites. RESULTS: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%. CONCLUSION: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

Kamranrashani B; Kia E; Mobedi I; Mohebali M; Zarei Z; Mowlavi G; Hajjaran H; Abai M; Sharifdini M; Kakooei Z; Mirjalali H; Charedar S

2013-01-01

220

Province Based Design and Simulation of Indonesian Education Grid Topology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and simulation of an e-learning computer network topology, based on Grid computing technology, for Indonesian schools called the Indonesian Education Grid (IndoEdu-Grid). The grid technology proposed to solve infrastructure problems faced by Indonesian ICT Network (Jardiknas). In previous study, we designed the topology which based on two scenarios: region based and island based topology. Each scenario run in the simulator using two packet scheduling algorithms, one will be FIFO (First In First Out) Scheduler and the other SCFQ (Self-Clocked Fair Queuing) Scheduler. In this paper we proposed a different scenario which based on province. The simulation treatments are the same with the two previous scenarios. The simulation results showed that when using FIFO algorithm, the province based scenario has the best performance compared to Region Based and Island Based. However, this scenario is not competitive with the others when using SCFQ algorithm which is due to higher packet lifetime.

Heru Suhartanto; Ivo B. Nurgoho; Anisa Herdiani

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed samples in Burdur Province, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of total aflatoxin (AF), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin (FB) in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds. A total of 180 dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds (60 samples each) were randomly collected from farms, feed mills, and villages in Burdur province, between September 2006 and August 2007. All samples were analyzed by the competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The most frequent mycotoxin detected was total AF, which was found in 108 samples (60 %) in concentrations ranging from 3.82 to 116.83 ?g?kg(-1), followed by DON that was detected in 87 samples (48.3 %), in concentrations ranging from 18.50 to 500 ?g?kg(-1). Ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, ZEA, and FB were found in 84 (46.7 %), 85 (47.2 %), 57 (31.7 %), and 19 (10.6 %) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 1.01 to 15.85 ?g?kg(-1) for OTA, 3.85 to 52.36 ?g?kg(-1) for T-2 toxin, 2.10 to 29.30 ?g?kg(-1) for ZEA, and 2.69 to 4.96 mg?kg(-1) for FB. It was concluded that feed samples in Burdur province were contaminated by mycotoxins, and the levels of total aflatoxin in the samples were considered a risk to animal health.

Kocasari FS; Mor F; Oguz MN; Oguz FK

2013-06-01

222

Evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism in fars province, iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In Iran thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) based neonatal screening program is included in health care services from 2005 for detection of patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This study was performed for a critical evaluation of the screening program primary congenital hypothyroidism in Fars province, Iran. METHODS: From November 2006 to September 2007, TSH serum concentrations of 63031 newborns, 3 to 5 days old born in Fars province, were measured by heel prick. The newborns with TSH ?5mIU/L were recalled for measurement of serumT(4) and TSH in venous blood samples FINDINGS: Of 127 recalled subjects, 43 were confirmed to be hypothyroid, showing a prevalence of 1:1465 with F:M ratio of 1.05:1. The most common clinical and radiological findings were prolonged jaundice (73%), large anterior fontanel (56%), wide posterior fontanel (55%), absence of distal femoral epiphysis (20%), and umbilical hernia (11%). Scintigraphy of the thyroid with (99m)TC revealed eutopia (67.4%), hypoplasia (23.3%), agenesis (4.7%) and ectopia (2.3%). CONCLUSION: It is concluded that a cut off value of TSH?5mIU/L overestimates recalling the number of patients with CH. The most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is not dysgenesis of the gland and perhaps dyshormonogenesis in Iran is more common than what is reported in other countries.

Karamizadeh Z; Saneifard H; Amirhakimi G; Karamifar H; Alavi M

2012-03-01

223

Species composition of alien invasive plants in Heilongjiang Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of alien invasive plant species in Heilongjiang Province has increased in recent years due to frequent economic and cultural exchanges with the outside world. To understand the current status of invasive plants, we carried out field surveys for invasive plant species between June 2008 and October 2010. Integrating field and literature data, we compiled a checklist of 41 species of alien invasive plants from 35 genera and 17 families found in this region. Of them, 39 species (95.1%) are herbs. Compositae contains the largest number of species, i.e.12 species (29.3%). Further analysis showed that 22 species (53.7%) have a geographical origin in the Americas, and 14 species (34.2%) in Europe. In relation to introduction pathways, 40 species (97.6%) were intentionally or unintentionally introduced. Floristic analysis of the genera showed that the temperate element, containing 17 genera (68.0%), dominated among nine areal-types. Finally, we discuss the management, monitoring and control of these invasive species and suggest that a specific risk as-sessment system should be used in Heilongjiang Province.

Baojiang Zheng; Lei Pan

2012-01-01

224

A short history of nuclear activities in Mendoza province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium was found in Mendoza in 1946 in 'Soberania' and 'Independencia' mines. After its creation in 1950 CNEA, together with Cuyo National University (UNC), developed the mining industry starting with the 'Papagayos' mine. It can be considered the beginning of the systematic exploitation of uranium in the country. In course of time the province of Mendoza passed to get one of the most uraniferous reserve of Argentina and it has accumulated the major production till now. However, in the last years there has been opposition to resume the production in the Sierra Pintada Uranium Manufacturing Complex. There was also a powerful land continuous progress in the field of no energetic applications of nuclear techniques in the province. The most outstanding example is the 'School of Nuclear Medicine Foundation', with installations in Mendoza city and in San Rafael. Besides, there is a research and development group in Cuyo National University devoted to the Nuclear Safety. Finally, we can not fail to mention the Auger Pierre Project, which is building in Malargue an observatory for the study of the cosmic rays. (author)

2005-01-01

225

Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys Opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tap­peh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotae­nia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.Conclusion: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nema­tode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

B Kamranrashani; EB Kia; I Mobedi; M Mohebali; Z Zarei; Gh Mowlavi; H Hajjaran; MR Abai; M Sharifdini; Z Kakooei; H Mirjalali; S Charedar

2013-01-01

226

Malaria incidence in Limpopo Province, South Africa, 1998–2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the low-altitude areas of the northern and eastern parts of South Africa with seasonal transmission. The aim of this descriptive study is to give an overview of the malaria incidence and mortality in Limpopo Province for the seasons 1998–1999 to 2006–2007 and to detect trends over time and place. Methods Routinely collected data on diagnosed malaria cases and deaths were available through the provincial malaria information system. In order to calculate incidence rates, population estimates (by sex, age and district) were obtained from Statistics South Africa. The Chi squared test for trend was used to detect temporal trends in malaria incidence over the seasons, and a trend in case fatality rate (CFR) by age group. The Chi squared test was used to calculate differences in incidence rate and CFR between both sexes and in incidence by age group. Results In total, 58,768 cases of malaria were reported, including 628 deaths. The mean incidence rate was 124.5 per 100,000 person-years and the mean CFR 1.1% per season. There was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate over time (p Conclusion Information from this study may serve as baseline data to determine the course and distribution of malaria in Limpopo province over time. In the study period there was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Furthermore, the study addresses the need for better data over a range of epidemic-prone settings.

Gerritsen Annette AM; Kruger Philip; van der Loeff Maarten; Grobusch Martin P

2008-01-01

227

Cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The burden of cancer affects all countries; while high-income countries have the capacity and resources to establish comprehensive cancer control programs, low and middle-income countries have limited resources to develop such programs. This paper examines factors associated with the development of cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey. It looks at the progress made by these registries, the challenges they faced, and the lessons learned. Other countries with similar resources can benefit from the lessons identified in this case study. METHODS: A mix of qualitative case study methods including key informant interviews, document review and questionnaires was used. RESULTS: This case study showed that surveillance systems that accurately report current cancer-related data are essential components of a country's comprehensive cancer control program. At the initial stages, Turkey established one cancer registry with international support, which was used as a model for other registries. The Ministry of Health recognized the value of the registry data and its contribution to the country's cancer control program and is supporting sustainability of these registries as a result. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates how Turkey was able to use resources from multiple sources to enhance its population based cancer registry system in four provinces. With renewed international interest in non-communicable diseases and cancer following the 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs, low- and middle- income countries can benefit from Turkey's experience. Other countries can utilize lessons learned from Turkey as they address cancer burden and establish their own registries.

Stillman FA; Kaufman MR; Kibria N; Eser S; Spires M; Pustu Y

2012-01-01

228

Planting dates zoning of safflower varieties in Esfahan province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionTiming coincidence of plant growth and development to suitable climatic conditions is on of the main factor for spring safflower increasing yield. Thus determining and zoning of safflower planting dates is very important. The highest planted area of spring safflower is belonged to Esfahan province. Delay in planting of spring safflower cause faster development, earlier flowering and lower photosynthetic area and these consequently lower yield and yield components. 2- MethodologySpring safflower is an irrigated crop in Esfahan province. For safflower planting dates zoning, thermal data from 1961-2009 were used. These data obtained from 51 synoptic and climatic stations that located in and near of Esfahan province. Because of low density of station especially in east and north east of province, by using the daily mean temperature of these stations interpolation was done by kriging method with surfer software. Cluster analysis on temperature map cells was done by Ward’s method. Thus Esfahan divided to three temperature zones, 1(cold), 2(moderate) and 3(warm). Interpolation was done with Radial Basis Function with Completely Regularized Spline method. Start planting in warm, temperate and cold, respectively, with the average temperature day and night to 7, 9 and 12 degrees Celsius and minimum temperature of zero degrees Celsius higher were considered. For determining of suitable planting dates of spring safflower in different parts of Esfahan province 15-day average daily temperature and minimum temperature from January to October were calculated and maps were drawn by GIS.3- DiscussionBased on results in the first thermal zone, includes east and north parts of province, suitable planting dates are from January to March 6. In the second thermal zone, includes south eastern and central parts of province, suitable planting dates are from March 7 to April 4. In the third thermal zone, includes other parts of province, suitable planting dates are from April 5 to May 21.4- Conclusion By considering of thermal requirements of safflower if the crop cultivated in suitable planting date, it shall not face to limited temperature.Key words: safflower, planting date, temperature, zoning ReferencesAckerman, S. A. and Knox, J. A. (2007), Meteorology, Understanding the Atmosphere. 2th-ed., Thomson Brooks. Chao, M. H. and Tae, R. H. (2000), Purification and characterization of precarthamin decarboxylase from the yellow of Carthamus tinctorius L. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 382:238-244.Dadashi, N. and Khajehpour, M. R. (2004), Effects of temperature and day length on developmental stages of safflower genotypes under field conditions, J. Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour, 7:83-102.Elias, S., Basil, S. and Kafka, R. (2002), Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctoruios L.) to saline soils and irrigation: I. Consumptive water use, Agricultural Water Management, 54, 67-80.Emami, T., Naseri,, R., Falahi, H. and Kazemi, E. (2011), Response of yield, yield component and oil content of safflower (cv Sina) to planting date and plant spacing on row in rainfed conditions of western Iran, American Eurasian J. Agric & Environ. Sci., 10(10):947-953.Froozan, k. (2005), Safflower production in Iran (past, now, future), (2005), pp 255-257.paper presented at the Sixth International Safflower Conference, June 6-10. 2005. Istanbul, Turkey.Jajarmi, V., Azizi, M., Shadlu, A. and Omidi Tabrizi, A.H. (2009),The effect of density, variety and planting date on yield and yield components of safflower. 2009. pp.235-241. paper presented at the 7th International Safflowr Conference. June10-14. 2009. Wagga Australia.khajehpour, M. R. (2004), Industrial crops, Isfahan, Iran, Jehad of Isfahan Uni.TechMohamadzadeh, M., Siadat, S.A.., Norof, M.S. and Naseri, R. (2011), The effects of planting date and row spacing on rain fed conditions. American-Erasian J. Agric and Enviro. Sci.,10(2):200-206.Montazeri, M.(2005), An analysis of tempo-spatial variation of temperature in Iran during the last half century, Is

T. Yasari; J. Khoshhal; M.R. Shahsavari

2013-01-01

229

Les entreprises de droit privé de la Province de Liège : un panorama financier Private firms in the Province of Liège : a financial overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This short paper presents the main findings from a broader study dedicated to the study of the financial structure proposed by firms from the Province of Liège in the mid-2000s , Gagner et réussir, 18 avril 2008

Van Caillie, Didier

230

Geochronological and chemical surveys of Maracau subvolcanic province - Folha de Santa Quiteria (CE, in Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The regional geology and geochronological and chemical characteristics of Maracau-CE, in Brazil, subvolcanic province are described. The Brazilian ages of implantation and regional geology are discussed together with the chemical constitution of various lithologic types: the origin and correlation with other subvolcanic provinces in Ceara State are considered. (Author)

1986-01-01

231

An Empirical Study of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Sichuan Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The empirical Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) literature is colorful but far from conclusive. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis (EKC) confirms an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and per capita income. Many authors have analyzed the existence of an EKC for various pollutants. Others have used the EKC framework to identify country characteristics that help to explain the income–environment relationship. But for a local area, such as a province, studies are rare indeed. In this framework, based on the GDP per capita and emissions of industrial waste from 1985 to 2010 in Sichuan Province, China, the relationship is analyzed using regression between economic development and environment in Sichuan Province. Our evidence suggests that there exists a U-shaped or an inverted N-shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic development in Sichuan Province, that is to say, the environmental Kuznets hypothesis is invalid in Sichuan Province. There are two possible reasons for this conclusion: firstly, KEC curve will not appear at any level of the economic development in Sichuan Province; secondly, the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Sichuan Province exists objectively, but the economic development in Sichuan Province at current stage is not sufficient enough to promote the appearance of KEC curve. However, more attention must be paid to the relation between environmental pollution and per capita income and appropriate environmental policies are required.

Chuanqi Fan; Xiaojun Zheng

2013-01-01

232

Armillaria root rot in the Canadian prairie provinces. Information report No. -X-329  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Armillaria root rot is one of the most important diseases of forest trees in the prairie provinces of Canada. Information on symptoms, detection, and damage caused by the disease is given. The Armillaria species in the prairie provinces, their geographic distribution and host range is discussed. Means of spread and control of the disease are described.

Mallet, K.I.

1992-01-01

233

New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Neuquen and La Rioja provinces, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

Grech M; Visintin A; Laurito M; Estallo E; Lorenzo P; Roccia I; Korin M; Goya F; Ludueña-Almeida F; Almirón W

2012-04-01

234

Analysis of Income Urban-Rural Gap of Guizhou Province in the Condition of Dualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is to analyze the income gap urban-rural income of Guizhou province from 1995 to 2009 by applying the principal component and regression analysis and the ratio of disposable income of urban residents and the net income of the rural residents as a measuring indicator.Key words: Dualization; Urban-rural income gap; Impact; Analysis; Guizhou Province

Yun LONG; Qian DAI

2011-01-01

235

Geothermal energy in the Dutch province Noord-Holland. Survey of sites for geothermal energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Province of North Holland, the Netherlands, commissioned an outlook on the opportunities for geothermal energy in North Holland. The outlook addresses both the opportunities offered underground and possible locations for heat sales that follow from the regional plans of the province.

2008-01-01

236

The Effect of Seasonal Variation on the Composition of Cow Milk in Van Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research was performed to investigate the effects of seasonal variation on changing of cow milk components in Van province. A total of 160 cow milk samples were collected and examined from January to August of 2001. These were obtained from 12 different local points of the Van province in Tu...

Elvan Ozrenk; Sebnem Selcuk Inci

237

Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province  

Science.gov (United States)

Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

Mollet, Julius Ary

2007-01-01

238

Problems and Solution on the New-type Rural Endowment Insurance in Hebei Province of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Paper based on the statistical and research data, analysis the present situation of new-type rural endowment insurance in Hebei province of China, proposed countermeasures to improve the operation mechanism, promote the development of new rural endowment insurance in Hebei province, improving social welfare and happiness, conducive to the harmonious development of society.

Yanfang Gu; Hongbo Duan; Abdul Razak bin Chik

2011-01-01

239

Genetic attributes of 15 autosomal STRs in the population of two patagonian provinces of Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the PowerPlex 16 kit (Promega Corp., Madison, WI, USA) were obtained from a sample set of unrelated individuals inhabiting Rio Negro (N=593) and Chubut (N=320) provinces of the Argentinean Patagonia. Comparative analyses between our population data and other Patagonian Province (Neuquen) are presented.

Marino M; Sala A; Corach D

2006-06-01

240

Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Daily rainfall over the Gauteng Province, South Africa, was analysed for the summer months of October to March using 32-yr (1977 to 2009) daily rainfall data from about 70 South African Weather Service stations. The monthly and seasonal variation of heavy rainfall occurrences was also analysed. Three 24-h heavy rainfall classes are defined considering the area-average rainfall. A significant rainfall event is defined when the average rainfall exceeds 10 mm, a heavy rainfa (more) ll event when the average rainfall exceeds 15 mm and a very heavy rainfall event when the average rainfall exceeds 25 mm. January months have the highest monthly average rainfall as well as the highest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The month with the second-highest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days is February followed by March and October. December has the second-highest monthly average rainfall and the most days with rain. However, it is also the month with the lowest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The highest 24-h rainfall recorded at a single station during the 32-yr period was 300 mm in December 2006. However, rainfall exceeding 115 mm at a single rainfall station in the Gauteng Province is very rare and does not occur every year. January months receive these events more than any other month but this only transpires in approximately a third of years. The central and north-western parts of the Province experience the most events where the rainfall at a single station surpasses 75 and 115 mm. With regard to seasonal rainfall, the 1995/96 summer rainfall season had the highest seasonal rainfall during this 32-yr period followed by the 1999/2000 season. The 1995/96 season had above normal rainfall in both early and late summer but the 1999/2000 season was dry in early summer and very wet in late summer. Significantly high seasonal rainfall is associated with above-normal rainfall in late summer.

Dyson, Liesl L

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Vegetation of Doi Tung, Chiang Rai Province, Northern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The climate of Doi Tung, Chiang Rai Province, is monsoonal with three distinctseasons, viz. cool-dry, hot-dry, and rainy. The elevation ranges from c. 350-1525m and mostof the bedrock is limestone and granite. Vegetation below c. 1000m is mostly deciduous,while above this it is evergreen. A mixed evergreen + deciduous facies is present on thelimestone peaks (up to 1425m). Forest destruction as well as settlements are widespread,thus creating increasingly severe problems with water resources, soil quality and stability, andbiodiversity. The planting on pine monocultures in deforested areas 20 years ago in uplandgranite areas has resulted in much environmental degradation which requires immediaterectification.

J. F. Maxwell

2007-01-01

242

"Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%); 25 (2.7%) males and 10 (1.1%) females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1%) and more than 60 (0.3%) years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%), while all blood cultures were negative.

