WorldWideScience

Sample records for province 1979-1980 1987-2002

  1. Progress report 1979 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical results are reported obtained by staff of the IPP-Prague in the years 1979-1980 concerning high-frequency heating of plasma in tokamaks, interaction of relativistic electron beams with a plasma, and applied plasma physics. Preliminary experiments on additional hf heating in a small TM-1-MH tokamak and the new data acquisition and processing system Andromeda are described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3 the specifications of the high-power electron accelerator REBEX 2 and some of the applied diagnostic systems (X-ray detectors and equipment for the Thomson scattering of laser light) are described in detail. Work in applied plasma physics is concentrated to thin film formation and plasma chemistry (Chpt.4). In theoretical papers in the last chapter several interesting questions of high-frequency plasma heating and beam plasma interaction are discussed (e.g., particle transport in hf-heated plasma, reflexing electron beam phenomena, particle trapping). (;.U.)

  2. Biology and medicine division annual report, 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress for 1979-1980 is reported from the following research groups and/or areas: research medicine; Donner Pavilion; Peralta Cancer Research Institute; environmental physiology; radiation biophysics and structural biophysics. Abstracts have been prepared for the 61 separate research programs described in this report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Recession of Martian north polar cap - 1979-1980 Viking observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The polar regression curve for the Martian northern polar cap, derived from Viking observations for the 1979-1980 regression, is discussed, and comparisons with previous regression curves are made. Differences in the curves may be due to dust storms affecting the deposition of the cap. It is not possible to unambiguously ascribe differences between the curves to dynamical effects, since detailed information on the longitudinal dependence, which was an uncontrolled variable, is not available.

  4. Ahogamiento y sumersión accidentales: mortalidad en Cuba, 1987-2002 Accidental drowning and submersion: mortality in Cuba, 1987 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Hernández Sánchez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los ahogamientos y sumersiones constituyen la tercera causa de muerte accidental en Cuba. Con el objetivo de identificar el comportamiento de la mortalidad por este tipo de accidente, se hizo un estudio descriptivo de las defunciones por ahogamiento y sumersión ocurridas en el país durante el período 1987-2002. Las fuentes de información fueron las bases de datos de la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública y los estimados de población de la Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. Las variables recogidas fueron: edad, sexo, causa del accidente, provincia de residencia y poblaciones. Los indicadores calculados: tasas de mortalidad, razón estandarizada de mortalidad y porcentajes. Las tasas de mortalidad por ahogamiento y sumersión accidentales en Cuba variaron de 3,4 x 100 000 habitantes en 1987 a 2,8 en el 2002. Entre las provincias con mayores tasas se destacaron Santiago de Cuba, Las Tunas, Holguín y el Municipio Especial Isla de la Juventud. Las edades más jóvenes y el sexo masculino fueron los más afectados. Todo esto denota la necesidad de fortalecer las medidas para prevenir este tipo de accidente.The drownings and submersions are the third cause of accidental death in Cuba. In order to identify the behavior of mortality from this type of accident, a descriptive study of deaths resulting from drowning and submersion ocurred in Cuba from 1987 to 2002 was made. The sources of information were the databases of the National Division of Statistics of the Ministry of Public Health and the population estimates of the National Office of Statistics. The variables collected were: age, sex, cause of accident, province of residence and populations. The following indicators were calculated: mortality rates, standardized ratio of mortality and percentages. The mortality rates from accidental drowning and submersion in Cuba ranged from 3.4 x 100 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 2.8 in 2002. Santiago de Cuba, Las Tunas, Holguín and the Special Municipality of Isla de la Juventud had the highest rates. The youngest and the males were the most affected. All this shows the need to strengthen the measures to prevent this type of accident.

  5. Annual report 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been performed at CERN in collaboration with scientists from other laboratories: search of new narrow resonant structures, baryonium, dibaryons, hadrons structure studied with the 'Lezard' spectrometer, flavour... The participation to the UA1 experiment continued and developed a very important technical cooperation

  6. Temporal trends (1987-2002) of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Noël, Michelle; Trottier, Steve; Measures, Lena

    2007-09-20

    Temporal trends of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals were examined in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Canada. Blubber samples of 86 adult belugas were collected from animals stranded on the shore of the SLE between 1987 and 2002 and analyzed for several regulated PBTs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordane (CHL) and related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Mirex. In addition, time trends of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), two compounds that may origin from DDT formulations, were also examined. Concentrations of most of the PBTs examined had exponentially decreased by at least a factor of two (half-life time (t(1/2))beluga between 1987 and 2002 while no increasing trends were observed for any of the PBTs measured. The decreasing trends of PBT concentrations in SLE beluga may be due to a decline in contamination of its diet following North American and international regulations on the use and production of these compounds or by a change in its diet itself or by a combination of both. Some PBTs did not exhibit any significant trends in beluga possibly because the most intense elimination phase subsequent to legislative regulations occurred prior to the 1987-2002 time period. Other chemicals, such gamma-HCH, did not significantly decrease likely because they are still currently used in some restricted applications. Conversely, alpha-HCH showed a significant decreasing trend indicating that SigmaHCHs is not representative of all HCHs. Both TCPMe and TCPMOH exhibited no trends in beluga during the time period examined. The metabolic capacity of SLE beluga has apparently accelerated the depletion of at least one PBT, namely CB-28/31. A significant relationship between the half-life of PBTs in beluga and log Kow was observed for most of the chemicals examined. Several factors are expected to have influenced the temporal changes of PBT concentrations in beluga which limit the usefulness of this species as a bioindicator of changes in PBT contamination in the SLE ecosystem. PMID:17560630

  7. Department of Atomic Energy [India]: Annual report 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work of the research establishments, projects undertaken and public sector undertakings of the Department of Atomic Energy during the financial year 1979-80 is surveyed. The research and development activities of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Bombay, the Reactor Research Centre at Kalpakkam, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Bombay, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics at Calcutta and the Tata Memorial Centre at Bombay are described. An account of the progress of heavy water production plant projects, the Madras and Narora Atomic Power Projects, the MHD project and the 100 MW thermal research reactor R-5 Project at Trombay is given. Performance of the Tarapur and Rajasthan Atomic Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, Atomic Minerals Division, ISOMED (the radiation sterilisation plant for medical products) at Bombay, the Indian Rare Earths Ltd., the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., and the Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Hyderabad is reported. (M.G.B.)

  8. Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO3) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 ?m and 5 ?m iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 ?m particles, 5 ?m particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

  9. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  10. Macrofungi of Samsun Province

    OpenAIRE

    PEK?EN, Aysun

    2003-01-01

    A total of 169 species of macrofungi were determined in Samsun province between 1997 and 2001, of which 19 belonged to the Ascomycota, 149 to the Basidiomycota and one to the Myxomycota. Among these, 51 species were edible, 67 inedible, 28 edible but not worthwhile or best avoided because of possible confusion with poisonous species, and 12 species were poisonous. The edibility of 11 species was unknown.

  11. Bauxite provinces of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatyrev, B. A.; Zhukov, V. V.

    2009-10-01

    Phanerozoic bauxite provinces are contoured and characterized. The relations to large tectonic units—ancient and young platforms, island arcs and foldbelts, active continental margins, etc.—are chosen as the major criterion for the recognition of bauxite provinces; 19 provinces of different age and conditions of bauxite deposition are described. Single- and multistage as well as single- and multilevel provinces are distinguished depending on the type of tectonic and geomorphic structure. The most productive bauxite provinces are located in the present-day tropical zone within ancient Gondwanan platforms. Three-level provinces with Cretaceous bauxite at the highest and oldest (post-Gondwanan) surface and Cenozoic deposits at lower and younger planation surfaces are predominant. The most complex, two- and three-stage and multilevel provinces are related to ancient fold regions. The single-level provinces are localized in young island arcs and oceanic islands. The prevalent genetic types of bauxite deposits—lateritic, sedimentary, and karst—are shown in the map of bauxite provinces.

  12. Jiayuguan of Gansu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, three different solar power generating systems (including solar thermal and PV are analyzed, according to same climate data in Jiayuguan, Gansu province. Solar parabolic trough and tower thermal power systems are selected as typical thermal system. Parabolic trough system and polycrystalline silicon cell are maturity and popularized in the world and tower system is developed to commercial stage in recent year. Then calculated and analyzed the generating capacity and economic characters of three power systems. The results can be used to support technology choice, operation and design optimization.

  13. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  14. Physics and medicine: the Bevatron/Bevalac experience, 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion radiobiology has been integrated successfully into the research program at the Bevatron/Bevalac for the past several years. During the 1979 to 1980 year radiotherapy trials have been conducted side-by-side with the demanding program of heavy ion nuclear science research at this national facility. Careful attention is given to the scheduling of research on the SuperHILAC and Bevatron/Bevalac so that the nuclear science and biomedical programs at the Bevatron/Bevalac and the program at the SuperHILAC are served to maximum effect. Efforts to maximize the researchers' time have resulted in hardware, software, and operating improvements that offer a total machine availability of about 90% and a user availability of about 80%. Fast beam switching and beam sharing permit virtually simultaneous use of the Bevatron/Bevalac by two or more users. Current beam delivery systems will be augmented in FY 1981 to provide two ion energies per Bevatron/Bevalac pulse

  15. Strontium-90 content in the reindeer meat, 1965-1975, 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of strontium-90 in reindeer meat is presented. The meat samples were taken from the autumn and winter slaughters in the northern part of Sweden after the fallout from the nuclear tests during the 1960s and 1970s. The strontium activity measurements were performed using a chemical analysis. The content of cesium-137 and the Sr/Cs activity ratio for the reindeer meat samples is also presented and the Sr/Ca ratio is discussed. (Authors)

  16. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as renewable energy source. Third annual report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Candidate screening for short-rotation grasses was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Sugacane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 include: (1) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (2) lack of response to close spacing; (3) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (4) a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneum hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced. The first field-scale minimum tillage experiment was completed. Sordan 77 produced 2.23 OD tons/acre/10 weeks, with winter growing conditions and a total moisture input of 4.75 inches. Mechanization trials included successful planting of napier grass with a sugarcane planter, and the mowing, solar-drying, and round--baling of napier grass aged three to six months. Production-cost and energy-balance studies were initiated during year 3 using first-ratoon data for intensively propagated sugarcane. Preliminary cost estimates for energy cane (sugarcane managed for total biomass rather than sucrose) were in the order of $25.46/OD ton, or about $1.70/mm Btus.

  17. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  18. Levels of strontium 90 in the environment at PINSTECH (Period 1979-1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium 90, a most toxic among the beta emitting radionuclides, is found in the environment originating mostly from the global fallout from nuclear tests. Radioactive concentration of this radionuclide was measured in air-borne particulates, precipitation, surface water, seasonal vegetables and other items of diet. The report describes a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Y 90 by solvent extraction leading to the determination of Sr 90 content in the environmental and biological samples. The report also presents data on the concentration of Sr 90 in the biomedia at PINSTECH during 1979-80. The values of these concentrations are fairly comparable to those published in the current literature. (author)

  19. Study on radioactive contamination of the Baltic Sea in 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of joint investigation of radioactivity in the Baltic Sea, provided by the Institute of Radiation Protection (Helsinki, Finland) and the Khlopin Radium Institute (Leningrad, USSR) in 1979 and 1980 are reported. The comparison of results of intercalibration of the methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs in water samples showed that the difference was about 30%. A good agreement was found on the stage of preparations activity measurements. An essential difference of concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in water of the Baltic Sea proper and its gulfs between 1979 and 1980 was not revealed. The penetration of sup(134, 137)Cs from the North Sea to the south-western part of the Baltic Sea was detected by the Institute of Experimental Meteorology (USSR) in 1980. The data on concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in fifteen rivers falling into the Baltic Sea from Finland and USSR were summarized. The concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and sup(239, 240)Pu in bottom sediments in some regions of the Baltic Sea were estimated. The data on 3H and sup(239, 240)Pu concentrations in the Baltic Sea waters in the vicinity of Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were reported

  20. Progress report on research program in elementary particle theory, 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed

  1. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  2. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G.; Benz, B. W.; Boyd, R. L.; Nyári, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thru...

  3. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  4. Floristic Lichen Records from Usak Province, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kinalioglu, K.

    2008-01-01

    A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey presented. A total of 123 lichen species belonging to Ascomycotina are reported from 7 different localities in Usak Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Of these, 115 are new for Usak Province. For every each species, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

  5. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  6. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  7. Regional geochemistry of the Karoo igneous province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extrusive and hypabyssal rocks of the Karoo igneous province exhibit a strongly bimodal distribution of SiO2 with silica maxima corresponding to basalts and rhyolites. There are, however, a considerable variety of rock types within the province covering the range from the abundant low-MgO basalts and their intrusive equivalents to the rarer high-MgO picritic basalts and the more alkaline nephelinites and shoshonites; together with a spectrum of intermediate and acid rocks which range from andesitic to rhyolitic in character. This paper deals with the geochemistry of the Karoo igneous province

  8. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  9. Herpetofauna, Coastal Dunes, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Kacoliris, F.; Horlent, N.; Williams, J.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal dunes habitats at Buenos Aires provinceare in a fragmentation and habitat loss process dueto related human activities. Knowledge on theherpetofauna of Buenos Aires province coasthabitats is plentiful for some species of lizards andscarce for most amphibians and snakes. With theaim to present a list on the amphibians andreptiles of the coastal dune habitats in BuenosAires province we recorded species coming fromfield work, cited in literature, and vouchersspecimens deposited in herpeto...

  10. Projections for Tourism Investments in Karaman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sezgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Touristic investments play an important role in marketing the tourism in Karaman province. The main reason whythis study is conducted in this region with a high tourism potential is that Karaman province does not have atourism investment guide prepared so far. Our projections will serve for this purpose. In this study, touristicfunction ratio, hotel management function ratio, product-market analysis, perception map throughmulti-dimensional scaling method and TOPSIS method have been used.

  11. Analysis of Shannxi Province of Young Talents

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Xiaojing; Wuguangrong

    2013-01-01

    Scientists is the key to stimulate economic progress. First, in Shannxi Province the paper describes the distribution of young technology rising star winners since 2009, second, it uses the SWOT method to analyze the status of these talents. Finally, it suggests the Shaanxi province government should protect the young scientists, providing them with the superior treatment, a favorable political environment and exceptional room for improvement.

  12. Projections for Tourism Investments in Karaman Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mete Sezgin; Semih Buyukipekci; Murat Gumus

    2014-01-01

    Touristic investments play an important role in marketing the tourism in Karaman province. The main reason whythis study is conducted in this region with a high tourism potential is that Karaman province does not have atourism investment guide prepared so far. Our projections will serve for this purpose. In this study, touristicfunction ratio, hotel management function ratio, product-market analysis, perception map throughmulti-dimensional scaling method and TOPSIS method have been used.

  13. Paederus dermatitis in Najaf province of Iraq.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhalimi, Muhsin A

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the different epidemiological and clinical features of Paederus dermatitis in Najaf province. METHODS This prospective observational study, including the clinical assessment of 87 patients with definitive diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis, who presented to a dermatology clinic in the Najaf province of Iraq, was carried out from April 2006 to April 2007. RESULTS The peak time of presentation was in May, and the face and neck were the most common sites of invo...

  14. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  15. The Opening of the Roads from Yunnan to Huguang Province Produced Great Influences on Economy of Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Qianfang Shen

    2010-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty was an important period for Yunnan Province in history. The roads access to Huguang Province did not only promote the great development of the politics and economy of Yunnan Province, which actually surpassed any dynasty previous to it, but also strengthened the contacts with the inner parts of China, promoted the national amalgamation, and enhanced the centripetal force of Yunnan Province, finishing the situation of 500-year separation and leading the growth of Yunnan Province t...

  16. University of Connecticut School of Allied Health Professions: Program Evaluation for the 1979-1980 Academic Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovezzi-Carroll, Susan

    The vocational curricular evaluation model (MCC) developed by the Division of Planning and Development at the Metropolitan Community College Administration Center is used to evaluate the University of Connecticut's School of Allied Health Professions. The three undergraduate programs focused on are physical therapy, clinical dietetics and medical…

  17. Physico-chemical investigation of some areas of fundamental significance to biophysics. Annual report, 1979-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All projects listed in this report have been submitted for publication as journal articles or DOE reports. Projects include: McGlynn, S.P., Felps, W.S. and Scott, J.D., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XVIII. Vibronic Doubling in Methyl Iodide; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., The Generalized Genetic Code. A Modification of Code Universality; Findley, G.L. and McGlynn, S.P., Fundamental Spectroscopic Studies of Some Atmospheric Pollutants; McGlynn, S.P., Azumi, T. and Kumar, D., The Colors of Post-Transition-Metal Salts; Lewis, J.W., Nauman, R.V., Boulder, D.B., Jr. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XIX. Low-Energy Rydberg States of Azulene; Felps, W.S., Scott, J.D., and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XX. Vibronic Doubling in Alkyl Bromides; Felps, W.S. and McGlynn, S.P., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXI. Intermediate Coupling in Simple Bromides; McGlynn, S.P. and Felps, W.S., Molecular Rydberg Transitions. XXII. The ? ? 4s Transition of ClCN; Chattopadhyay, S., McGlynn, S.P. and Findley, G.L., Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Phosphites, Phosphates and Substituted Phosphates; and Scott, John D., A Perturbed Linear Molecule Model for the Spectroscopy of Almost Linear Molecules

  18. Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

  19. Pervalence of intestinal parasites in Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Karaman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The epidemiology of intestinal parasites vary according to country’s geographic location, sociocultural structure and diet. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites has not been observed in Ordu Province and around. The aim of this study was determining the intestinal parasites data of Ordu Provincial Health Directorate retrosrectively. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2013 the data of the provinceal Health Directorate of Ordu were retrospectively evaluated. Results: 7194 positivity has been reported in the study. Quantitative distribution of the parasites were as follows; 3415 Enterobius vermicularis, 2802 Ascaris lumbricoides, 1182 Entamoeba histolytica, 705 Giardia intestinalis, 682 Taenia spp, 245 Hookworm infection, 22 Trichuris trichiura, 17 Fasciola hepatica and 12 Strongiloides stercoralis. Conclusion: As a result intestinal parasites in Ordu Province is a major public health problem.

  20. Geologic Provinces of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (prv6bg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a modified subset of polygon features that describe U.S. Geological Survey's defined geologic provinces of the World. Each province has a set...

  1. Spatial analysis of malaria in Anhui province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jianjun; Hui Fengming; Jiang Jiafu; Xu Youfu; Ma Jiaqi; Fang Liqun; Wang Liping; Zhang Wenyi; Liang Song; Yang Hong; Cao Wuchun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria has re-emerged in Anhui Province, China, and this province was the most seriously affected by malaria during 2005–2006. It is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of malaria cases and to identify highly endemic areas for future public health planning and resource allocation in Anhui Province. Methods The annual average incidence at the county level was calculated using malaria cases reported between 2000 and 2006 in Anhui Province. GIS-based spatial a...

  2. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  3. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  4. The Opening of the Roads from Yunnan to Huguang Province Produced Great Influences on Economy of Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfang Shen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Dynasty was an important period for Yunnan Province in history. The roads access to Huguang Province did not only promote the great development of the politics and economy of Yunnan Province, which actually surpassed any dynasty previous to it, but also strengthened the contacts with the inner parts of China, promoted the national amalgamation, and enhanced the centripetal force of Yunnan Province, finishing the situation of 500-year separation and leading the growth of Yunnan Province to a new stage.

  5. Herpetofauna, Coastal Dunes, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacoliris, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal dunes habitats at Buenos Aires provinceare in a fragmentation and habitat loss process dueto related human activities. Knowledge on theherpetofauna of Buenos Aires province coasthabitats is plentiful for some species of lizards andscarce for most amphibians and snakes. With theaim to present a list on the amphibians andreptiles of the coastal dune habitats in BuenosAires province we recorded species coming fromfield work, cited in literature, and vouchersspecimens deposited in herpetological collections.We recorded 35 species in six sectors thatrepresent the last remnants of coastal dunes ingood conservation status. The Mar Chiquita andFaro Querandí Reserves represent an importantcontribution to the conservation of several speciesthat inhabit coastal dune habitats. It is necessaryto increase the knowledge on biodiversity in thosehabitats in order to develop conservation strategies.

  6. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  7. The Wyoming uranium province study: an integrated approach to the characterization of a uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wyoming Uranium Province Study is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective of the project is the integration of NURE and other data sources to develop a model for a uranium province centered in Wyoming. This paper is a progress report on the integration and examination of the NURE data bases as applied to crystalline rocks of the province. Preliminary results indicate that the hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment, aerial radiometric, aerial magnetic, and zircon data prove to be useful in the characterization of the crystalline rocks of the uranium province. The methods used in this project can be applied in three ways to the recognition of a uranium province: (1) to draw attention to possible uranium deposits and occurrences, (2) to generally identify different crystalline rock-types, particularly those that could represent potential fertile uranium source rocks, and (3) to develop broad geologic concepts to guide follow-up investigations

  8. Cockroach surveys in 14 provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S

    2001-12-01

    Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat. PMID:11813661

  9. Changes in the relative importance of sector and regional factors: 1987-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen; Devaney, S.

    2004-01-01

    A stylised fact in the real estate portfolio diversification literature is that sector (property-type) effects are relatively more important than regional (geographical) factors in determining property returns. Thus, for those portfolio managers who follow a top-down approach to portfolio management, they should first choose in which sectors to invest and then select the best properties in each market. However, the question arises as to whether the dominance of the sector effects relative t...

  10. Measuring the competitiveness of the provinces of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The aim in this paper is constructs an index of competitiveness for the provinces (PCI) in Ecuador. The CPI measures the structural and institutional conditions that cause the provinces competitiveness. This index can be used as an indicator larger than the rate of growth of GDP or per capita income to measure the productive capacity of the provinces and the standard of living of its inhabitants. Factors included are economic, human capital, geography, infrastructure, institutions and markets...

  11. [Cases of cryptosporidiosis in Tula Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshevskaia, Z A; Maksimova, T Iu; Liapina, N I

    1996-01-01

    In Tula Province [correction of Region], the affliction of its population with cryptosporidiosis has been first estimated at 0.2%. Cryptosporidium infection has been recorded in 0.5% of cases among patients with acute gastrointestinal diseases, in 0.6% among cattle-breeders, and in 7.2% among agricultural animal (pigs). Low-immunity children under 4 years mainly suffer. Cryptosporidiosis ran as a moderate monoinfection and in one case it was severe. Two cases of cryptosporidiosis were simultaneously detected in the familial focus. The source of infection could not be established. PMID:8926937

  12. Hydrogeologic Provinces for California based upon established groundwater basins and watershed polygons.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Ten hydrogeologic provinces of California are represented by a region- class feature called "provinces" within this digital data set. These provinces were...