MH Salari

2002-01-01

243

An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak. PMID:23327140

Arnot, Luke F; Duncan, Neil M; Coetzer, Heleen; Botha, Christo J

2012-03-28

244

International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

Andresen MA

2013-05-01

245

Moessbauer studies of impactites from Huamalies province in Huanuco Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is about the X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer studies of three impactite samples denominated PMe-8, PMe-9 and PMe-11 from Huamalies Province in Huanuco Region, Peru. When terrestrial rocks are submitted to pressures higher than 60 GP, the majority is completely melted, forming a kind of glass called impactites. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of quartz as the principal mineralogical phase in all samples. The 57Fe Moessbauer spectra at room temperature of samples PMe-8 and PMe-9 show broadened spectra that were fitted using a distribution model. The most probable field of the magnetic component is 34 T, corresponding to the presence of small particles of goethite, confirmed by the 4.2 K spectrum. For the sample PMe-11, the MS showed the presence of well crystallized hematite.

2005-01-01

246

Some newly recorded plants from Hunan Province of China (VI)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some taxa, including 2 genera, dendrolobium (wight et Arn.) Benth., Phyllodium Desv.and 20 species, Artabotrys hexapetalus (Linn. f.) Bhandari, Cardamine calcicola W. W. Smith., Cardamine griffithii Hook. f. et Thons., Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Hydrangea sargentiana Rehd., Dalbergia stenophylla Prain, Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl., Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv., Vicia chinensis Franch., Impatiens chlorosepala Hand.-Mazz., Rhododendron rupivalleculatum Tam., Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook. et Arn.) Aubr., Osmanthus cooperi Hemsl., Comanthosphace japonica (Miq.) S. Moore, Mananthes austrosinensis (H. S. Lo) C. Y. Wu et C. C. Hu, Amorphophallus kiusianus (Makino) Makino, Anoectochilusu lanceolatus Lindl., Bulbophyllum drymoglossum Maxim. ex Okubo, Cypripedium franchetii E. H. Wilson, Goodyyera viridiflora (Bl.) Bl. and 1 variety, Millettia dielsiana Harms var. heterocarpa (Chun ex T. Chen) Z. Wei are reported as new records in the Hunan Province.

Huang Wenxin; Liu Keming; Cai Xiuzhen; Tian Jianping; Hu Guangwan

2004-01-01

247

An outbreak of bartonellosis in Zamora Chinchipe Province in Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report an outbreak of human bartonellosis in Zamora Chinchipe Province in Ecuador, which occurred in 1995-1996. Nineteen cases were seen, of which 18 presented with classical oroya fever (fever and profound anaemia) and one with verruga peruana; 11 of the cases (58%) had positive blood films containing Bartonella bacilliformis. The houses of cases and neighbouring controls were visited; blood samples for thin films and cultures were collected from members of each house and a questionnaire was administered to investigate possible risk factors for disease transmission. In none of those sampled was B. bacilliformis bacteriologically demonstrable. All case houses were located in isolated areas at the margin of forest and the presence of dead rodents was reported only in case houses (P < 0.05). We suggest that human bartonellosis is a zoonosis with a natural rodent reservoir and that migrant humans infected in this way may become a temporary reservoir host in populated areas.

Cooper P; Guderian R; Orellana P; Sandoval C; Olalla H; Valdez M; Calvopiña M; Guevara A; Griffin G

1997-09-01

248

Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

Chanyut Sudtongkong; Suwat Tanyaros

2012-01-01

249

Study of Donghe sapropelic coal in Pu County, Shanxi Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Donghe sapropelic coal, Pu County, Shanxi Province, is composed of boghead and cannel boghead coal. The structure of alginite is distinctly visible, and densely distributed, and it can be compared to some typical sapropelic coals abroad. Based on the studies of the geological characteristics and coal petrology, chemical properties and infra-red spectra of this coal seam, the author proposes the following view of points: 1) the coal seam profile is a typical example of marshification of the water body, which consists of sapropelic coal, oil shale and humic coal; 2) changes of H/C, O/C atomic ratio can represent fairly well the rank of sapropelic coal itself and its interrelation with humic coal; and 3) it is unsuitable to take alginite out from liptinite (exinite) group.

Tairen, L.

1983-01-01

250

Mathematical modelling and control of echinococcus in Qinghai province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, two mathematical models, the baseline model and the intervention model, are proposed to study the transmission dynamics of echinococcus. A global forward bifurcation completely characterizes the dynamical behavior of the baseline model. That is, when the basic reproductive number is less than one, the disease-free equilibrium is asymptotically globally stable; when the number is greater than one, the endemic equilibrium is asymptotically globally stable. For the intervention model, however, the basic reproduction number alone is not enough to describe the dynamics, particularly for the case where the basic reproductive number is less then one. The emergence of a backward bifurcation enriches the dynamical behavior of the model. Applying these mathematical models to Qinghai Province, China, we found that the infection of echinococcus is in an endemic state. Furthermore, the model appears to be supportive of human interventions in order to change the landscape of echinococcus infection in this region.

Wu L; Song B; Du W; Lou J

2013-04-01

251

CO PARTICIPATION REGIME IN THE PROVINCE OF MISIONES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the mechanism of Co participation between different levels of government in Argentina and seeks, as its central objective, to give an explanation of the failure to find a way to reform the current system since 1988, despite the many project laws presented in the context of the House of Representatives of Misiones. First, one traces the origin of co participation in Misiones and any alterations up to the current scheme was established in 1998. Secondly, a brief analysis of population trends of Misiones to try to show that it is necessary to reform the mechanism for allocating resources for municipalities to later look into the various proposals for reform that took place in the House of Representatives of Misiones, so that finally and as a conclusion and outline brief hypotheses to explain the difficulties to find consensus even with province consensus to achieve change.

José, Garzón Maceda

2011-01-01

252

Drought and dust: A study in Canada's Prairie Provinces  

Science.gov (United States)

The commonly-held belief that there is more dust in the air during periods of drought than during normal precipitation periods has not, to our knowledge, been tested since the advent of comprehensive air quality monitoring programs. This paper reports a study of dust levels in the Canadian Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba) for the severe drought of July 1976 to April 1977. Total Suspended Particle (TSP) data from high-volume air samplers at 26 stations (11 cities) is compared with precipitation and climate records. More extensive data from a sampler in Winnipeg is further analyzed. Snow cover, weekends vs weekdays, and wind are correlated to dust levels. The data confirms that drought and dry periods have higher dust levels, although differences are small.

LaDochy, Steve; Annett, Clarence H.

253

Schistosomahaematobium Control In Khoozestan Province In Iran: Prosperities And Failures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Schistosoma haematobium is a parasite that is carried by freshwater snails and induces gastrointestinal and urinary disease, depending on its species. In Khoozestan, one of the provinces in Iran, schistosomiasis was endemic. This study reports the results of schistosomiasis control in this region. Methods: From 1981 to 2001 nearly 650 villages and 20 cities were under surveillance for S. haematobium. More than 1.5 million urine samples were taken and positive cases were treated. Results: From 1981 to 1990 there were 1158 positive cases; whereas, from 1991 to 2000 only 98 cases were reported and from 2000 to 2001 we could not detect any positive cases. The northwest ofKhoozestan was the most infected area. Conclusion: Schistosoma haematobium can be eradicated provided that anationwide health care project comprising public health education, environment decontamination, case finding, screening, and chemotherapy is designed and held meticulously.

Hayate Mombeni; Alireza Kheradmand

2005-01-01

254

Pollen morphology of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires province (Argentina)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollen morphology and the degree of pollen variability within nine species and two varieties of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) were studied using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxalis pollen grain is generally 3-colpate and the shape is prolate spheroidal, oblate spheroidal or spheroidal. The exine is microreticulate. The brochi are circular to polygonal; brochi sizes decrease near the colpi. The colpus membrane observed in unacetolysed material, is crustate or granular. The colpus length varies within a species; the largest grains are produced in stamens with long filaments and the smallest ones in stamens with short filaments. Four pollen types are distinguished by means of LM, SEM and TEM. They are recognized mostly on the basis of their colpus membrane structure. In conclusion, the morphological similarity among Oxalis species is also reflected in their pollen morphology.

Sonia Rosenfeldt; Beatriz G Galati

2007-01-01

255

Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

Lu ZL; Wang W; Yin WL; Tang HB; Pan Y; Liang X; Liu Q; Xiong Y; Minamoto N; Luo TR

2013-04-01

256

Occurrence of ectoparasites on rodents in Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of ectoparasites on rodents was carried out bimonthly from April 2008 to March 2009 in 3 districts of Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand. A total of 130 rodents comprising 8 species of hosts were captured and examined for ectoparasites. The hosts examined were Bandicota indica, Bandicota savilei, Rattus losea, Rattus rattus, Rattus exulans, Rattus norvegicus, Menetes berdmorei and Tamiops mcclellandii. Ninety-seven ectoparasites were collected: 1 species of tick (Hemaphysalis bandicota), 2 species of mites (Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus), and 1 species of flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) were identified. The infestation rates by ticks, mites and fleas on the rodents were 0.77, 5.38 and 6.15%, respectively. Monitoring the rodent population and their ectoparasites is important for future planning of prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in the area.

Changbunjong T; Weluwanarak T; Chamsai T; Sedwisai P; Ngamloephochit S; Suwanpakdee S; Yongyuttawichai P; Wiratsudakul A; Chaichoun K; Ratanakorn P

2010-11-01

257

Occurrence of ectoparasites on rodents in Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of ectoparasites on rodents was carried out bimonthly from April 2008 to March 2009 in 3 districts of Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand. A total of 130 rodents comprising 8 species of hosts were captured and examined for ectoparasites. The hosts examined were Bandicota indica, Bandicota savilei, Rattus losea, Rattus rattus, Rattus exulans, Rattus norvegicus, Menetes berdmorei and Tamiops mcclellandii. Ninety-seven ectoparasites were collected: 1 species of tick (Hemaphysalis bandicota), 2 species of mites (Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus), and 1 species of flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) were identified. The infestation rates by ticks, mites and fleas on the rodents were 0.77, 5.38 and 6.15%, respectively. Monitoring the rodent population and their ectoparasites is important for future planning of prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in the area. PMID:21329306

Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Chamsai, Tatiyanuch; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Ngamloephochit, Seni; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Yongyuttawichai, Plern; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep

2010-11-01

258

Indoor radon survey in dwellings of the Kars province (Turkey))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Makrofol Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used to study the 222Radon concentration in dwellings of the Kars province in Turkey. Radon measurements were done for 3 months in 87 houses, selected as uniformly distributed in the area as possible. All values were seasonally corrected. In order to define the seasonal correction factors, the readings were taken in 12 homes for a 12-month period. A 1:100.000 scale geologic map of the region, prepared and published by the Inst. of Mineral Research and Exploration (Ankara (Turkey)), was used to present the radon results. Digitising, processing and integrating of the data were performed by using ArcView GIS. The results of the radon measurements in the study area range from 20 to 600 Bq/m3, with 114 Bq/m3 as average value. The results showed that the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure was estimated to be ?5. (authors)

2008-01-01

259

The provinces and carbon pricing : three inconvenient truths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discussed the role that the federal government should play in introducing a carbon price policy in Canada whereby a carbon tax would be instituted to send a price signal to those considering future investment in carbon-intensive energy projects. It focused on bridging the gap between federal and provincial jurisdictions and assessed how various carbon pricing models can play a role in environmental federalism while allowing provinces to remain involved in policy making. Policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems were discussed along with carbon import tariffs and domestic carbon taxes. In a market-based policy on climate change, proceeds of carbon taxes will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article also reviewed tax incentives as well as price signal systems designed to ensure successful climate change adjustments for Canadian enterprises. 1 fig.

Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

2008-12-15

260

Fish Anisakidae Helminthes in KHuzestan Province, South West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish including; Barbus spp, Cyprinus carpio, Liza abu and Aspius vorax have very important role in the economic condition of the rural areas of Khuzestan province. These fish have been consumed as fried or roasted. Inadequately cooked fish, could be served as a source of infection in these communities. For this reasons, 701 fish were trapped from 4 lagoons (Atash, Sobhanieh, Al-hai, Houfel) and transported alive to Ahwaz Health Research Center .Their skin, gills, eyes, muscles, intestine and body cavity were examined carefully. In 54 (7.7%) of fish,.6 cases of Contracaecum sp. (0.85%) and 48 Anisakis sp. (6.8%) were identified belong to helminth family of anisakidae. These results suggested that human anisakiasis could be health hazard in these areas.

A Farahnak; 1I Mobedi; R Tabibi

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Folic Acid Consumption in Fars Province, Southern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Spina bifida and anencephaly are among serious and fatal anomalies in infants that may lead to a 50-70% of reduction in incidence when folic acid is consumed before conception. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 2997 pregnant women were evaluated to determine the level of their knowledge and practice about using folic acid in Fars Province, southern Iran.Results: Eighty percent of pregnant women were familiar with the name of folic acid, 44.7% had the knowledge of its importance during pregnancy, 31.2% and 8% had the knowledge about its effect in reduction of fatal and neurotic anomalies in fetuses, respectively. 86.6% consumed folic acid and 11% used it before awareness of their pregnancy.Conclusion: Regarding the importance of the starting time of folic acid consumption in prevention of neural tube defects, the women should be trained in relation to starting of its consumption before conception.

MR Kadivar; F Moradi; SJ Massumi; R Shenavar

2011-01-01

262

The burden of imported malaria in Gauteng Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the burden of malaria in Gauteng Province, and to identify potential risk factors for severe disease. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective survey of malaria cases diagnosed in hospitals throughout Gauteng from December 2005 to end November 2006. OUTCOME MEASURES: Malaria frequency, severity, and treatment. Results. We identified 1 701 malaria cases; 1 548 (91%) were seen at public sector hospitals and 153 (9%) at private hospitals; 1 149 (68%) patients were male. Median age was 27 years (range 1 month - 89 years). Most (84%) infections were acquired in Mozambique. Disease severity did not differ by age or sex. Patients who were South African-born were more likely to have severe disease (OR=1.43 (1.08 - 1.91)), as were patients who experienced a delay >48 hours between onset of symptoms and diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.98 (1.48 - 2.65)). While most patients appropriately received quinine, only 9% of severe malaria cases received the recommended loading dose. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of malaria in Gauteng was higher than previously reported, emphasising the need to prevent malaria in travellers by correct use of non-drug measures and, when indicated, malaria chemoprophylaxis. Disease severity was increased by delays between onset and treatment and lack of partial immunity. Providers should consult the latest guidelines for treatment of malaria in South Africa, particularly about treatment of severe malaria. A change in drug policy to artemisinin combination therapy for imported uncomplicated malaria in non-malaria risk provinces should be strongly considered.

Weber IB; Baker L; Mnyaluza J; Matjila MJ; Barnes K; Blumberg L

2010-05-01

263

Hydrology of Area 3: Eastern Coal Province, Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Eastern Coal Province is divided into 24 hydrologic reporting areas. The divisions are based upon hydrologic factors, location, size, and mining activity. Hydrologic units (drainage basins) or parts of units are combined to form each area. Area 3 is located in the northern part of the Eastern Coal Province in the lower Allegheny River basin and covers an area of 4077 square miles. Area reports are designed to be useful to mining companies, their consultants, and regulatory authorities by presenting information concerning existing hydrologic conditions and identifying additional sources of hydrologic information. The hydrology of the area is presented in the format of a brief text and accompanying illustration(s) on a single water-resource related topic. A special network was established to collect hydrologic data in coal-bearing areas. Seventy-three monitoring stations (synoptic sites) were established in Area 3. Water samples are collected at these sites two or three times annually. Samples are analyzed for specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, dissolved and total iron, dissolved and total manganese, dissolved sulfate, residue on evaporation, and other properties. Similar samples are collected at six gaging stations 6 to 9 times annually. Streams indicating acid-mine drainage were most common in the Redbank and Blacklick Creek basins, and the Conemaugh and lower Kiskiminetas River basins. Sixteen of the 73 synoptic sites had pH, acidity-alkalinity, total iron, total manganese, and dissolved sulfate which all were indicative of acid-mine drainage. When all synoptic sites in Area 3 were considered, there was a close relationship between specific conductance and dissolved solids. Sampling at other water-quality stations indicated that specific conductance, pH, iron, manganese, and sulfate can show considerable variability from stream to stream, and with time for a single stream. 29 references, 29 figures, 12 tables.

Herb, W.J.; Shaw, L.C.; Brown, D.E.

1981-09-01

264

Malignant Salivary Glands Tumors in Kerman Province: A Retrospective Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant salivary glands tumors (MSGTs) are uncommon cancers. The most common site of these cancers is the parotid gland. Some investigations show these cancers preference for males than females. The majority of MSGTs arise in sixth decade of human life. According to the literature review for the present work, there is a few epidemiological researches about MSGTs in Iran and especially there isn't any study in Kerman province. So the aim of this study was investigation the incidence, sex, age, histological types, and site distribution of MSGTs in the Kerman province during the time period from March 1991 to March 2002.Methods and Materials: Documents and records of 70 patients with MSGTs diagnosed from March 1991 to March 2002 were reviewed. The patients' records were analyzed based on gender, age, location, and histopathological type of the tumor. Data were analyzed by SPSS-13.5 statistical software using t-test, chi-square, and ANOVA tests.Results: During this period of time, 70 cases (43men, 27 women) of MSGTs had been diagnosed. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common cancer (30%) and the parotid was the most affected site (70%). The age range was 10-86 years old with the overall mean age of 50.18 ± 17.97.Discussion: Despite a considerable volume of literatures written about MSGTs in many countries, the incidence of these cancers haven't as yet been thoroughly documented or analyzed in Iran. However, comparison between the findings of this study with the results of other investigations showed a relative consistency.

M.S. Hashemi Pour; R. Zarei; G. Chamani; M. Rad

2007-01-01

265

Peculiarities of sulphur functionalities in the Thracian coal province, Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Thracian coal province in Bulgaria is comprised of three main coal basins, Maritza East, Maritza West and Elhovo, with extremely immature coals (Rr = 0.18-0.21%). These Miocene-Pliocene aged low rank coals (lignites) are characterized by high ash and sulphur contents, and low calorific values. Temperature programmed reduction/oxidation at atmospheric pressure (AP-TPR/TPO), coupled with on-line mass spectrometer (AP-TPR/TPO-MS) and with an off-line gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), were applied to the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of sulphur functionalities in representative samples from each basin of the coal province. Carbonates and mineral sulphur were removed by preliminary treatment with diluted acids at mild conditions to prevent effects on the TPR kinetograms. This treatment mainly removed the mineral sulphur, and its effects on organic sulphur were insignificant. Most of the organic sulphur in the Thracian lignites occurs in thiophenic structures (~ 60%). The TPR-MS profiles showed the presence of alkyl and aryl thiols, dialkyl and aryl-alkyl sulphides and thiophenes. The main organic sulphur compounds registered by the off-line AP-TPR-GC-MS were highly volatile compounds (thiols, sulphides, disulphides), alkylated thiophenes, and a lesser proportion of benzothiophenes. The disulphides (-SS-) are relatively abundant in the Maritza East and Elhovo lignites. They are probably the main aliphatic sulphur species in the coal's organic matter. Aliphatic chains with sulphur bridges are also principal structural functionalities in the Maritza West organic matter. Aromatic compounds with two aromatic rings and high degrees of substitution could be key organic structures in the studied lignites.

Marinov S P; Stefanova M; Kostova I; Stamenova V; Carleer R; Yperman J

2005-01-01

266

Large Igneous Province Volcanism, Ocean Anoxia and Marine Mass Extinction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Past global marine mass extinction events are often linked to terrestrial Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, but exact mechanisms driving extinction are often not well constrained. We studied two of Earth’s largest mass extinction events, at the Triassic-Jurassic (~201.4 Ma) and Permian-Triassic (~252 Ma) boundaries, which coincide with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and Siberian Trap volcanism, respectively. The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction is often contributed to carbon release driven ocean acidification while the Permian-Triassic mass extinction is suggested to be related to widespread ocean anoxia. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. Speciation of iron [(FeHR/ FeT) and (FePY/ FeHR)] and redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, V etc.) show that the Triassic-Jurassic marine mass extinction directly coincides with a rapid shift to anoxic and euxinic conditions at the onset of CAMP volcanism and increased atmospheric pCO2. Biotic recovery after the extinction event only commences when redox-conditions return from a euxinic to a ferruginous state and stabilization of marine ecosystems only commences after decreasing atmospheric pCO2 and a return to more oxic marine conditions. Iron-speciation at both the Triassic-Jurassic and Permian-Triassic mass extinctions however shows 2 phases of euxinia along continental margins, with an initial short peak at the onset of volcanism followed by a shift to ferruginous conditions, possibly due to a strongly diminished ocean sulphate reservoir because of massive initial pyrite burial. D34Spyrite suggests that following prolonged (several 100kyr) euxinic conditions only commence when the ocean sulphate reservoir is replenished by the release of sulphur from volcanism.

Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

2013-01-01

267

Hepatitis B Infection in Hemodialysis Patients in Tehran Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hemodialysis (HD) patients seem to be at considerable risk of acquiring HBV infection. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in hemodialysis patients living in the province of Tehran and to investigate the association between viral hepatitis B and the probable risk factors for HD patients..Methods: From June to August 2005, this study was done on the entire HD population of the province of Tehran (2630 patients; 1505 males and 1125 females, mean age: 53.4 years). Social and demographic data, date of onset of HD, length of time receiving HD services, history of a kidney transplant, multiple sex partners, and other probable risk factors were evaluated. Blood samples were tested for liver enzyme levels as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1, HIV 2, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV)..Results: A total of 64 patients were HBsAg positive (2.4%). The male-to-female ratio was 45/19 for HBsAg-positive patients and 1462/1104 for the remaining patients (P = 0.03), respectively. Except for nationality (P < 0.001), previous kidney transplants (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), and transient HD (P < 0.001), no association was found between HBV infection and probable risk factors..Conclusions: Common erythropoietin administration, blood testing for transfusion purposes, implementation of universal precaution in dialysis units as well as the use of dedicated machines for HBV-infected patients has led to a decreasing trend of HBV infection. Periodic surveillance of HBV infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis is strongly recommended.

Mitra Mahdavimazdeh; Seyed Mohammadmehdi Hosseini-Moghaddam; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Hooman Yahyazadeh

2009-01-01

268

Pseudo-cholinesterase polymorphism in Mazandaran province (North of Iran).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) polymorphism has been a subject of several pharmacogenetic studies worldwide. The patients with atypical homozygous genotype do not only have reduced serum cholinesterase activities but also their elimination rate for some pharmacologically potent drugs decrease drastically. This study was designed to evaluate the PChE polymorphism in Mazandaran province (northern Iran) for the first time. Methods: About 5 ml plasma samples were collected from 200 healthy volunteers who visited "Iran Blood Transfusion Organization" centers all across Mazandaran province for blood donation. The PChE activity in presence or absence of dibucain was measured and based on obtained dibucain number (DN) volunteers were categorized to normal homozygous (Eu,u), atypical heterozygous (Eu,a), and atypical homozygous (Ea,a). Results: The average (±SD) of the PChE activity among the blood donors was 9.14±1.93 IU (ranging from 4.1 to 16.6 IU). Only 2 persons (1%) had DN between 60 to 70 (Eu,a) and no one was categorized in 20

Zabihi E; Shabanzadeh M; Arabsheibani S; Moghadamnia AA; Baradaran M

2012-01-01

269

Pseudo-cholinesterase polymorphism in Mazandaran province (North of Iran).  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) polymorphism has been a subject of several pharmacogenetic studies worldwide. The patients with atypical homozygous genotype do not only have reduced serum cholinesterase activities but also their elimination rate for some pharmacologically potent drugs decrease drastically. This study was designed to evaluate the PChE polymorphism in Mazandaran province (northern Iran) for the first time. Methods: About 5 ml plasma samples were collected from 200 healthy volunteers who visited "Iran Blood Transfusion Organization" centers all across Mazandaran province for blood donation. The PChE activity in presence or absence of dibucain was measured and based on obtained dibucain number (DN) volunteers were categorized to normal homozygous (Eu,u), atypical heterozygous (Eu,a), and atypical homozygous (Ea,a). Results: The average (±SD) of the PChE activity among the blood donors was 9.14±1.93 IU (ranging from 4.1 to 16.6 IU). Only 2 persons (1%) had DN between 60 to 70 (Eu,a) and no one was categorized in 20

Zabihi, Ebrahim; Shabanzadeh, Meisam; Arabsheibani, Sina; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Baradaran, Mahmoud

2012-01-01

270

Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed samples in Burdur Province, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of total aflatoxin (AF), ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisin (FB) in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds. A total of 180 dairy cattle, beef cattle, and lamb-calf feeds (60 samples each) were randomly collected from farms, feed mills, and villages in Burdur province, between September 2006 and August 2007. All samples were analyzed by the competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The most frequent mycotoxin detected was total AF, which was found in 108 samples (60 %) in concentrations ranging from 3.82 to 116.83 ?g?kg(-1), followed by DON that was detected in 87 samples (48.3 %), in concentrations ranging from 18.50 to 500 ?g?kg(-1). Ochratoxin A (OTA), T-2 toxin, ZEA, and FB were found in 84 (46.7 %), 85 (47.2 %), 57 (31.7 %), and 19 (10.6 %) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 1.01 to 15.85 ?g?kg(-1) for OTA, 3.85 to 52.36 ?g?kg(-1) for T-2 toxin, 2.10 to 29.30 ?g?kg(-1) for ZEA, and 2.69 to 4.96 mg?kg(-1) for FB. It was concluded that feed samples in Burdur province were contaminated by mycotoxins, and the levels of total aflatoxin in the samples were considered a risk to animal health. PMID:23054279

Kocasari, Fatma Sahindokuyucu; Mor, Firdevs; Oguz, Mustafa Numan; Oguz, Fatma Karakas

2012-10-04

271

Characterizing the HIV epidemic in the prairie provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The numbers and demographics of HIV-positive patients in care between 2003 and 2007 in the prairie provinces were examined. METHODS: Estimates of HIV-positive patients presenting to care between 2003 and 2007 were obtained from four clinic registries in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Detailed data were collected from clinical records of new patients in 2007. RESULTS: By the end of December 2007, 2263 HIV-positive persons were in care in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Males and females accounted for 1674 (74.0%) and 589 of the cases, respectively. Overall, there was a 12% increase per year in new HIV cases to care between 2003 and 2007 (P=0.026), with the rate of increase for males being 60% higher than for females over this time period (P=0.002). In 2007, there were 222 new HIV cases to care (37.4% female). Heterosexual contact was the most common HIV risk, but diversity was seen across sites with frequent injection drug use and men who have sex with men risk in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta, respectively. The Aboriginal population remains heavily over-represented, with approximately 36.0% of new cases being Aboriginal. Late presentation was common across all care sites, with 35.1% of cases presenting with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm(3). DISCUSSION: Heterosexual risk is the most common risk reported for HIV acquisition, but injection drug use risk remains significant in Saskatchewan. Aboriginals are over-represented at all sites, and in Saskatchewan accounted for the majority of new cases seen. In contrast to national trends, numbers of new and late diagnoses are increasing in the praire provinces, and this has significant treatment implications and potential public health consequences. Further efforts need to be made to facilitate earlier testing and linkage to care.

Becker ML; Kasper K; Pindera C; Cheang M; Rodger D; Sanche S; Skinner S; Gill MJ

2012-01-01

272

[Spatial heterogeneity of pulmonary tuberculosis by G statistics in Zhejiang province in 2006].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejinag province in 2006 by G statistics, so as to find out the hotspot of occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province and provide evidence for control and prevention on pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: The data of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in 90 counties (districts) in Zhejiang province in 2006 were obtained from the tuberculosis surveillance system. Based on the same county field in digital maps and pulmonary tuberculosis incidence database, digital map of Zhejiang province was interrelated with the database of Zhejiang province pulmonary tuberculosis incidence to establish Zhejiang geographic information system database. General and local G statistics were developed to test for spatial heterogeneity by ArcGIS 9.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 43 467 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were reported in Zhejiang province in 2006, and the reported incidence was 88.74/100,000.G statistics indicated that there were high occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (Getis-Ord Gi=0.0764, P<0.05). Local Getis-Ord Gi statistics analysis showed that there were statistically significant hotspots in Yuhuan county, Leqing city, Pingyang county, Dongtou county, Yongjia county, Ruian city and Ouhai, Longwan, Lucheng district in Wenzhou city, other areas were intergradational zone with Z(Gi) value fell in -1.96 to 1.96. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang province present unrandomly distributed and geographically clustered.

Ying Q; Chen K

2012-06-01

273

[Estimation of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An estimate of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba is presented using the Brass method as adapted by Trussell. "Estimations by urban and rural zones are also performed within the provinces studied, and results are compared with those possible to obtain by continuous statistics. Results obtained show that in the eastern [part] of the country Holguin and Guantanamo are the provinces with highest infantile mortality rates, and the lowest rates correspond to Granma, followed by Santiago de Cuba." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

Gonzalez G; Herrera L

1986-01-01

274

lxodid ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and villages in Maputo Province, Mozambique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs owned by people in rural communities and villages in Maputo Province was established by collecting ticks from dogs at each of 27 localities spread throughout the province. Ticks were collected from a total of 132 dogs, and nine species belonging to four genera were identified. One dog was infested withs six species, three with five and 13 with four species. Haemaphysalis elliptica followed by Rhipicephalus simus were present on dog sat most localities, and their geographic distribution in Maputo Province has been mapped for the first time.

C. De Mantos; C. Sitoe; L. Neves; N. R. Bryson; I. G. Horak

2010-01-01

275

[Analysis on genetic characteristics of mumps virus strains circulating in Hunan province in 2011].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To be acquainted with genetic characteristics and variation of mumps virus strains circulating in Hunan province. METHODS: Mumps virus (MV) strains were isolated using Vero/ SLAM cells. The small hydrophobic protein (SH) genes of MV isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were analysed phylogenetically between the isolated strains and other reference mumps strains. RESULTS: 4 mumps virus strains were isolated from 16 specimens collected in 2011 from different regions of Hunan province. The genotype of isolated strains were supposed to be F type. CONCLUSION: Genotype F is the main genotype of circulating strains in Hunan province in 2011 and there is no variation between genotype.

Li FC; Cui AL; Zhang H; Deng L; Xiang XY; Huang YW; Li WC; Liu YZ

2013-02-01

276

[A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the current immunization program in Zhejiang Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To know the status of Immunization program in Zhejiang Province. METHODS: The investigation on immunization program in zhejiang province was conducted, and the SWOT analysis was corducted to make a comprehensive evaluation. RESULTS: 11 cities, 22 counties and 44 towns were investigated in this study, and the current immunization program in Zhejiang province were explored by SWOT analysis. CONCLUSION: The SWOT Matrix, includes SO (strength-opportunity), ST (strength-threat), WO (weakness-opportunity) and WT (weakness-threat) can apply to make optimal strategy for the development of expanded program on immunization.

He HQ; Ling LY; Xu XQ

2009-02-01

277

Mortalidad materna en Granma Mother mortality in Granma province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la mortalidad materna es un indicador sensible sobre salud y está asociado al desarrollo social. Su tasa se mantiene elevada a nivel mundial los países en desarrollo son los más afectados por esta problemática. Objetivos: mostrar el comportamiento de la mortalidad materna en Granma en el periodo del 1995 al 2010, describir el comportamiento de las defunciones según tasa general y directa de muerte materna por año, mes, sitio de ocurrencia, municipio y causa. Métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre mortalidad materna en el periodo desde 1995 hasta el 2010 en la provincia Granma, Cuba. Los resultados se expusieron en tablas simples en números, porcentajes y tasas. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad general y directa mas elevada (84,4 y 67,4 x 100 000 nacidos vivos, respectivamente) se reportó en el año 1995, mientras que la más baja fue en el 2010 (9,5), en el que no hubo muertes maternas de causa directa. Las defunciones fueron más frecuentes en el mes de enero, agosto y diciembre. Las pacientes fallecieron mayoritariamente en el hospital "Carlos M. de Céspedes" de Bayamo y en el "Celia Sánchez Manduley" de Manzanillo. Los municipios que más fallecidas tuvieron fueron Manzanillo y Bayamo. Predominó la hemorragia como principal causa de muerte, seguida por el embolismo de líquido amniótico. Conclusiones: la tasa de muerte materna general y directa por meses y años en el periodo desde 1995 hasta el 2010 en la provincia Granma en Cuba ha disminuido de forma evidente, aunque su descenso no ha sido uniforme por lo que se impone perfeccionar las estrategias para resolver esta compleja problemática de salud.Mother mortality is a sensible health indicator and is associated with the social development. Its rate remains high at world level, the developing countries are the more affected by this problem. Objective: To show the behavior of mother mortality in Granma province from 1995 to 2010, to describe the course of deceases according to the general and direct rate of mother death by year, month, place of occurrence, municipality and cause. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was conducted on the mother mortality from 1995 to 2020 in the Granma province. Results are showed in single tables, figures, percentages and rates. Results: the higher general and direct mortality rate (84.4 and 67.4 x 100 000 life births, respectively) was reported in 1995, whereas the lowest one was reported in 2020 (9.5) without mother death of direct cause. Deceases were more frequent in January, August and December. Most patients died in the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" Hospital of Bayamo and in the "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Hospital of Manzanillo. The municipalities with more deceases were Bayamo and Manzanillo municipalities. There was predominance of hemorrhage as the major cause of death, followed the amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusions: the general and direct mother death cause by months and years from 1995 to 2010 in Granma province has obviously decreased although its decrease has not been uniform thus it is necessary to improve the strategies to solve the complex health problem.

María Margarita Millán Vega; César Sánchez Alarcón; Rafael Rodríguez Reytor; Ana Rosa Rodríguez Cañete; Yarine Fajardo Tornes

2012-01-01

278

[Survey on the focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis foci in Guangdong Province for making surveillance program. METHODS: Survey sites were chosen by strata sampling according to different geographic locations. Totally 22 survey sites were selected in four regions: East Guangdong, West Guangdong, North Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta. One or two administrative villages in each site were randomly selected for the investigation. Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica collected from fields and other species of freshwater or terrestrial snails obtained in the restaurants and wet markets were examined for the third stage larvae by tissue grinding or lung examination. Rats were captured in the fields, and their hearts and lungs were dissected for adult worms. Rat feces were also collected for the detection of first stage larvae by water precipitation. RESULTS: Large number of P. canaliculata was found in all sites. A. fulica was found in most surveyed sites. Totally 2929 P. canaliculata and 1354 A. fulica were collected with a larva infection rate of 5.9% (172/2929) and 16.5% (223/1354), respectively (P<0.01). The average prevalence among the regions was different (P<0.01) with the highest prevalence in Pearl River Delta (15.6%, 152/975), especially in Dongguan City of the Delta (34.7%, 78/225). 114 Cipangopaludina sp. and 252 Bellamya sp. were bought from wet markets of 9. sites. Larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from Luoding and Kaiping cities with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Totally 491 rats were captured in 9 sites including Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus, with an average infection rate of 11.4% (56/491). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and B. indica with a prevalence of 19.8% (52/263), 2.5% (3/118) and 10.0% (1/10), respectively. Thirty-four rodent fecal samples were collected in 7 sites and examined with a larva positive rate of 44.1% (15/34). CONCLUSION: Foci of Angiostrongylus cantonensis are widely distributed in Guangdong Province as natural infection has been found in its intermediate and definitive hosts.

Deng ZH; Zhang QM; Lin RX; Huang SY; Zhang Y; Lv S; Liu HX; Hu L; Pei FQ; Wang JL; Ruan CW

2010-02-01

279

The Description of the Naiads of Orthetrum, Trithemis and Sympetrum (Odonata:Libellulidae) from Sindh Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The naiads or nymphs of three genera namely Orthetrum, Trithemis and Sympetrum collected from the various locations of the Sindh Province of Pakistan are described in detail with illustrations.

Riaz Hussain; Khawaja Basharat Ahmed

2004-01-01

280

Fluid inclusion study of Xihuashan tungsten deposit in the southern Jiangxi province, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Etude des inclusions fluides des filons de quartz du gisement de tungstène de Xihuashan (Province du Jiangxi, Chine) par microthermométrie et spectrométrie Raman. Les données obtenues permettent de retracer l'évolution hydrothermale du dépôt des minéralisations

Giuliani, Gaston; Li, Y.D.; Sheng, T.F.

 
 
 
 
281

75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments AGENCY: Animal...received a request from the Government of Argentina to recognize additional areas as pest...Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina. After reviewing the documentation...

2010-06-25

282

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

U.S. Geological Survey

2010-01-01

283

The current situation of application on the radiation processing technology in Hunan province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The history of application on the radiation processing technology in Hunan province is concisely reviewed. The main achievement and the problems is included. Some suggestions on its development is also proposed. (authors)

2004-01-01

284

Studies on the groundnut scab, a new groundunt disease in Guangdong Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new plant disease, Groundnut scab (Sphaceloma arachidis Bitancourt et Jexkins) occurred in Huadou city, Guangdong Province. This paper was a preliminary studying results of the symptom, pathogen causal condition and control of the disease in 1992--1993.

Zhang Baodi; Peng Qingping; He Ronggen

1995-01-01

285

PEASANT MILITIA OF BLACK SEA PROVINCE LIBERATION COMMITTEE (1919–1920): ESTABLISHMENT AND WARFARE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article, basing on historiographic and archival materials considers the history of establishment, activities and liquidation of peasant militia of Black Sea Province Liberation Committee – ‘third force’ army in Civil War.