  13. Hydrocarbon charge modeling, Balingian Province, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinburn, P. (Sarawak Shell Berhad (Malaysia)); Burgisser, H. (KSEPL, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Yassin, J. (Petronas Carigali, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1994-07-01

    Generation, expulsion, and migration of oil and gas from Tertiary coal beds was modeled for a 2700 km[sup 2] area offshore Sarawak with Shell's integrated basin modeling software. The modeling was undertaken in response to the difficulty of predicting gas:oil, particularly in recent exploration wells. In the Balingian Province, oil and gas are produced from Miocene coastal plain clastics. Although all the hydrocarbons are thought to be sourced from the same type of land plant source rock, the gas:oil ratio varies considerably among the three producing fields and several undeveloped discoveries. Geochemical analyses of source-rock samples and oils strongly indicate that oils in the Balingian Province are sourced by coals and coaly shales found in the Oligocene and early Miocene coastal plain sequences. For these source rocks the main phase of oil generation is in the maturity range 0.8-1.1% VR equivalent. The burial history is well constrained by mapping regionally dated horizons and erosional surfaces. The temperature history suggests that from the late Oligocene to present, the heat flow was basically constant and fairly high due to sustained wrenching.

  14. Uranium provinces in China and their distribution patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five major provinces in which uranium ores were found have been known in China as the Junggar-Tianshan, the Yinshan-Liaohe, the Qilian-Qinling, the South China and the West Yunnan, Which occupy the junction regions of platforms and Phanerozoic mobile zones, crossing the contacts between them. The provinces are usually characterized by the development of magmatism, tending to differentiated K-enriched granites and continental acid volcanics or alkaline rocks of deep source and the deposition of marginal marine shelf, rift valley and molasse facies sediments. Similar to those in the rest of the world, most of uranium deposits descovered in China have been shaped under the tensile conditions in the later waning stages of orogenies except so-called pegmorgranite/pegmoalaskite type and Na-metasomatic type deposits which might be produced in compressive environments. On the other hand, nearly all uranium provinces in China were formed during the Late Mega-time-domain (post-1.4 Ga), except the Liaodong Block of Yinshan-Liaohe province and the West Longhshoushan of Qilian-Qinling Province, whereas Athabasca, pine Creek, Olympic Dam and other critically important provinces were formed in the Early Mega-time-domain (2.8-1.4 Ga). Thus, Chinese geologists are attempting to recognize new provinces formed in the Early Mega-time-domain in Sino-Korean Platform in addition to continuing prospection within the range of known provinces

  15. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  16. Measuring Convergence using Dynamic Equilibrium Models: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Lei; Posch, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model to study economic convergence in the tradition of neoclassical growth theory. We employ a novel stochastic set-up of the Solow (1956) model with shocks to both capital and labor. Our novel approach identifies the speed of convergence directly from estimating the parameters which determine equilibrium dynamics. The inference on the structural parameters is done using a maximum-likelihood approach. We estimate our model using growth and population data for China’s provinces from 1978 to 2010. We report heterogeneity in the speed of convergence both across provinces and time. The Eastern provinces show a higher tendency of convergence, while there is no evidence of convergence for the Central and Western provinces. We find empirical evidence that the speed of convergence decreases over time for most provinces.

  17. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  18. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  19. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces

  20. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Ocean anoxia and large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald E.; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Earth's history is marked by multiple events of ocean anoxia developing along continental margins and potentially into the open ocean realm. These events often coincide with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) on continents, major perturbations of global geochemical cycles and marine (mass) extinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic conditions is often, however, poorly constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes. We studied ocean redox change over two major mass extinction events in Earth history, the Permian-Triassic (at ~252 Ma) and Triassic-Jurassic (at ~201.3 Ma) mass extinctions. Both extinction events are marked by a major perturbation of the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon outgassing of the Siberian Traps and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), respectively. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. We show strongly enhanced sedimentary redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo) during both events. However, increased Permian-Triassic values are in all localities distinctly delayed relative to the associated negative CIE. Triassic-Jurassic values are only delayed in the oceanographically restricted western Germanic basin (UK) while increased Mo-values in the north-western Tethys Ocean (Austria) directly match the onset of the associated negative CIE. Speciation of iron [giving (Fe-HR/ Fe-T) and (Fe(Py)/ Fe-HR)] in the Triassic-Jurassic western Germanic basin (UK) however shows close coupling between the onset of the global carbon cycle perturbation and a shift to anoxic and even euxinic conditions. Delayed molybdenum enrichment in this basin suggests strong initial depletion of the molybdenum reservoir. Triassic-Jurassic molybdenum drawdown does however occur in more well-connected marine basins along continental margins. Iron speciation and delayed Mo-enrichments along Permian-Triassic continental margins in different geographic regions suggest more widely, potentially global ocean, molybdenum drawdown and more widespread ocean anoxia. Further, our data shows that anoxic (and euxinic) conditions directly matches extinction of marine organisms, suggesting ocean anoxia as contributor to marine ecosystem collapse.

  3. Geologic Provinces of the Far East, 2000 (prv3al)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Far East (China, Mongolia, North and...

  4. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part II. Bushehr Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleglad, M.E.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bushehr Province of Iran contains the type localities of three scorpion taxa, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004, and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. Apart from them, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905, Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880, Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pézier, 2002, Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903, and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1862 have also been known to occur in the province. Collections made by a team under Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran reveal four additional species recorded from the province for the first time: Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828, Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003, Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon & Farzanpay, 1987, and Orthochirus stockwelli (Lourenço et Vachon, 1995. In addition, Compsobuthus persicus sp. n. is described as a species new to science, bringing the total species count to 14. A key to all species of scorpions found in Bushehr Province is presented.

  5. Geologic provinces of Iran, 2000 (prv2cg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels for geologic and petroleum provinces interpreted and designated by R.M. Pollastro based on numerous...

  6. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  7. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  8. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    1995-01-01

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  9. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Majka

    2010-01-01

    The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The dis...

  10. Study on Logistics Center Site Selection of Jilin Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Liu; Xiaohui Guo; Xueyu Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the concepts of logistics and logistics center, this paper analyzed the status and problems of Jilin Province’s logistics center, and proposed the steps, principles and factors for site selection of logistics center. Then by listing and comparing nine kinds of logistics center site selection method, including Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm, Weight Grade Method, P-Median Method, System Simulation Method, Fuzzy quality functio...

  11. The Development Measures of Circular Economy in Jilin Province

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The development of circular economy is the strategic choice of Jilin Province to improve overall competitiveness. This article described specific measures of the development of circular economy in Jilin Province from five aspects as follows: the building of circular economy industrial park and business groups, the development of modern agriculture, improve the utilization of water resources, as well as the construction of laws and regulations.

  12. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boomker, J.; Junker, K.

    2007-01-01

    Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Num...

  13. Development of Indicators of Cyberbullying among Youths in Songkhla Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tanyakorn Tudkuea; Kasetchai Laeheem

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop indicators and to test the goodness of fit of the structural relationship model of indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province. The study was conducted with 480 youths, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed.The results of the study revealed that the indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province consisted of five factors with twenty-four indicators. The factor with the highest weight was slandering (b=0.90)...

  14. Political ideology and economic freedom across Canadian provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary i...

  15. The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus

    2011-01-01

    We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...

  16. Large Igneous Province Volcanism, Ocean Anoxia and Marine Mass Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald; Korte, Christoph; Stemmerik, Lars; Frei, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Past global marine mass extinction events are often linked to terrestrial Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, but exact mechanisms driving extinction are often not well constrained. We studied two of Earth’s largest mass extinction events, at the Triassic-Jurassic (~201.4 Ma) and Permian-Triassic (~252 Ma) boundaries, which coincide with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and Siberian Trap volcanism, respectively. The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction is often contributed to carbon...

  17. Strategic Interactions in Environmental Regulation Enforcement: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Mary-franc?oise; Xiong, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether Chinese provinces set strategically their environmental stringency when faced with interprovincial competition for mobile capital. Using Chinese provincial data and spatial panel econometric models, we find that Chinese provinces do engage in this kind of strategic interaction, particularly among those with similar industrial structure. Furthermore, we haven't found evidence of asymmetric responsiveness suggested by the race to the bottom theory. Finally, the one-si...

  18. Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Khorshidi; Peyvand Nooshirvanpour; Siamak Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Low Birth Weight (LBW) has an important role in the mortality and morbidity of neonates and the incidence of LBW may vary across different environments. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and some related factors of LBW in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal study, all live births that were born in 5 maternity hospitals in Mazandaran province, north of Iran in 2011, were evaluated. Data including birth weight, sex, maternal age, gesta...

  19. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Abai; Saghafipour, A; B Farzinnia

    2010-01-01

    "nAbstract "nBackground: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito...

  20. South Texas Uranium Province: geologic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidebook reviews the geologic setting of South Texas uranium, as it is presently understood, as a preface to visiting stops selected to illustrate mineralization style and host geology. In addition to giving an overview of the district, the stops provide a thematic focus for discussion of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrologic features of the South Texas Uranium Province. The following stops were made: Stop 1: Panna Maria Project (Chevron) - Genetic stratigraphy and mineralization pattern of a marginal marine host (Jackson Group); Stop 2: road cut exposures of Catahoula paleosoils - source and mobilization of uranium; Stop 3: gravel pit in axial Oakville channel system - facies and hydrology of Coastal Plain fluvial systems; Stop 4: Felder Uranium Mine (Exxon) - mineralization of a fluvial host in an area of faulting and complex hydrologic history; and Stop 5: road cut exposure of lower Goliad Sand - exploration potential of the Plio-Pleistocene section. Discussions of mine areas are based on observations and generalizations made during the past year. The pits are active; thus, specific features described in this guidebook may no longer be exposed or may have been modified by mining. Although we have attempted to anticipate mine conditions extant during our visit, continued mining constantly provides new windows into the geology of the ore bodies, and surprises are common

  1. Pangasinan province survey for heavy minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment and panned heavy mineral survey were conducted in the province of Pangasinan in Luzon Island for a cumulative period of 1 1/2 months in 1983. A total of 40 stream sediments and 125 panned heavy mineral concentrates were obtained along active rivers and streams draining into the Lingayen Gulf and Luzon Sea. The minus 80 mesh sediment fractions and non-magnetic portions of the heavy minerals were analyzed for total uranium using delayed neutron activation analysis techniques. Results indicated that uranium values ranged from 0.1 ppm to 1.4 ppm and 0.1 ppm to 23.2 ppm for the stream sediments and heavy minerals respectively. The uranium values obtained in the stream sediments were considered to be within the range of the average uranium concentrations in northwestern Luzon. However, uranium values in the heavy minerals, in general, were higher than the values obtained in northwestern Luzon. One uranium anomally area was found in San Carlos. (author)

  2. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  3. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  4. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham; Ha Hoang; Thanh Le; Marchand Ron P; Nonaka Daisuke; Tojo Bumpei; Phongmany Panom; Moji Kazuhiko; Kobayashi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhe...

  5. Coup d'oeil sur les provinces géantes d'hydrocarbures A Glance At Giant Hydrocarbon Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrodon A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Vingt provinces géantes de plus d'un milliard de tonnes de pétrole ou d'équivalent gaz, se répartissant assez bien suivant une loi log-normale, concentrent aujourd'hui 90 % des découvertes cumulées d'huile et près de 80 % des réserves de gaz. Ces provinces, situées plus particulièrement dans l'hémisphère Nord, occupent des positions remarquables dans un cadre géotectonique d'ensemble. L'analyse de leurs caractéristiques géologiques et pétrolières fait apparaître notamment la prédominance de pièges structuraux, de discordances régionales et d'un habitat de type concentré. L'histoire de leur découverte et de leur exploration montre une certaine accélération qui semble culminer au cours des années 1950-1960. Le rendement de l'exploration de ces provinces est généralement élevé, à l'exception des provinces nord-américaines, théâtre d'une prospection intensive dès avant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Ces rendements élevés paraissent en étroite relation avec leur richesse, l'habitat concentré et le niveau des techniques. Twenty giant provinces with reserves of more thon ode billion tons (7 billions barrels of cil or gas equivalent, evenly distributed along a log normal cross-section, today hold 90 °/u of cumulative oil discoveries and nearly 80 % of gas reserves. These provinces, situated more particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, occupy noteworthy positions within an overall geotectonic setting. An analysis of their geological and petroleum properties reveals in particular the predominance of structural traps, regional unconformities and a concentrated habitat. The history of their discovery and exploration shows a definite acceleration which appears to have attained its culmination in the 1950-1960s. The exploration yield in these provinces is generally high,exceptforthe North American provinces where intensive prospecting had already been undertaken before the Second World War. These high yields seem to be closely related to their wealth, their concentrated habitat and the quality of the techniques used for their exploration.

  6. Coup d'oeil sur les provinces géantes d'hydrocarbures A Glance At Giant Hydrocarbon Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Perrodon A.

    2006-01-01

    Vingt provinces géantes de plus d'un milliard de tonnes de pétrole ou d'équivalent gaz, se répartissant assez bien suivant une loi log-normale, concentrent aujourd'hui 90 % des découvertes cumulées d'huile et près de 80 % des réserves de gaz. Ces provinces, situées plus particulièrement dans l'hémisphère Nord, occupent des positions remarquables dans un cadre géotectonique d'ensemble. L'analyse de leurs caractéristiques géologiques et pétrolières fait apparaître notamment la...

  7. Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Mousavi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and urban wells of Isfahan, Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Natanz and Kashan during January-May 2001. The results indicated that NO3-N concentrations in most of the regions studied were higher than the standard level (10 mg/l and nitrate pollution must be reckoned among the most serious problems of sustainable agriculture and exploitation of groundwater resources. Average NO3-N concentration in different wells ranged from 1.03 to 50.78 mg/l (4.64 to 228.5 mg/l as nitrate. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Isfahan and Natanz-Kashan was 17.56, 14.6, 16.04, and 8.24 mg/l and 95.5, 100, 84 and 33.3 % of total wells in these regions had nitrate concentrations above the standard level, respectively. Maximum NO3-N concentration was detected in the agricultural region south of Najaf-abad (64.6 mg/l. Nitrate pollution in most of the sampling areas was mainly linked to agricultural activities. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of all agricultural, industrial, and urban regions, except for urban regions of Natanz and Kashan, were above the standard level. Generally, nitrate concentration level in groundwater increased with time and was maximum in March and April.

  8. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes. PMID:18533536

  9. Strategies Formulation for Championship Sports In Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Taghibigloo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design and develop strategies of championship sports in Zanjan Province- Iran. Here, the descriptive methodology would be applied based upon the case study. The Statistical population includes the physical education professors, the managers of Physical Education departments, educated coaches and M.A students in the province. The statistical sample encompasses 36 individuals selected totally due to limited Statistical population. To collect the data, we used library resources, literature and background review,interviews and open as well as closed questionnaires. Having developed the closed questionnaire, we had the validity confirmed by the professors and their reliability wasconfirmed using Cronbach alpha Coefficient (a=0/94. For research findings analysis purpose, Friedman test and group discussion were taken into account. After identifying the most important strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the field of championship sport and ranking them in the existing order, we selected most important ones through group discussion. Based upon the internal factors evaluation matrix (2/30 and external factors evaluation matrix (2/38, it was shown that the strategic position of the province is in WT area. Finally, regarding the research findings, specifically, the strategic status of the province, we would develop the necessary strategies for the championship sport development in theprovince through group discussion with the province authorities and elites.

  10. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  11. Petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William Wallace, Jr.

    1970-01-01

    The recent discovery of major oil resources on Alaska's North Slope has rekindled interest in the petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks stretching along the west coast of Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta. Attention was first focused on this region in the early 1950's, after oil and gas were discovered in the Cretaceous of the North Slope by the U.S. Navy. The presence of similar Cretaceous strata in the Yukon-Koyukuk province and the possibility that some of the broad alluviated lowlands within the province might be underlain by Tertiary basins were pointed out by Gryc and others (1951) and Payne (1955). Between 1954 and 1961 large parts of the province were reconnoitered by oil company surface parties and a small amount of geophysical work was carried out in the Nulato-Kateel and Bethel areas. The explorational activity culminated in 1960-61 with the drilling of two deep tests, a 12,000-foot hole near Nulato on the Yukon River and a 15,000-foot hole at Napatuk Creek in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Coastal Lowland. Apparently neither test revealed oil shows or favorable reservoir rocks, as exploration and leasing activity in the province declined sharply thereafter.

  12. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of housing; acceptance in kindergartens and schools, employment, and military positions; and receipt of business licenses and poverty aide. Sterilization will be rewarded with longer paid leave and subsidies. Services will include contraceptive provision and follow-up, infertility treatment, gynecological check-ups, sex education, old age pensions, premarital counseling, and other quality services. PMID:12346835

  13. The mycetophagidae (coleoptera) of the maritime provinces of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Christopher G

    2010-01-01

    The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  14. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  15. GAME RESEARCH ON STRATEGIC INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT IN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-sheng DONG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an in-depth analysis to mutual relations and multi-interest of the strategic investment management model in province, it utilizes the game theory, and researches the basic elements in the game model, which it establishes, including the assumptions, strategies, objectives and functions of the two players. Finally, it quotes the imperfect information static game model, and takes the first level sealed price auction game model as the quintessence to describe and analyze the game behavior in the strategic investment management in province, so that it can provide the opinion and suggestion for all the gambling players’ decision-making, meet with the economical globalization and the dog-eat-dog new situation, grasp the strategic opportunity, strengthen the management from the strategic perspective unceasingly, and upgrade the provincial economic development strength.
    Key words: Province, Strategic Investment Management, Game Theory

  16. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part III. Ilam Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidpour, S.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of scorpions belonging to three families have been previously recorded from the Ilam Province of Iran: Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905, Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903, Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900, and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861. Collections made by a team organized by Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran reveal seven other species recorded from the province for the first time: Apistobuthus susanae Lourenço, 1998, Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828, Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003, Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço et Pézier, 2002, Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004, Polisius persicus Fet, Capes et Sissom, 2001, and Vachoniolus iranus Navidpour, Kova?ík, Soleglad et Fet, 2008. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.

  17. The application of environmental certification to the Province of Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, R; Andreis, D; Panzieri, M; Ceccherini, F

    2008-01-01

    The SPIn-Eco project has provided very broad and precise data collection regarding the Province of Siena. These data and their elaborations have also been developed as a basis for the environmental certification of this organization. In this way, the Administration of the Province of Siena (the first Province in Italy) has reached its goal of obtaining better knowledge of the state of the system and of constructing its environmental management system (EMS) according to the environmental aspects directly and indirectly arising from the organization's activities. Indirect aspects are mainly related to the territorial monitoring and planning. Indicators based on the classical pressure-state-response approach, as well as more complex ones based on CO(2) balance, emergy and ecological footprint analyses, have been used to assess the environmental performance of the EMS. This paper presents how this EMS is constructed, as well as the indicators that are used to analyze the system, paying particular attention to sustainability indicators. PMID:17064839

  18. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part VI. Lorestan Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidpour, Shakhrokh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of scorpions belonging to three families are reported from the Lorestan Province of Iran. Of these, five species are recorded from the province for the first time: Hottentotta zagrosensis Kova?ík, 1997; Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889; Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004; Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. One new species is described, Hottentotta lorestanus sp. n.; it can be easily distinguished from the other four species of the genus known from Iran by its coloration; it is the only Iranian species which has the entire pedipalps yellow and the metasomal segments I to IV greenish gray. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.

  19. The geology of the Litchfield province, N.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Litchfield province is herein defined as the westernmost outcropping unit of the Pine Creek Geosyncline extending from the Giant's Reef Fault at about longitude 130050'E westerly to the edge of the Bonaparte Gulf basin. The northern half of the province has been remapped using company drillhole data and a Bureau of Mineral Resources air magnetic-radiometric survey. Five areas have been found to be entirely granitoid, garnetiferous and gneissic in part, with composition in the range adamellite to granodiorite. A single Rb/Sr age of about 1800 m.y. has been published. The granitoid margins are migmatised and transitional into large areas of metasediments, varying in metamorphic grade from greenschist (fine grained chloritic graphitic schist) to upper amphibolite/granulite grade (course grained quartz - feldspar gneiss). The regional strike is northerly to northwesterly, and these metasediments are thought to merge into the Burrell Creek Formation beyond the border of the province. Two periods of metamorphism affected the Litchfield province metasediments, but only one phase can be detected in the granitoids, thus these are assumed to be younger, probably formed during the 1800 m.y. orogenesis known elsewhere in the Geosyncline. Minor areas of unmetamorphosed gabbro, dolerite and quartz-diorite occur, probably of Middle Proterozoic age. Cover rocks include quartz sandstones of the Middle Proterozoic Moyle River Formation and Depot Creek Sandstone, and Cambmation and Depot Creek Sandstone, and Cambro-Ordovician sandstones of the Daly River Basin. The formation boundaries in the Litchfield province are not particularly confused or complicated, nor are the igneous lithologies particularly diverse. There is no evidence for an Archaean age for the part of the Litchfield province north of the Daly River, and it is thus proposed that the term 'Litchfield Complex' should be abandoned. (author)

  20. Suicide and unemployment: a panel analysis of Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalles, João Tovar; Andresen, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between suicide and unemployment. We use panel data from Canadian provinces and use recent panel econometric techniques to account for endogenous structural breaks in both the unit root and cointegration testing procedures in order to account for statistical specification issues. We find that the relationship between unemployment and suicide is context dependent. We do find positive and statistically significant relationships, but only for males in particular provinces. The relationship between unemployment and suicide is not monolithic. Rather, relationships are not always as expected for different demographic groups and all places. PMID:24579917

  1. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  2. Analysis of personal doses from external radiation in Guizhou Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author expounded the statistics of individual doses received by radiation workers and the safe dose in radiation workshop in Guizhou Province during 1986?1997. LiF(Mg, Cu, P) TLD was used to measure more than one thousand radiation workers in Guizhou Province. The annual average dose equivalent for radiation workers was 1.17 mSv. The number of people whose dose was less then national criterion (50 mSv) reached 98%. However, the person-times exposed to more the criterion (50 mSv) were 2%

  3. ??????????? Analytical Investigation of New Energy Power Generation in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Facing the increasingly serious problems of environmental pollution and resource depletion, new energy power generation which is economic and environmental attracts more and more attention of us. Yunnan Province has huge reserves of new energy, such as wind, solar, biomass, and shale gas, and its potential development is considerable. This paper analyzes the problems of new energy development in Yunnan Province from two aspects: advantages and challenges in the development of new energy, and introduces a kind of wind-light-storage complementary system which is suitable for the characteristics of Yunnan power grid.

  4. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  5. Contribution to the study of phosphatic and uraniferous mineralizations of Itataia province, Ceara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is studied the process of phosphatic and uraniferous mineralization of the Itataia province, Ceara. According to the geochemical parameter, it is implied the province's genesis, what permits the identification of interesting aspects for the ore treatment. (A.B.)

  6. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two major series: (1) "green" - spinel peridotite (maily lherzolite) and minor spinel pyroxenite (websterites), and (2) "black" - wehrlite, Al-Ti-augite and hornblende clinopyroxenite, hornblendite, etc., and megacrysts of Al-Ti-augite, kaersutite, ilmenite, sanidine, etc. They often contain vesicles which evidence that their crystallization occurred from fluid-saturated melts. The rocks of this series form veins in peridotite matrix. So, two types of material participated in melting process: moderate-depleted peridotites and geochemical-enriched phase - fluid-saturated melts or high-density fluid. Because the both types of xenoliths are fragments of upper cooled rim of mantle plume head above magma-generation zone, we suggest that they together represent material, which composed plume head and accordingly - the melting substratum. At that the fluid phase exactly provided specific composition of basaltic melts at the initial stages of LIPs development, typical for intraplate settings. The middle level of magmatic systems is represented by transitional magmatic chambers (now large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions), where newly-formed magmas were accumulated, undergone by crystallizing differentiation, mixing and crustal contamination. Such transformed in a variable degree magmas continued their way to surface led to general diversity of magmatic rocks, erupted on the surface; contribution of subvolcanic magmatic chambers was, probably, small. So, systematic study of processes in LIPs' magmatic systems as a whole can help to reveal processes of primary magmas transformation and thereby to determine their initial composition and source material.