Alexander A. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Mamadaliev

2011-01-01

286

Identification of the Water Pollutant Industries in Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to build up a logic ranked pattern between the most important industrial activities with respect the type of water pollution and the discharge ways or managing the wastewaters in these units. For this purpose all of the statistical data have been gathered by referring to the responsible organizations. After that, by using the desk study, field work and selecting some of the industrial units as studied cases and by referring to their production processes and obtaining the curtained analytical results, the industries have been separated to several groups including Food ,Textile , Pulp & Paper/, Chemical, Non-metallic mineral, Metal and Electricity & electronics Comparing the number of active industrial plants within the boundaries of Khuzestan province at 5 catchments area, indicates that Karun, Dez and Jarrahi basins with 1044. 324 and 290 active plants, respectively, are crowded with a lot of industries. Nature of the examined parameters has been selected in view of the production process type and includes pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chloride, sulfate, BOD, COD, TSS, iron. Results indicates that Dez river basin, being compared with the other two basins, impose the most degradable organic, nutrient substances and suspended particle loads to Dez River , and the metal pollution load at Karun basin is more than the other two basins , caused by the steel industries concentrated in Ahvaz city.

N Jafarzadeh, S Rostami, K Sepehrfar, A Lahijanzadeh

2004-01-01

287

Contaminant levels in fish muscle tissue in the Virginian Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program`s (EMAP-Estuaries) 1991 effort in the Virginian Province (bays, sounds and estuaries from Cape Cod, MA to Cape Henry, VA), fish were collected for chemical residue analysis. Field crews attempted to collect up to five individuals of each of ten target fish species of uniform size at each station (n = 102). A sufficient number of fish were caught at 84 stations to produce one composite sample of muscle tissue from three to five individuals of a single species per station. Composites were then analyzed for selected metals, pesticides and PCBs. No sample exceeded FDA action limits (or, where FDA action limits were not available, the mean of international limits) for any of the organic analytes measured. White perch generally contained the highest levels of organic contaminants among the samples analyzed. International guidelines were exceeded for several metals (arsenic, chromium and selenium), with the highest incidence of exceedences being for arsenic. Fourteen samples exceeded the guideline of 2 {mu}g/g wet weight for total arsenic. Exceedences were found for winter flounder, spot, scup, and Atlantic croaker. In this study no attempt was made to separate organic from inorganic forms of arsenic. No relationship between exceedences of the above criteria and concentrations of contaminants in sediments was seen.

Strobel, C.J.; Reifsteck, D.R.; Benyi, S.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States); Keith, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

1994-12-31

288

Evaluation of Tourism Industry Development Strategies Factors in Guilan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iran due to its unique condition in terms of tourist attractionand because of the specific location and a variety of naturalresources and human Phenomena, that different regions of thecountry including Guilan province has a typical position interms of tourism which attracts a lot of tourists. By itself, ecological,environmental, cultural, historical and religious attractionin the north, we will see more development in the tourismindustry by formulating and scientific solutions and preservationof cultural values and the environment. In this research, a descriptive– analytical approach has been taken in order toachieve mentioned goals. Also major sources of tourism areidentified by field and library (Book, Magazines, Relevant document)study and with SWOT pattern, strengths, weakness,threats and opportunities will be specified and analyzed. Thepresent research with fundamental question that whether tourismdevelopment reduces the effects of economic sanctions? Basedon this assumption that, the development of tourism can reducethe effects of economic sanctions and we can use tourismindustry as a means to deal with economic sanctions and createemployment opportunities, distribution of income, foreign exchangeincrease, reducing migration, raising the living standard,regional balancing, transferring value to unprivileged area, developmentof rural and urban communities and the cultural andethnic unity for the attainment of national unity.

Fatholah Keshavarz Shal; Parviz Rajabi Kolvani

2013-01-01

289

Managed health care and dentists in the Gauteng province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Managed health care (MHC) has emerged in South Africa as an alternative system to control the cost of health care. Fears, negative perceptions and much uncertainty have surrounded this issue since its introduction in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the understanding, perceptions and opinions of dentists residing in the Gauteng province about the emergence, benefits, impact, and future of MHC in South Africa. Eighty-six dentists (21.5%) out of the sample population of 400 responded to the questionnaire. The majority (66.7%) of the respondents perceived MHC to be a threat to their practices, with most feeling that MHC will interfere with the doctor-patient relationship. Forty-two per cent of the respondents were of the opinion that MHC will not succeed in South Africa. The results suggest that this sample of dentists do not consider MHC to be an alternative to the existing fee-for-service system. The introduction of MHC in South Africa is mostly based on models used in the USA, which might not be appropriate in the unique South African environment.

Mathabathe NC; Rudolph MJ; Ogunbodede EO

2000-03-01

290

Cadmium Status of Soils Under Sugarcane in Khuzestan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main sources of cadmium in soil-plant continuum in amounts that might present a hazard are liquid and solid wastes of sewage sludge, farm manures and fertilizers. In the southwest of Iran (Khuzestan Province) over 50,000 ha of land is under sugarcane (Saccarum officinarum) cultivation and more than 80,000 ha will be under sugarcane by the end of the year 2000. In these sugarcane fields, about 400 kg ha-1 diamonium phosphate (DAP) and 400 kg ha-1 urea are applied annually. There is no data available to show the fertilizers impact on soil, water and plant contaminations in Iran with respect to cadmium. The objective of this research was to compare the extractable cadmium of virgin soils with that of soils under sugarcane. Four sugarcane growing stations viz. Haft-tapeh, Karoon, Shoeibieh and Ghazali with cultivation histories of 36, 20, 2 and 1 year, respectively, were selected. In each site, along a transect soil samples from 0-30 cm of both furrows and ridges of cultivated soils and of virgin soils were collected. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, clay and organic carbon contents, CI and Cd of 101 soil samples were measured according to standard methods. Results showed that increasing either EC or CI increased Cd concentration with its maximum in virgin soils and its minimum in furrows. Results also indicated a slight decrease in the Cd content of cultivated soils.

A.R. Barzegar; A. Koochekzadeh

2001-01-01

291

Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

1993-01-01

292

Intertidal benthos diversity in the Meizhou Bay, Fujian Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to understand the biological diversity and the stability of intertidal communities in Meizhou Bay, and to conduct assessement on the environmental quality, we investigated the benthic diversity in Meizhou Bay, Fujian Province in November 2005 and April 2006. A total of 225 species of intertidal benthos from shore wetlands in Meizhou Bay was reported. Polychaetes, Molluscs and Crustaceans accounted for 88% of all species. The number of benthic species differed between transects and was greater in spring than autumn. Average biomass and density were 22.91 g/m2 and 388 inds./m2, respectively. In terms of biomass, Molluscs exhibited the highest and Crustaceans the second, and in terms of density Polychaetes showed highest, followed by Molluscs. Biomass of middle tidal zones was higher than that of high or low tidal zones. Density of benthic invertebrates among tidal zones, ranked from highest to lowest, was as follows: low tidal zone, middle tidal zone, and high tidal zone. Both biomass and density were lowest in the high tidal zone. Both biomass and density were higher in spring than in autumn. Using the ABC (abundance biomass comparison) curve to analyze the structure of the intertidal community in Meizhou Bay, it was found that the overall disturbance is not apparent. The results suggest that this area retains some of its environmental carrying capacity.

Yaqin Huang; Rongguan Li; Jianjun Wang; Chengxing Zheng; Fengwu Zheng; Junhui Lin; Jinxiang Jiang; Shuzhu Li

2010-01-01

293

An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 ?g/kg) to 4946 ?g/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

Arnot LF; Duncan NM; Coetzer H; Botha CJ

2012-01-01

294

Phytoremediation potential of indigenous plants from Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was focused on determining Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) in 33 indigenous plants and 12 soil in-situ plant samples in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The results showed that the soils of surveyed mining areas contained 181.2- 6754.3 mg kg(-1) As, 235.5-4337.2 mg kg(-1) Pb, 0.8- 419 mg kg(-1) Cd and 361.8-17565.1 mg kg(-1) Zn depending on the characteristics of each mining site. These values are much higher than those typical for normal soil. The heavy metal uptake into shoots and roots of 33 indigenous plant species was also determined. Two species of the plants investigated, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos L. were As hyperaccumulators, containing more than 0.1% heavy metals in their shoots. Eleusine indica L., Cynodon dactylon L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Equisetum ramosissimum (Vauch) accumulate very high Pb (0.15-0.65%) and Zn (0.22-1.56%) concentration in their roots. Additional experiments to clarify the potential of six these plants as good candidates for phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution soil are being carried out in our laboratory.

Anh BT; Kim DD; Tua TV; Kien NT; Anh do T

2011-03-01

295

[Human pulmonary ascariasis in Anhui Province: an epidemiological survey  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

924 subjects, 542 males and 382 females working in grainstoring, or herb-storing, from different parts of Anhui Province were examined for the possible existence of pulmonary acariasis. 49 cases(5.3%), 31 males and 18 females, were found positive for mites in their sputum. 83.7% of the sufferers aged 16-45. 22 out of the 22 out of the 49 sufferers developed a marked eosinophilia ranging from 4% to 48% and a count of 320-5,050/mm3, whereas X-ray films revealed varied degrees of widening lung hilum shadow with increased and disordered lung markings. In some cases, the chest-film showed a lot of scattered nodular shadows 1-5 mm in diameter in the lung lobes. The symptoms presented were cough, expectoration, depression in the chest, restlessness, low fever, asthma, hemoptysis, etc. 10 species of mites were found in the sputum of the 49 sufferers, i.e. Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putreseltiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus berlesei, C. myoophagus, Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus granarius, Cheyletus eruditus.

Li C; Li L

1990-01-01

296

[Human pulmonary ascariasis in Anhui Province: an epidemiological survey].  

Science.gov (United States)

924 subjects, 542 males and 382 females working in grainstoring, or herb-storing, from different parts of Anhui Province were examined for the possible existence of pulmonary acariasis. 49 cases(5.3%), 31 males and 18 females, were found positive for mites in their sputum. 83.7% of the sufferers aged 16-45. 22 out of the 22 out of the 49 sufferers developed a marked eosinophilia ranging from 4% to 48% and a count of 320-5,050/mm3, whereas X-ray films revealed varied degrees of widening lung hilum shadow with increased and disordered lung markings. In some cases, the chest-film showed a lot of scattered nodular shadows 1-5 mm in diameter in the lung lobes. The symptoms presented were cough, expectoration, depression in the chest, restlessness, low fever, asthma, hemoptysis, etc. 10 species of mites were found in the sputum of the 49 sufferers, i.e. Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putreseltiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus berlesei, C. myoophagus, Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus granarius, Cheyletus eruditus. PMID:2364504

Li, C; Li, L

1990-01-01

297

Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.

Wellhoner Mary; Lee Anne CC; Deutsch Karen; Wiebenga Mariette; Freytsis Maria; Drogha Sonam; Dongdrup Phuntsok; Lhamo Karma; Tsering Ojen; Tseyongjee; Khandro Dawa; Mullany Luke C; Weingrad Lee

2011-01-01

298

Hydrological studies of schistosomiasis transport in Sichuan Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schistosomiasis is a water-bourne parasitic disease endemic to Sichuan Province of China. Long-term studies of infection and disease ecology in catchments in Sichuan have been supplemented by detailed hydrometric measurements to produce a model of water velocity and flow in an irrigation system. The model provides a means of estimating travel times of two infectious stages of the parasite from source sites to water contact exposure sites for individuals of both the human population and the intermediate vector snail populations. The hydrological transport model will be part of an overall model of schistosomiasis transmission in the catchments. A GIS system is used to manage spatial data of the drainage network, land use, infection sources and population centres. The development of the Three Gorges Dam in China will increase marshlands and irrigation in areas currently free of schistosomiasis. The potential for the spread of schistosomiasis into these new areas is a major concern. Hydrological models can be of particular importance in assessing future environmental risk.

Maszle DR; Whitehead PG; Johnson RC; Spear RC

1998-05-01

299

Hydrological studies of schistosomiasis transport in Sichuan Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis is a water-bourne parasitic disease endemic to Sichuan Province of China. Long-term studies of infection and disease ecology in catchments in Sichuan have been supplemented by detailed hydrometric measurements to produce a model of water velocity and flow in an irrigation system. The model provides a means of estimating travel times of two infectious stages of the parasite from source sites to water contact exposure sites for individuals of both the human population and the intermediate vector snail populations. The hydrological transport model will be part of an overall model of schistosomiasis transmission in the catchments. A GIS system is used to manage spatial data of the drainage network, land use, infection sources and population centres. The development of the Three Gorges Dam in China will increase marshlands and irrigation in areas currently free of schistosomiasis. The potential for the spread of schistosomiasis into these new areas is a major concern. Hydrological models can be of particular importance in assessing future environmental risk. PMID:9646528

Maszle, D R; Whitehead, P G; Johnson, R C; Spear, R C

1998-05-27

300

[Outbreak of histoplasmosis in province of Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: In Argentina, there are no reports of autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis in the southern regions of the country. AIM: To report a histoplasmosis outbreak in Zapala town, Province of Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 5 patients involved in the outbreak. Environmental studies were conducted to determine the source of infection. The genetic profile of Histoplasma capsulatum strains isolated from the index case (IC) were compared with clinical isolates from Argentinean patients not related to the outbreak, using RAPD-PCR with primers 1281-1283. RESULTS: The patients were residents of Zapala, and had not visited other geographical areas before. All patients had an influenza-like syndrome, and X-ray revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout the lung parenchyma. The IC needed specific antifungal therapy; the remaining 4 patients had mild symptoms, and did not require therapy. All of them had a good clinical outcome. Strains of H. capsulatum isolated from blood culture and lung biopsy of the IC showed a genetic profile different from other strains analyzed. The presence of the fungus in the environment was demonstrated by the detection of anti-Histoplasma antibodies in BALB/c mice inoculated with soil obtained in a culvert where workers had dug up earth after a landslide. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak suggests the histoplasmosis endemic area is under the 38° S parallel. Patients from Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina, with compatible symptoms of histoplasmosis should be tested, regardless of their travel or exposure history. PMID:23402833

Calanni, Liliana María; Pérez, Rufina Ana; Brasili, Susana; Schmidt, Norma Graciela; Iovannitti, Cristina Adela; Zuiani, María Fernanda; Negroni, Ricardo; Finquelievich, Jorge; Canteros, Cristina Elena

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans.

Deng ZH; Zhang QM; Huang SY; Jones JL

2012-01-01

302

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans. PMID:21906215

Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Huang, Shao-Yu; Jones, Jeffrey L

2011-09-09

303

Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria.

Takacs-Vesbach C; Mitchell K; Jackson-Weaver O; Reysenbach AL

2008-07-01

304

Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria. PMID:18363714

Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

2008-03-19

305

DNA fingerprinting of bovine Cryptosporidium isolates in Qazvin province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Cryptosporidium is an Apicomplexa parasite that infects humans and a wide range of domestic and wild animals. However, the sub-genotypes of the species infecting animals in Iran are unclear. The aim of the present study isto identify DNA fingerprinting of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province using sequences of GP60 gene. Materials and Methods : In this study we investigated 25 C. parvum isolated form bovine in Qazvin animal husbandries. Subgenotypes were determined by DNA sequencing of 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. Results: Using DNA sequencing of GP60 gene, two subtype families within the C. parvum included IId (15/22) and IIa (7/22) were recognized. Also three subtypes in these two subtype families included IIa A15G2R1 (22/25), IIa A16G3R (1/25), IId A15G1 (2/25) were determined. Conclusion: Today, new zoonose strains are identified which based on severity of infection compared with human strains are more sever and the source and transmission of their infection are unclear. Therefore, determination of C .parvum strains, genotypes and sub-genotypes for epidemiological studies are quite necessary specially to identify the animal sources and to improve the control and prevention programs due to the lake of effective drugs for this infection.

Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad; Niloofare Taghipour; Ali Haghighi; Akbar Keshavarz; Mohammad Rostami Nejad; Mohammad Reza Zali

2011-01-01

306

[Population exposure to air pollutant emissions in Human Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region.

Li J; Hao J; Ye X; Zhu T

2003-05-01

307

[Population exposure to air pollutant emissions in Human Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region. PMID:12916195

Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming; Ye, Xuemei; Zhu, Tianle

2003-05-01

308

Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirda? province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g), coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g), Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g) and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g). On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g), coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g), Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g) and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g). Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

T. Gumus; O. Dagliogli; A. M. Konyal?

2005-01-01

309

Liver cirrhosis in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective To find out aetiological factors and presentation of patients with liver cirrhosis in North-West Frontier province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Design: An observational study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in medical unit of Hayatabad medical complex, Peshawar, from 1st February 1998 to 30th November 1999. Patients and Methods: A total to 100 patients, more than 13 years of age, consecutively admitted in medical unit were included in the study. All the patients were investigated for aetiological factors and complications of cirrhosis. Liver histology was also performed in all the patients besides routine investigations. Results: Seventy-one percent patients were under 40 years of age and 65% of the were males. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) was the commonest underlying cause accounting for 41%, followed by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) responsible for 30% of the cases. Alcohol was responsible for 4%. One patient had primary haemochromatosis and another had Wilson s disease. In 23 patients, no cause could be ascertained. Sixty percent patients presented with non-specific symptoms, 16% with hepatic precoma and only 4% with haematemesis and/or malena. Conclusion: HCV is the leading cause of cirrhosis followed by HBV in NWFP population and majority of patients presented with complications of cirrhosis. (author)

2002-01-01

310

An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada is usually considered to be a country with abundant freshwater, but in its western prairie provinces (WPP), an area 1/5 the size of Europe, freshwater is scarce. European settlement of the WPP did not begin until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortuitously, the period since European settlement appears to have been the wettest century of the past two millennia. The frequent, long periods of drought that characterized earlier centuries of the past two millennia were largely absent in the 20th century. Here, we show that climate warming and human modifications to catchments have already significantly reduced the flows of major rivers of the WPP during the summer months, when human demand and in-stream flow needs are greatest. We predict that in the near future climate warming, via its effects on glaciers, snowpacks, and evaporation, will combine with cyclic drought and rapidly increasing human activity in the WPP to cause a crisis in water quantity and quality with far-reaching implications. PMID:16606829

Schindler, D W; Donahue, W F

2006-04-10

311

An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canada is usually considered to be a country with abundant freshwater, but in its western prairie provinces (WPP), an area 1/5 the size of Europe, freshwater is scarce. European settlement of the WPP did not begin until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fortuitously, the period since European settlement appears to have been the wettest century of the past two millennia. The frequent, long periods of drought that characterized earlier centuries of the past two millennia were largely absent in the 20th century. Here, we show that climate warming and human modifications to catchments have already significantly reduced the flows of major rivers of the WPP during the summer months, when human demand and in-stream flow needs are greatest. We predict that in the near future climate warming, via its effects on glaciers, snowpacks, and evaporation, will combine with cyclic drought and rapidly increasing human activity in the WPP to cause a crisis in water quantity and quality with far-reaching implications.