  7. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical transient LIP flow (10^3 km^3), the eruption’s environmental impact resulted in the deaths of 75% of Iceland’s livestock and 25% of its inhabitants. During Cenozoic time, peak eruption of the North Atlantic LIP at ~56 Ma coincided with the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, when numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera became extinct and there was a major turnover in terrestrial mammals. Late Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) coincided with the formation of the Caribbean and possibly Madagascar flood basalts at ~94 Ma, and in Early Cretaceous time, formation of the Ontong Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi plateaus at ~122 Ma in the Pacific coincided with oceanic anoxic event 1a (OAE-1a). Eruption of the Siberian flood basalts at ~250 Ma (Permian-Triassic boundary) coincided with the largest extinction of plants and animals in the geological record; 90% of all species became extinct at that time.

  8. Research on the Effects of Logistics Industry on Economic Growth in Jilin Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yang; Zheng, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    This paper constructs the econometrical model of the relationship between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, analyzes quantitative relation between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, measures the contribution of logistics industry on economic growth in Jilin province. The results show the status of logistics industry in economic development in Jilin province. The conclusions will supply some necessary proposals for decision-making of the ...

  9. Analysis on the Urgency of Environmental Cost Control of Agricultural Product Processing Industry in Jilin Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanlian Song

    2011-01-01

    Jilin Province is an agricultural province and agricultural products processing industry is an important pillar industry of economic development, but because of its particularity of resource endowment such as geographical location and climate conditions, while developing agricultural products processing industry, Jilin Province must control environmental cost, in order to keep the sustainable development of agricultural products processing industry. Only considering fully the sustainability o...

  10. Women in Educational Management in China: Experience in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marianne; Haiyan, Qiang; Yanping, Li

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the role of women in educational management in China using case studies on urban and rural schools in the Shaanxi province. Finds that in the majority of the case-study schools men outnumbered women in senior management positions. Addresses the reasons for this inequality and the perception of women as managers. (CMK)

  11. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  12. The Problem of Developing Minority Education in Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfang

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the problem of developing educational programs in a province in which one-third of the population is composed of minority nationalities and whose population is both economically and culturally backward. Describes efforts to develop such programs. Concludes that minority programs are dependent upon producing teachers from local areas. (KO)

  13. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part I. Khoozestan Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fet, V.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Collections made by a team of Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran include 17 of the 19 species known to inhabit Khoozestan Province, and form the basis of this paper. Among them are two new species (Hottentotta khoozestanus sp. n. and Vachoniolus iranus sp. n., Compsobuthus jakesi Kova?ík, 2003 previously known only from Iraq, and five species representing first records for the province: Buthacus macrocentrus (Ehrenberg, 1828; Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pézier, 2002; Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987; Orthochirus stockwelli (Lourenço et Vachon, 1995 comb. n.; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. In contrast, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, as described from Khoozestan, stands corrected to Kohkiloye & Boyer Ahmad, Esfahan, Fars, Kerman, and Yazd Provinces. Occurrences of Hottentotta schach (Birula, 1905 and Compsobuthus garyi Lourenço et Vachon, 2001 could not be verified for Khoozestan, but are nevertheless included, and the uncertain taxonomic position of the latter is discussed. A large collection of Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004 allowed the study of intraspecific variation and resulted in the observation that trichobothrium d2 on the dorsal surface of pedipalp femur may be fully developed, reduced, or absent. Since the presence or absence of trichobothrium d2 is the only character separating Orthochirus Karsch, 1892 from Paraorthochirus Lourenço et Vachon, 1995, it follows that Paraorthochirus is a synonym of Orthochirus, syn. n. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.

  14. Sm-Nd ages from the Namaqua and Richtersveld provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geologic survey was done on the Sm-Nd ages from the Namaqua and Richtersveld provinces. The isotopic system revealed a tendency to remain undisturbed through quite intense metamorphic events, which may have reset other systems such as K-Ar, Rb-Sr and U-Th-Pb. Data are also presented for granitic augen gneisses

  15. Studies on possibility of building radiation centre in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 105 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre

  16. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part VII. Kerman Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidpour, S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of scorpions belonging to two families are reported from the Kerman Province of Iran. Of these, the species Compsobuthus kaftani Kova?ík, 2003, Mesobuthus macmahoni (Pocock, 1900, Orthochirus farzanpayi (Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987, Polisius persicus Fet, Capes et Sissom, 2001, Sassanidotus gracilis (Birula, 1900, and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861 are recorded from the province for the first time. Kerman Province contains type localities of six species of scorpions, of which Kraepelinia palpator (Birula, 1903 and Orthochirus gruberi Kova?ík et Fet, 2006 are valid. Prionurus crassicauda orientalis Birula, 1900 is a synonym of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Buthus eupeus kirmanensis Birula, 1900 and Buthus pachysoma Birula, 1900 are probably synonyms of Mesobuthus eupeus persicus (Pocock, 1899, and Buthus gabrielis Werner, 1929, according to published information and occurrences near the type locality, probably is a synonym of Sassanidotus gracilis (Birula, 1900. These taxonomic problems are discussed below. Also, Buthus atrostriatus Pocock, 1897 is transferred to genus Compsobuthus. A key to all species of scorpions found in Kerman Province is presented.

  17. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  18. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  19. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  20. Contributions to the Macrofungi Flora of Bitlis Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Abdullah

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out on macrofungi samples collected in Bitlis province between 1997 and 2000. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 60 species belonging to 17 families were identified. Four of them, Coprinus xanthotrix Romagn., Psathyrella atomata (Quél) Fr., Rhodocybe fallax (Quél) Sing. and Polyporus meridionalis (David) Jahn., are new records for Turkey.

  1. Radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm-3. Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm-3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)

  2. Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F AYDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

  3. [The casuistics of nematodiases in man in Tula Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, T Iu; Bogachkina, S I; Oshevskaia, Z A

    1991-01-01

    Cases of human gongylonemiasis (G. pulchrum) and dirofilariasis (D. repens) in Tula Province are reported. It is assumed that the source of infection is local as the patients haven't migrated anywhere outside the region during several years. PMID:1839054

  4. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers in prevention, treatment and medical education more than before , in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Hamadan province for mental health.

  5. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed initially by hot saline formational water related to diagenesis (?1,400 to 1,330 Ma) and later reconcentrated by hydrothermal events at ?1,280??1,000, ?575, and ?225 Ma. Subsequently in North America, only minor uranium mineralization occurred until after continental collision in Permian time (255 Ma). Three principal epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in the CPUP: (1) ??210?200 Ma, shortly after Late Triassic sedimentation; (2) ??155?150 Ma, in Late Jurassic time; and (3) ??135 Ma, after sedimentation of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The most likely source of the uranium was silicic volcaniclastics for the three epochs derived from a volcanic island arc at the west edge of the North American continent. Uranium mineralization occurred during Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene times in the RMIBUP, GCUP, and BRUP. Volcanic activity took place near the west edge of the continent during and shortly after sedimentation of the host rocks in these three provinces. Some volcanic centers in the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca district within the BRUP may have provided uranium-rich ash to host rocks in the GCUP. Most of the uranium provinces in North America appear to have a common theme of close associations to volcanic activity related to the development of the western margin of the North American plate. The south and west margin of the Canadian Shield formed the leading edge of the progress of uranium source development and mineralization from the Proterozoic to the present. The development of favorable hosts and sources of uranium is related to various tectonic elements developed over time. Periods of major uranium mineralization in North America were Early Proterozoic, Middle Proterozoic, Late Triassic?Early Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene. Tertiary mineralization was the most pervasive, covering most of Western and Southern North America.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  7. Research on the Effects of Logistics Industry on Economic Growth in Jilin Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SHAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper constructs the econometrical model of the relationship between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, analyzes quantitative relation between economic growth and logistics industry in Jilin province, measures the contribution of logistics industry on economic growth in Jilin province. The results show the status of logistics industry in economic development in Jilin province. The conclusions will supply some necessary proposals for decision-making of the development programming of logistics industry in Jilin province.

    Key words: Logistics industry; Economic growth; Econometric model

  8. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author)

  9. Issues Existing in the Capital Market in Jilin Province and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of the capital market has attracted external sources of finance to the great extent, promoted Jilin Province to change from an old industrial base to an advanced international manufacturing base and greatly enhanced the overall economic strength of Jilin Province. Nonetheless, considering the current situation, mobility of capital in economy of Jilin Province is not yet strong and insufficient capital is still an impediment to constrain economic and social development of Jilin Province. Through a survey and analysis of the development condition of capital market in Jilin Province, this article expounds the major problems existing in development of capital market in Jilin Province and puts forward solutions for development of capital market in Jilin Province.

  10. GIS Applications in Land Management: The Loss of High Quality Land to Development in Central Mississippi from 1987–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Merem, Edmund C.; Twumasi, Yaw A.

    2005-01-01

    The socio-economic trends and history of Central Mississippi reveal a major rural influence based upon a dependence on agricultural activities as part of the economic engine driving the state’s economy. Yet, in the last several years, the amount of agricultural land in the counties continues to decline. Similar changes in other variables associated with agricultural land use and the continuity of farming in the state have also been changing. Indeed, under the pressure of urban gr...

  11. Temporal trends 1987-2002 of regulated POPs in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeuf, M; Noel, M; Trottier, S.; Measures, L. [Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Beluga populations in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) are now threatened. The decline of the beluga population has been attributed to the presence of high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study assessed the temporal trends of POPs in beluga, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, chlordanes, halogenated cyclic hydrocarbon (HCH) isomers, halogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (HCB), and mirex in SLE populations between 1987 and 2002. Blubber concentrations of individual POP or POP groups in both male and female belugas were fitted to simple natural algorithms using linear regression analyses. Only animals older than 10 years were examined. POPs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in blubber samples. Temporal trends of biological parameters such as age, lipid content, and length of the animals were assessed separately for both female and male belugas. POP concentrations were expressed on a lipid weight basis for the statistical analyses. Temporal trends of biological parameters, individual POP or POP group concentrations in both females and males were assessed using simple in-linear regression analysis from which half-life time was calculated for each statistically significant time trend. Results showed that approximately half of the POPs showed significant decreasing levels in female beluga between 1987 and 2002 and in males between 1988 and 2002. Temporal trends of PCBs, DDTs, and HCH were significant in both males and females, while chlordanes, and mirex levels were not significant in either sex. HCB exhibited a significant time trend in males. Time trends were in agreement with expected declines for regulated POPs. It was concluded that bioaccumulative POPs must be rapidly regulated before they reach high levels, as POP compounds are very slowly eliminated by belugas. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Natural Meadows: Development of Ecotourism in Chaiyaphum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwaporn Jaroenpon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative investigation to assess the current state and development of ecotourism at natural meadows in Chaiyaphum Province, North-eastern Thailand. Research was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013. Data was collected from document study and field research. Tools used for data collection were basic survey, observation, interview and focus group discussion. Results show that there are three categories of meadows in Chaiyaphum: Siam tulip meadows, gustavia meadows and kamang meadows. The level of ecotourism at natural meadows in Chaiyaphum province is good. There are provisions made for tourists in each of the eight categories investigated: food, location, accommodation, safety, transportation, souvenirs, surrounding environment and customs, beliefs and ceremonies.

  13. Development of Indicators of Cyberbullying among Youths in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanyakorn Tudkuea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop indicators and to test the goodness of fit of the structural relationship model of indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province. The study was conducted with 480 youths, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed.The results of the study revealed that the indicators of cyberbullying among youths in Songkhla Province consisted of five factors with twenty-four indicators. The factor with the highest weight was slandering (b=0.90 consisting of five indicators, followed by revealing other people’s personal secrets (b=0.89 consisting of five indicators; identity theft (b=0.88 consisting of five indicators; deleting or blocking others from the group (b=0.65 consisting of four indicators; and flaming (b=0.17 consisting of five indicators. The linear structural model of cyberbullying among youths was in statistically significant congruence with empirical data.

  14. Natural radiation level and population dose in Henan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measurement of the natural radiation level in Henan Province are reported in this paper. The average background ?-radiation level of 2,119 outdoor sites is 7.7 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, ranging from 3.1 to 16.5 x 10-8 Gy.h-1. The average ?-radiation level of 6,000 indoor sites is 11.7 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, ranging from 4.4 to 22.3 x 10-8 Gy.h-1. The indoors-to-outdoors ratio is 1.53. The average radiation level from cosmic rays in the open field is 3.0 x 10-8 Gy.h-1 and indoors-to-outdoors ratio is 0.93. The annual average effective dose equivalent to the population in this province was estimated to be 920 ?Sv

  15. Benthic foraminifera of the Panamanian Province: distribution and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R.W.; Poag, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-nine species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from 96 stations representing 33 localities on the eastern Pacific inner continental shelf, ranging from southern Peru to northern Baja California. Their distributions mark nearshore provincial boundaries that are nearly identical with those previously documented from the distribution of ostracodes and molluscs. Thirteen species are characteristic of the Panamanian Province, one is characteristic of the Chilean-Peruvian Province, and one is characteristic of the newly proposed Sonoran Subprovince. Seventeen species (7%) appear to be endemic to the eastern Pacific. Fifty-eight (25%) of the species recognized are disjunct from population centers in the western Pacific, 134 species (59%) are disjunct from modern assemblages of the Atlanto-Carribean region, and 40 species (17%) are disjunct from both the western Pacific and the Atlanto-Caribbean. The distribution of the remaining 57 species (25%) is poorly documented; we classify them as of unknown origin. -Authors

  16. Accounting for variation in wind deployment between Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy deployment varies widely across regions and this variation cannot be explained by differences in natural wind resources alone. Evidence suggests that institutional factors beyond physical wind resources can influence the deployment of wind energy systems. Building on the work of , this study takes a historical institutionalist approach to examine the main factors influencing wind energy deployment across four Canadian provinces Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Our case studies suggest that wind energy deployment depends upon a combination of indirect causal factors-landscape values, political and social movements, government electricity policy, provincial electricity market structure and incumbent generation technologies and direct causal factors-grid architecture, ownership patterns, renewable incentive programs, planning and approvals processes and stakeholder support and opposition. - Research highlights: ? Examines the reasons for variations in wind deployment between Canadian provinces. ? Employs a historical institutional approach to the analysis. ? Discusses social factors that affect wind deployment across Canadian jurisdictions.

  17. Atmospheric PCO? perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-03-18

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO?) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO? from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO? values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO? increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO? after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO? by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics. PMID:21330490

  18. "INVESTIGATION OF PREVALENCE OF BETA THLASSEMIA IN IRANIAN PROVINCES "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Farhud

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available 14,849 affected cases of beta thalassemia have been registered in 1995 in all provinces of Iran. It is estimated that there are about three million carriers in Iran. The provincial distributions of the affected cases show that the highest incidence in 100 thousand individuals was in Mazandaran (71.29 and Gilan (57.61, respectively, both near the Caspian sea (north, followed by Hormozgan (50.22, Khouzestan (48.79 , Kohkiluyeh & Boyr-Ahmad (48.42, Fars (47 20 (south and the lowest in the north eastern province , Khorassan (1.23 followed by east and west Azerbaijan (2.21 , 2.91 in the north west of Iran.

  19. Advances and prospects for induced mutation breeding in Helongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation breeding employed on soybean, spring wheat, maize, millet, fiber flax, chinese cabbage, kidney been and garlic in Heilongjiang province. Thirty-six new varieties had introduced and released from 1980 to 1994, made up 20.6% of total released varieties for the same period, accumulated cultivated area of 3.746 million hm2, and increased the income of formers to US dollar 168 million; 72 mutants having specific and utilizing values and traits have also been bred in the province. Basic research such as radiation breeding in combination with distant hybridization, biotechnology, and application new induced factors, improving selection methods, have been achieved; 91 articles have been published. These researches play an important role for increasing induced mutation breeding. Three items of suggestion to develop induced mutation breeding are made. (1 tab.)

  20. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  1. HIV knowledge and health seeking behavior in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; Vergara, Alfredo; Vermund, Sten H.

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence rates in Zambézia Province were estimated at 12.6% in 2009. A number of educational campaigns have been aimed at improving HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among community members in an effort to reduce infection rates. These campaigns have also encouraged people to seek health care at clinical sites, instead of employing traditional healers to cure serious illness. The impact of these programs on the rural population has not been well documented. To assess the level ...

  2. Planting dates zoning of safflower varieties in Esfahan province

    OpenAIRE

    Yasari, T.; Khoshhal, J.; Shahsavari, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1- IntroductionTiming coincidence of plant growth and development to suitable climatic conditions is on of the main factor for spring safflower increasing yield. Thus determining and zoning of safflower planting dates is very important. The highest planted area of spring safflower is belonged to Esfahan province. Delay in planting of spring safflower cause faster development, earlier flowering and lower photosynthetic area and these consequently lower yield and yield componen...

  3. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10'to 23 deg 25'of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10' to 58 deg 00', having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  4. Echinostoma ilocanum Infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Woon-mok; Kim, Hyeong-jin; Yong, Tai-soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-gn; Kim, Jae-kwang; Kang, A-reum; Kim, Mok-ryun; Park, Jung-mi; Ji, Soo-hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-yil

    2011-01-01

    Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Hap...

  5. Evaluation of Tourism Industry Development Strategies Factors in Guilan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Fatholah Keshavarz Shal; Parviz Rajabi Kolvani

    2013-01-01

    Iran due to its unique condition in terms of tourist attractionand because of the specific location and a variety of naturalresources and human Phenomena, that different regions of thecountry including Guilan province has a typical position interms of tourism which attracts a lot of tourists. By itself, ecological,environmental, cultural, historical and religious attractionin the north, we will see more development in the tourismindustry by formulating and scientific solutions and preservatio...

  6. An investigation of gamma background radiation in Hamadan province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general population, everywhere in the world is exposed to a small dose of ionising radiation from natural sources. Stochastic effects such as cancer and genetic disorders are caused when living creatures are exposed to low doses. In Iran, it is measured in some cities, especially in high-background areas such as Ramsar, but so far there is no measurement in the Hamadan province. Hamadan is located in the west of Iran. Measurements were performed using a RDS-110 survey meter, CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescence dosimetries (TLDs) and a Harshaw 4000 TLD reader. To estimate the dose rate outdoors, four stations along the main directions (north, south, west and east) and one in the town centre were selected. Mean annual X and gamma equivalent dose in Hamadan province are 1.12±0.22 and 1.66±0.07 mSv, which related to RDS-110 survey meter and TLDs measurements, respectively. The TLDs and RDS-110 results are representative of the external photon radiation doses for the selected monitoring locations and for those locations for the hours during which the measurements were taken, respectively. Maximum and minimum of external photon radiation doses are related to Hamadan and Kaboudar-Ahang towns, respectively. According to the results of the study, it seems that the annual X and gamma equivalent dose in Hamadan province exceeded the global mean external exposure amounts by the UNSCEAR, and further studies are needed to measure internal exposures to determine the total eernal exposures to determine the total environmental radiation level in Hamadan province. (authors)

  7. Strategic Marketing Plan for Huishang Bank in Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yani

    2010-01-01

    Huishang Bank Corporation Limited Company was founded on December 28, 2005, and it has operated since January 1, 2006. Before it was established, it merged with six cities' commercial banks and seven urban credit banks in Anhui Province. It then became the first regional bank which had developed from city commercial bank in China. In the last five years, Huishang bank has already got significant progress, and it entered top 500 global banks in 2010. This thesis focuses on the strategic m...

  8. Natural Meadows: Development of Ecotourism in Chaiyaphum Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwaporn Jaroenpon; Boonsom Yodmalee; Kosit Phaengsoi

    2014-01-01

    This is a qualitative investigation to assess the current state and development of ecotourism at natural meadows in Chaiyaphum Province, North-eastern Thailand. Research was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013. Data was collected from document study and field research. Tools used for data collection were basic survey, observation, interview and focus group discussion. Results show that there are three categories of meadows in Chaiyaphum: Siam tulip meadows, gustavia meadows and kamang...

  9. Lichenicolous fungi in I?d?r province, Turkey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kenan, Yazici; Javier, Etayo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of lichenological exploration in the province of I?d?r, Turkey, forty species of lichenicolous fungi belonging to eighteen genera were identified on twenty-seven different lichenized fungi. Four lichenicolous fungi-Arthonia protoparmeliopsidis, Lichenostigma radicans, L. subradians and S [...] clerococcum sphaerale-represent new records for Turkey. In addition, A. protoparmeliopsidis is new to Asia and Gemmaspora lecanorae was found for the second time on Aspicilia sp. Geographical distributions are also presented.

  10. Fish Anisakidae Helminthes in KHuzestan Province, South West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibi, Ramin

    2002-01-01

    Fish including; Barbus spp, Cyprinus carpio, Liza abu and Aspius vorax have very important role in the economic condition of the rural areas of Khuzestan province. These fish have been consumed as fried or roasted. Inadequately cooked fish, could be served as a source of infection in these communities. For this reasons, 701 fish were trapped from 4 lagoons (Atash, Sobhanieh, Al-hai, Houfel) and transported alive to Ahwaz Health Research Center .Their skin, gills, eyes, muscles, intestine and ...

  11. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Innovative Ability in Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Qiang Li

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of some theories, this paper empirically analyzes on factors that influence the agricultural innovative ability in Sichuan Province by selecting six indices. They are the number of technological person, the financial input of agricultural science and technology, the level of local economic development, the agricultural policy, the number of technologic leaders, and the number of agricultural research institutions. Then I propose some relevant comments. The results indicate that t...

  12. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuchao Yang; Wenze Yue; Honghui Xu; Jingsheng Wu; Yue He

    2014-01-01

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With ra...

  13. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  14. Wet nitrogen deposition in the Dutch province Zuid-Holland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Dutch Air Quality Decree of 2001 other regulations became topical with large consequences on a local level. The Nature Protection Law, in force since 2005, sets requirements for the maximum nitrogen deposition at locations which were designated as Natura 2000 areas. In the province South-Holland ('Zuid-Holland) wet deposition seems to decline over the past twenty years, but the total deposition still exceeds the so-called critical loads in different Natura 2000 sites.

  15. GAME RESEARCH ON STRATEGIC INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT IN PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lian-sheng DONG; Wang, Ke-Yi

    2010-01-01

    In order to make an in-depth analysis to mutual relations and multi-interest of the strategic investment management model in province, it utilizes the game theory, and researches the basic elements in the game model, which it establishes, including the assumptions, strategies, objectives and functions of the two players. Finally, it quotes the imperfect information static game model, and takes the first level sealed price auction game model as the quintessence to describe and analyze the game...

  16. Disposal of Rare Earth NORM Residues in Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of NORM residues arising from rare earths extraction and separation in Jiangsu Province has been investigated comprehensively. The management of these residues is discussed and analysed with respect to the separation technology, the activity concentrations, the amounts of residue generated and the regional eco-environmental features. Some conclusions and suggestions on the disposal of these NORM residues are given, with reference to the relevant national laws, regulations and standards. (author)

  17. Pisces, Anegada Bay protected area, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Llompart, F. M.; Molina, J. M.; Cazorla, A. L.; Baigun, C. R.; Colautti, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the first list of marine fish from Anegada Bay, a coastal protected area in Buenos AiresProvince. Fish records were obtained from gillnets and recreational fishery captures. Thirty seven speciesbelonging to 29 families and 18 orders were identified. The most numerous order was Perciformes witheight families and 10 species. Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa andMustelus schmitti were verified in all sampling sites and the last two were the most re...

  18. Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis in Ilam Province, Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir Abdi; Morovat Taherikalani; Kheirolah Asadolahi; Mohammad Emaneini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of global prevalence. It causes considerable health problems and economic losses throughout the world, including Iran. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of echinococco­sis/hydatidosis in the province of Ilam (western Iran). Methods: From April to September 2011, 65 stray dogs were collected from urban and rural areas of Ilam City. Parasites were isolated from the dogs and stained with carmine. A taxonomic study was carr...

  19. Preliminary Study on Development of Industry Tour in Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Miao-yan

    2007-01-01


    Industry tour in our country is a newborn newborn product.. But, it hasvery strong practical significiance in the process of reforming and reconstruct of Northeast Old Industry. This article starts from the definition of industry tour, demonstrate the function of Industry tour, then combines the real situation of Liaoning Province to analyze the advantages, disadvantages , challenges and opportunities by using SWOT method and puts forward the development pattern of Liaoning Indust...

  20. Risk for commercial fishing deaths in Canadian Atlantic provinces.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselback, P.; Neutel, C. I.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of mortality related to occupation was determined for commercial fishermen in the Canadian Atlantic coast provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The subjects were a cohort of 31,415 fishermen licensed by the Canadian Department of Fisheries during 1975-83. Mortality and cause of death were obtained from the Canada Mortality Data Base and the Marine Casualty Investigation Unit (MCI), and were confirmed by examination of death certificates. Eighty four death...

  1. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Abai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. "nResults: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. "nConclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area. "n  "nKeywords: Malaria, Iran, Epidemiology

  2. Climate Change Awareness in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phokele Maponya; Sylvester Mpandeli; Samuel Oduniyi

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important environmental issues facing the world today. The impact of climate change is a reality and it cuts across all climate-sensitive sectors including the Agriculture sector. It is well documented by several scientists, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and other experts that climate change threatens sustainable economic development and the totality of human existence. This study will enable small scale maize farmers in Mpumalanga province to und...

  3. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Liesl L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily rainfall over the Gauteng Province, South Africa, was analysed for the summer months of October to March using 32-yr (1977 to 2009) daily rainfall data from about 70 South African Weather Service stations. The monthly and seasonal variation of heavy rainfall occurrences was also analysed. Three 24-h heavy rainfall classes are defined considering the area-average rainfall. A significant rainfall event is defined when the average rainfall exceeds 10 mm, a heavy rainfall event when the ...

  4. Student nurses’ experiences during clinical practice in the Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    BT Mabuda

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to explore student nurses’ experiences during clinical practice at a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used and phenomenological interviews were held with eleven (11) student nurses who were in their final year of the four year basic nursing programme. The interviews were analysed by using Tesch’s method of data analysis for qualitative research. The findings indicate that there are as...

  5. Microfungi Identified from the Flora of Ordu Province in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KABAKTEPE, Sanl?; BAHÇEC?O?LU, Zeliha

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 101 species of microfungi and their hosts, which were found in Ordu Province are described. The research was carried out between 2002 and 2004. Approximately 1465 vascular plant specimens, plants infected with microfungi or not, were collected from the area. At the end of the study of the host plants, 35 families, 114 genera, and 138 host plant species (151 taxa) were established. The 101 species of microfungi were observed on the collected host specimens. These species belong ...

  6. Mesoproterozoic geology of the Nampula Sub-province, northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, P.H.; Thomas, R.J.; Grantham, G.H.; INGRAM, B; Jacobs, J; Armstrong, R.A.; Roberts, M P; Hollick, L.; Bingen, B.; Kock, G.; Bjerkgård, G.; Henderson, I; Cronwright, M.; Solli, A.; Nordgulen, Ø.

    2009-01-01

    The Nampula Subprovince (NSP) of the Mozambique Metamorphic Province covers over 100 000 km2, making it the largest Mesoproterozoic crustal block in northern Mozambique and an important component of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (Pan-African) East African Orogen. It is bounded in the north by the WSW–ENE trending Lúrio Belt. The oldest rocks (Mocuba Suite) are a polydeformed sequence of upper amphibolite grade layered grey gneisses and migmatites associated with intrusive TTG and...

  7. The eastern province blood transfusion service: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geldenhuys, G.; PduT Fourie; Le Roux, J.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis was made of the location of the nine blood banks in the Eastern Province Blood Transfusion Service. The banks were considered as the vertices of an undirected graph. The cost of collecting and distributing blood was assumed to be proportional to the distances between vertices, and to the population of each district. The 9-median of the graph was calculated and the corresponding cost compared with the cost of the actual configuration, which turned out to be about 3% higher.

  8. Molecular analysis of fragile X syndrome in Antalya Province

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen T; Keser I; Mihci E; Haspolat S; Tacoy S; Luleci G

    2005-01-01

    Background: Detection of the (CGG)n repeats in the FMR1 gene that cause the fragile X syndrome (FXS), has become a milestone for phenotype-genotype correlation in FXS. Aims: To screen the FMR1 gene CGG repeats in index cases with FXS and their family members in the Antalya Province. Setting and design: This study was prospectively conducted between January 200and March 2005 in Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya. Materials and Method...

  9. Improving immunisation: coverage in a province in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zwanenberg, T.D.; Hull, Cathy

    1988-01-01

    The effect on immunisation coverage of applying guiding principles to the management of primary health care services in a province in Papua New Guinea is described. These principles were: (a) Each health centre should have a defined geographical area of responsibility. (b) Each health centre should be responsible for a defined population. (c) Each health centre should have defined target groups for immunisation and child health clinic enrolment. (d) An accurate and meaningful reporting system...

  10. Social capital and the innovative performance of Italian provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzi, Riccardo; Gagliardi, Luisa; Percoco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Social capital has remained relatively underexplored in innovation literature due to the lack of consensus on the most suitable operationalisation for the analysis of innovative dynamics. This paper aims to fill this gap by looking at social capital as propensity towards civicness and prosocial behaviour that facilitates the circulation of nonredundant knowledge among otherwise disconnected groups. The quantitative analysis of the innovative performance of Italian provinces shows that social ...

  11. Seroprevalance of Theileria annulata in Elaz??, Malatya and Tunceli Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    AKTA?, Münir; SEVG?L?, Murat; Dumanli, Nazir

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalance of Theileria annulata in non-vaccinated cattle in Elaz??, Malatya and Tunceli provinces between May 1997 and March 1998. Serum samples were collected from a total of 741 cattle in Elaz??, Malatya, Tunceli and vicinities. Serum antibodies against T. annulata were investigated by the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody (IFA) test. In addition, peripheral blood smears were prepared and examined under the microscope. The seroprevalance o...

  12. Radon assessment in thermal waters in Imbabura and Pichincha provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is a radioactive, odorless and colorless gas, that generated in the terrestrial crust by the radioactive decay of the radio, originating of the chain of disintegration of the Uranium-238, can migrate considerable distances during its short time of life (3.82 days), from the ground to the water and later to the atmosphere. For the accomplishment of the preliminary study of quantification of radon in thermal sources, it was come to the sampling from radon-222 in bath waters different from the provinces of Pichincha and Imbabura. For which a particle accountant was used alpha, that uses the method of flashing, emitted by ionizing particles at the moment at which the radium decays in its descendant radon, and this one in its next descendants. The water samples are analyzed in the Pylon model RM-1003, particle accountant alpha, that uses for the harvesting of the gas, cameras that contain sensible detectors activated zinc sulfide cells with silver. For this sampling it was taken into account qualitative factors like: rain temperature, presence, origin of the source, proximity of some hill or volcano, presence of seismic movements, among others. These parameters could affect to the measurements of concentration of radon. Of the obtained results, we can conclude that of the 13 bath, those of the province of Pichincha, specially three of them (Tesalia, Sillunchi, Cunuyacu), contain greater concentration of radon that those of the province of Imbabura. In addition inf the province of Imbabura. In addition in general for all the selected bath it was verified that the concentration of radon is greater for the source than for the swimming pool. Finally it is possible to be emphasized values of concentration of radon that are around 1000-15000 Bq/m3 for the source, and the swimming pool of 100-800 Bq/m3. (The author)

  13. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  14. Investigation of Vegetation Species in Desert Areas of Fars Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozoni, L.; Fakhireh, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Fars province is located in the south of IRAN, with area of 122830Km2. This areas involved saline and alkaline soils. The aim of this research is investigation of salty lands and vegetation degradation for offering of sociable species for any area. Recognition studying of desert area in Fars province was identified using all available data and using GIS and RS technologies. In this study, main indicators have been appointed using Floristical-Fizionomicaly method. Vegetation per cent, growth form, density and altitude were considered as main indicators. More than 50 species of halophytes were collected and 25 plant types were identified in 17 zones of studied area. The main plant types were as follows: Hammada, Halocnemum-Aeluropus and Halocnemum-limonium. Ultimately, halophytes cover map was prepared. In the end of growth season, 50 soil samples from halophyte types in two horizons 0-30cm and 30-100cm were taken and tested. The result showed, the studied area, has saline lands surface and high salinity land with cover of 9000Km2. Keyword: Saline Soil, Alkaline Soil, Halophytes, Fars Province

  15. The Spectrum of ? -Thalassemia Mutations in Isfahan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Derakhshandeh-Peykar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: ? -thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive disorder resulting from over 200 different mutations of beta globin genes. The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and frequency of the most common ? -thalassemia mutations among the population of Isfahan Province in central Iran. Methods: The data presented here were derived from a total of 114 ? -thalassemia chromosomes of 18 affected patients and 78 unrelated carriers identified in our screening program. Furthermore, 23 pregnant women were analyzed among couples with a PND request for ? -thalassemia. Allele identification was carried out using routine Reverse Dot Blot, ARMS, and genomic sequencing. Results: The most common mutation, IVS-II-I, followed by FSC-36-37, IVS-I-5, FSC-8-9, IVS-I-110, IVS-I,3end; -25bp, IVS-II-745, FSC-8, Cd-39, FSC-22-24, IVS-I-1, Cd-44, IVSII-2,3 (+11/-2, IVS-I-6, and FSC-16, respectively. The present study not only provides a guide for distribution and frequency of both recurrent and uncommon mutations, but also for the first time, reports a rare b-thalassemia mutation, IVSII-2, 3 (+11/-2, in the Isfahan province of Iran. Conclusion: The information presented here could greatly facilitate screening for ? -thalassemia and prenatal diagnosis in the province of Isfahan.

  16. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars Province South Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Karamifar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Phenylalanine hydroxylase or its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, deficiency causes accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids and central nervous system. Considering the fact that hyperphenylalaninemia is a preventable cause of mental retardation in infants, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of congenital hyperphenylalaninemia in Fars province, south of Iran.Methods:In a period of one year from November 2007 to November 2008 blood samples were withdrawn from all newborns born in Fars province for measurement of serum phenylalanine. The samples with a serum level of ? 2 mg/dl were referred to pediatric endocrine clinic for confirmation and determination of the type of hyperphenylalaninemia by quantitive serum phenylalanine measurements by using High-Pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method.Findings:Nine out of 76966 newborns had a serum phenylalanine level ?2mg/dl, of which 8 cases were confirmed by HPLC. The incidence of the disease was 1:10000. The incidence of mild hyperphenylalaninemia and phenylketonuria (PKU among the patients was 62.5% and 37.5% respectively and the incidence of BH4 deficiency was 1/76966.Conclusion:These findings indicate a high incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia, in the newborns from Fars province. The high incidence makes a comprehensive screening program for management of the disease necessary.

  17. Uranium provinces and their time-bound characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although uranium is ubiquitous, it needs a certain geological setting in order to accumulate and it has been demonstrated that the migration and concentration of uranium depends primarily on its oxidation state and on the presence of certain elements which constitute the earth's crust. The uranium provinces of the globe are distinctly time-bound and occur in a series of five clearly defined mega-rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. A different type, or a combination of different types, of mineralization is found to be characteristic of each epoch, and study of these variations has in the recent past led to a better understanding of the behaviour of uranium under wide-ranging conditions. This paper reviews the time-bound characteristics of the uranium provinces of southern Africa in the context of their global setting and their relationship to other uranium provinces. The nature and origin of the hiatus between each of the major pulses of uranium mineralization are also reflected on

  18. Epidemiological analysis of injury in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiyu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is an emerging public health problem with social development and modernization in developing countries. To describe the prevalence and burden of injury and provide elaborate information for policy development, we conducted a community-based household survey in the Shandong Province of China. Methods The survey was conducted in 2004. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method. Information on injuries occurring in 2003 was collected in four cities and six rural counties in Shandong Province, China. Results The estimated incidence rate of injury in Shandong Province was 67.7 per 1,000. Injury incidence was higher in rural areas (84.3 per 1,000 than in urban areas (42.9 per 1,000, and was higher among males (81.1 per 1,000 than females (54.1 per 1,000. The average years of potential life lost is 37.7 years for each fatal injury. All injuries together caused 6,080,407 RMB yuan of direct and indirect economic loss, with traffic injuries accounting for 44.8% of the total economic loss. Conclusion Injury incidence was higher among males than females, and in rural areas than in urban areas. Youngsters suffered the highest incidence of injury. Injury also caused large losses in terms of both economics and life, with traffic injuries contributing the most to this loss. Strategies for prevention of injury should be developed.

  19. An Empirical Analysis of Influential Factors in International Tourism Income in Sichuan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhi Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sichuan Province is abundant in tourism resources, a big tourism province. Its tourism income occupies a relatively great rate in the total output value of local area. However, an analysis of the tourism income structure of Sichuan Province, it is found that whether in terms of the total output or the proportion it occupies, the international tourism income lags behind domestic tourism income. In the meanwhile, whether compared with such cosmopolis as Beijing and Shanghai or compared with Jiangsu and Shandong, the international tourism income of Sichuan Province occupies a small rate, which is out of line with the status of big tourism province of Sichuan Province. However, as a primary means for foreign exchange earning in Sichuan Province, the international tourism income has a significance that can not be ignored. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the influential factors that affect the international tourism income of Sichuan Province, take relevant measures to improve the international tourism condition in Sichuan Province, improve the international tourism income and make greater contributions to economic development of foreign exchange earning in Sichuan Province.

  20. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH4+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3-transport of fine particles. Distinct temporal trends were found in IN components, especially for wet depositions, with peak values in August.

  1. The housing loss assessment of rural villages caused by earthquake disaster in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Shi, Pei-Jun; Wang, Jing-Ai

    2005-09-01

    Based on the assessment report of destructive housings caused by more than 20 earthquakes occurred in Yunnan Province in 1990 2004, the vulnerability models of 4 types housings of rural residents in Yunnan Province are setup. The scenario earthquake disaster loss model is used to simulate the housing loss if the historical earthquakes that occurred since A.D. 886 in Yunnan Province reoccur in 2002. The analyses show the simulation deviation of the usual earthquakes is less than 30% and the method is of high practicality. Meanwhile, the simulation result of 398 historical earthquakes in Yunnan Province shows that the annual economic loss caused by the earthquakes is about RMB 410 million Yuan that accounts for 0.18% of GDP of Yunnan Province for the year. Because the per capita living area and the price of the housing increases year by year, if the historical destructive earthquake reoccurs today, the loss of Yunnan Province will be greater than in those years.

  2. ???????????????? Analysis on Competition and Cooperation Games about the Refining Enterprise in Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“????”?“????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Oil supply market emerged the power pattern between the four major state-owned oil companies and local refining enterprise in Shandong province, local refining enterprise impacts refined oil market’ influence of the four major state-owned oil companies in Shandong province, refined oil market performance for instability trend. In order to protect finished oil market’ stabilization in Shandong province and establish petroleum market system of the win-win situation. This article elaborates the development situation of refining industry in Shandong province; secondly, using “output game” and “price game” model to research the Competition and Cooperation Games about refining enterprise competition in Shandong Province and its influencing factors, results show that: Shandong refining enterprise will eventually take alliance cooperation, the main factors which influence game process are raw material oil source, fuel consumption tax, sales channels of refined oil, structure of industries; finally, putting forward refining industry development suggestions in Shandong province.

  3. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurseshortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa.Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa...

  4. Problems and Countermeasures of Tour-Guide Services in Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Anna; Liu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Tourism of Liaoning Province is developing with a fast speed. High quality services provided by tour guides are necessary for the development of the industry. However, in recent years, the quality and ability of the tour guides in Liaoning Province are both downgrading, and many problems in the process of service are popping up one after another. Therefore, the research into the problems of the tour-guide services in Liaoning Province has great realistic significance.
    Key words: To...

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhongjie; Yin Wenwu; Clements Archie; Williams Gail; Lai Shengjie; Zhou Hang; Zhao Dan; Guo Yansha; Zhang Yonghui; Wang Jinfeng; Hu Wenbiao; Yang Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Gua...

  6. A survey on the history of developing nuclear power station in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen years ago it was suggested that a nuclear power station should be built in Hunan Province, and a special document was reported to the State Council. Up to now, the idea has still been under consideration. The author discusses the development of nuclear power station in Hunan province. It mainly consists of four parts: the history, the necessity the barriers met in the course and the feasible way of developing nuclear power station in Hunan Province

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Influential Factors in International Tourism Income in Sichuan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Qizhi Yang; Feng Ye; Fuhui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Sichuan Province is abundant in tourism resources, a big tourism province. Its tourism income occupies a relatively great rate in the total output value of local area. However, an analysis of the tourism income structure of Sichuan Province, it is found that whether in terms of the total output or the proportion it occupies, the international tourism income lags behind domestic tourism income. In the meanwhile, whether compared with such cosmopolis as Beijing and Shanghai or compared with Jia...

  8. Rural-urban differences of neonatal mortality in a poorly developed province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Yang; Fang Weimin; Liu Hong; Wu Li; Yi Bin; Wang Youjie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of rural-urban disparities in children's health on neonatal death in disadvantaged areas of China is poorly understood. In this study of rural and urban populations in Gansu province, a disadvantaged province of China, we describe the characteristics and mortality of newborn infants and evaluated rural-urban differences of neonatal death. Methods We analyzed all neonatal deaths in the data from the Surveillance System of Child Death in Gansu Province, China f...

  9. Impacts of Accumulated Temperature Changes on the Maize Belt in Heilongjiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Long Hai-li; Xie Rui-zhi; Li Shao-kun; Zhang Shu-quan; Ming bo; Liu Yue-e; Ma Da-ling; Gao Shi-ju

    2013-01-01

    Global warming has altered the distribution of the maize (Zea mays) belts in China. Climate change has important impacts on regional agricultural planning, especially in Heilongjiang Province. Heilongjiang is the northernmost province in China and is the main production area of maize but is also the most sensitive to temperature changes. In the 1980s, the planted area of maize was divided into five belts in Heilongjiang Province, however, since the 1980s the ...

  10. The Creations and Research in the Regional Landscape Spirit of Heilongjiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xuehui

    2012-01-01

    Heilongjiang Province is located in the northeastern border part of People's Republic of China. Compared with those coastal provinces, the inner land provinces are less developed economically or culturally. However, the discovery of Hongshan civilization, the brilliant civilization of Bohai Kingdom which was affiliated to the Tang Dynasty (618AD~907AD), the nomadic and agro-culture of the ethnic groups of Jurchens minority(the ancestry of Manchu minority), Manchu minority and Mongolian minori...

  11. Based on the Grey Relational Analysis of Energy Consumption Structure of Shandong Province

    OpenAIRE

    Jianliang Liu; Junhai Ma

    2013-01-01

    Due to the unreasonable industrial structure and energy structure, the development of provincial economy of Shandong province is slowing in decade years. In order to found the root cause of the problem, improve the energy development and the economic structure in Shandong province, achieve economic development bottleneck breakthrough, this study made a comprehensive analysis on the situation of energy consumption of Shandong Province and then introduces the method of grey correlation on the e...

  12. Mapping of thermal comfort for outdoor recreation planning using GIS: the case of Isparta Province (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Topay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a model for the physical planning process of thermal comfort (TC), which is very important for outdoor recreation planning, using thermal perception maps (TPMs). For this purpose, a TPM of Isparta Province was produced according to the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index from climatic data of the province. To determine the TC structure of the province, climatic data were collected from 16 meteorology stations. The RayMan 1.2 program was used to obtain the mo...

  13. Flooding and Earthquake Risk Interpretation for Kutahya Province, Turkey, Using ASTER DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Umut Erdem; Ali Can Demirkesen

    2014-01-01

    Kutahya Province is a significant cultural heritage area of Turkey; it is susceptible to flooding when sudden heavy rain falls and is located in a high-risk earthquake region. The objective of this study was to acquire geo-information from Kutahya Province and interpret the risk levels to the population from floods and earthquakes. In this study, the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflection Digital Elevation Model of Kutahya Province was used to create maps that illustrate the digital...

  14. Human resources for health, opportunities and challenges in the Indonesian province of Papua

    OpenAIRE

    Pas, R. van de

    2010-01-01

    The province of Papua is the easternmost province of the republic of Indonesia. The indigenous population of Papua consists of 300 ethnic groups that are becoming outnumbered by migrants from other islands in Indonesia. The province has the lowest human development index of the country and the health status of its population is characterized by a high infant mortality rate and a generalizing HIV epidemic (estimated 3% of the general population). The major factor that limits access to health s...

  15. ???????????????? System Analysis on Sustainable Development of Shandong Province Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????ISM????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Shandong province is regarded as the mayor province afflicting the sustainable development of our oil and gas. Studying on the oil and gas resources of sustainable development in Shandong province has many guidelines and examples meaning. This article is based on the theory of sustainable development of oil and gas, using the method of ISM to build multi-level model and establishing the factor weight by entropy value method. In the end, the article takes the need of oil and gas in Shandong province as a example to analyze it.

  16. Research on the International Export Competitiveness of Honey – Taking Anhui Province as an example

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    Yu Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the data of honey export from 2000 to 2013 (Jan. to Aug. to make an analysis on the fluctuation of honey export number and price in Anhui Province in order to know about the current situation of honey export in Anhui Province. Then it quantitatively makes an analysis on the current situation of international export competitiveness of honey in Anhui Province by market share, trade competitiveness index, export quality index and other methods; It also uses the analysis result to find out the relevant factors that affect the international honey export competitiveness and proposes the relevant countermeasures to improve the international competitiveness of honey in Anhui Province.