Schindler DW; Donahue WF

2006-05-01

312

Family aggregation study for breast cancer in Cienfuegos province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death in developed countries and it is the second cause of female mortality for malignant tumor in Cuba. We conducted an observational, analytic, transversal study of cases and controls for the purpose of evaluating the clinical, epidemiologic and genealogical behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province, in a period of 6 years. The universe of the study was made up of 304 women distributed in 152 cases and 152 controls; they were surveyed after they gave their informed consent. Collected data were processed by means of methods of inferential statistics. It was observed that most of the cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 to 59 years, with 24.34%, the most frequent type was infiltrating duct carcinoma, with 43.42%. We found statistical association with the personal history of benign breast pathology and the family history of cancer of any type. Presence of familial aggregation was observed for breast cancer in the first-degree relatives and the non-genetic risk factors; they did not show significant association with the occurrence of the disease in the studied population

2009-01-01

313

Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J. [Brace Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

1997-12-01

314

Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. "nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. "nResults: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8%) and withdrawal (27.3%) methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future."nConclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

Nevin Hotun Sahin; Ilkay Gungor; Özlem Aydin Karabulutlu; Nurdan Demirci

2008-01-01

315

Biohazard Legionella in health care facilities in Rome and province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Legionella is a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia, a risk factor for pneumonia for patients, but also for workers.Objectives: The authors describe the cases arising from the activities of prevention and control operating within the province of Rome by the Lazio Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPALazio).Methods: 4354 samples were analyzed, as follows: 27.65% in 2007, 35% in 2008 and 37.35% in 2009. The activity sampling was evenly distributed between 25% and 30% in each quarter of year.Results: In 2007 the non-compliant samples are 10.60%, to become 24.57% in 2008 and finally 26.63% in 2009.The level of contamination is low in 13%, 11% medium and high in 3% of the total.Conclusions: The Legionella contamination does not present a specific distribution in the four quarters of time considered for each year or a specific distribution for the type of health facility, and the level of contamination settles on medium-low values.

Giorgi DA; Palmieri S; Renzi G; Massoni F; Ricci S

2011-01-01

316

Impact of Fishing Technology on Labor Productivity in Bushehr Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine products are currently important in Iran due to the following reasons: 1) aquatics are recognized as safe and healthy food by food scientists; 2) because of low dependence of fishing technology on foreign resources, they are more reliable sources for protein and food security. Therefore, it is important to increase labor productivity using advanced fishing technology under a sustainable fishery management policy. In general, the prevailing methods of fishing in the southern coasts of Iran can be classified into three groups based on the level of technology and the length of journey made: traditional, semi-industrial, and industrial. In this study, labor productivity in the traditional and semi-industrial groups were compared using data obtained from a sample of 35 fishermen in Bushehr Province. To determine the marginal and average labor productivities, transcendental production functions were estimated for fish and shrimp, separately. The findings indicated that the marginal and average productivities of labor in semi-industrial fishing were significantly higher than in traditional fishing.

M. Ahmadpour Borazjani; G.R. Soltani

2000-01-01

317

Multi-staged remote sensing of French uranium provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has been conducted in the frame of an exploratory research program on the global evaluation of spatial relationships between large scale lineaments and uranium provinces in France. The global interpretation is based on the computer processing and enhancement of meteorological satellite data. It is followed on specific areas of Massif Central by a multi-staged study using the progressive refinement capabilities of HCMM, LANDSAT and airborne observations. The principal advantage in the use of large scale satellite observations lies in the good spectral and temporal homogeneity in the data throughout the territory of France. This is usually not the case when working with LANDSAT mosaics over such large areas. The use of thermal imagery as well as multiseasonal observations brings unique information on the signature of large scale lineaments and structures. A detailed study is undertaken on the granite formations of Bretagne/Vendee and Massif Central. The persistent linear structures revealed in the imagery have been put into relationship with the location of known uranium deposits

1982-01-01

318

Prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang Province in 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are three shrimp viruses responsible for major pandemics affecting the shrimp farming industry. Shrimps samples were collected from 12 farms in Zhejiang province, China, in 2008 and analyzed by PCR to determine the prevalence of these viruses. From the 12 sampling locations, 8 farms were positive for WSSV, 8 for IHHNV and 6 for both WSSV and IHHNV. An average percentage of 57.4% of shrimp individuals were infected with WSSV, while 49.2% were infected with IHHNV. A high prevalence of co-infection with WSSV and IHHNV among samples was detected from the following samples: Bingjiang (93.3%), liuao (66.7%), Jianshan (46.7%) and Xianxiang (46.7%). No samples exhibited evidence of infection with TSV in collected samples. This study provides comprehensive information of the prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang and may be helpful for disease prevention control in this region.

Yu XW; Wang JP; Zhang W; Shi ZL

2011-02-01

319

Prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang Province in 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are three shrimp viruses responsible for major pandemics affecting the shrimp farming industry. Shrimps samples were collected from 12 farms in Zhejiang province, China, in 2008 and analyzed by PCR to determine the prevalence of these viruses. From the 12 sampling locations, 8 farms were positive for WSSV, 8 for IHHNV and 6 for both WSSV and IHHNV. An average percentage of 57.4% of shrimp individuals were infected with WSSV, while 49.2% were infected with IHHNV. A high prevalence of co-infection with WSSV and IHHNV among samples was detected from the following samples: Bingjiang (93.3%), liuao (66.7%), Jianshan (46.7%) and Xianxiang (46.7%). No samples exhibited evidence of infection with TSV in collected samples. This study provides comprehensive information of the prevalence of three shrimp viruses in Zhejiang and may be helpful for disease prevention control in this region. PMID:21331893

Yu, Xiao-wei; Wang, Jian-ping; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Zheng-li

2011-02-18

320

Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs), total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E.) coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B.) cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

Vittoria Ricci; Letizia Petrella; Marika Mercurio; Francesca Barone

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1.

1987-01-01

322

Price Analysis of Used Tractors in Çanakkale Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of machinery costs is a key factor in improving the profitability of a farm. On many farms 30-40% of the fixed costs can be allocated to farm machinery. For this reason, the purchase of a tractor is one of the most important decisions to be made on any farm. A correct decision will benefit the business considerably but the wrong decision will be an expensive mistake to be regretted for many years. There are two different way to purchase the tractors in any farm. One of them is purchasing the tractor as new one, the other one is purchasing the he tractors as used or second hand. are purchased as new in some farms instead of purchasing he tractor as second hand or used.The used tractor prices and market conditions should be evaluated for the correct agricultural machinery management decisions. Price analysis of the used tractors has to be used in hiring or purchasing decision. In addition to that, Optimum equipment size calculations require the price data of used tractors.In the scope of this research, second hand tractor price data gathered from the showrooms in the Çanakkale province were evaluated. Before all else, general structure of second hand tractor market were defined by applying a comprehensive questionnaire to showroom owners. In addition, second hand tractor prices were arranged according to brand-model, age and power category.

S. K. Sumer; S. M. Say; S. Ozpinar

2008-01-01

323

Echinostoma ilocanum infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-Yil

2011-06-14

324

Echinostoma ilocanum infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia.

Sohn WM; Kim HJ; Yong TS; Eom KS; Jeong HG; Kim JK; Kang AR; Kim MR; Park JM; Ji SH; Sinuon M; Socheat D; Chai JY

2011-06-01

325

Inventory of anthropogenic mercury emission Southwest China: I. Guizhou province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)

1995-06-02

326

Reef fish and coral assemblages at Maptaput, Rayong Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the structure of coral and fish assemblages of a group of small islands and pinnacles in the vicinity of Maptaput deep sea port, Rayong Province, Thailand during 2002. The coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and nearby pinnacle, Hin-Yai, which are located less than 1 km from the deep sea port, had changed. Living coral cover in 2002 was 8% at Hin-Yai and 4% at Saket Island which decreased from 33% and 64%, respectively in the previous report in 1992. Numbers of coral species at Saket Island decreased from 41 species to 13 species. Acropora spp. that previously dominated the area had nearly disappeared. For fishes, a total of 40 species were found in 2002 the numbers decreased to only 6 species at Saket Island and 36 species at Hin-Yai. Fishes that dominated the area are small pomacentrids. After 1997, the conditions of coral and fish assemblages at Saket Island and Hin-Yai had markedly changed, whereas, the conditions found in the nearby area are much better. Sediment load from port construction was the primary cause of the degradation. This should indicate the adverse effect of sedimentation on coral and reef fish assemblages at Maptaput. Coral communities developed on rock pinnacles west of Maptaput deep-sea port are reported and described herein for the first time.

Vipoosit Manthachitra; Voravit Cheevaporn

2007-01-01

327

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ?ANLIURFA PROVINCE:KEY SECTOR ANALYIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenges facing ?anl?urfa are not unique, they are the same challenges found in rural areas all around the world. Agriculture is still the most important sector in ?anl?urfa, but it is generating fewer and fewer jobs. New approaches used in regional development shift from a focus on individual sectors (such as agriculture policy) to one based on a comprehensive multisectoral approach in which agriculture is conceived as one component sector of a comprehensive regional development policy. Within this framework, there are two major aims of this study. The first aim is to identify the high point sectors (key industries) by using LQ analysis in ?anl?urfa province and 11 districts. On the other hand the economy of ?anl?urfa, endowed with very rich arable land resources and irrigation facilities, thanks to GAP-( SouthEastern Anatolian Project), has a high potential in organic-agriculture. Accordingly the second aim of this paper is to analyze the development potentials of “clusters of agro-industries based on organic agriculture products” in the region. The findings of the analysis reveal that the key sectors identified in industry and services (food and textiles industries and retail and wholesale of food stuff) provide inputs from the main agricultural products in the region. On the other hand considering the availability of land and other facilities for organic agricultural products the findings of the study strongly supports development of “clusters of organic - agro industries” in ?anl?urfa Region.

Menevi? Uzbay Pirili; R.Funda Barbaros

2009-01-01

328

Paleoparasitological results for rodent coprolites from Santa Cruz Province, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae) and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.

Norma Haydée Sardella; Martín Horacio Fugassa; Diego Damián Rindel; Rafael Agustín Goñi

2010-01-01

329

Epidemiologic investigation of burns in the elderly in Sichuan Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study analysed the epidemiology of burns in the elderly in Sichuan Province, China, with the objective of formulating a prevention programme. METHODS: A retrospective review of elderly patients admitted to the Burn Centre of West China Hospital during 2003-2009 was performed, including patient demographics, education and burn aetiology. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients, mean age 69.5 years (range 60-95 years; 58 male, 45 female) were admitted. The most common causes of burn were flames (51.5%), scalding (37.9%), electrical (4.9%) and chemical (2.9%), respectively. The majority occurred at home (68.9%), principally in the kitchen (35.9%), while 19.4% occurred in the workplace. Burns with total body surface area (TBSA) of 0-10% accounted for 52.5% of those admitted for treatment; 10-30% TBSA burns accounted for 20.3%; 30-50% TBSA burns accounted for 15.5%; and burns with a TBSA >50% accounted for 11.7%. Only 6% of patients received appropriate first aid, and 32% did not receive treatment until more than 24h after injury. The education level was lower in the rural group. Both urban and rural groups had little knowledge of first aid for burns. CONCLUSIONS: Burn-prevention programmes should promote improved living conditions and medical insurance, with prevention education for the elderly, especially in rural areas.

Liu Y; Chen JJ; Crook N; Yu R; Xu XW; Cen Y

2013-05-01

330

Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region.

Francisca FM; Carro Perez ME

2009-12-01

331

Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

2009-01-23

332

Phytoremediation potential of indigenous plants from Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was focused on determining Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) in 33 indigenous plants and 12 soil in-situ plant samples in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The results showed that the soils of surveyed mining areas contained 181.2- 6754.3 mg kg(-1) As, 235.5-4337.2 mg kg(-1) Pb, 0.8- 419 mg kg(-1) Cd and 361.8-17565.1 mg kg(-1) Zn depending on the characteristics of each mining site. These values are much higher than those typical for normal soil. The heavy metal uptake into shoots and roots of 33 indigenous plant species was also determined. Two species of the plants investigated, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos L. were As hyperaccumulators, containing more than 0.1% heavy metals in their shoots. Eleusine indica L., Cynodon dactylon L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Equisetum ramosissimum (Vauch) accumulate very high Pb (0.15-0.65%) and Zn (0.22-1.56%) concentration in their roots. Additional experiments to clarify the potential of six these plants as good candidates for phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution soil are being carried out in our laboratory. PMID:21882664

Anh, Bui Thi Kim; Kim, Dang Dinh; Tua, Tran Van; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Anh, Do Tuan

2011-03-01

333

Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

1986-05-01

334

Management of flood victims: Chainat Province, central Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article focuses on the processes of flood management and the experiences of flood victims in Chainat Province, central Thailand, so as to develop knowledge about the future handling of such disasters. A phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the processes of providing assistance to flood victims. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Criterion sampling was used to select 23 participants. Content analysis of the data revealed that some flood victims could predict flooding based on prior experiences, so they prepared themselves. The data revealed six themes that demonstrated that those who could not predict how floods would impact on them were unprepared and suffered losses and disruption to their daily life. Damaged routes meant people could not go to work, resulting in the loss of income. There was a lack of sanitary appliances and clean drinking water, people were sick, and experienced stress. At the community level, people helped one another, making sandbags and building walls as a defense against water. They formed support groups to enable the processing of stressful experiences. However, later, the water became stagnant and contaminated, creating an offensive smell. The government provided assistance to cut off electricity services, food and water, toilets and health services, and water drainage. In the recovery phase, the victims needed money for investment, employment opportunities, books for children, extra time to pay off loans, reconnection of electricity, surveys of damage, and pensions to deal with damage and recovery.

Wisitwong A; McMillan M

2010-03-01

335

Preliminary study of the floristic elements of Bambusoideae from Anhui Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After yield investigation, it is found that bamboo resource is abundant in Anhui province. It consists of 51 species including varieties and forms belonging to 9 genera. Because of the great differences in topography and climatic features between the south and north part of Anhui province, the number of bamboo species is distributed unevenly, most of them concentrated in the south of Yangtze River with warm-tolerant nature and less number with cold-resistant nature in the north of Huai River.

Tao Fangming

2001-01-01

336

Current Situation and Countermeasures of Fitness Club Industry of Shandong Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By means of literature review, questionnaire survey and field studies, we investigated to the fitness clubs inShandong, analyzed the factors affecting the development of the fitness club industry of Shandong province, putforward the new management proposals strengthening the management consciousness of the modern athleticsindustry, so as to promote the industry of the fitness clubs of Shandong province to achieve greater development.

Yun Ma

2011-01-01

337

Study on resistance of {\\sl Magnapothe grisea} to FUJI--ONE in Guizhou Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growth rate method was used to test resistance to Fuji-one, isoprothiolane in 175 effective isolates of Magnapothe grisea, which collected from 26 counties in Guizhou Province. The results showed that resistant isolates existed in major districts of Guizhou Province, but most of them revealed low resistance to Fuji-one. Resistance frequency in Qiandongnan, Guiyang and Zunyi was 10.86%, 10.29 and 8.00%, respectively, which was significantly higher than other districts.

Yuan Jie; Yang Xuehui; He Haiyong; Jin Xing

2006-01-01

338

Perceptions regarding the clinical accompaniment of student nurses in the Limpopo Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Limpopo Province to identify the perceptions of student nurses, nurse educators and unit supervisors concerning student nurses’ clinical accompaniment in this province. Opsomming ‘n Kwantitatiewe, beskrywende, deursnitopname is gebruik om die persepsies van verpleegstudente, verpleegopvoedkundiges en eenheidstoesighouers oor verpleegstudente se kliniese begeleiding in the Limpopo Provinsie te identifiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Esther M Lekhuleni; Dirk M van der Wal; Valerie Ehlers

2004-01-01

339

Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He [and others] [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2005-12-15

340

Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5?km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n?=?1256 and n?=?1803, respectively), household interviews (n?=?400, both sides) and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2%) than in Vietnam (1.8%) and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90%) in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the promotion of insect repellent use in the early evening as additional vector interventions. Conducting joint malaria surveys by staff of two countries proved to be effective in stimulating better collaboration and improve cross-border malaria control.

Pongvongsa Tiengkham; Ha Hoang; Thanh Le; Marchand Ron P; Nonaka Daisuke; Tojo Bumpei; Phongmany Panom; Moji Kazuhiko; Kobayashi Jun

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while increased the harmfulness of others. Some disease agents became obsolete, but others gained importance. New agents of root diseases were found. The most frequent damages, persisting over long periods of time were caused by seedling damping-off, Fusarium root rot, charcoal root rot, parasitic (Rhizomania) and non-parasitic root bearding. The parasitic damping-off caused by several fungal species but most frequently by Phoma betae occurred at the time when multigerm seeds were used in combination with extensive cultural practices. The agents of seedling diseases completely lost their significance as the consequence of switching to fungicide - treated monogerm seeds, earlier planting and improved soil tillage. In the period of intensive use of agricultural chemicals, seedling damping-off occurred frequently due to the phytotoxic action of chemicals (insecticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers). In some years, frosts caused damping- off of sugar beet seedlings on a large scale in the Vojvodina Province. Poor sugar beet germination and emergence were frequently due to spring droughts. Sometimes they were due to strong winds. The occurrence of Fusarium root rot and charcoal root rot intensified on poor soils. Fusariosis symptoms were exhibited as plant wilting and different forms of root rot. In recent years root tip rot has occurred frequently in the first part of the growing season causing necrosis and dying of plants. Lateral roots tended to proliferate from the healthy tissue, giving the root a bearded appearance similar to Rhizomania. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent agent of this fusariosis. F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. solani have also been identified in recent years as the agent of root rot, but its importance was much lower. Charcoal root rot and plant wilting (Macrophomina phaseolina) have caused extensive damages in sugar beets, especially under the conditions of severe drought and high temperatures in summer. In some years, it was the dominant agent of root rot. Mixed infections caused by fungi from the genera Fusarium and M. phaseolina were encountered frequently. The extent of damage caused by these diseases was reduced by improved pro- duction technology. Rhizomania of sugar beet (caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus) was identified in Serbia in the 1970s. Results of recent investigations have shown that BNYVV is widespread in Vojvodina, since the virus was found on 36,7% (24,674 ha) of acreages from 67,213 ha of total sugar beet acreages inspected on incidence of BNYVV in the period from 1997 to 2004 year. In the last few years, the occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) was registered in some localities in Vojvodina.

Stojšin Vera B.; Mari? Adam A.; Jasni? Stevan M.; Bagi Ferenc F.; Marinkovi? Branko J.

2006-01-01

342

Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. METHODS: The audit of asthma care targete (more) d all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. CONCLUSION: The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.

Mash, Bob; Rhode, Hilary; Pather, Michael; Ainslie, Gillian; Irusen, Elvis; Bheekie, Angeni; Mayers, Pat

2009-12-01

343

Quality of asthma care: Western Cape province, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. METHODS: The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. CONCLUSION: The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.