  17. Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis in Ilam Province, Western Iran

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    Jahangir Abdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease of global prevalence. It causes considerable health problems and economic losses throughout the world, including Iran. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of echinococco­sis/hydatidosis in the province of Ilam (western Iran. Methods: From April to September 2011, 65 stray dogs were collected from urban and rural areas of Ilam City. Parasites were isolated from the dogs and stained with carmine. A taxonomic study was carried out by measuring different parts of hel­minths. Meat inspection documents from slaughterhouses in Ilam were used to assess the prevalence of hydatidosis during a 3-year period in sheep, cattle, and goats. ELISA test was used to detect the presence of antibodies to hydatidosis in human sera. Clinical records from 2000 to 2010 of either treated or diagnosed pa­tients from public hospitals of this province were reviewed. Results: The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection in stray dogs was 9%. A total of 81,726 animals were assessed for hydatidosis; 2.94% (2403 cases had liver hydatidosis and 2.34% (1918 cases had lung hydatidosis. Within a 10-year period, 140 patients (91 females and 49 males were treated for hydatidosis. Of 1200 hu­man sera, 2.25% (27 patients were seropositive for hydatidosis. Conclusion: Hydatidosis is endemic in Ilam Province especially in rural area. The health and economic losses caused by the disease are significant; thus, our efforts need to be focused on the control of this disease.

  18. Hospital Preparedness of Semnan Province to Deal with Disasters

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    Mohammad Amiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospitals are major health service places which deal with disasters and whose preparedness and offering on time services play vital role in reduction of injuries and death. This research was conducted to determine preparedness of hospitals in Semnan province to deal with disasters (2010. Methods: In this practical, cross-sectional study, all head managers of hospitals in Semnan Province were selected through the census method, and a questionnaire comprising 40 questions and a checklist include of 133 questions were completed through observation and interview. The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Out of the 10 studied hospitals, 50% were teaching hospitals and the rest were therapeutic. Average preparedness of programming support for vital services was 80%, for natural disasters management programs in hospital was 65%, for programming for environmental health activities against disasters was 56.2%, for security of equipments and hazardous material was 64.2%, for programming for reduction in structural dangers was 43.8%, for evacuation and field treatment was 49.5%, and average score for hospital educational planning to deal with disasters was 42.2%. ANOVA test has shown significant relationship between manager’s awareness and hospital preparedness, (P=0.001. Hence province hospitals with 58.4±15.7% average, attain medium level against disasters. Conclusion: Results indicate that managers require to be trained in confronting disasters and it is essential to retrain managers in all the fields including environmental health activities against disasters reduction in structural dangers and programming for evacuation and field treatment for confronting disasters.

  19. Performance of Planted Maple in Western Guilan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Taheri Abkenar; Elham Safarpour

    2007-01-01

    The success of planted Acer velutinum investigated in western Guilan Province in Iran. This region was reforested in 1985. The study was carried out in the autumn of 2003 with using the full callipering method. The goal of this study is to review the maple plantation, in order to present a new background that is useful for an ecological evaluation of the maple plantations in Iranian forests. Some quantity and quality factors about bole and crown were evaluated. The resistance of maple to diff...

  20. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%). PMID:24378074

  1. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

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    Nontsikelelo Sondzaba

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.

    Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.

    Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.

    Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

    How to cite this article: Van Deventer C, Couper I, Sondzaba N. Chronic Patient Care at North West Province Clinics. Afr J Prm Health Care & Fam Med. 2009;1(1, Art. #8, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.8

  2. Screening for Nipah virus infection in West Kalimantan province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendow, I; Field, H E; Adjid, A; Ratnawati, A; Breed, A C; Darminto; Morrissy, C; Daniels, P

    2010-12-01

    Compared to other viruses, research on Nipah virus has been limited in Indonesia because attributable disease outbreaks have not been reported. However, Nipah virus is a zoonotic Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agent, so strategic monitoring is prudent. Farmer interviews and a serologic survey of 610 pig sera and 99 bat sera from West Kalimantan province were conducted. Farmers reported no recent or historic encephalitic or respiratory disease in themselves, their families, workers or pigs. The survey found no evidence of exposure to Nipah virus in pigs. In contrast, 19% of the 84 Pteropus vampyrus bat sera reacted in the ELISA, but none of 15 Cynopterus brachyotis bats reacted. PMID:19638160

  3. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothening. Interest rates fell from 1997 to 2002, reflecting increased market integration. Moreover, the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit are striking. A ‘one size fits all' approach to credit policy in Vietnam would be inappropriate

  4. Paleomagnetic study of Shanwang formation, Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured direction of the stable remanence of Shanwang Formation, Shandong Province, is D = 355.8 deg., I = 47.1 deg. According to the axial geocentre dipole model, the paleolatitude there during Miocene was 28.3 deg. N. The corrected value based on far-sided effect is 32.4 deg. N. The uncorrected and corrected pole positions were (81.0 deg. N, 323.1 deg. E) and (84.6 deg. N, 339.7 deg. E) separately. Comparing them with paleo-flora shows that the corrected value of paleolatitude is probably reasonable. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Mammalia, Didelphimorphia and Rodentia, central Santa Fe Province, Argentine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teta, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three owl pellets samples collected in the localities of Pedro Gómez Cello (= Estación Km. 197;30°02’14” S, 60°18’56” W, Colonia Silva (= Estación Abipones; 30°26’59” S, 60°25’58” W and Jacinto L. Arauz(30°44’01” S, 60°58’31” W, Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, were studied. We registered 11 genera of smallmammals, including Didelphidae marsupials (1 species, and Caviidae (1, Cricetidae (10, and Muridae (1rodents. We documented the southernmost record for Pseudoryzomys simplex and the first and second recordinglocalities for Santa Fe of Oligoryzomys nigripes and Graomys chacoensis, respectively.

  6. Mammalia, Didelphimorphia and Rodentia, central Santa Fe Province, Argentine.

    OpenAIRE

    Teta, P.; Pardinas, U. F. J.

    2010-01-01

    Three owl pellets samples collected in the localities of Pedro Gómez Cello (= Estación Km. 197;30°02’14” S, 60°18’56” W), Colonia Silva (= Estación Abipones; 30°26’59” S, 60°25’58” W) and Jacinto L. Arauz(30°44’01” S, 60°58’31” W), Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, were studied. We registered 11 genera of smallmammals, including Didelphidae marsupials (1 species), and Caviidae (1), Cricetidae (10), and Muridae (1)rodents. We documented the southernmost record f...

  7. Climate Change Awareness in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phokele Maponya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important environmental issues facing the world today. The impact of climate change is a reality and it cuts across all climate-sensitive sectors including the Agriculture sector. It is well documented by several scientists, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and other experts that climate change threatens sustainable economic development and the totality of human existence. This study will enable small scale maize farmers in Mpumalanga province to understand the challenges and the threat posed by climate variability and climate change. The study was conducted in Nkangala District, Mpumalanga province. Mpumalanga province remains the largest production region for forestry and the majority of the people living in Mpumalanga are farmers and they have contributed immensely to promote food security. However, due to the threat by climate variability and change, sectors such as the Agriculture, Water etc are experiencing the following pattern: (a Putting livelihoods and food production at serious risks due to extreme climatic events, climate variability and change. It was noted that there is a need for climate change awareness across the agriculture sector. Currently, there is enough evidence that shows that climate change is affecting different elements of agriculture such as crops and livestock. Random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty farmers to be interviewed. The questionnaires were administrated to household head farmers and included matters relating to household general information, climate change awareness, land characteristics, observation on climate change and agronomic practices including maize production. Data was analysed using the statistical for social sciences (SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was used to describe data and Univariate regression analysis was conducted to demonstrate the relationship and association of variables. It was noted that the majority of farmers in this province need capacity building and also climate change awareness initiatives which would assist these farmers to build the adaptive capacity, increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. By coming up with these kind of interventions it is believed that some of these farmers would be able to change their farming methods, diversify their cropping systems and also introduce drought tolerant crops in order for them to have good yields and also be able to generate good income.

  8. Beneficiation of marble from Griekwastad, Northern Cape Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.P., Mahumapelo; C., Magaseng.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study to determine the potential beneficiation opportunities for marble from Griekwastad in the Northern Cape Province. The marble was characterized mineralogically by X-ray diffraction. Major and trace elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emissi [...] on spectroscopy. The sample was crushed, and the crushed material beneficiated by tumbling and polishing. The resulting beads were incorporated into a variety of jewellery and other decorative items. It is concluded that the beneficiation of Griekwastad marble presents a good opportunity for value addition and job creation, provided that an effective marketing strategy for the products can be developed..

  9. The eastern province blood transfusion service: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Geldenhuys

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the location of the nine blood banks in the Eastern Province Blood Transfusion Service. The banks were considered as the vertices of an undirected graph. The cost of collecting and distributing blood was assumed to be proportional to the distances between vertices, and to the population of each district. The 9-median of the graph was calculated and the corresponding cost compared with the cost of the actual configuration, which turned out to be about 3% higher.

  10. Planting dates zoning of safflower varieties in Esfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yasari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionTiming coincidence of plant growth and development to suitable climatic conditions is on of the main factor for spring safflower increasing yield. Thus determining and zoning of safflower planting dates is very important. The highest planted area of spring safflower is belonged to Esfahan province. Delay in planting of spring safflower cause faster development, earlier flowering and lower photosynthetic area and these consequently lower yield and yield components. 2- MethodologySpring safflower is an irrigated crop in Esfahan province. For safflower planting dates zoning, thermal data from 1961-2009 were used. These data obtained from 51 synoptic and climatic stations that located in and near of Esfahan province. Because of low density of station especially in east and north east of province, by using the daily mean temperature of these stations interpolation was done by kriging method with surfer software. Cluster analysis on temperature map cells was done by Ward’s method. Thus Esfahan divided to three temperature zones, 1(cold, 2(moderate and 3(warm. Interpolation was done with Radial Basis Function with Completely Regularized Spline method. Start planting in warm, temperate and cold, respectively, with the average temperature day and night to 7, 9 and 12 degrees Celsius and minimum temperature of zero degrees Celsius higher were considered. For determining of suitable planting dates of spring safflower in different parts of Esfahan province 15-day average daily temperature and minimum temperature from January to October were calculated and maps were drawn by GIS.3- DiscussionBased on results in the first thermal zone, includes east and north parts of province, suitable planting dates are from January to March 6. In the second thermal zone, includes south eastern and central parts of province, suitable planting dates are from March 7 to April 4. In the third thermal zone, includes other parts of province, suitable planting dates are from April 5 to May 21.4- Conclusion By considering of thermal requirements of safflower if the crop cultivated in suitable planting date, it shall not face to limited temperature.Key words: safflower, planting date, temperature, zoning ReferencesAckerman, S. A. and Knox, J. A. (2007, Meteorology, Understanding the Atmosphere. 2th-ed., Thomson Brooks. Chao, M. H. and Tae, R. H. (2000, Purification and characterization of precarthamin decarboxylase from the yellow of Carthamus tinctorius L. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 382:238-244.Dadashi, N. and Khajehpour, M. R. (2004, Effects of temperature and day length on developmental stages of safflower genotypes under field conditions, J. Sci. & Technol. Agric. & Natur. Resour, 7:83-102.Elias, S., Basil, S. and Kafka, R. (2002, Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctoruios L. to saline soils and irrigation: I. Consumptive water use, Agricultural Water Management, 54, 67-80.Emami, T., Naseri,, R., Falahi, H. and Kazemi, E. (2011, Response of yield, yield component and oil content of safflower (cv Sina to planting date and plant spacing on row in rainfed conditions of western Iran, American Eurasian J. Agric & Environ. Sci., 10(10:947-953.Froozan, k. (2005, Safflower production in Iran (past, now, future, (2005, pp 255-257.paper presented at the Sixth International Safflower Conference, June 6-10. 2005. Istanbul, Turkey.Jajarmi, V., Azizi, M., Shadlu, A. and Omidi Tabrizi, A.H. (2009,The effect of density, variety and planting date on yield and yield components of safflower. 2009. pp.235-241. paper presented at the 7th International Safflowr Conference. June10-14. 2009. Wagga Australia.khajehpour, M. R. (2004, Industrial crops, Isfahan, Iran, Jehad of Isfahan Uni.TechMohamadzadeh, M., Siadat, S.A.., Norof, M.S. and Naseri, R. (2011, The effects of planting date and row spacing on rain fed conditions. American-Erasian J. Agric and Enviro. Sci.,10(2:200-206.Montazeri, M.(2005, An analysis of tempo-spatial variation of temperature in Iran during the last half century, Isfahan, Iran, Isfah.

  11. Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys Opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kamranrashani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.Methods: During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tap­peh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Results: Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8% were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae 37.7%, Skrjabinotae­nia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.Conclusion: R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nema­tode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.

  12. Cretaceous oil shale potential of the Prairie provinces, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macauley, G.

    1984-02-01

    Samples obtained from oil shale beds of the Upper Cretaceous Boyne and Faval Formations across the Prairie provinces were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and subjected to pyrolysis. Samples from Saskatchewan and Manitoba were analyzed mineralogically by X-ray diffraction. Both oil shale zones are thermally immature, and have not been petroleum source rocks across the Prairie provinces, except for an area of low maturity in western Alberta. Samples over most of the area contain up to 4% organic carbon which is derived from humic kerogen; above that, total organic carbon values ranging to 10% are provided by the addition of sapropelic kerogen. Hydrocarbon yields on proylsis increase where sapropel predominates. Two areas of optimum hydrocarbon yield can be mapped in Saskatchewan where average TOC values may range up to 10% with average hydrocarbon recoveries anticipted in excess of 40 to 50 kg/t from both the Boyne and Faval Formations. Lithologically almost identical, both oil shale zones contain inversely related proportions of a quartz-clay-feldspar mode and a second mode dominated by calcite. Kerogen content increases to a maximum where the modes are essentially equal, or where calcite dominates slightly, but then decreases as pure limestone is approached. Numerous secondary minerals are present. Oxidation minerals are common and are enigmatic to the preservation of the kerogen; whether such minerals were formed by alteration during deposition and lithification or are weathering products in not readily evident. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boomker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations.

  14. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations. PMID:18453236

  15. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad. PMID:12284987

  16. Evaluation of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Karamifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Iran thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH based neonatal screening program is included in health care services from 2005 for detection of patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH. This study was performed for a critical evaluation of the screening program primary congenital hypothyroidism in Fars province,Iran.Methods: From November 2006 to September 2007, TSH serum concentrations of 63031 newborns, 3 to 5 days old born in Fars province, were measured by heel prick. The newborns with TSH ?5mIU/L were recalled for measurement of serumT4 and TSH in venous blood samples Findings: Of 127 recalled subjects, 43 were confirmed to be hypothyroid, showing a prevalence of 1:1465 with F:M ratio of 1.05:1. The most common clinical and radiological findings were prolonged jaundice (73%, large anterior fontanel (56%, wide posterior fontanel (55%, absence of distal femoral epiphysis (20%, andumbilical hernia (11%. Scintigraphy of the thyroid with 99mTC revealed eutopia (67.4%, hypoplasia (23.3%,agenesis (4.7% and ectopia (2.3%.Conclusion: It is concluded that a cut off value of TSH?5mIU/L overestimates recalling the number of patientswith CH. The most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism is not dysgenesis of the gland and perhaps dyshormonogenesis in Iran is more common than what is reported in other countries.

  17. Probabilistic earthquake early warning times in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jin, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are a new and effective way to mitigate the damage associated with earthquakes. A prototype EEW system is currently being constructed in the Fujian Province, a region along the Southeast coast of China. It is anticipated that the system will be completed in time to be tested at the end of this year (2013). In order to evaluate how much advanced warning the EEW system will be able to provide different cities in Fujian, we established an EEW information release scheme based on the seismic monitoring stations distributed in the region. Based on this scheme, we selected 71 historical earthquakes. We then obtained the delineation of the region's potential seismic source data in order to estimate the highest potential seismic intensities for each city as well as the EEW system warning times. For most of the Fujian Province, EEW alarms would sound several seconds prior to the arrival of the destructive wave. This window of time gives city inhabitants the opportunity to take protective measures before the full intensity of the earthquake strikes.

  18. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  19. Preliminary Study on Development of Industry Tour in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-yan LI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available
    Industry tour in our country is a newborn newborn product.. But, it hasvery strong practical significiance in the process of reforming and reconstruct of Northeast Old Industry. This article starts from the definition of industry tour, demonstrate the function of Industry tour, then combines the real situation of Liaoning Province to analyze the advantages, disadvantages , challenges and opportunities by using SWOT method and puts forward the development pattern of Liaoning Industry tour.
    Key words: tourism, industry tour, potential
    Résumé: L’industrie de tourisme est encore un produit nouveau-né. Mais, elle revêt une signification bien pratique dans le processus de la réforme et de la reconstruction de l’ancienne industrie du Nord-est. Le présent article, commençant par la définition de l’industrie de tourisme, démontre la fonction de cette industrie, combine la situation réelle de la province du Liaoning pour analyser les avantages, désavantages, défis et opportunités en utilisant la méthode SWOT et met en avant le modèle de développement de l’industrie de tourisme du Liaoning.
    Mots-Clés: tourisme, industrie de tourisme, potentiel

  20. PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF WELLS DRINKING WATER IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi ? H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ? A. A. Enayati ? R. A. Mohammadpoor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Direct method and Gram staining procedure were used to identify the parasites. If cryptosporidium was seen, floatation (sheather’s sugar and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method were performed. Parasites count was undertaken using McMaster counting slide (0.3 mL. 197 out of 989 water samples were contaminated with different parasites. From 197 contaminated samples, 20 different types of parasites were separated of which 53 (26.9% were pathogenic, 100 (50.8% non pathogenic, and 44 non-infective stages of parasites. Distance between wells and sources of contamination, type of water distribution systems, city and chlorination status had significantly statistical relationship with contamination prevalence (p<0.001. According to the results and considering the direct correlation between safe water and human health, proper implementation of providing hygienic drinking water should be enforced.

  1. Genetic characterization of Shigella flexneri isolates in Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  2. A short history of nuclear activities in Mendoza province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium was found in Mendoza in 1946 in 'Soberania' and 'Independencia' mines. After its creation in 1950 CNEA, together with Cuyo National University (UNC), developed the mining industry starting with the 'Papagayos' mine. It can be considered the beginning of the systematic exploitation of uranium in the country. In course of time the province of Mendoza passed to get one of the most uraniferous reserve of Argentina and it has accumulated the major production till now. However, in the last years there has been opposition to resume the production in the Sierra Pintada Uranium Manufacturing Complex. There was also a powerful land continuous progress in the field of no energetic applications of nuclear techniques in the province. The most outstanding example is the 'School of Nuclear Medicine Foundation', with installations in Mendoza city and in San Rafael. Besides, there is a research and development group in Cuyo National University devoted to the Nuclear Safety. Finally, we can not fail to mention the Auger Pierre Project, which is building in Malargue an observatory for the study of the cosmic rays. (author)

  3. Molecular analysis of fragile X syndrome in Antalya Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen T

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of the (CGGn repeats in the FMR1 gene that cause the fragile X syndrome (FXS, has become a milestone for phenotype-genotype correlation in FXS. Aims: To screen the FMR1 gene CGG repeats in index cases with FXS and their family members in the Antalya Province. Setting and design: This study was prospectively conducted between January 200and March 2005 in Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya. Materials and Methods: A series of 132 cases from three hospitals in Antalya Province were studied. All cases were molecularly screened using non-radioactive Expand Long PCR method that was confirmed by Southern blotting. Results: Seventeen out of 132 cases were found to have a full mutation, including three that were mosaic for premutations/full mutations. Of the 132 cases, eight were found to have the premutation size of the CGG repeats. The remaining 107 cases were identified as normal. Conclusions: Due to premature ovarian failure and Fragile X premutation Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome related with the premutation, the detection of the premutation will provide valuable information both for clinical follow-up and genetic counseling. In conclusion, our data suggest that expansion of CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene can be analyzed by Expand Long PCR, an efficient and non-radioactive method that can be used to monitor the expansion of premutation to full mutation, which would eventually lead to reduce the FXS prevalence.

  4. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Arnot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 ?g/kg to 4946 ?g/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

    How to cite this article: Arnot LF, Duncan NM, Coetzer H, Botha CJ. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Jl S Afr vet Ass. 2012;83(1, Art. #2, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v83i1.2

  5. Recurrence of great earthquakes and tsunamis, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, C. M.; Horton, B.; Sieh, K.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hawkes, A. D.; Daly, P.; Kelsey, H. M.; McKinnon, E.; Ismail, N.; Daryono, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and characterization of ancient earthquakes and tsunamis inferred from a variety of geologic studies in Aceh Province, Sumatra, are helping to understand predecessors of the 2004 event in the Indian Ocean region. We report results from three different depositional environments along the western and northern coast of Aceh Province, Sumatra, that illuminate the history of tsunamis through the past several millennia. Within a coastal cave along the western coast is an extraordinary sedimentary deposit that contains a 7,000-year long sequence of tsunami sands separated by bat guano. In two sea cliff exposures along the northern coast of Aceh is evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami that destroyed communities along the coast about 500 years ago. In addition, coastal wetlands along the western coast document land-level changes and tsunamis associated with the earthquake cycle in the early- to mid-Holocene. Together these records show a marked variability in recurrence of large tsunamis along the Acehnese coast. Time between inundations averages close to 500 years but range from a few centuries to a millennium.

  6. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Waleed H. Albuali; Bertram, Stephanie; Abdullah M. Al-Rubaish; Yousef, Abdullah A; Awatif N. Al-Nafaie; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

  7. The analysis report on the development of agricultural product radiation processing industry in Henan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorough investigation and study the problems of sustainable development about radiation processing industry of agricultural products in Henan Province, put forward to promote a series of policies for sustainable development to radiation processing industry of agricultural products in Henan Province. (authors)

  8. Geochronological and chemical surveys of Maracau subvolcanic province - Folha de Santa Quiteria (CE, in Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional geology and geochronological and chemical characteristics of Maracau-CE, in Brazil, subvolcanic province are described. The Brazilian ages of implantation and regional geology are discussed together with the chemical constitution of various lithologic types: the origin and correlation with other subvolcanic provinces in Ceara State are considered. (Author)

  9. Study on Provincial Compulsory Education Financial Equity Based on School-Level Data from One Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    By applying the multivariable method to elementary school data in one western province, this study shows that per-student budgetary nonpersonnel expenditure in the province is the most unequal index in terms of horizontal equity. In terms of vertical equity, the equity effect of the "poor county" designation by the central or provincial…

  10. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in river, lake, reservoir, spring, well, offshore water and tap water in Yunnan Province. There were totally 344 samples collected from 223 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the province was within normal natural background

  11. The Way of Regional Economic Development by Cooperating Activities of Xinjiang and Other Provinces of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaiti·Mahemuti XUE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the cooperation efficiency between Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region (XUAR and the western provinces of China in the first stage (1999-2011 to estimate the cooperation possibility for next period and the optimal way of cooperation process. This paper analyzed and compared the main macroeconomic indicators of XUAR and the western provinces, by using the macroeconomic data of China and 12 western provinces from 1999 to 2011. The correlation coefficient proved that the economic development correlates highly of XUAR and the western provinces in the period from 1999 to 2011. This paper also compared the main economic indices, such as GDP, growth rate and so on, to know the status of economic condition of each province. The result proves that the cooperation activities between XUAR and the western provinces not only improved the XUAR’s economy but also provided more finances chances for the western provinces, and the cooperation was successful in the first phase. However, this research found the some issues existed in the process of cooperation. To solve these questions in next cooperation, this paper pointed out several main problems, including the lack of the investment in fixed assets and foreign capital, readjusting industrial structure, reducing the residents’ income gap between XUAR and the western provinces and nationwide as well.

  12. TRADE AND HANDICRAFT INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT FEATURES IN IRKUTSK PROVINCE AT THE END OF XIX CENTURY

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    Semina Snezhana Alexandrovna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the importance of nature-geographic conditions and factors that determine trade and handicraft industrial features in the Irkutsk Province at the end of the XIX century. The article’s objective is to represent an overall view on handicraft industry background in the Irkutsk Province at the end of XIX Century.

  13. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  14. Geothermal energy in the Dutch province Noord-Holland. Survey of sites for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of North Holland, the Netherlands, commissioned an outlook on the opportunities for geothermal energy in North Holland. The outlook addresses both the opportunities offered underground and possible locations for heat sales that follow from the regional plans of the province.

  15. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  16. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  17. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  18. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  19. The Analysis of Development Condition of Taekwondo Dan System in Hebei Province

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    Cao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article made use of the literature, questionnaire and mathematical statistics method for the Taekwondo practitioners and coaches in Hebei province to carry out investigation, analysis on the development situation of Dan system of Taekwondo, to influence and implement Dan system development of Taekwondo in Hebei province. The results showed, most road museums are organizing assessment of Dan System, but there is still half of the practitioners are willing to participate in grading system of examination and did not participate in. The results show that the development of grading system of Taekwondo in Hebei province, however, there are still some problems. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for the development of Hebei province, but also to contribute to the promotion of Taekwondo Dan made better development in Hebei province.

  20. Energy consumption and income in Chinese provinces: Heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We examine the Granger causality between GDP and energy use for Chinese provinces. ? We use panel causality techniques and take into consideration panel heterogeneity. ? Homogeneous causality tests fail and we test for panel heterogeneous causality. ? Causality holds for 19 provinces from GDP to energy and in the opposite direction for 14 provinces. ? The results point to the importance of the government’s recent energy-saving policies. -- Abstract: Recently, energy production in China fell behind energy consumption. This poses important challenges for the rapidly growing Chinese economy. As a consequence, the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP is an important empirical issue. This paper examines Granger causality between energy consumption and GDP in China using province-level data. The current paper extends the Granger causality analysis employed in previous studies by taking into account panel heterogeneity. Specifically, four different causal relationships are examined: homogeneous non-causality (HNC), homogeneous causality (HC), heterogeneous non-causality (HENC), and heterogeneous causality (HEC). HC and HNC hypotheses are rejected for causality in either direction, from GDP to energy or from energy to GDP, which implies that the panel made up of Chinese provinces is not homogeneous. Then, heterogeneous causality tests (HEC ad HENC) are conducted for each province. For the causality running from GDP to energy, 19 provinces exhibit HEC and 11 provinces exhibit HENC. For the causality running from energy to GDP, 14 provinces exhibit HEC and 16 provinces exhibit HENC. The results suggest that the Chinese government should incorporate a regional perspective while formulating and implementing energy policies.

  1. Epidemiologic and demographic survey of celiac disease in khuzestan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients' information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists' offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients' mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients' symptoms to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), should be aware that patients who present with long-term nonspecific symptoms might possibly have celiac disease. During endoscopy, the threshold for obtaining biopsies should be low. PMID:24872869

  2. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liesl L, Dyson.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall over the Gauteng Province, South Africa, was analysed for the summer months of October to March using 32-yr (1977 to 2009) daily rainfall data from about 70 South African Weather Service stations. The monthly and seasonal variation of heavy rainfall occurrences was also analysed. Thre [...] e 24-h heavy rainfall classes are defined considering the area-average rainfall. A significant rainfall event is defined when the average rainfall exceeds 10 mm, a heavy rainfall event when the average rainfall exceeds 15 mm and a very heavy rainfall event when the average rainfall exceeds 25 mm. January months have the highest monthly average rainfall as well as the highest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The month with the second-highest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days is February followed by March and October. December has the second-highest monthly average rainfall and the most days with rain. However, it is also the month with the lowest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The highest 24-h rainfall recorded at a single station during the 32-yr period was 300 mm in December 2006. However, rainfall exceeding 115 mm at a single rainfall station in the Gauteng Province is very rare and does not occur every year. January months receive these events more than any other month but this only transpires in approximately a third of years. The central and north-western parts of the Province experience the most events where the rainfall at a single station surpasses 75 and 115 mm. With regard to seasonal rainfall, the 1995/96 summer rainfall season had the highest seasonal rainfall during this 32-yr period followed by the 1999/2000 season. The 1995/96 season had above normal rainfall in both early and late summer but the 1999/2000 season was dry in early summer and very wet in late summer. Significantly high seasonal rainfall is associated with above-normal rainfall in late summer.

  3. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15 mare basalts constitute only one, offers advances in our understanding of the physical and chemical processes of source formation and mare production but has so far not been utilized.

  4. Student nurses' experiences during clinical practice in the Limpopo Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BT, Mabuda; E, Potgieter; UU, Alberts.

    Full Text Available A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to explore student nurses' experiences during clinical practice at a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used and phenomenological interviews were held with eleven (11) student nurses who were in t [...] heir final year of the four year basic nursing programme. The interviews were analysed by using Tesch's method of data analysis for qualitative research. The findings indicate that there are aspects which impact negatively on student nurses' clinical learning experiences, such as lack of teaching and learning support, lack of opportunities for learning, poor theory-practice integration, and poor interpersonal relationships between the students, college tutors and ward staff. Recommendations to enhance the clinical learning experiences of student nurses were outlined.

  5. Pollen morphology of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires province (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia, Rosenfeldt; Beatriz G, Galati.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology and the degree of pollen variability within nine species and two varieties of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) were studied using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxalis pollen grain is genera [...] lly 3-colpate and the shape is prolate spheroidal, oblate spheroidal or spheroidal. The exine is microreticulate. The brochi are circular to polygonal; brochi sizes decrease near the colpi. The colpus membrane observed in unacetolysed material, is crustate or granular. The colpus length varies within a species; the largest grains are produced in stamens with long filaments and the smallest ones in stamens with short filaments. Four pollen types are distinguished by means of LM, SEM and TEM. They are recognized mostly on the basis of their colpus membrane structure. In conclusion, the morphological similarity among Oxalis species is also reflected in their pollen morphology.

  6. Pollen morphology of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rosenfeldt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology and the degree of pollen variability within nine species and two varieties of Oxalis species from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina were studied using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Oxalis pollen grain is generally 3-colpate and the shape is prolate spheroidal, oblate spheroidal or spheroidal. The exine is microreticulate. The brochi are circular to polygonal; brochi sizes decrease near the colpi. The colpus membrane observed in unacetolysed material, is crustate or granular. The colpus length varies within a species; the largest grains are produced in stamens with long filaments and the smallest ones in stamens with short filaments. Four pollen types are distinguished by means of LM, SEM and TEM. They are recognized mostly on the basis of their colpus membrane structure. In conclusion, the morphological similarity among Oxalis species is also reflected in their pollen morphology.

  7. Diamonds from the V. Grib pipe, Arkhangelsk kimberlite province, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubanova, E. V.; Palazhchenko, O. V.; Garanin, V. K.

    2009-11-01

    A large collection (717 samples) of diamonds from the V. Grib deposit, discovered in 1996 in the Verhotinskoe field of the Arkhangelsk kimberlite province, was studied. The diamond crystals are characterized by high transparency and preservation. The collection consists of complete crystals (71%), chipped and damaged crystals (preservation > 50%; 14%), and fragments (preservation sulfides are almost completely absent. The carbon isotopic composition of the host diamonds is typical for peridotitic diamonds worldwide. IR-spectroscopy suggests the presence of two diamond populations with low and high nitrogen concentrations. Three sub-populations may be identified based on a combination of morphology, nitrogen and hydrogen defects. Residence temperatures ( TNitrogen), based on a mantle residence time of 3 Ga, fall between 1050 and 1170 °C. Diamond crystallization in V. Grib occurred in multiple stages. This is documented through luminescence patterns, data on nitrogen concentration and aggregation state, and the presence of "diamond-in-diamond" inclusions.

  8. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  9. Level of environmental natural radiation in Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average absorbed dose rate of cosmic radiation in air is 4.8 x 10-8 Gy.h-1 in Yunnan Procince. The absorbed dose rates from terrestrial gamma radiation in air range from 1.5 to 29.4 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, with an average of 9.0 x 10-8 Gy.h-1. The effective dose equivalent to population per year from cosmic radiation is 406 ?Sv. The annual external effective dose equivalent to population ranges from 434 to 1,738 ?Sv, with an average of 1,118 ?Sv. Among them the contribution of cosmic radiation is 36.8%, and that of terrestrial radiation is 63.2%. The collective effective dose equivalent to population in this province is 3.5 x 104 man.Sv

  10. Mining and social conflict in the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Girado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extractive mining-exporter model, developed in Argentina in the light of neoliberal policies in the 1990s, is resisted by different local communities, who question both hegemonic narratives neo-development speech, as the existing governmental and business representations regarding the use and exploitation of the territory and environment. From a socio-anthropological perspective this article reflects on the social conflict generated in two middle-sized cities of the province of Buenos Aires (Tandil and Olavarría in relation to the canteril exploitation of Tandilia´s mountain system. At the same time, it allows the debate about the differential place of the environment, specifically the mountains, which occupies in different city projects and, for the other one, on specific linkages and relations among global processes, the positioning of national governments and local resistance.

  11. Identifying sports cultural opportunity – Case Study of Mazandaran Province

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    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an important tool to draw the national attention. Sport is a big assembly to make identity. Also, sport is a cause for identity and unity. The purpose of this study is to identify the cultural opportunity of sport in the province of Mazandaran in Iran. The research method was mixed. Sequential exploratory mixed method of the first method is qualitative and quantitative methods. The study included all the Mazandaran managers, coaches, experts, judges and athletes at the national level. The results show that directors, judges and experts believe that people's happiness and euphoria in winning the sports events is the most sport important cultural opportunity in Mazandaran (All kinds of sport were included. A lot of money is spent on TV programs and movies to fill the people's free time.

  12. Natural radiation and population dose in Sichuan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of natural radiation level was conducted in 1983 in Sichuan Province by using ionization chambers and FD-71 scintillation radiometers. The data obtained from 19,647 sites showed that the distribution of the back-ground radiation level was normal. The average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial ?-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are 11.8 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, 15.2 x 10-8 Gy.h-1 and 11.9 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalent to population is 904 ?Sv and the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 90.2 x 103 man.Sv

  13. Acidification research and policy in the Province of Limburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidification is an important environmental problem in The Netherlands. Both national and provincial government have tasks in the prevention of further damage due to acidification and the reduction of emissions. In this paper it is shown how a policy on acidification is formulated in the province of Limburg. The national deposition targets have been adopted. Feasibility studies were carried out to establish the emission reduction necessary to reach the deposition targets. These studies also show what emission reduction is feasible in a cost-effective way and how cost-effectiveness decreases as reduction targets are set higher. Thus emission reduction-targets were set and a provincial abatement strategy, including measures to be taken by various target groups, was formulated. 10 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Estimating methane emissions from mangrove area in Ranong Province, Thailand

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    Suwanchai Nitisoravut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate methane emissions from the mangrove area of Ranong Province andto explore the factors affecting the emissions, as part of an attempt to evaluate methane contribution to the global methane budget. Methane was measured by using a closed chamber technique and analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID. The results showed that the annual estimated methane emission was released at approximately 157.32 mg/m2. The amount of methane emission from this mangrove area was lower than in other previously studied areas. Emission rates varied seasonally with the highest rate in the rainy season followed by summer and cold seasons, during which the values were 0.52, 0.27, and 0.19 mg/m2/day, respectively. Seasonal variations of methane emission was related to several factors depending upon field conditions such as water conductivity, soil temperature, and water level.

  15. Changes in Ecosystem Service Values in Fuxin City, Liaoning Province

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    Guowei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ecosystem services value across land-use scenarios in Fuxin City of Liaoning Province were explored in the study. Two-period land use survey data (1996 and 2010 were used to estimate changes in the size of seven land use categories and the most recently published value equivalent was used to estimate changes in the values of ecosystem services. The total value of ecosystem services in Fuxin City was 17674.75 million Yuan in 1996 and 19077.59 million Yuan in 2010, with an increase of 1402.84 million Yuan mainly due to the inclining areas of forestland and grass land, which indicated the eco-environment in Fuxin City has been becoming better and better. However, agricultural land including farmland and orchard showed the tendency of decrease, which indicated food security has been facing with challenge in Fuxin City.

  16. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  17. Moessbauer studies of impactites from Huamalies province in Huanuco Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, A., E-mail: abustamanted@unmsm.edu.pe; Espinoza, S. [San Marcos University, Faculty of Physical Sciences (Peru); Morales, G. [Museo de Historia Natural(Museum of Natural History) (Peru); Scorzelli, R. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (Brazilian Center for Research in Physics) (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    This report is about the X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer studies of three impactite samples denominated PMe-8, PMe-9 and PMe-11 from Huamalies Province in Huanuco Region, Peru. When terrestrial rocks are submitted to pressures higher than 60 GP, the majority is completely melted, forming a kind of glass called impactites. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of quartz as the principal mineralogical phase in all samples. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra at room temperature of samples PMe-8 and PMe-9 show broadened spectra that were fitted using a distribution model. The most probable field of the magnetic component is 34 T, corresponding to the presence of small particles of goethite, confirmed by the 4.2 K spectrum. For the sample PMe-11, the MS showed the presence of well crystallized hematite.

  18. Pisces, Anegada Bay protected area, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llompart, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first list of marine fish from Anegada Bay, a coastal protected area in Buenos AiresProvince. Fish records were obtained from gillnets and recreational fishery captures. Thirty seven speciesbelonging to 29 families and 18 orders were identified. The most numerous order was Perciformes witheight families and 10 species. Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa andMustelus schmitti were verified in all sampling sites and the last two were the most represented either in theexperimental fishing and recreational captures. Presence of Lagocephalus laevigatus extended the so far knownrange distribution of this fish species, representing the southernmost records in Argentinean coastal waters.The fish fauna composition from Anegada Bay could be considered as from a transitional zone.

  19. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Brucellosis Among Animal Farmers of Yazd Province"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has remained a great problem of health in most of countries, which have failed in control of zoonosis infections. This disease is caused by species of Brucella and usually is transferred from animals to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among animal farmers of Yazd province. In this descriptive study, 933 animal farmers were investigated by serological tests and blood culture method. Then the data were analyzed by SPPS statistical program. The results showed that the frequency distribution of seropositive cases by MAT and STAT were 35 (3.2%; 25 (2.7% males and 10 (1.1% females. The highest and lowest incidences of seropositive cases were among age group of 21-30 (1% and more than 60 (0.3% years old, respectively. Of the 35 seropositive cases, 2MET positive were 5 (0.5%, while all blood cultures were negative.

  20. The provinces and carbon pricing : three inconvenient truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed the role that the federal government should play in introducing a carbon price policy in Canada whereby a carbon tax would be instituted to send a price signal to those considering future investment in carbon-intensive energy projects. It focused on bridging the gap between federal and provincial jurisdictions and assessed how various carbon pricing models can play a role in environmental federalism while allowing provinces to remain involved in policy making. Policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems were discussed along with carbon import tariffs and domestic carbon taxes. In a market-based policy on climate change, proceeds of carbon taxes will serve to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article also reviewed tax incentives as well as price signal systems designed to ensure successful climate change adjustments for Canadian enterprises. 1 fig

  1. Atmospheric mercury species measured in Guiyang, Guizhou province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Qiu, Guangle; Landis, Matthew S.; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Shang, Lihai

    2011-04-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) species were measured in Guiyang City, the capital of Guizhou province, southwestern China at the Guiyang Monitoring Station Agency (GMSA) from September to November 2008 and at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGCAS) during February, May, and July, 2009. Monitoring results found elevated concentrations of all three Hg species in ambient air in Guiyang. Large temporal and spatial variation patterns in the resulting data were also obtained. The overall average TGM concentrations at the GMSA and IGCAS sampling sites were 7.4 ± 4.8 ng m - 3 and 6.2 ± 5.1 ng m - 3 , respectively. The average Hg(p) and RGM concentrations at GMSA were 1330 pg m - 3 and 24 pg m - 3 , and at IGCAS were 250 pg m - 3 and 19 pg m - 3 , respectively. It is hypothesized that local anthropogenic sources and the seasonal variability result in the high degree of spatial and temporal variability.

  2. Sulfur isotope of the Dahebian barite deposit, Tianzhu, Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur isotope is widely used to trace elemental sulfur and determine sedimentary environment of sulfate deposits. Systematic study on sulfur isotope of Dahebian barite deposit has not been reported yet. Analysis of sul- fur isotope is taken on geological samples from Dahebian barite deposit in Tianzhu county, Guizhou province. The sulfur isotope composition of 14 samples is between 3.67%-4.16% and these sulfur isotopic compositions are characterized by tower style distribution, which indicating that elemental sulfur is of single-source and mainly from the sulfate which is dissolved in the seawater and experience strong bacterial reduction. This deposit forms in a semiclosed-closed lagoon environment in the carbonate platform. (authors)

  3. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  4. Odyssean malaria outbreaks in Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2007 - 2013

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Frean; B, Brooke; J, Thomas; L, Blumberg.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odyssean malaria refers to malaria transmitted by translocated mosquitoes and is a diagnosis of exclusion, as the probability of finding the responsible vector is miniscule. We believe that road traffic from endemic areas in and around South Africa is the source of most of the infected m [...] osquitoes. Because of the unexpected nature of the disease, diagnosis is often delayed and severe and complicated malaria is common. OBJECTIVES: To describe outbreaks of odyssean malaria during the period 2007 through 2013 in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and to educate healthcare workers about this form of malaria. METHODS: Site visits, environmental hygiene inspections, patient interviews, and entomological investigations for adult mosquitoes and larvae in potential breeding sites were done in each identified outbreak. RESULTS: Over the period, 14 laboratory-proven and 7 probable cases of odyssean malaria were investigated. There were 2 deaths (9.5% case fatality rate, approximately 10 times higher than the national fatality rate for malaria). We describe two recent clusters of cases in detail, and emphasise the importance of clinician awareness of this rare but frequently severe form of malaria. CONCLUSION: Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces. It is likely that many cases are missed, owing to the rare and sporadic nature of the condition. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of unexplained fever and thrombocytopenia, even in the absence of a travel history.

  5. The burden of imported malaria in Gauteng province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingrid B, Weber; Lee, Baker; Joy, Mnyaluza; Maila J, Matjila; Karen, Barnes; Lucille, Blumberg.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the burden of malaria in Gauteng Province, and to identify potential risk factors for severe disease. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective survey of malaria cases diagnosed in hospitals throughout Gauteng from December 2005 to end November 2006. OUTCOME MEASURES: Malaria freque [...] ncy, severity, and treatment. RESULTS: We identified 1 701 malaria cases; 1 548 (91%) were seen at public sector hospitals and 153 (9%) at private hospitals; 1 149 (68%) patients were male. Median age was 27 years (range 1 month - 89 years). Most (84%) infections were presumed to be acquired in Mozambique. Disease severity did not differ by age or sex. Patients who were South Africanborn were more likely to have severe disease (OR=1.43 (1.08 - 1.91)), as were patients who experienced a delay >48 hours between onset of symptoms and diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.98 (1.48 - 2.65)). While most patients appropriately received quinine, only 9% of severe malaria cases received the recommended loading dose. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of malaria in Gauteng was higher than previously reported, emphasising the need to prevent malaria in travellers by correct use of non-drug measures and, when indicated, malaria chemoprophylaxis. Disease severity was increased by delays between onset and treatment and lack of partial immunity. Providers should consult the latest guidelines for treatment of malaria in South Africa, particularly about treatment of severe malaria. A change in drug policy to artemisinin combination therapy for imported uncomplicated malaria in non-malaria risk provinces should be strongly considered.

  6. Peculiarities of sulphur functionalities in the Thracian coal province, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinov S P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thracian coal province in Bulgaria is comprised of three main coal basins, Maritza East, Maritza West and Elhovo, with extremely immature coals (Rr = 0.18-0.21%. These Miocene-Pliocene aged low rank coals (lignites are characterized by high ash and sulphur contents, and low calorific values. Temperature programmed reduction/oxidation at atmospheric pressure (AP-TPR/TPO, coupled with on-line mass spectrometer (AP-TPR/TPO-MS and with an off-line gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS, were applied to the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of sulphur functionalities in representative samples from each basin of the coal province. Carbonates and mineral sulphur were removed by preliminary treatment with diluted acids at mild conditions to prevent effects on the TPR kinetograms. This treatment mainly removed the mineral sulphur, and its effects on organic sulphur were insignificant. Most of the organic sulphur in the Thracian lignites occurs in thiophenic structures (~ 60%. The TPR-MS profiles showed the presence of alkyl and aryl thiols, dialkyl and aryl-alkyl sulphides and thiophenes. The main organic sulphur compounds registered by the off-line AP-TPR-GC-MS were highly volatile compounds (thiols, sulphides, disulphides, alkylated thiophenes, and a lesser proportion of benzothiophenes. The disulphides (-SS- are relatively abundant in the Maritza East and Elhovo lignites. They are probably the main aliphatic sulphur species in the coal's organic matter. Aliphatic chains with sulphur bridges are also principal structural functionalities in the Maritza West organic matter. Aromatic compounds with two aromatic rings and high degrees of substitution could be key organic structures in the studied lignites.

  7. Large Igneous Province Volcanism, Ocean Anoxia and Marine Mass Extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    Past global marine mass extinction events are often linked to terrestrial Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, but exact mechanisms driving extinction are often not well constrained. We studied two of Earth’s largest mass extinction events, at the Triassic-Jurassic (~201.4 Ma) and Permian-Triassic (~252 Ma) boundaries, which coincide with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and Siberian Trap volcanism, respectively. The Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction is often contributed to carbon release driven ocean acidification while the Permian-Triassic mass extinction is suggested to be related to widespread ocean anoxia. We compare Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic ocean redox change along continental margins in different geographic regions (Permian-Triassic: Greenland, Svalbard, Iran; Triassic-Jurassic: UK, Austria) and discuss its role in marine mass extinction. Speciation of iron [(FeHR/ FeT) and (FePY/ FeHR)] and redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, V etc.) show that the Triassic-Jurassic marine mass extinction directly coincides with a rapid shift to anoxic and euxinic conditions at the onset of CAMP volcanism and increased atmospheric pCO2. Biotic recovery after the extinction event only commences when redox-conditions return from a euxinic to a ferruginous state and stabilization of marine ecosystems only commences after decreasing atmospheric pCO2 and a return to more oxic marine conditions. Iron-speciation at both the Triassic-Jurassic and Permian-Triassic mass extinctions however shows 2 phases of euxinia along continental margins, with an initial short peak at the onset of volcanism followed by a shift to ferruginous conditions, possibly due to a strongly diminished ocean sulphate reservoir because of massive initial pyrite burial. D34Spyrite suggests that following prolonged (several 100kyr) euxinic conditions only commence when the ocean sulphate reservoir is replenished by the release of sulphur from volcanism.