Mash B; Rhode H; Pather M; Ainslie G; Irusen E; Bheekie A; Mayers P

2009-12-01

344

Congenital Hypothyroidism: Increased Incidence in Yazd Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010) and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on all infants (13022 births) born in 1389 (March 2010-March 2011). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured using ELISA technique. Results: Forty five infants suffered from congenital hypothyroidism with an overall incidence of one in 289 live births. Twenty five of the diagnosed infants were males (incidence 1:261) and twenty were females (incidence 1:325). The incidence of CH in boys was more than girls (P-value = 0.295). The highest incidence of CH was observed in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter (P-value=0.000. Conclusion: The CH incidence was 10.3 to 13.8 times more than other countries. The highest CH incidence was in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter. It is important that a larger size of cases need to be screened and more information on the aetiology of the affected infants to be obtained

M. Noori-Shadkam; M.H. Mosadegh; M. Mirzaei; MR. Movahedi Nia; M. Jafarizadeh

2012-01-01

345

Potato virus yisolated from pepper fields in Tehran Province.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potato Virus Y was known as the main cause of yellowing and vein necrosis of pepper in Tehran Province, using Double Antibody Sandwich Elisa (DAS-ELISA). Biological properties including host range of the isolate was determined after biological purification. Host range studies showed that pepper isolate of PVY caused vein clearing and mosaic symptoms on Datura metel and Capsicum annum, mosaic on Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Barley, N. tabacum cv. Samsun and N. rustica but didn't show any symptoms on Physalis floridana, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Solanum tuberosum. Also the virus was physically purified from propagative hosts: Datura metel, Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Barley and Capsicum annum using Leiser & Richter (1978) method. The A260/280 absorbance ratio of the isolate was 1.16, 1.50 and 1.04 for purified preparations from D. metel, N. tabacum cv. White Barley and C. annum respectively. SDS-PAGE of the coat protein extracted from purified virus preparations gave bands at position of about 34 KD and Western Blotting (using PVY antiserum with 1/1000 dilution, obtained from DSMZ, Germany) confirmed its as the PVY coat protein. In order to prepare antiserum, five injections were given at 7-10 days intervals to rabbit. A week after the last injection the rabbit was bled and the antiserum collected. The primer pairs NIA/F and NIA/R (Glais et al., 2005) were used in IC-RT-PCR and the length of the amplified fragment was 752 bp. This is the first report of PVY incidence in pepper fields in Iran.

Mostafae S; Mosahebi G; Habibi MK

2006-01-01

346

Potato virus yisolated from pepper fields in Tehran Province.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato Virus Y was known as the main cause of yellowing and vein necrosis of pepper in Tehran Province, using Double Antibody Sandwich Elisa (DAS-ELISA). Biological properties including host range of the isolate was determined after biological purification. Host range studies showed that pepper isolate of PVY caused vein clearing and mosaic symptoms on Datura metel and Capsicum annum, mosaic on Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Barley, N. tabacum cv. Samsun and N. rustica but didn't show any symptoms on Physalis floridana, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Solanum tuberosum. Also the virus was physically purified from propagative hosts: Datura metel, Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Barley and Capsicum annum using Leiser & Richter (1978) method. The A260/280 absorbance ratio of the isolate was 1.16, 1.50 and 1.04 for purified preparations from D. metel, N. tabacum cv. White Barley and C. annum respectively. SDS-PAGE of the coat protein extracted from purified virus preparations gave bands at position of about 34 KD and Western Blotting (using PVY antiserum with 1/1000 dilution, obtained from DSMZ, Germany) confirmed its as the PVY coat protein. In order to prepare antiserum, five injections were given at 7-10 days intervals to rabbit. A week after the last injection the rabbit was bled and the antiserum collected. The primer pairs NIA/F and NIA/R (Glais et al., 2005) were used in IC-RT-PCR and the length of the amplified fragment was 752 bp. This is the first report of PVY incidence in pepper fields in Iran. PMID:17390898

Mostafae, S; Mosahebi, Gh; Habibi, M Koohi

2006-01-01

347

Oral health service systems in Gauteng Province, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the provision of restorative care and dental operators' opinion about their conditions of service in a South African provincial oral health service system. DESIGN: Assessment of oral health service over a four-month period. SETTING: Gauteng Province, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Dental operators in public oral health service. INTERVENTIONS: Operator interview, collection of treatment statistics, calculation of the mean score of restoration-extraction ratio per operator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of restorations and tooth extractions rendered, daily patient load, perceived occupational stress level and opinion about main reasons for operator stress. RESULTS: A total of 88,705 patients had been treated. The mean number of patients treated daily was 26 (SD = 8.4). Operators extracted 39,242 teeth and placed 2992 restorations. The main type of dental treatment was extraction. The mean score of the restoration-extraction ratio per operator was 0.09 in the primary, and 0.07 in the permanent dentition. The mean level of stress was 4.9 (SD = 1.9). The majority of operators regarded patients' high dental anxiety as the main reason for stress, followed by high patient load. The mean level of stress increased with the increase in number of patients treated per day (r = 0.44, p = 0.004) and also with the increase in the number of tooth extractions performed per day (r = 0.41, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Restorative dental care in this public oral health service is limited, tooth extraction being the predominant treatment provided. High patient load and high patient levels of dental anxiety determine this situation, according to the operators. The health authority should introduce appropriate solutions in order to address the prevailing situation adequately.

Mickenautsch S; van't Hof MA; Frencken JE

2007-04-01

348

Survey of Dogs’ Parasites in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other in­testinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected from 2006 to 2007. Fecal samples were examined for de­tecting intestinal parasites by Mini Parasep®SF faecal parasite concentrator in Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran "nResults: The overall prevalence of other intestinal parasites in farm dogs and household dogs were 29.21% and 14.11%, respectively. Seven parasites were found in farm dogs as follows: Toxocara canis 17.9%, Taenia sp. 10.1% , Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%, Hammondia Neo­spora-like oocysts (HNLO) 4.4% , Isospora sp. 7.8 %, Sarcocystis sp. 7.8 % and   Giardia sp. 1.1%  and four parasite in housed dogs:  Toxocara. 4.4%, Taenia sp. 3.3 % , Isospora sp. 2.3 % and  Sarcocystis sp. 4.7 %.  The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum -specific PCR, and two of samples were positive for N. caninum. "nConclusion: The farm and household dogs are the source of some important zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in Iran .

GhR Razmi

2009-01-01

349

Factors Influencing on Trout Production in Khorasan Razavi Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research carried out to study of factors influencing on trout production in Khorasan Razavi Province using a cross sectional data of 105 trout producers and estimation of trout production function in 2008. Results showed that farms' area, number of fry, feed, fish farming period and water flow have positive effect on trout production and water temperature and fish losses have negative effect on it. Farms area, water temperature degree, number of fry, feed, fish farming period, water flow, water source, labor and fish losses elasticities are 0.282, -1.428, 0.216, 0.422, 1.641, 0.430, -9.19x10-4, -1.407 and -0.157, respectively. The highest positive effect is due to fish farming period that shows trout producers harvest earlier of economic harvesting time and supply to market. The highest negative effect is due to water temperature that shows it is high. Use of farms' area, number of fry, water flow and feed are at stage 2. Water temperature and fish losses are at stage 3. Effect of Farms area, water temperature degree, number of fry, feed, fish farming period, water flow, water source, labor and fish losses on fish production are 15.46, -78.30, 11.85, 23.14, 89.99, 23.58, -5x10-2, -77.15 and -8.60 kg, respectively. Fish cost price is 23518.16 rial kg-1 that sale 30000 rial kg-1 at market. Cost, revenue and gross revenue of trout estimated 49.13, 62.67, 13.54 rial/day/fish, respectively. Gross margin (income) is 6481.84 rial kg-1. Regard to results, fish feed management, supplying of farms water from river and spring, try to decrease of water temperature to 15-16°C, fish harvesting in income maximization time and farm environmental management suggested.

M. Ghorbani; H. Zare Mirakabad

2010-01-01

350

The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Jeonbug Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A photofluorographic mass survey of P-A chest had been done to the 13136 residents (male 6264, female 6872) in Jeonbug province, Korea for about 2 years from May 5, to Dec.19, 1978 and from Mar. 5, to Dec. 22, 1979. The results are as follows: 1. The prevalence rate of all active pulmonary tuberculosis is 5.3%. 2. The prevalence rate of male(8.8%) is 4.2 times higher than that of female (2.1%). 3. The prevalence rates of all old age groups above fifty years are higher than that of remainder under fifty years of age. Of these, 61-70 years old age group is highest in prevalence rate. 4. According to extent of active pulmonary tuberculosis, 77.5% is minimal, 15.4% is moderately advanced, and 7.1% is far advanced. Inactive pulmonary tuberculosis are 39 cases (0.3% to objective population). 5. In the incidence of the involved side, right side is about 2 times higher than the left, and involvement of both sides is increased in moderately and far advance pulmonary tuberculosis. In all pulmonary tuberculosis, one or both upper lung fields are most commonly involved. The incidences of cavity in moderately and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis show no significant difference. 6. The incidences of other intrathoracic lesions are as follows: suspected hypertensive heart disease 2.4%, dextrocardia with situs inversus 0.04%, pleural calcification 0.4%, pleural thickening 0.2%, pleural effusion 0.1%, pneumonia 0.02%, bronchiectasis 0.1%, lung abscess 0.02%, C.O.P.D. 0.2%, suspected lung tumor 0.06%, pneumothorax 0.0076%, and suspected mediastinal tumor 0.02%

1981-01-01

351

The seroprevalence of canine listeriosis in dogs in Konya province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Listeriosis causes abortion, septicemia and meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. Infected dogs are important in public health as they can spread Listeria monocytogenes strains via their faeces or urine. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of listeriosis in dogs in Konya Province.Method: A total of 135 blood serum samples were collected from dogs from the municipality kennels (n= 106) and also from veterinary clinics (n= 9) and the Dog Research Unit (n= 20) of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University. Samples were examined by Micro Standard Tube Agglutination Test (mSAT) and ELISA. The statistical differences between the groups were determined by the Mc Nemar Test and Fisher Exact x2 Test.Results: Out of 135 serum samples tested, 31 (23%) and 21 (15.5%) were found to be positive for listeriosis by mSAT and ELISA, respectively. Fourteen serum samples which were positive by mSAT were negative with ELISA, while 114 samples (84.5%) were negative by ELISA. The frequencies of listeriosis in municipality kennels, the veterinary clinics and dog research unit of the Veterinary Faculty were 24.5%,11.1% and 20%, respectively by mSAT and 19.8%,0% and 0% by ELISA, respectively. According toELISA results, the listeriosis frequency was foundhigher in dogs from the municipality kennels than inanimals from the veterinary clinics or in dogs of theresearch unit of veterinary Faculty.Conclusions: The present study shows that theseropositivity to L. monocytogenes in stray dogs fromKonya is high and it is of concern for the veterinaryand human public health.

Zeki ARAS; Uçkun Sait UÇAN

2012-01-01

352

The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Jeonbug Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A photofluorographic mass survey of P-A chest had been done to the 13136 residents (male 6264, female 6872) in Jeonbug province, Korea for about 2 years from May 5, to Dec.19, 1978 and from Mar. 5, to Dec. 22, 1979. The results are as follows: 1. The prevalence rate of all active pulmonary tuberculosis is 5.3%. 2. The prevalence rate of male(8.8%) is 4.2 times higher than that of female (2.1%). 3. The prevalence rates of all old age groups above fifty years are higher than that of remainder under fifty years of age. Of these, 61-70 years old age group is highest in prevalence rate. 4. According to extent of active pulmonary tuberculosis, 77.5% is minimal, 15.4% is moderately advanced, and 7.1% is far advanced. Inactive pulmonary tuberculosis are 39 cases (0.3% to objective population). 5. In the incidence of the involved side, right side is about 2 times higher than the left, and involvement of both sides is increased in moderately and far advance pulmonary tuberculosis. In all pulmonary tuberculosis, one or both upper lung fields are most commonly involved. The incidences of cavity in moderately and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis show no significant difference. 6. The incidences of other intrathoracic lesions are as follows: suspected hypertensive heart disease 2.4%, dextrocardia with situs inversus 0.04%, pleural calcification 0.4%, pleural thickening 0.2%, pleural effusion 0.1%, pneumonia 0.02%, bronchiectasis 0.1%, lung abscess 0.02%, C.O.P.D. 0.2%, suspected lung tumor 0.06%, pneumothorax 0.0076%, and suspected mediastinal tumor 0.02%.

Rhee, S. J.; Moon, M. C.; Song, H. Y.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug Natinal University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

1981-12-15

353

Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS). The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

Nipaporn Chusrinuan; Charlchai Tanavud; Chao Yongchalermchai

2009-01-01

354

Productivity Analysis of Eggs Production in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egg production is one of the most important agricultural economic activities in Iran. According to the latest information in Iran, there were about 1432 poultry eggs farms producing about 576478 tons of edible eggs in 2005. The poultry farmers, however, complained that the cost of production was very high and that failed to gain considerable profit from their farming operations. The consumers, on the other hand, protested that the poultry price was very high. The purpose of this study is to determine the productivity level of the industry so that a more sustainable and high productivity production system can be developed. Production function was used to measure productivity. A transcendental production function was estimated using cross-sectional data collected from 47 farmers in the Khorasan Razavi province. Secondary data from the Iranian Statistical Year Book (published by the Statistical Center of Iran) were also used. The results of the study found that the cost-benefit ratio was 0.96. The Average Product (AP), Marginal Product (MP), Value Marginal Product (VMP), Optimal Allocation Ratio and the Elasticity of Production (EP) of the feed input were 0.41, 0.16, 577 Rials, 0.48 and 41% respectively. The findings for similar measures above for pullet input were 18.38, 4.24, 14826 Rials, 1.23 and 0.23 respectively. From the study, the average productivity of the poultry farm was 1.04. This shows that the income approximately equals the variable cost. When the fixed costs were taken into consideration, the profit of the average farm was negative. The results indicated that farmers were using feed more than “the optimal level ” and that they were using pullet less than “the optimal level. ” Therefore, to improve profitability, they should use less feed and keep more pullets. In this manner, the cost of production can be reduced.

S.A. Mohaddes

2009-01-01

355

Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW) newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008) and gestational age at birth (P<0.001) none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

Goshtasbi Nasab A; Majlesi F; Rahimi A

2001-01-01

356

[Outbreak of histoplasmosis in Province of Neuquen, Patagonia Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Argentina, there are no reports of autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis in the southern regions of the country. AIM: To report a histoplasmosis outbreak in Zapala town, Province of Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 5 patients involved in the outbreak. Environmental studies were conducted to determine the source of infection. The genetic profile of Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) strains isolated from the index case (IC) were compared with clinical isolates from Argentinean patients not related to the outbreak, using RAPD-PCR with primers 1281-1283. RESULTS: The patients worked in local highway maintenance, were residents of Zapala, and had no history of having visited other geographical areas. All patients had an influenza-like syndrome, and X-ray revealed disseminated micronodular images throughout the lung parenchyma. The IC needed specific antifungal therapy; the remaining 4 patients had mild symptoms, and did not require therapy. All of them had a good clinical outcome. Strains of H. capsulatum isolated from blood culture and lung biopsy of the IC showed a genetic profile different from other strains analyzed. The presence of the fungus in the environment could have been due to the presence of antibodies anti-Histoplasma in BALB/c mice inoculated with soils obtained in a culvert where workers removed earth after landslide. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak extends the histoplasmosis endemic area below the 38° S parallel. Patients from Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina, with compatible symptoms of histoplasmosis should be tested, regardless of their travel or exposure history.

Calanni LM; Pérez R; Brasili S; Schmidt NG; Iovannitti CA; Zuiani MF; Negroni R; Finquelievich J; Canteros CE

2013-02-01

357

Ocular Injuries Occurring in Motor Vehicular Accident Victims, Yazd Province.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Motor vehicular accidents are one of the leading causes of death in young men and severe complications in all age groups. This study was carried out to evaluate eye injuries secondary to motor vehicular accidents that have a high rate of occurrence in Yazd province. Methods: This descriptive, cross- sectional study was conducted through case series method. Simple sampling, i.e. census from the under study population was performed to complete the sample number. The study was carried out in 1383 on 126 motorcycle accident cases with eye injuries referred to the Kalantari Emergency Department. Data collected from questionnaires was analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square, Fisher and Variance analysis statistical tests. Results: Of the 126 cases, 124 (98.4%) were male and 2 (1.6%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 27.4 (SD=13.7) ranging between 5 months and 81 years. The highest rate of accidents was between cars and motor cycles; 83 cases (65.9%) and most of them (76.2%) were in the city. The most frequent eye injury was sub conjunctival hemorrhage in 112 cases (44.4%) followed by eyelids injury [Right side 64 cases (50.8%) and left side in 55 cases (43.6%)], orbital injury in 57 cases (22.6%) of which 39 cases (68.4%) had periorbital hematoma and 18 cases (31.6%) had an orbital fracture, 20 cases (7.9%) had ocular movement limitation and lacrimal drainage system injury was seen in 13 cases (5.2%). Those with helmets had more mandibular fractures (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The victims of motor vehicular accidents in our study were young men. The most frequent eye injuries were sub conjunctival hemorrhage, eyelid, orbital and lacrimal system injuries.

MR Besharati; MR Shoja

2006-01-01

358

Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis) in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results) and secondly, to contribute to our understanding of carnivore behavioural ecology.The first stage in determining the distribution and status of spotted-necked otters and Cape clawless otters, in South Africa, and possible effects of environmental variants have, is almost complete. A detailed autecological study of Cape clawless otters in two rivers is now the main focus of the project. Six otters have had radio transmitters implanted: MP/300/L, implantable transmitter, 40g 80 x 20 mm diameter cylinder (Telonics Inc., Arizona, USA). Since implanting, one male has died of unknown causes. A post mortem revealed total healing from the operation. Much new behavioural and ecological information has been gained by the use of the radio tracking. One adult male has a home range of at least 45 km, much more than first expected for the species. Work has also been done in the Eastern Cape Province determining the diet of three coexisting carnivores, spotted-necked otters, Cape clawless otters and water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus). This work is about to be submitted for publication. We thank the Southern African Nature Foundation (WWF), for providing funds, and Mazda Wildlife Fund for providing a vehicle for the project.

Michael J. Somers

1994-01-01

359

Rationalisation of Nursing Education in Limpopo province: Nurse educators’ perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE), and the National Qualification Framework (NQF) (South Africa, 1995:6). In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RS A) according to Act 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell 1994:154-155). The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

T.R. Makhuvha; M. Davhana-Maselesele; V.O. Netshandama

2007-01-01

360

Urinary iodine levels of the term newborns in Kayseri province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the thyroid volumes and urinary iodine levels of 42 term newborns born in Kayseri.Material and Methods: Urinary iodine levels were measured on postnatal 5th day. The levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured in the cord blood of newborns and in mothers' sera by RIA. The TSH levels of cord blood above 20 mU/L and levels of Tg above 54 ng/ml, and thyroid volumes of baby greater than 1.5 ml were accepted as pathological. Urinary iodine levels of newborns below 5 mg/dl were accepted as a criteria for iodine deficiency.Results: In 9.52 % of newborns, urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 mg/dl and in 16.7 % thyroid volume was greater than 1.5 mL. Cord TSH level greater than 20 mU/L was present in 11.9 % and cord Tg level greater than 54 ng/ml was present in 52.3 % of the newborns. In 2 of the 4 babies with iodine deficiency, thyroid volumes were high and 3 of them had high Tg levels. In 2 of the 7 babies who had high thyroid volumes, TSH levels were high, in 5 babies Tg levels were high, and in 2 urinary iodine levels were low. In 22 babies with high cord blood Tg levels, the thyroid volumes were high although this was not statistically significant. However, in these cases urine iodine levels were significantly low (p<0.05).Conclusion: This prospective study showed that in a significant number of newborns born in the Kayseri province, urinary iodine excretion was low and Tg levels and thyroid volumes were high. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake.