  8. Malignant Salivary Glands Tumors in Kerman Province: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant salivary glands tumors (MSGTs are uncommon cancers. The most common site of these cancers is the parotid gland. Some investigations show these cancers preference for males than females. The majority of MSGTs arise in sixth decade of human life. According to the literature review for the present work, there is a few epidemiological researches about MSGTs in Iran and especially there isn't any study in Kerman province. So the aim of this study was investigation the incidence, sex, age, histological types, and site distribution of MSGTs in the Kerman province during the time period from March 1991 to March 2002.Methods and Materials: Documents and records of 70 patients with MSGTs diagnosed from March 1991 to March 2002 were reviewed. The patients' records were analyzed based on gender, age, location, and histopathological type of the tumor. Data were analyzed by SPSS-13.5 statistical software using t-test, chi-square, and ANOVA tests.Results: During this period of time, 70 cases (43men, 27 women of MSGTs had been diagnosed. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common cancer (30% and the parotid was the most affected site (70%. The age range was 10-86 years old with the overall mean age of 50.18 ± 17.97.Discussion: Despite a considerable volume of literatures written about MSGTs in many countries, the incidence of these cancers haven't as yet been thoroughly documented or analyzed in Iran. However, comparison between the findings of this study with the results of other investigations showed a relative consistency.

  9. Population Distribution Pattern of 76 Provinces in Thailand: Application of Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binita Kumari Paudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is in the demographic transition phase. The shape of population pyramid is shifting from stationary to contracting pattern. Age-sex distribution may vary by province. This study explores and describes the population distribution pattern of 76 provinces in Thailand using data from 2000 Thai population census. Factor analysis, a multivariate statistical method, was used to cluster provinces, based on pattern of age-sex distribution of the population. The study found three distinct patterns of population distribution in Thailand. Twenty-seven southern and northeastern region provinces, mainly bordering Myanmar, Cambodia or Malaysia, share the classical pattern of population distribution. The majority of central region provinces, and also Phuket from the south share a similar population distribution pattern which peaks at the young age group. So too, most of the northern region provinces share another pattern that dips at the young age group. In conclusion, this study found that population distribution is not symmetrical across Thailand. The factor model approximated well this variation and clustered the provinces in three patterns. The method applied in this study is straightforward and can be used in future demographic studies. 

  10. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the northeastern provinces. PMID:20527197

  11. Problems and Countermeasures of Tour-Guide Services in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna YE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism of Liaoning Province is developing with a fast speed. High quality services provided by tour guides are necessary for the development of the industry. However, in recent years, the quality and ability of the tour guides in Liaoning Province are both downgrading, and many problems in the process of service are popping up one after another. Therefore, the research into the problems of the tour-guide services in Liaoning Province has great realistic significance.
    Key words: Tour-guide service; Satisfaction; Good faith

  12. The Framework for Integrated Water Management in the Thua Thien-Hue Province:

    OpenAIRE

    Van Berchum, E.C.; Van Corven, T.A.W.; Hessels, T.M.; Kuijk, D.; Van Oosten, J.; ZORGDRAGER, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Thua Thien-Hue province is located in the centre of Vietnam. It is characterized by the short distance between the mountains in the west and the coast of the South China Sea in the east. Two large rivers flow through the province, fed by multiple smaller rivers from the mountains. The Bo River flows through the northern part of the province and ends up in the Cau Hai lagoon. The Huong River is the largest of the two and flows through Hue city ending in the Cau Hai lagoon. The coastal z...

  13. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part V. Chahar Mahal & Bakhtiyari Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of scorpions belonging to three families are reported from the montane Chahar Mahal & Bakhtiyari Province of Iran. Of these, only Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903 was formerly reported for this province, while nine species are reported for the first time: Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807, Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905, Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880, Hottentotta zagrosensis Kova?ík, 1997, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Odontobuthus doriae (Thorell, 1876, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, Hemi- scorpius lepturus Peters, 1861, and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the Chahar Mahal & Bakhtiyari Province.

  14. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  15. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP): The Palisade Sill Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The extensively studied 200Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is considered to be the world's largest continental Large Igneous Province (LIP) covering up to 7 X 106 km2. This igneous province has been linked to the ~200Ma Mesozoic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. This opening fragmented the CAMP into several segments that occur on four different tectonic plates today. The CAMP related LIP is different from others in that it constitutes almost entirely of dikes and sills with sparse volcanic outflows. The 200 Ma Palisade Sill, exposed along the Hudson River in northeastern North America is an expression of the CAMP magmatism. On the basis of similar ages of eruption, Palisade Sill tholeiites have been correlated to other CAMP exposures in four continents. We provide an isotopic tracer study of the Palisade Sill basalts and relate them to low-Ti (Atlantic Ocean crust. The Palisade Sill basalts of this study yield the typical composition of low-Ti CAMP tholeiites with small LREE enrichments (LaN/SmN = 1.7 to 2.3), radiogenic Sr and negative ?Nd(I) values (87Sr/87Sr(I) = 0.70668 to 0.71037; ?Nd(I) = -0.64 to -3.8), and Pb-isotopic ratios (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.11 to 18.69) above the NHRL and subparallel to it. These geochemical data indicate the Palisade Sill basalts were derived from a slightly enriched OIB-like mantle source. Further, these rocks were derived by ~15% melting of a slightly depleted spinel peridotite with up to 20% contamination by the continental lithosphere prior to or during the emplacement of these lavas. Since other low-Ti CAMP lavas have similar geochemistry and eruption ages of the Palisade Sill basalts, it is inferred that they have the same source for the tholeiites across four continents where they are emplaced. Although the collective trace element and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures of low-Ti CAMP magmatism cannot unequivocally discriminate a subcontinental lithosphere versus a plume source contaminated by the continental lithosphere, we argue for the latter based on the short time of eruption and large volume of all these lavas and the absence of an EM-I like component in the lavas. We suggest the CAMP was derived from a compositionally heterogeneous super-plume, analogous to one that may be active in the present day East African Rift System, with multiple stems acting as feeders over a large aerial extent. Compositional heterogeneity may have been caused by variability in lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or due to different degrees and depths of melting of the heterogeneous plume source.

  16. Mortalidad materna en Granma / Mother mortality in Granma province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Margarita, Millán Vega; César, Sánchez Alarcón; Rafael, Rodríguez Reytor; Ana Rosa, Rodríguez Cañete; Yarine, Fajardo Tornes.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la mortalidad materna es un indicador sensible sobre salud y está asociado al desarrollo social. Su tasa se mantiene elevada a nivel mundial los países en desarrollo son los más afectados por esta problemática. Objetivos: mostrar el comportamiento de la mortalidad materna en Granma en [...] el periodo del 1995 al 2010, describir el comportamiento de las defunciones según tasa general y directa de muerte materna por año, mes, sitio de ocurrencia, municipio y causa. Métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo sobre mortalidad materna en el periodo desde 1995 hasta el 2010 en la provincia Granma, Cuba. Los resultados se expusieron en tablas simples en números, porcentajes y tasas. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad general y directa mas elevada (84,4 y 67,4 x 100 000 nacidos vivos, respectivamente) se reportó en el año 1995, mientras que la más baja fue en el 2010 (9,5), en el que no hubo muertes maternas de causa directa. Las defunciones fueron más frecuentes en el mes de enero, agosto y diciembre. Las pacientes fallecieron mayoritariamente en el hospital "Carlos M. de Céspedes" de Bayamo y en el "Celia Sánchez Manduley" de Manzanillo. Los municipios que más fallecidas tuvieron fueron Manzanillo y Bayamo. Predominó la hemorragia como principal causa de muerte, seguida por el embolismo de líquido amniótico. Conclusiones: la tasa de muerte materna general y directa por meses y años en el periodo desde 1995 hasta el 2010 en la provincia Granma en Cuba ha disminuido de forma evidente, aunque su descenso no ha sido uniforme por lo que se impone perfeccionar las estrategias para resolver esta compleja problemática de salud. Abstract in english Mother mortality is a sensible health indicator and is associated with the social development. Its rate remains high at world level, the developing countries are the more affected by this problem. Objective: To show the behavior of mother mortality in Granma province from 1995 to 2010, to describe t [...] he course of deceases according to the general and direct rate of mother death by year, month, place of occurrence, municipality and cause. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was conducted on the mother mortality from 1995 to 2020 in the Granma province. Results are showed in single tables, figures, percentages and rates. Results: the higher general and direct mortality rate (84.4 and 67.4 x 100 000 life births, respectively) was reported in 1995, whereas the lowest one was reported in 2020 (9.5) without mother death of direct cause. Deceases were more frequent in January, August and December. Most patients died in the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" Hospital of Bayamo and in the "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Hospital of Manzanillo. The municipalities with more deceases were Bayamo and Manzanillo municipalities. There was predominance of hemorrhage as the major cause of death, followed the amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusions: the general and direct mother death cause by months and years from 1995 to 2010 in Granma province has obviously decreased although its decrease has not been uniform thus it is necessary to improve the strategies to solve the complex health problem.

  17. Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals from Wang River, Lampang Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, T.; Lee, I.

    2014-12-01

    Wang River, known as Mae Nam Wang, is located in Northern part of Thailand. It is 440km long and has a catchment area 10,791km2. It originates from Mt. Phi Pannam and flows south-westward to join Ping River at Tak Province. The study area is the upper part of Wang River, which is located in the Wang Nua District, Lampang Province. The upper part of Wang River has been mined for gold placer deposit for a long time by local residents. Previous studies, dealing with gold grain morphology and chemistry of this area, reported several heavy mineral assemblages. In this study, we focused on geochemistry of detrital heavy mineral assemblage occurring within placer gold deposit of the study area to trace the provenances of the detrital heavy minerals and to evaluate the economic value of the detrital heavy mineral deposits on upper part of Wang River. The samples from the study area were prepared by panning and heavy liquid separation for analyses. An Energy Dispersive System (EDS) in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used for identification and image analysis of the detrital grains. The assemblage of heavy minerals in this area consists of ilmenite, zircon, hematite, magnetite, garnet, and rutile. Ilmenite (>21.5%) is the most common heavy mineral in the prepared heavy mineral sample. The proportion of zircon, hematite, magnetite, garnet, and rutile are approximately 15.0%, 14.7%, 10.5%, 5.8%, and 5.1% respectively. A plot of FeO-TiO2-Fe2O3 ternary diagram shows that most of iron-titanium oxides are plotted near or above the line of ilmenite (FeTiO3) - hematite (Fe2O3) solid solution, which is continuous solid solution above 800?. It provides useful information about forming condition of the source rock. Furthermore, the combination of the chemical analyses results with detailed geologic setting of the study area can be a tool to trace the provenances of the detrital heavy minerals.

  18. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they wanted raw materials to produce handicrafts, and 21% said they wanted cash to raise livestock. 28.4% had radios. 80.4% lacked any farm equipment. 7.6% owned an electric pump and 7% had an ox plough. A program could be offered after lunch and coordinated with other activities after 4 P.M. at a local center. The population would have to be oriented to business and income generation would have to be planned very carefully. PMID:12288810

  19. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laowo Idaman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO, pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO, revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles kochi and Anopheles sundaicus. Conclusion The cross sectional surveys in three different sub-districts of Nias District clearly demonstrated the presence of relatively stable endemic foci of malaria in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Molecular analysis of the malaria parasite isolates collected from this area strongly indicates resistance to chloroquine and a growing threat of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This situation highlights the need to develop sustainable malaria control measures through regular surveillance and proper antimalarial drug deployment.

  20. The first human infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wei

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: SFTSV readily infects humans with outdoor exposure. The results of the serological study indicate that the virus circulates widely in Shaanxi Province. SFTSV represents a public health threat in China.

  1. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Europe including Turkey

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of Europe. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series released on...

  2. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of Africa

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of Africa with some of these components extended into geographically...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Maturation Contours

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maturation contours show vitrinite reflectance trends and ranges for five key petroleum system horizons within the Uinta-Piceance Province. The horizons are the...

  4. Survey of Benthic Macroinfauna of the EMAP Carolinian Province, 1993-1997

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains benthic infaunal data collected at each station in the EMAP Carolinian Province from 1993-1997. Two to four benthic grabs were collected at...

  5. Geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey, 2000 (prv4_2l)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Europe including Turkey. (Albania,...

  6. Geologic Provinces of the Former Soviet Union, 2000 (prv1ec)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent geologic and petroleum provinces interpreted and designated by the authors and based on numerous literature and map resources. Geologic...

  7. Influence of Yunnan Railway Network on the Economy of Yunnan Province Based on Location Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Kailing Dong; Xuemei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the location advantage, railway actuality and development planning of Yunnan, the meanings of the establishment of Yunnan railway network to enhance the comprehensive competition and promote the development of economy in Yunnan Province are analyzed in this article.

  8. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  9. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the...

  10. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series...

  11. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of the Arctic

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  12. Geologic Provinces of the Circum-Arctic, 2008 (north of the Arctic Circle)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined 33 geologic provinces of the Circum-Arctic (north of the Arctic Circle). Each...

  13. Geologic Provinces of Australia and New Zealand, 2000 (prv3cl)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Australia and New Zealand area...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Positive Structural Elements

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Positive Structural Elements coverage maps, in the form of polygons, are known structural highs within the province that commonly define a basin proper or...

  15. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  16. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of the Asia Pacific Region

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Asia Pacific Region. This compilation is part of an interim...

  17. Relevant support services in the education system of the Northern Province / Takalani Samuel Mashau

    OpenAIRE

    Mashau, Takalani Samuel

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the relevant support services in the education system of the Northern Province. The first chapter serves as the orientation for the research project and contextualize the problem statement, which revolves around the question: What support services are needed to make education and training more effective in the education system of the Northern Province? The aims and objectives, delimitation also of the field of study, methods of investigation structure of s...

  18. Sustainable Development of Agricultural Product Processing Industry in Jilin Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Lian Song

    2011-01-01

    Jilin is a big agricultural province in northeast China. Development of agricultural product processing industry and improvement of agro-food additional value play a vital role in improvement of living standard of farmer and increase of local government financial revenue. Therefore, agricultural product processing industry is regarded as the third pillar industry after automotive industry and petrochemical industry in Jilin Province, China. Considering the characteristics of agricultural prod...

  19. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Manoochehr Mahram; Zahra Hoseinkhani; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Aflatouni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was s...

  20. Phlebotominae fauna in the Province of Tucumán, Argentina Fauna flebotomínica en la Provincia de Tucumán, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth CÓRDOBA LANÚS; Oscar Daniel SALOMÓN

    2002-01-01

    American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is endemic in the province of Tucumán since 1916 where the first Argentinian case of leishmaniasis was reported. An epidemic outbreak took place in the province during 1986-1988, after that the number of cases increased gradually again between 1991-1996. Since October of 1999 sand flies captures were performed at different places associated with current and past transmission or sites identified as risky ones. The collections were carried out with CDC mini li...

  1. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, E. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...

  2. The beneficiarii consularis in the western provinces of the Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Rankov, N. B.

    1987-01-01

    ?Beneficiarii consularis were members of the military staffs attached to Roman provincial governors of the Principate, and are well attested epigraph!cally, both at provincial capitals and at outposts along major roads and frontiers of the Western military provinces. They were usually experienced legionaries approaching retirement. and were of senior principalis rank. Each legion in a province provided the governor with (probably) sixty men of this rank. The gover...

  3. Identifying the Factors that Affect the Financial Sustainability in Balochistan Province of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    This study defines the factors affecting the financial sustainability in province of Balochistan. This research also describes that the financial sustainability in Balochistan is influenced by multiple diverse macro and micro level factors those create barriers and obstacles for development of province. These factors include political instability, poor infrastructure, poor quality of education, poor governance practices, law & order situation and corruption. This research was conducted to fin...

  4. Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaeian, M.; Ar, Meamar; MR Nilforoushan; Hosseini, M.; Eb, Kia

    2008-01-01

    Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females)...

  5. Expansion of HIV/AIDS in China: Lessons from Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yan; Kristensen, Sibylle; Sun, Jiangping; Lu, Lin; VERMUND, STEN H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we systematically and critically review the Chinese and English language literature on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related studies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. Yunnan Province had the first Chinese HIV outbreak and is still the worst affected area in the nation. Since 1989, HIV infection has extended from injecting drug users into the general population through sexual transmission. Since the economic reform of the 1980s, changed social norms and increased mig...

  6. Analysis of Energy Productivity and Determinant Factors: A Case Study of China’s Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Michinori Uwasu; Keishiro Hara; Helmut Yabar; Haiyan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the structure of how energy productivity in China’s provinces is determined to draw useful energy policy implications for sustainable development. First, energy productivity is decomposed into two attributes; technology; and input factor which is necessary for economic activities such as labor and capital. The paper then estimates energy technology levels as an indicator across provinces in China through 2004 and 2007 using a growth accounting method....

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERVICE DOMINANT LOGIC IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT (Case Study: Lampung Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwandaru, Alif Aditya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Private vehicle using is leading to increased traffic congestion, air pollution and mounting social disparities, especially at big city. Particularly in Lampung Province, Bandar Lampung as a capital of Lampung province is trying to initiate creating sustainable integrated public transportation and it has been started while several public transport companies together established Trans Bandar Lampung. At early, it was going really well and Bandar Lampung citizen started to use this ...

  8. Performance characteristics of EZhou bentonite of Hubei province and its modifi cation

    OpenAIRE

    Long Wei; Fan Zitian; Hu Xueting

    2009-01-01

    Both the chemical compositions and performance characteristics of the bentonite raw ores in Ezhou area of Hubei province and Honghuoshan area of Liaoning province were compared and analyzed. The properties of these two kinds of bentonites were tested before and after Na+- and Li+-modifi cation. The results show that the Ezhou bentonite ore possesses higher montmorillonite content than the Honghuoshan bentonite ore, but the Ezhou Na-bentonite has weaker castability (e.g. wet compression streng...

  9. The Economic Value of Laem Phak Bia Mangrove Ecosystem Services in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sitthinan Wiwatthanapornchai; Chucheep Piputsitee; Samakkee Boonyawat

    2014-01-01

    Thailand is a one of the nation in Southeast Asia, covered by numerous mangrove areas approximately 244,000 hectares. Phetchaburi province is the one of the province in Thailand where the mangrove area has been increasing continually since King’s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project has been set up. The mangrove ecosystems functions are vital to the livelihood of the surrounding community. Laem Phak Bia community is one that has been served from man...

  10. The Demand Analysis of Life Insurance for Ethnic Regions in Gansu Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jianshen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed life insurance demand for ethnic regions in Gansu province in China, using the large and high-quality micro sample provided by China household finance survey(CHFS). From the perspective of the demography variables, culture and psychological factors and protection patterns, the authors investigate and analyze ethnic life insurance ownership ratio, the specific types of insurance as well as the insurance coverage amount in Gansu province. There are few domestic literature st...

  11. Causes of Domestic Violence between Thai Muslim Married Couples in Satun Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this qualitative study were to investigate causes of domestic violence between Thai Muslimmarried couples in Satun Province. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with three groups of keyinformants in Satun Province consisting of 1) twenty women facing domestic violence who were admitted inSatun Hospital through the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC), 2) fifteen married husbands and wives usingdomestic violence recommended by the Community Mosque Committee, and 3) t...

  12. Morphological characterization of Apis cerana in the Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Ken, Tan; FUCHS, Stefan; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Ruiguang, Zan

    2003-01-01

    Morphological features of Apis cerana Fabr. in Yunnan Province of China were studied using morphometrical methods. Samples of A. cerana were collected from feral colonies in 14 locations of Yunnan Province, covering the main ecological regions. 38 standard morphometric characters recommended by Ruttner et al. (Apidologie 9, 363-381, 1978) were measured. The data were statistically analysed by factor analysis, discriminant analysis, and cluster analysis and compared to samples from the Oberurs...

  13. The inclusion of public participation in environmental impact assessment in Guangdong Province

    OpenAIRE

    Munch-petersen, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    This report is about public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment for construction projects in Guangdong Province in Southern China: How are people included, when are people included and who of the people are included? In China, it has been noted that the quality of the environment has weakened considerably at the expense of the economic recovery over the past 40 years. Especially Guangdong Province is an economic centre in China where many of China's construction projects are happ...

  14. Participatory, Tourist Consumer Behavior-Based, Integrated Tourism Marketing Plan For Chainat Province

    OpenAIRE

    Nak Gulid; Aurathai Lertwannawit

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to study Tourist Consumer Behavior, Tourism Market Segmentation, and Tourism Product Positioning in Chainat Province, Thailand. Quantitative analysis is employed in this study. Four hundred Thai tourists who have traveled to Chainat province at least once are the respondents who filled out the questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis has been used in this study. The majority of the Thai tourists are single females between the ages of 25 and 34, employees in the private ...

  15. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  16. Mammalia, Didelphimorphia, Chiroptera, and Rodentia, Parque Nacional Chaco and Capitán Solari, Chaco Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fracassi, N.; Muschetto, E.; Pereira, J. A.; Teta, P.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the small mammal assemblage (bats, marsupials and rodents) of Parque Nacional Chaco and Capitán Solari(Chaco Province, Argentina) based on captures and analysis of owl pellets. Twenty-one species were recorded during abrief survey, including two marsupials, seven bats, and twelve rodents. In addition, we documented the first occurrenceof the bat Lasiurus ega in the Chaco Province, and extended to the southwest the distribution of the didelphid marsupialCryptonanus chacoensis and t...

  17. Drug Expenditure Trends in the Canadian Provinces: Magnitude and Causes from 1998 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This analysis uses a consistent pan-Canadian dataset – Canadian CompuScript from IMS Health, Canada – to quantify trends in per capita drug expenditures within each Canadian province over the period of 1998 to 2004. The impacts of changes in six potential determinants of drug expenditure are calculated for every province. Each of the six detailed cost drivers falls into one of three broad categories: volume effects, price effects and therapeutic choices. Despite wide variation in expendit...

  18. Which Factors Explain the Rising Ethnic Heterogeneity in Italy? An Empirical Analysis at Province Level

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of ethnic heterogeneity of the Italian provinces. Among other factors, the paper tests empirically whether gradual improvements in distant communication boost the generation of ethnically heterogeneous provinces. Consequently to easier communication, movers increasingly rely on an enlarged community for identity transmission, rather than on localized peer effects of the ethnic enclaves. The empirical estimation provides support to this hypothesis. Impro...

  19. The determination of indicator plant species for steppe rangelands of Nev?ehir Province in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    U?nal, Sabahaddin; Mutlu, Ziya; Urla, O?ztekin; S?ahi?n, Bilal; Koc?, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and interpretation of the changes to the vegetation of rangelands are key functions for ecological models and sustainable management. Field work was well organized to generally represent the rangelands in the province of Nev?ehir, in Central Anatolia, Turkey, in the year 2008. A modified wheel-point method with a loop was used to detect the basal cover of species of vegetation. There were 185 species in 31 sample sites throughout Nev?ehir Province. Ordination analysis was perform...