Selim KURTO?LU; Mustafa AKÇAKU?; Tamer GÜNE?; Adem K?R??

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Intestinal Parasitic Infection among School Children in Golestan Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infections by intestinal parasites are a major public health problem worldwide, especially among children in developing countries. It causes nutritional deficiencies and anaemia. As, the prevalence of parasitic infection is different among various population, there is a need for periodical prevalence evaluation to an appropriate control strategy. The goal in this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in primary school children living in Gorgan, north of Iran. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 800 schoolchildren aged 8-12 years of Gorgan city, capital of Golestan province, located in the north of Iran in 2011. Three stool specimens were collected from each student. Specimens were examined with direct wet and formalin ethyl acetate method. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. A total of 800 schoolchildren were screened. Nearly one third of students (28.8%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The most common parasite were Giardia intestinalis (9.9%; 79/800) and H. nana (1.5% ; 12/800), respectively. The data showed that Children living in crowded family (?3) were more susceptible to infection also take care of animals in house helps to transmission of parasite infections as there was a significant association between that and rates of parasite infections (p-value<0.05). The prevalence of infection was also much more common in those students whose parents were less educated. A high percentage of school children were infected to intestinal parasites, so, intervention programs including health education and environmental sanitation are required.

Rostami Masoumeh; Tohidi Farideh; Sharbatkhori Mitra; Taherkhani Heshmatollah

2012-01-01

362

[Tularemia: a decade in the province of Soria (Spain)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that has been regularly reported in Spain since 1997. This study analyzes suspected, probable, and confirmed cases of tularemia in the province of Soria, and compares them with tularemia cases recorded in the autonomous community of Castilla y Léon, which, with the exception of 1 sporadic case, occurred in 2 epidemic outbreaks in 1997/1998 and 2007/2008. METHODS: We studied all patients (53) with signs and symptoms of tularemia in the period of 1997 to 2008. Sixty-three serum samples from these patients were tested by a microagglutination assay for antibodies against Francisella tularensis; additionally 10 blood cultures and 1 culture of abscess exudate from an enlarged lymph node were carried out. RESULTS: Over the last decade, 19 cases of tularemia have been diagnosed in Soria (1 sporadic case in 1996, 5 associated with an outbreak reported in 1997/98 and 13 associated with an outbreak occurring in 2007/08). In 95% of the cases, previous contact with hares was reported. The ulceroglandular type was most frequently (62%) observed. F. tularensis was isolated on blood culture in 2 cases. The remaining patients were diagnosed by serology (4 confirmed cases, 13 probable cases). CONCLUSION: The cases of tularemia documented in Soria showed clinical and epidemiological features (predominant ulceroglandular clinical presentation and previous contact with hares) identical to the 1997/98 tularemia outbreak in Castilla y Léon, but contrasted with the 2007/08 outbreak in Castilla y León where typhoidal clinical forms of the disease and a relationship with an increased rodent population (Mycrotus spp) were predominant.

Aldea-Mansilla C; Nebreda T; García de Cruz S; Dodero E; Escudero R; Anda P; Campos A

2010-01-01

363

Discovery of the Sierra Pintada uranium district, Mendoza Province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1956, uranium-bearing minerals have been known to exist in Sierra Pintada, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Based on paragenetic considerations, a first radiometric prospection was carried out, leading to the discovery of two groups of anomalies (Puesto Agua del Toro and Cuesta de los Terneros), such as vein-type deposits, with uraninite and 'yellow minerals' and one sandstone-type deposit (Puesto La Josefa), related to sediments with carbon trash. Some recent geological research and surveys in the area, and a reduced drilling programme carried out on selected anomalies, led to reinterpretation of the potential of the area. Furthermore, and as a result of an airborne radiometric prospection performed in mid-1968, numerous anomalies have been discovered. The main constellation of anomalies, along the flanks of the El Tigre Brachyanticline, occurs in sandstones of Permian age. Explored by 80 000 m of drilling, they have shown the existence of several peneconcordant lens-shaped ore bodies of economic size, with uranophane on the surface and prevailing uraninite and some brannerite, coffinite and davidite below the water table. Reserves exceed 20 000 tonnes of U3O8. A new regional programme with a 4-km drill-grid initiated in 1978 led to the discovery of new ore bodies which are at present being evaluated. The alternatives and discontinuities during the development of the district, the prospecting and exploration techniques employed, and the results achieved in the different stages of the operation are discussed in detail. This case history attempts to illustrate the developing philosophy which was successfully applied in Sierra Pintada, with emphasis on the following points: (a) the need for adequate geological knowledge of the area; (b) the advantage of a massive survey (in this case, air survey); (c) the necessity for exploration (drilling) in order to define the anomalies and make their evaluation possible; and (d) the convenience of extending exploration when geology and control factors have been properly surveyed and recognized

1979-11-29

364

PLANTS OF JAHAN NAMA PROTECTED AREA, GOLESTAN PROVINCE, N. IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jahan Nama Protected Area is located in the eastern parts of Alborz Mountains, between 36º35? and 36º42? northern latitudes and 54º08? and 54º36? eastern longitudes, with an altitude ranging from 800 to 3100 m. The complicated topography and habitat heterogeneity, in addition to influencing the area by humid Caspian climate at the north and Mediterranean-like climate at the south have caused formation of diverse vegetation types including deciduous montane forests, cold-resistant Juniper woodlands, montane steppes, grasslands and meadows, cliff and riverine vegetation. Based on collection of about 1350 specimens during 1999, 2000 and 2004 to 2007, a total number of 607 vascular plant species were identified from this area belonging to 329 genera and 85 families. The Dicots with 469 species are the richest group of flora of the area followed by Monocots with 119 species, Gymnosperms with 6 species and Pteridophytes with 13 species. The largest families in the area are Poaceae (53 species), Labiatae (50 species) and Brassicaceae (52 species), and the most diverse genera include Astragalus (16 species), Carex (11 species) and Veronica (11 species). The floristic composition of the area is strongly influenced by large number of Euro-Siberian (boreal) elements in the mesic parts and Irano-Turanian elements in the Juniper woodland and montane steppe parts of the area. The area inhabited by several endemic plants of the Hyrcanian and Kopetdagh-Khorassan floristic provinces in addition to local endemics of the eastern and Central Alborz like Ferula glaucopruinosa (Rech.f.) Akhani comb. nov. and trees like Taxus baccata which is considered as a protected and threatened species in Iran.

S. M. JAFARI; H. AKHANI

2008-01-01

365

Natural radioactivity in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research work aims to study the specific activity of natural radioactivity in soil, rock, construction sand and shallow well water samples in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Totally 161 samples were collected and analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The specific activities of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in soil samples ranged from 8 to 203 (mean 96±18) Bq/kg, 12 to 236 (mean 88±23) Bq/kg and 21 to 1191 (mean 524±127) Bq/kg, in rock samples ranged from 11 to 113 (mean 46±14) Bq/kg, 3 to 113 (mean 47±16) Bq/kg and 18 to 1305 (mean 472±187) Bq/kg, in sand samples ranged from 3 to 91 (mean 42±5) Bq/kg, 14 to 91 (mean 50±5) Bq/kg and 102 to 966 (mean 509±57) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity of soil samples in 2 districts was found to be higher than 370 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indices calculated for assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these rock and sand samples in the construction of dwellings were within the safety limits recommended by UNSCEAR. The mean estimated outdoor dose rates in soil and rock samples were 119±23 and 70±21 nGy/h, respectively. The mean estimated indoor dose rate in sand samples was 134±9 nGy/h. The specific activities of Ra-226 in well water samples ranged from 2 to 179 (Mean 17±7) mBq/l. Only one water sample from Muang District had the Ra-226 specific activity of 179 mBq/l, which was higher than the maximum contaminant level (111 mBq/l).

Nuanjing, P.; Chittrakarn, T.; Bhongsuwan, T.

2007-01-01

366

Iranian Epidemiological Training Programs for AIDS Prevention in Mazandaran Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study to report data is derived from an investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of AIDS prevention among the large the descendant of the Iranian prisoners. Using a multistage area sampling method, a random sample of individuals aged 18-65 years in southern coastwise of the Caspian Sea from February to December 2006. To select a representative sample of the prisoners` population within 5 different prisons in Mazandaran Province had the same probability to be sampled. Prisoners who agreed to participate were given a four-page self-administered questionnaire. 760 (88%) of the 2000 eligible participants completed the questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 30.05 ± 8.1 years ranging from 18 to 59, 1686 (95.8%) were male and mostly married 1054 (59.9%) and had received secondary education or above 1178 (66.9%). Most respondents (1690, 96%) had household income levels low or average and 716 (40.7%) were out of work. The findings indicated that the respondents had average to fairly good knowledge about AIDS. The correct answers ranged from 11.9% to about 85.9%. Also the results showed that the majority of the respondents were strongly agree or agree with the statement that people with AIDS should have social right to study or work (1378, 78.3%) or with the statement that AIDS is public health problem (1522, 86.5%). The majority of the respondents (1538, 83.4%) said that the mass media including radio, television and newspapers were the main source of their information about HIV/AIDS. Such findings suggest that prevention programs should be encourage and these might have the potential role to limit the emergence of Iran`s HIV/AIDS epidemic especially in prison`s this of country.

Hallajian Ebrahim

2008-01-01

367

Drought Analysis in Yazd Province Based on 5 Drought Indices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, 5 percent of normal Precipitation Index (PNPI),Deciles of Precipitation(DPI),Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI), Bahlme & Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) and standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were used in order to investigate drought in Yazd synoptic station and 31 non synoptic stations all around this province. For this purpose, the present statistical errors were reconstructed via correlation between the stations, after raining data collection from the considered stations. Then, calculation of PNPI, DPI, RAI, BMDI and SPI indexes were calculated on monthly and annual scales. Situation of drought was determined based on the obtained values from calculation of each index according to tables related to the considered indexes in different classes of drought during the statistical period. Then indexes were compared to each other, considering drought given situation for each station. The difference and similarity of each index with other 4 indexes were calculated and investigated. Also after determination of drought situation in each station, given percentage of drought different situations via each Index was determined on annual scales, in 33 study stations. After passing the above mentioned stages, it was found that there was the highest percentage value of similarity between the two indexes RAI & DPI, as both indexes indicated similar situation of hard drought in the stations. These two indexes are considered most efficient to investigate aerology drought. But considering that static indexes are faced with problem on monthly scales and in stations located in drought regions, it is recommended to use? SPI & BMDI dynamic indexes whose similarity percentages are acceptable.

E. Shayegh; S. Soltani

2011-01-01

368

Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ?1 ?g/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 ?g/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation.

Hashim JH; Radzi RS; Aljunid SM; Nur AM; Ismail A; Baguma D; Sthiannopkao S; Phan K; Wong MH; Sao V; Yasin MS

2013-10-01

369

Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ?1?g/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0?g/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. PMID:23759330

Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

2013-06-10

370

The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author)[pt] As principais caracteristicas da provincia alcalino-carbonatica Brasil-Angola sao definidas e descritas com referencia especifica ao condicionamento tectonico a aspectos economicos. Da-se enfase aos aspectos economicos dos depositos de uranio brasileiros. A provincia alcalino-carbonatica Brasil-Angola pode ser dividida em seis subprovincias brasileiras e duas angolanas. A correlacao entre as subprovincias do Brasil e as de Angola e ainda motivo de especulacao devido a falta de informacao detalhada, especialmente determinacoes de idade, sobre as rochas angolanas. Entretanto, uma analise dos aspectos tectonico e petroquimico sugere que as duas subprovincias brasileiras situadas ao longo do litoral Rio de Janeiro/S. Paulo e na periferia da Bacia do Parana podem mais facilmente ser comparadas as duas subprovincias angolanas do que as quatro restantes. (I.C.R.)

1982-01-01

371

[Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output.

Zhang YC; Du SH

2012-03-01

372

Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Joha (more) nnesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, deadend introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

Sabeta, Claude T; Weyer, Jacqueline; Geertsma, Peter; Mohale, Debra; Miyen, Jacobeth; Blumberg, Lucille H; Leman, Patricia A; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Walters, Johan; Paweska, Janusz T

2013-01-01

373

Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population. PMID:23718320

Sabeta, Claude T; Weyer, Jacqueline; Geertsma, Peter; Mohale, Debra; Miyen, Jacobeth; Blumberg, Lucille H; Leman, Patricia A; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Walters, Johan; Paweska, Janusz T

2013-04-26

374

Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

Sabeta CT; Weyer J; Geertsma P; Mohale D; Miyen J; Blumberg LH; Leman PA; Phahladira B; Shumba W; Walters J; Paweska JT

2013-01-01

375

Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

Claude T. Sabeta; Jacqueline Weyer; Peter Geertsma; Debra Mohale; Jacobeth Miyen; Lucille H. Blumberg; Patricia A. Leman; Baby Phahladira; Wonderful Shumba; Johan Walters; Janusz T. Paweska

2013-01-01

376

Epidemiological investigation and gene classification of Lyme disease in Jilin province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the geographic distribution of Lyme disease thoroughly in nine districts of Jilin Province. the infection rate of humans and animals, germ-carrying rate of intermediary ticks, action regulation of ticks, the time of rise and fall and life conditions is registered and investigated according to the individual eases schedule table of the epidemiology of Lyme disease , the disposition of natural foei and geographical landscapes of Lyme disease in Jilin Province is analyzed, the investigation data of mountain areas, half-mountain areas, plains is treated statistically. It is found that the biting rate of ticks of 3561 crow is 91.00% and infection rate of 2292 crow is 6.20% in 53 small towns, 33 cities and towns, 9 territories of Jilin Province. In the 2499 investigations of horses, oxes, sheep, mice, and dogs the infection rate is 22.13 %. The germ-carrying rate of 3570 eatehed ticks is 35.80%. It is concluded that the results of investigation showed that there are natural foei of Lyme disease in nine districts of Jilin Province generally. Feature spots of tourism are important natural loci of Lyme disease. Lyme disease is not a disease of forestry type. Pathogen gene classification is confirmed by molecular biology method that at least there are two kinds in Jilin province.

Du Zhansen; Wan Kanglin; Wang Chunsheng; Chen Degui; Xia Qibin; Liu Fucai; Zhang Yanli

377

Detection and sequence analysis of human granulocytic Ehrlichia DNA in ticks collected in Jilin province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether there exists the human granulocytic Ehrlichia HGE infection in ticks collected in Jilin province, the semi-nested PCR assay with the 16 S rRNA gene-specific primers was used to detect the presence of HGE in tick specimens. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and the homology of sequences was compared with other Ehrlichiae. It was found that the HGE-specific DNA fragments could be detected in lxodes persulcatus collected from Jilin province with a detection rate of 1.98 %. After cloning and sequenceing of the amplified product, the amplified DNA fragment of HGE collected in Jilin province was found to be very similar to that of the HGE isolate strain in America GenBank U02521, just only with difference of 2 nucleotides; accordingly,the homology between these two strains was 99.7%. It is evident that lxodes persulcatus in Jilin province harbors the pathogen HGE, suggesting the natural loci of infection with human granulocytic Ehrlichia may exist in Jilin province.

Zhang Zhiqiang; Wu Yimin; Feng Li; Wang Hongjun; Wang Liqiang; Wei Anming; Hu Lingmei

378

A survey of the ixodid ticks parasitising cattle in the Eastern province of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of tick surveys carried out in the Eastern province of Zambia between December 1982 and February 1996 were principally in agreement with the findings of earlier surveys conducted during the period 1965-72. Boophilus decoloratus has almost been replaced by Boophilus microplus. Hyalomma truncatum was found in small numbers throughout the province and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was only rarely encountered in collections made from cattle. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was largely confined to the southern part of the plateau and the valleys of the Zambezi tributaries. The main difference between the present survey and the previous one concerns the status of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This species is currently expanding its range in a westward direction, whereas it was virtually absent from the southern part of the province during the period 1965-72. The majority of specimens collected are morphologically intermediate between R. appendiculatus and the closely allied Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The available evidence indicates that R. zambeziensis (sensu stricto) is absent from the province. The phenology of R. appendiculatus is aberrant in the province: at lower altitudes a second generation of adult ticks is recorded on the hosts at the start of the dry season.

Berkvens DL; Geysen DM; Chaka G; Madder M; Brandt JR

1998-07-01

379

Fauna and Checklist of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of East Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of East Azerbaijan Province, some samplings were carried out by dipping method for the larvae and hand catch, night biting catch, total catch, and shelter pit collection as well as using window trap for the adults during June, July, and August 2004 plus July and August 2005. In total, 1305 adult mosquitoes and 603 larvae were collected. Seven genera and 15 species were identified in the prov¬ince including; Anopheles claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. maculipennis s.l., An. pseudopictus, An. sacharovi, An. superpictus, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia richiardii, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subo¬chrea, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., and Uranotaenia unguiculata. An. maculipennis complex, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. theileri were the most prevalent and widely dis¬tributed species. An. pseudopictus, Ae. vexans, and Cq. richiardii are reported for the first time in East Azerbaijan Province and a checklist for the mosquitoes of the province is also presented. Among the mosquitoes of the province, there are many potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens that their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

MR Abai; S Azari-Hamidian; H Ladonni; M Hakimi; K Mashhadi-Esmail; K Sheikhzadeh; A Kousha; H Vatandoost

2007-01-01

380

Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 ?g L?1 As occupies approximately 8100 km2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ? We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ? Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ? Area of 8112 km2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ? Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Acute mercury poisoning among children in two provinces of Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elemental mercury exposure occurs frequently and is potentially a toxic, particularly in children. Children are often attracted to elemental mercury because of its color, density, and tendency to form beads. Clinical manifestations of elemental mercury intoxication vary depending on its form, concentration, route of ingestion, and the duration of exposure. We present data on 179 pediatric cases of elemental mercury poisoning from exposure to mercury in schools in two different provinces of Turkey. Of all patients, 160 children had both touched/played with the mercury and inhaled its vapors, while 26 children had only inhaled the mercury vapor, two children reported having tasted the mercury. The median duration of exposure was 5 min (min 1-max 100), and 11 (6 %) children were exposed to the mercury for more than 24 h at home. More than half of the children (51.9 %) were asymptomatic at admission. Headache was the most common presenting complaint. The results of physical and neurological examinations were normal in 80 (44.6 %) children. Mid-dilated/dilated pupils were the most common neurological abnormality, and this sign was present in 90 (50.2 %) children. Mercury levels were measured in 24-h urine samples daily, and it was shown that the median urinary level of mercury was 29.80 ?g/L (min, 2.40 ?g/L; max, 4,687 ?g/L). A positive correlation was also found between the duration of exposure and urinary mercury levels (r?=?0.23, p?=?0.001). All patients were followed up for 6 months. On the first follow-up visit performed 1 month after discharge, the neurological examinations of all patients were normal except for those patients with peripheral neuropathy and visual field defects. On the last follow-up visit at the sixth month, only two children still experienced visual field defects. In conclusion, this study is one of the largest case series of mercury intoxication of students in schools. Elemental mercury exposure can be potentially toxic, and its symptomatology is variable, particularly in children. Therefore, school staff and children should be aware of the risk of mercury toxicity. Pediatricians also need to warn parents and children about the hazards of playing with any chemical.

Carman KB; Tutkun E; Yilmaz H; Dilber C; Dalkiran T; Cakir B; Arslantas D; Cesaretli Y; Aykanat SA

2013-06-01

382

Maternal and child health in yushu, qinghai province, china.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50) were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. RESULTS: Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was <20%. One third of women received any antenatal care during their last pregnancy. Institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance were <1%, and there were no reported cesarean deliveries. Birth was commonly attended by a female relative, and 8% of women delivered alone. Use of unsterilized instrument to cut the umbilical cord was nearly universal (94%), while coverage for tetanus toxoid immunization was only 14%. Traditional Tibetan healers were frequently sought for problems during pregnancy (70%), the post partum period (87%), and for childhood illnesses (74%). Western medicine (61%) was preferred over Tibetan medicine (9%) for preventive antenatal care. The average time to reach a health facility was 4.3 hours. Postpartum infectious morbidity appeared to be high, but only 3% of women with postpartum problems received western medical care. 64% of recently pregnant women reported that they were very worried about dying in childbirth. The community reported 3 maternal deaths and 103 live births in the 19 months prior to the survey. CONCLUSIONS: While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.

Wellhoner M; Lee AC; Deutsch K; Wiebenga M; Freytsis M; Drogha S; Dongdrup P; Lhamo K; Tsering O; Tse Yong-Jee J; Khandro D; Mullany LC; Weingrad L

2011-01-01

383

Prevalence of Neonatal Hearing Impairment in Province Capitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment is one of the most common congenital defects. Unfortunately there have been no studies so far on the prevalence of various degrees of neonatal hearing, loss in Iran. As accurate determination of prevalence is crucial in estimating disease burden and planning subsequent interventions, we carried out this study to determine the prevalence of neonatal hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: In this study, we assessed the prevalence of hearing loss among the newborns in province capitals and also looked at the role of some putative risk suggested by the Joint committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH). In this research, 76500 newborns who had undergone audiologist-administered screening tests were assessed by a special questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Results: After trapshooting the overall prevalence of hearing loss was estimated and then cases were classified as moderate (40 - 65 db HL), severe (65 - 90 db HL), or profound (>90 db HL) hearing loss. Among the newborns examined, a total of 362 were diagnosed with hearing loss and hence the overall prevalence was estimated at 4.7 per thousand; 168 cases had moderate (2.2 × 10 -3), 114 cases had severe (1.5 × 10 -3) and 80 cases had profound (1.1 × 10 -3) hearing loss.The prevalence rate ranges from 2-3 × 10 -3 (in Hamedan and Mazandaran) to 7-8 × 10 -3 (in Yazd and Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari). In newborns with a family history of sensory-neural hearing loss the prevalence was 16 × 10 -3, compared to 18 × 10 -3 in those requiring blood transfusions, 15 × 10 -3 in newborns with a history of admission to neonatal intensive care units, 17 × 10 -3 in those with craniofacial anomalies, and 19 × 10 -3 in newborns with birth weights below 1500 grams.The sample included 39376 boys and 37124 girls; 193 boys (5 × 10 -3) and 169 girls (4.6 × 10 -3) were affected. The stratified prevalence in males (193) was 477 × 10 -3 for intermediate, 311 × 10 -3 for severe and 202 × 10 -3 for profound deafness. The rates in the female population were 437 × 10 -3 for intermediate, 320 × 10 -3 for severe and 273 × 10 -3 for profound hearing loss.Conclusion: The results confirm the need for extensive neonatal screening programs, and the significant difference in prevalence between high-risk groups and the normal population provides justification for continuous audiologic screening in this group of newborns.

M Firouzbakht; H Eftekhar Ardebili; F Majlesi; A Rahimi; M Esmailzadeh

2007-01-01

384

[Molluscicidal effect of LDS in mountainous areas of Yunnan Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To observe the molluscicidal effect of a novel molluscicide, salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (LDS) on Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory and field of mountainous areas of Yunnan Province. METHODS: With the immersion method, 10% LDS with concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/L was tested, and 50% niclosamide (WPN) with the concentration of 2 mg/L as well as fresh water were tested as the controls. The molluscicidal effects of 24, 48, 72 h were observed in lab and the field. With the insufflation method and powdering method, 10% LDS with doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 g/m2 was tested and 50% WPN with the dose of 2 g/m2 as well as fresh water were tested as the controls. The molluscicidal effects of 1, 3, 7 d were observed in lab and the field. RESULTS: At the room temperature of 25-26 degrees C and water temperature of 21-22 degrees C, when exposed for 72 h by the immersion method, the snail death rates of above-mentioned five concentrations of LDS and WPN as well as fresh water were 93.33%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 6.67%, respectively in lab. At the field temperature of 18-28 degrees C and water temperature of 18-23 degrees C, when exposed for 72 h by the immersion method, the snail death rates of above-mentioned five concentrations of LDS and WPN as well as fresh water were 91.11%,100%,100%, 100%, 100%, 100% and 3.33%, respectively in the field. When exposed for 7 d by the insufflation method, the snail death rates of five above-mentioned dosages of LDS and WPN as well as fresh water were 90.00%, 94.00%, 96.00% 99.00%, 99.00%, 94.00% and 6.00%, respectively in lab and 80.00%, 82.14%, 88.35%, 90.83%, 96.55%, 92.56% and 4.55%, respectively in the field. When exposed for 7 d by the powdering method, the snail death rates were 74.77%, 88.89%, 94.50%, 90.38%, 92.17%, 90.38% and 4.55%, respectively in the field. CONCLUSION: LDS has a good molluscicidal effect on Oncomelania hupensis in mountainous areas.

Li BG; Li WB; Dong Y; Xiong MT; Feng XG; Mu LX; Tian SH; Li P; Xiong K; Dong XQ

2011-08-01

385

Terrestrial mollusc fauna and ecological distribution in Zhejiang Province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 1978,1979,2002,a survey of terrestrial mollusc was made in various places of Zhejiang Province,China,e.g. Hangzhou, Tonglu, Linan, Xiaoshan, Changxin, Ningbo,Daishan, Ninghai, Lishui, Jinyun, Qingyuan, Longquan, Suichang, Shaoxin, Changhua, Sanmen, Changshan, Zhuji, Yuyao and Tianmushan cities or counties,and 2126 specimens of 43 species and subspecies belonging to 26 genera of 13 families of 2 orders of land snails were collected(Table 1).The land snail and slug fauna of Zhejiang area is rich in subtropical Oriental ream elements with both subtropical and warm-temperate, and Oriental realm elements with subtropical-temperate, subtropical forest in nature. Approximately 43 species and subspecies of land molluscs have been found. The all Zhejiang area belongs to Oriental realm, e. g., species and subspecies of Cyclophoridae, Clausilidae, Streptoxidae, where 33 species and subspecies (77 % of the total) have been found. Only 5 species and subspecies (12% of the total) belong to Palaearctic and Oriental realm, e.g., the S. erythrophana, M. planula (Heude), M. minensis (Moellendorff), C. (C.) fasciola fasciola (Draparnaud), L. flavus Linnaeus. The B. (B.) similaris similaris (Ferussac), B. (Acusta) ravida ravida (Benson), D. (A.) agreste (Linne) belong to cosmopolitan. The P. bilineatus (Benson), L. flavus Linnaeus, B. (Acusta) ravida r. (Benson), B. (B.) similaris s. (Ferussac), O. gracilior (Gredler) belong to dominant species. It is similar to the zoogeographical division of vertebrates in China (See Table 1). Approximately 43 species and subspecies of land snails and slugs have been found, in which 15 species and subspecies (35 % of the total) inhabited in shrub forest and herbosa of montane thicket, hill belt, 6 species and subspecies (14 % of the total) inhabited in shrub forest and herbosa of field border and hill belt, 1 species (0.3 % of the total) inhabited in shrub forest and herbosa of field border, dewelling, park, 18 species and subspecies (42 % of the total) inhabited in shrub forest and montane thicket, herbosa of field border, park. The D. (A.) agreste (Linne), B. (Acusta) ravida ravida (Benson), B. (B.) similaris similaris (Ferussac) belong to species of eurycious.

Qian Zhouxing; Zhang Weihong; Guo Yunhai; Chen Deniu

2006-01-01

386

Spatial analyses of typhoid fever in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the geographical distribution of typhoid incidence rates, based on various statistical approaches such as trend surface, spatial autocorrelation, spatial correlation and spatial regression, was carried out at the county level in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. Temperature, moisture content, proximity to water bodies and the normalized difference vegetation index in the autumn were the four underlying factors found to contribute the most to the development of the epidemic. Typhoid infection was most severe in the south-eastern region of Jiangsu and a significant hotspot with high positive autocorrelation was detected in Taicang county in the south-east of the province. To improve the typhoid situation, intervention efforts should be concentrated in the south-eastern region of the province, targeting the hotspot and include reduction of lake pollution. PMID:23733290

Cheng, Yue-Jia; Tang, Fen-Yang; Bao, Chang-Jun; Zhu, Ye-Fei; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jian-Li; Liu, Wen-Dong; Wu, Ying; Reilly, Kathleen H; Shen, Tong-Qian; Zhao, Yang; Peng, Zhi-Hang; Yu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hua; Shen, Hong-Bing; Chen, Feng

2013-05-01

387

Spatial analyses of typhoid fever in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An analysis of the geographical distribution of typhoid incidence rates, based on various statistical approaches such as trend surface, spatial autocorrelation, spatial correlation and spatial regression, was carried out at the county level in Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. Temperature, moisture content, proximity to water bodies and the normalized difference vegetation index in the autumn were the four underlying factors found to contribute the most to the development of the epidemic. Typhoid infection was most severe in the south-eastern region of Jiangsu and a significant hotspot with high positive autocorrelation was detected in Taicang county in the south-east of the province. To improve the typhoid situation, intervention efforts should be concentrated in the south-eastern region of the province, targeting the hotspot and include reduction of lake pollution.

Cheng YJ; Tang FY; Bao CJ; Zhu YF; Liang Q; Hu JL; Liu WD; Wu Y; Reilly KH; Shen TQ; Zhao Y; Peng ZH; Yu RB; Wang H; Shen HB; Chen F

2013-05-01

388

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ZIMBABWE: THE CASE OF MASVINGO PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.

Clainos Chidoko; Silibaziso Zhou

2012-01-01

389

Distribution and biometry of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Como and Varese Provinces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The following study contains and analyses data about the wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in the Como and Varese provinces from October 1993 to January 1994. These populations have been formed from individuals which have been illegally introduced continuously since 1978 in the Varese province and since the mid 80s in the Como province. Some of them have also come from the neighbouring Switzerland. Biometric analyses were carried out on 189 specimens, and were divided into age and sex classes. We considered 8 measurements for some external morphological characteristics and 28 for the skull structure. For each specimen the age class was evaluated by tooth growth analysis. The possible presence of fetuses in every female was also checked. The data collected by the Veterinary Service (U.S.S.L.) enabled us to identify the main diseases of the studied populations. Frequent cases of tuberculosis were observed.

Adriano Martinoli; Angelo Zilio; Marco Cantini; Giovanni Ferrario; Manuela Schillaci

1997-01-01

390

[Fertility rate and the prediction of future population size in Shaanxi province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the fertility rate and to estimate the future population size of Shaanxi province, based on data from the sixth national population census. METHODS: Fertility rate curve was used to analyze the fertility model and the abbreviated life table. The actual fertility rate was used as the main way to predict the future population size. General fertility rate was analyzed by factor analysis approach. RESULTS: The total fertility rate of Shaanxi province was 1.05 in 2010 while age-specific fertility rate contributed 101.27% to the general fertility rate. The expected population sizes would be 38 122 474 in 2015, 38 432 931 in 2020 and 38 121 904 in 2025 respectively. CONCLUSION: Birthrate would become lower and the population size appearing a negative increase in the year 2020, in Shaanxi province.

Wang WH; Fan XJ; Liu RR; Dang SN

2013-06-01

391

The Creations and Research in the Regional Landscape Spirit of Heilongjiang Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heilongjiang Province is located in the northeastern border part of People's Republic of China. Compared with those coastal provinces, the inner land provinces are less developed economically or culturally. However, the discovery of Hongshan civilization, the brilliant civilization of Bohai Kingdom which was affiliated to the Tang Dynasty (618AD~907AD), the nomadic and agro-culture of the ethnic groups of Jurchens minority(the ancestry of Manchu minority), Manchu minority and Mongolian minority, and the Russian culture deposit, all of these above shows that Heilongjiang is not barren in cultural deposit at all. Instead, it still, to some extent, holds its “used-to-be” splendor. The seasonal changes there are distinct, which nurtured a piece of richly-endowed land that in return nourishes its unique natural characteristics and excellent people. All of these present a subject for the research in Chinese landscape painting. Key words: Heilongjiang; Landscape spirit; Regional

Xuehui DU

2012-01-01

392

Improve the Investment and Financing Environment and Promote Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Shandong Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With rapid development of the economy, the industrialization of agriculture of Shandong Province has been expanded, and the investment and the demand for funding also increased. However, agricultural production has a greater vulnerability, constrained by natural conditions, and must rely on external investment and financing support. And good rural finance environment, can promote the healthy development of the financial industry, in turn strongly support and promote economic development and social progress. Conversely, poor financial environment will hinder the healthy and orderly development of the financial sector and ultimately affect the overall economic growth. This article aims to make a in-depth research on the environment for agricultural financing of various regions of Shandong Province and analyzes the problems and shortcomings of the soft environment for agricultural financing, and gives policy proposals, so as to provide reference views for the built of rural finance environment of Shandong province.Key words: Agriculture investment; Financing;  Financial environment; Methods

Xiaoping SUN

2011-01-01

393

Seroepidemiology of Neospora sp. in Horses in East-Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neospora caninum an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle while limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine serologic prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in East-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Sera from 100 horses from Tabriz city in East-Azerbaijan province, Northwest Iran were examined for antibodies to Neospora sp. using Neospora Modified direct Agglutination Test (N-MAT). Antibodies to this parasite were detected in 28 (28%) of the examined serum samples. About 32% of the samples had titer of 1:40 while then reduced to 28% when 1:80 serum dilution was applied as significant cut off titer. This study is the first investigation carried out on the Neospora in horses in East-Azerbaijan province of Iran and indicates that horses in Iran are exposed to this parasite.

Garedaghi Yagoob

2012-01-01

394

Analysis of the potential for hydrogen production in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, from wind resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)

Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)

2010-06-15

395

Barriers to wind power exports from the Maritime provinces to the US northeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed a study that evaluated wind energy export potential from the Maritime provinces to the northeastern United States. The study assessed key market issues likely to affect the exports. The study showed that the Maritime provinces are capable of generating 5500 to 7500 MW of wind. The current electricity system is capable of integrating 2100 MW. Wind power integration between the 2 regions would require transmission upgrades, increased transmission capacity, and better coordination between system operators. Barriers to exports from the Maritimes include limited capacity on existing interties and high transmission tariffs. Uniform transmission tariffs are needed throughout the Maritime provinces. Coordination and integration of operators and utilities is needed to reduce the costs of wind power integration. Increased wind power production reduces price risks related to high energy prices. It was concluded that wind power is a cost-effective method of providing renewable and low carbon dioxide (CO2) generation electricity in the northeastern United States. tabs., figs

2009-01-01

396

Micromammals in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, past and present  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper provides a basis for conservation work by detailing the micromammalian taxa occurring in the Northern Cape Province. It presents new evidence from 30 barn owl pellet collections, augmented by previously published material from trapping or observation (here called 'conventional' reports) and owl roosts, divided into pre-1930, 1930-1979 and 1980 and newer as an indication of continuity of occurrence. A historical perspective is added by the inclusion of material (more) from two archaeological sites dating to the Pleistocene (before about 10 000 years ago) and || from the Holocene (after about 10 000 years ago). Northern Cape Province synonymies are provided as an aid to equating older records with modern taxonomy. In all, 77 currently recognized micromammalian species have been recorded from the province. These comprise five Afrosoricida (golden moles), six Macroscelidea (elephant shrews), eight Soricomorpha (forest shrews), 16 Chiroptera (bats), and 42 Rodentia (rodents).

Avery, D. Margaret; Avery, Graham

2011-01-01

397

Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially.

Montero-Granados R; Jiménez Jde D; Martín J

2007-03-01

398

Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of ? radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

2005-01-01

399

Cocirculation of Rio Negro Virus (RNV) and Pixuna Virus (PIXV) in Tucuman province, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex includes viruses considered emerging pathogens for humans and animals in the Americas. Two members of this complex have been detected previously in Argentina: Rio Negro Virus (RNV), detected in mosquitoes from Chaco province and rodents from Formosa province, and Pixuna Virus (PIXV), detected in mosquitoes from Chaco province. To carry out surveillance studies in other parts of the country, detection of a 195-bp fragment of alphaviruses by RT-nested PCR was performed in mosquito samples from San Miguel de Tucumán city. Four pools resulted positive and three were sequenced. Two amplicons grouped with RNV and one with PIXV. This is the first report of viral activity of members of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex in north-eastern Argentina.

Pisano MB; Dantur MJ; Ré VE; Díaz LA; Farías A; Sánchez Seco MP; Tenorio A; Almirón WR; Contigiani MS

2010-07-01

400

A province-level analysis of economies of scale in Canadian food processing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cost functions of three Canadian food-processing sectors (meat, bakery, and dairy) are estimated using provincial data. A translog functional form is used, and the concavity property of the cost function is imposed locally. The Morishima substitution elasticities and scale elasticities are computed for different provinces. Inference is carried out using asymptotic theory as well as bootstrap methods. The evidence suggests that there are significant substitution possibilities between the agricultural input and other production factors in the meat and bakery sectors. Scale elasticities suggest that increasing returns to scale are present in the bakery and meat industries. To account for supply management in the dairy sector, separability between raw milk and other inputs was introduced. There exists evidence of increasing returns to scale at the industry level in the small producing provinces, but decreasing returns to scale in the two largest dairy provinces (Ontario and Quebec).

Gervais Jean-Philippe; Bonroy Olivier; Couture Steve

2008-10-01