  20. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    OpenAIRE

    G Mowlavi; E Mikaeili; I. Mobedi; EB Kia; L Masoomi; Vatandoost, H.

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬...

  1. Impact of financial variables on the production efficiency of Pangasius farms in An Giang province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hanh, Bui Le Thai

    2009-01-01

    This research provides the first analysis of the relationship between farm financial exposure and technical efficiency in the Pangasius farming in An Giang province, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. A nonparametric DEA approach has been applied to estimate technical and scale efficiency scores of 61 Pangasius farms in An Giang province in the year 2008. The mean technical efficiencies under assumption of constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale and scale efficiency were measured...

  2. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  3. Empirical Study on the Relationship between Export Commodity Structure and Carbon Emission in Henan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Ming-Li; Tong Feng-Ming; Wang Fei; Zhang Hua; Li Song-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article studied the relationship between export commodity structure and carbon emission based on VAR model and it shows that the carbon emission in Henan Province is not only subject to itself, but also to each export commodity structure factor, especially, the fluctuation of export of low value-added product has an obvious impact on carbon emission. Hence, as far as export policy is concerned, to actualize economic low-carbonization, Henan Province should accelerate the upgrading of ind...

  4. Mammalia, Didelphimorphia and Rodentia, Southwest of the province of Mendoza, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauthier, D. U.; Teta, P.; Pardin?as, U. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    We documented terrestrial micromammal assemblages at five localities of southwestern Mendoza province,Argentina. We added new localities for several of the most uncommon small mammal species of this region (e.g.Loxodontomys micropus and Tympanoctomys barrerae). Two main groups of terrestrial non-volant micromammals arerepresented in southwestern province of Mendoza: one group is related to the South American arid diagonal, andincludes species typically adapted to the xeric environments of the...

  5. Rural-urban Migration and Urbanization in Gansu Province, China: Evidence from Time-series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haiying Ma; Lina Lian

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the hot issues in research at present. Since “go west”, urbanization level in Gansu province has undergone significant change along with the largest flow of rural–urban migration around the country. This paper aims to attempt to examine projections of Gansu’s urbanization level in 1990-2008 and analyze long-run impact of urbanization construction on rural-urban migration wage income in Gansu province, finally the paper empirically investigate dynamic effect of u...

  6. Chapter 41: Geology and petroleum potential of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal programme. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geological basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Petroleum System. Potential petroleum source rocks include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Palaeogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study - the Eurekan Structures AU, NW Greenland Rifted Margin AU, NE Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU - encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable resources. The mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West Greenland-East Canada Province are 10.7 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 75 ?? 1012 cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 52 ?? 1012 cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  7. The Mathematical Analysis on the Terror Caused Fatalities in Provinces of Pakistan 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichao JIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, Osama Bin Laden was killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan, and then the security situation in Pakistan suffered even more severe challenges. Although the security situation in Pakistan was very bad, but in each provinces of Pakistan, the performances of security situation were not the same, and the Fatality toll in each provinces of Pakistan had a big gap. This article will apply mathematical analysis on the Fatality toll of civilians, security forces and terrorists in each provinces of Pakistan from 2011 to 2013, so that get a precise evaluation on the security situation in each provinces of Pakistan. So we can find out the important factors influencing the security situation in each province, and then think about how to improve the security situation in each province of Pakistan, and then to improve the security situation in whole Pakistan.

  8. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Wen, Z.; Shu, L.; Lu, C.; Gu, S.; Su, J.; He, M.; Xing, K.

    2015-05-01

    To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  9. Paleoparasitological results for rodent coprolites from Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Haydée Sardella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W. Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae, Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae. Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.

  10. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

  11. Phytotoponymy and Synphytotoponymy in Western Granada Province (Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benítez Cruz, Guillermo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a research project on the ethnobotany of the western section of the province of Granada, in southern Spain, a detailed study was made of place names derived from names related to plants (phytotoponyms and synphytotoponyms. The information —gathered from the Territorial Land Registry of Granada, the Regional Government of Andalusia and field work— has been included in a database written with the Microsoft Excel program. References to a total of 98 plant species were found in as many as 593 place names of the area. The authors comment on the environmental, paleophytogeographic and ethnobotanical significance of the species represented in the place names.

    En el marco de la investigación etnobotánica desarrollada en el poniente granadino, se ha realizado un estudio sobre la toponimia de la comarca con atención a los apelativos de origen vegetal (fitotopónimos y sinfitotopónimos. La información —obtenida de la Gerencia Territorial del Catastro de Granada, de la Junta de Andalucía y de nuestro trabajo de campo— se ha incluido en una base de datos con el programa Microsoft Excell®. Un total de 98 especies vegetales se encuentran representadas en la toponimia local, dando nombre a 593 lugares del territorio. Se aportan comentarios sobre el significado ecológico, paleofitogeográfico y etnobotánico de las especies reflejadas en la toponimia.

  12. Tsunami mortality and displacement in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofi, Abdur; Doocy, Shannon; Robinson, Courtland

    2006-09-01

    A survey of 388 Indonesian households displaced by the December 2004 tsunami was conducted in Aceh province in February 2005. Of tsunami-displaced households in Aceh Barat and Nagan Raya districts, 61.8 per cent reported one or more family members as dead or missing due to the tsunami, with an overall mortality rate of 13.9 per cent (95% confidence interval (CI): 12.4-15.4). Risk of death was greatest in the youngest and oldest age groups, and among females. Overall, 36 per cent of tsunami-displaced households indicated an intention to return to their original community within three months, and displaced households residing in host communities were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2-2.8) times more likely to state an intention to return to their original villages or another community as those residing in camps. The tsunami recovery effort should focus on strategies that facilitate either prompt return or permanent, voluntary relocation for those displaced. PMID:16911432

  13. Liver cirrhosis in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective To find out aetiological factors and presentation of patients with liver cirrhosis in North-West Frontier province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Design: An observational study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in medical unit of Hayatabad medical complex, Peshawar, from 1st February 1998 to 30th November 1999. Patients and Methods: A total to 100 patients, more than 13 years of age, consecutively admitted in medical unit were included in the study. All the patients were investigated for aetiological factors and complications of cirrhosis. Liver histology was also performed in all the patients besides routine investigations. Results: Seventy-one percent patients were under 40 years of age and 65% of the were males. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) was the commonest underlying cause accounting for 41%, followed by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) responsible for 30% of the cases. Alcohol was responsible for 4%. One patient had primary haemochromatosis and another had Wilson s disease. In 23 patients, no cause could be ascertained. Sixty percent patients presented with non-specific symptoms, 16% with hepatic precoma and only 4% with haematemesis and/or malena. Conclusion: HCV is the leading cause of cirrhosis followed by HBV in NWFP population and majority of patients presented with complications of cirrhosis. (author)

  14. Paleoparasitological results for rodent coprolites from Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma Haydée, Sardella; Martín Horacio, Fugassa; Diego Damián, Rindel; Rafael Agustín, Goñi.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Alero Destacamento Guardaparque (ADG) located in the Perito Moreno National Park (Santa Cruz Province, 47º57'S 72º05'W). Forty-eight coprolites were obtained from the layers [...] 7, 6 and 5 of ADG, dated at 6,700 ± 70, 4,900 ± 70 and 3,440 ± 70 years BP, respectively. The faecal samples were processed and examined using paleoparasitological procedures. A total of 582 eggs of parasites were found in 47 coprolites. Samples were positive for eggs of Trichuris sp. (Nematoda: Trichuridae), Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Echinocoleus sp. and an unidentified capillariid (Nematoda: Capillariidae) and for eggs of Monoecocestus (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). Quantitative differences among layer for both coprolites and parasites were recorded. In this study, the specific filiations of parasites, their zoonotic importance, the rodent identity, on the basis of previous zooarchaeological knowledge, and the environmental conditions during the Holocene in the area are discussed.

  15. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  16. Preliminary uranium geochemical survey of Pangasinan province, Luzon, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment and panned heavy mineral survey were conducted in the province of Pangasinan in Luzon island for a cumulative period of 1 1/2 months in 1983. A total of 40 stream sediments and 125 panned heavy mineral concentrates were obtained along active rivers and streams draining into the Lingayen Gulf and Luzon sea. The minus 80 mesh sediment fractions and non-magnetic portions of the heavy minerals were analyzed for total uranium using delayed neutron activation analysis techniques. Results indicated that uranium values ranged from 0.1 ppm to 1.4 ppm and 0.1 ppm to 23.2 ppm, for the stream sediments and heavy minerals, respectively. The uranium values obtained in the stream sediments were considered to be within the range of the average uranium concentrations in the northwestern Luzon. However, uranium values in the heavy minerals, in general, were higher than the values obtained in northwestern Luzon. One uranium anomaly area was found in San Carlos. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Tourism Industry Development Strategies Factors in Guilan Province

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    Fatholah Keshavarz Shal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran due to its unique condition in terms of tourist attractionand because of the specific location and a variety of naturalresources and human Phenomena, that different regions of thecountry including Guilan province has a typical position interms of tourism which attracts a lot of tourists. By itself, ecological,environmental, cultural, historical and religious attractionin the north, we will see more development in the tourismindustry by formulating and scientific solutions and preservationof cultural values and the environment. In this research, a descriptive– analytical approach has been taken in order toachieve mentioned goals. Also major sources of tourism areidentified by field and library (Book, Magazines, Relevant documentstudy and with SWOT pattern, strengths, weakness,threats and opportunities will be specified and analyzed. Thepresent research with fundamental question that whether tourismdevelopment reduces the effects of economic sanctions? Basedon this assumption that, the development of tourism can reducethe effects of economic sanctions and we can use tourismindustry as a means to deal with economic sanctions and createemployment opportunities, distribution of income, foreign exchangeincrease, reducing migration, raising the living standard,regional balancing, transferring value to unprivileged area, developmentof rural and urban communities and the cultural andethnic unity for the attainment of national unity.

  18. Isotope Hydrology Investigation of Zonguldak And Province Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important coal area of Turkey is situated in Zonguldak and province. The coal series occurred during Westfalien (Carboniferous) are lower-bounded by Visean aged karstic limestones and upper-bounded by Aptian-Barremian aged karstic limestones. The isotope hydrology, which consists one of the studies dealed with karst hydrogeology, was held to determine the groundwater relations between the karstic limestones adjacent to the coal layers located in the Zonguldak coal mine areas. Environmental isotope samples were collected in the basin during 1994 - 1995 period, from the surface and groundwater. Deuterium (2H), Oxygen 18 (18O) and Tritium (3H) analysis were carried out on the samples. Recharge elevation, water origin and transit time of the groundwater system were determined with the evaluation of the analysis results. Waters encountered in the area are of marine origined rainfall, recharging at an elevation of 400-500 meters and consisting of shallow and deep circulation systems. Groundwater that intruding the coal mine galleries, have a short flow period and are recharged from recent precipitations

  19. Tsunami-related injury in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, S; Robinson, C; Moodie, C; Burnham, G

    2009-01-01

    The Asian tsunami, of December 2004, caused widespread loss of life. A series of surveys were conducted to assess tsunami-related mortality and injury, risk factors, care seeking and injury outcomes. Three surveys of tsunami-affected populations, in seven districts of Aceh province, were conducted between March and August 2005. Surveys employed a two-stage cluster design and probability proportional to size sampling methods. Overall, 17.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=16.8-18.6) of the population was reported as dead/missing1 and 8.5% (95% CI=7.9-9.2) had been injured. Odds of mortality were 1.41% (95% CI=1.27-1.58) times greater in females than in males; risk of injury was opposite, with an odds of injury of 0.81 (95% CI=0.61-0.96) for females in comparison to males. Mortality was greatest among the oldest and young population sub-groups, and injuries were most prevalent among middle-aged populations (20-49). An estimated 25,572 people were injured and 3682 (1.2%) suffered lasting disabilities. While mortality was particularly elevated among females and among the youngest and oldest age groups, injury rates were the greatest among males and the working-age population, suggesting that those are more likely to survive the tsunami were also more likely to be injured. PMID:19333809

  20. [Emergy analysis of agro-ecolomic system in Shanxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Run-Ping; Rong, Xiang-Min

    2008-10-01

    By the methods of emergy, this paper studied the input and output, working efficiency, and environmental loading of the agro-ecolomic system in Shanxi Province in 2005. The results showed that in 2005, the agro-ecolomic system in Shanxi still stayed in the period of traditional agriculture, which mainly depended on manpower and environmental resources. The emergy investment ratio (EIR) was 1.07, emergy yield ratio (EYR) was 0.99, and environmental loading ratio (ELR) was 6.55. In the structural adjustment of agriculture, stockbreeding had made great strides forward, but grain crops other than rice and wheat, vegetables, and fruits still had smaller emergy yield and were far from becoming dominant industry. The efficiency of the agro-ecolomic system was lower, and its environmental loading press was bigger. For the future, the surplus labors in agriculture in Shanxi should be shifted continually to other industries, and the high quality emergy such as agricultural science and technology should be increased to improve the use efficiency of environmental resources and the input and output of the system emergy. PMID:19123364

  1. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial ?-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10-8 Gy.h-1, respectively. The ?-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest ?-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor ?-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  2. Family aggregation study for breast cancer in Cienfuegos province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent causes of death in developed countries and it is the second cause of female mortality for malignant tumor in Cuba. We conducted an observational, analytic, transversal study of cases and controls for the purpose of evaluating the clinical, epidemiologic and genealogical behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province, in a period of 6 years. The universe of the study was made up of 304 women distributed in 152 cases and 152 controls; they were surveyed after they gave their informed consent. Collected data were processed by means of methods of inferential statistics. It was observed that most of the cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 to 59 years, with 24.34%, the most frequent type was infiltrating duct carcinoma, with 43.42%. We found statistical association with the personal history of benign breast pathology and the family history of cancer of any type. Presence of familial aggregation was observed for breast cancer in the first-degree relatives and the non-genetic risk factors; they did not show significant association with the occurrence of the disease in the studied population

  3. Eruptive history of the Elysium volcanic province of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New geologic mapping of the Elysium volcanic province at 1:2,000,000 scale and crater counts provide a basis for describing its overall eruptive history. Four stages are listed and described in order of their relative age. They are also distinguished by eruption style and location. Stage 1: Central volcanism at Hecates and Albor Tholi. Stage 2: Shield and complex volcanism at Elysium Mons and Elysium Fossae. Stage 3: Rille volcanism at Elysium Fossae and Utopia Planitia. Stage 4: Flood lava and pyroclastic eruptions at Hecates Tholus and Elysium Mons. Tectonic and channeling activity in the Elysium region is intimately associated with volcanism. Recent work indicates that isostatic uplift of Tharsis, loading by Elysium Mons, and flexural uplift of the Elysium rise produced the stresses responsible for the fracturing and wrinkle-ridge formation in the region. Coeval faulting and channel formation almost certainly occurred in the pertinent areas in Stages 2 to 4. Older faults east of the lava flows and channels on Hecates Tholus may be coeval with Stage 1

  4. Location of Road Emergency Stations in Fars Province, Using Spatial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To locate the road emergency stations in Fars province based on using spatial multi-criteria decision making (Delphi method. Methods: In this study, the criteria affecting the location of road emergency stations have been identified through Delphi method and their importance was determined using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP. With regard to the importance of the criteria and by using Geographical Information System (GIS, the appropriateness of the existing stations with the criteria and the way of their distribution has been explored, and the appropriate arenas for creating new emergency stations were determined. In order to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the stations, Moran’s Index was used. Results: The accidents (0.318, placement position (0.235, time (0.198, roads (0.160, and population (0.079 were introduced as the main criteria in location road emergency stations. The findings showed that the distribution of the existing stations was clustering (Moran’s I=0.3. Three priorities were introduced for establishing new stations. Some arenas including Abade, north of Eghlid and Khoram bid, and small parts of Shiraz, Farashband, Bavanat, and Kazeroon were suggested as the first priority. Conclusion: GIS is a useful and applicable tool in investigating spatial distribution and geographical accessibility to the setting that provide health care, including emergency stations

  5. Environmental conditions for SMME development in a South African province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Mahadea; MK, Pillay.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of entrepreneurship is the focus of considerable policy interest in South Africa and many other countries. This is particularly in recognition of its contribution to economic growth, poverty alleviation and employment creation. In South Africa, various new strategies and institutions [...] have recently been created with a view to empowering formerly disadvantaged members to enter the mainstream economy as entrepreneurs rather than job seekers. While the government directs considerable efforts to advancing Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), certain environmental factors can favour or hinder the optimal development of these firms. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) reports, the level of entrepreneurial activity in South Africa is rather low in relation to that in other countries at a similar level of development. This paper uses factor analysis to examine the internal and external environmental conditions influencing the development of small ventures on the basis of a survey conducted in Pietermaritzburg, the capital of the KZN province. The results indicate that three clusters constrain SMME development in Pietermaritzburg: management, finance and external environmental conditions. In the external set, rising crime levels, laws and regulations, and taxation are found to be significant constraints to the development of business firms.

  6. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J. [Brace Research Institute, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such as washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.

  7. The legal status of traditional councils in North West Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica, de Souza.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework Act 2003 provides for the transformation of apartheid-era tribal authorities into constitutional-era traditional councils with a role in traditional governance. The process involves reconstituting these councils to meet certain thresholds of women [...] and democratically elected members. Where councils have failed properly to meet the thresholds - seemingly the case in much of North West Province - their present legal status is called into question. In North West, the ambiguity surrounding their status has been compounded by the conduct of the provincial government, underlying tensions in the legislation, and a confusing series of contradictory government notices and court judgements dealing with the issue. This article examines how the reconstitution requirements have been applied in practice in North West and considers the legal and material impacts of the existing uncertainty surrounding traditional councils' status. Where these councils are put forward as democratic bodies representing traditional communities in North West's platinum mining belt, these are particularly important issues to consider in relation to the legitimacy of traditional councils.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Cream-Cakes Sold in Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Konyal?

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the microbiological qualities of totally 120 cream cakes including chocolate and fruit type, purchased from 30 randomly selected pastry shops in Tekirda? province. Based on the Turkish Food Codex Microbiological Criterias Communique; 59, 50, 16 and 53 out of 60 chocolate cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (98.3% of the total >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (83.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (26.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (88.3% of the total >103 cfu/g. On the other hand, 60, 56, 19 and 55 out of 60 fruit cake samples tested were found to be potentially hazardous/unacceptible respectively for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (100 % >105 cfu/g, coliform bacteria (93.3%of the total >102 cfu/g, Staphylococcus aureus (31.6% of the total >102 cfu/g and yeast and mould (91.6% of the total >103 cfu/g. Salmonella were not detected in any of the chocolate and fruit cake samples. Obtained results showed that the microbiological qualities of cakes were poor due to poor hygiene and poor food handling practices in pastry shops.

  9. Prevalence of Impairments, Disabilities, Handicaps: A Study From Kayseri Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Nacar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impairment and disability and handicap are most important problems all the world. This survey was conducted in centre of Kayseri province to obtain the prevalence of impairment, disability and handicap. The survey also aimed to identify the causes of impairments and to analyse the nature and extent of the handicaps resulting from these impairments. WHO’s impairment, disability and handicap classification was used and it was applied to those living in dwellings located in districts selected according to the population 3443 person residing selected using a multistage cluster sampling method were screened. It was found that 10.5% of the population had impairment and 5.0% of the population had a disability and 4.2% of them had a handicapped. The prevalence of impairment, disability and handicap was higher in women (12.7–6.3–5.6% than men (8.3–3.6–3.4%. Result of this study estimated, the educational and social levels were low among all the disables Educational problems and rehabilitation requirements were the major problems. A high proportion of person with impairment and handicap were not given any rehabilitation services. So that, the results of our study shows us that we have to give more importance to disables educational and occupational problems in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 71-80

  10. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of kurdistan province, Western iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 ?g/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 ?g/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p liver. PMID:25943488

  11. Malaria Cases in Three Districts in the Midlands Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Z. Moyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of malaria cases in the under 5, 5-14 and above 15 years age groups in three districts in the Midlands Province were studied over a period of one year, from January to December 2003.The total number of malaria cases in all the three age groups were significantly different in all the districts (p<0.05. Gokwe had the highest number of cases in the all the age categories (p<0.05. The malarial cases tended to be highly seasonal in Gokwe but to a lesser extent in Kwekwe. There was a high monthly variation of malarial cases in Gweru. Although the >15 years age group had the highest number of cases, the number of cases in the under five age group is a cause for concern. Plasmodium falciparum had a prevalence of >86% in all the districts during the rainy season. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the health and socio-economics of the three districts.

  12. Maternal and child health in Yushu, Qinghai Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Ojen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surmang, Qinghai Province is a rural nomadic Tibetan region in western China recently devastated by the 2010 Yushu earthquake; little information is available on access and coverage of maternal and child health services. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in August 2004. 402 women of reproductive age (15-50 were interviewed regarding their pregnancy history, access to and utilization of health care, and infant and child health care practices. Results Women's access to education was low at 15% for any formal schooling; adult female literacy was Conclusions While China is on track to achieve national Millennium Development Goal targets for maternal and child health, women and children in Surmang suffer from substantial health inequities in access to antenatal, skilled birth and postpartum care. Institutional delivery, skilled attendance and cesarean delivery are virtually inaccessible, and consequently maternal and infant morbidity and mortality are likely high. Urgent action is needed to improve access to maternal, neonatal and child health care in these marginalized populations. The reconstruction after the recent earthquake provides a unique opportunity to link this population with the health system.

  13. EARLY HISTORY OF AVIATION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G.E. Cockbain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Let me firstly state categorically that the Eastern Province is the cradle of aviationin South Africa. Although Admiral John Weston built the first aircraft in SouthAfrica at Brandfort in the Orange Free State in 1907, his machine was takenoverseas for its first flight on 10th December 1910. It was not flown here untilJune, 1911.2 When one asks the question, "who made the first ever heavier-thanairflight?", the answer is invariably "the Wright brothers at Kittyhawk, USA in1903". Who made the first flight of this type in South Africa? A scant six yearsafter the Wright brothers, Albert Kimmerling flew on 28th December, 1909, in aVoisin single-seater biplane at East London. This historic flight took place near theNahoon racecourse. "The aeroplane answered his every wish, swooping, turningand twisting in a marvellous fashion at about thirty miles per hour" wrote an excitedreporter of the great occasion. The flight was repeated on New Year's Day, endingin a minor crash. Thus occurred the first air crash on South African soil. Fortunatelythe damage was slight and the flying programme soon continued.

  14. Price Analysis of Used Tractors in Çanakkale Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ozpinar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of machinery costs is a key factor in improving the profitability of a farm. On many farms 30-40% of the fixed costs can be allocated to farm machinery. For this reason, the purchase of a tractor is one of the most important decisions to be made on any farm. A correct decision will benefit the business considerably but the wrong decision will be an expensive mistake to be regretted for many years. There are two different way to purchase the tractors in any farm. One of them is purchasing the tractor as new one, the other one is purchasing the he tractors as used or second hand. are purchased as new in some farms instead of purchasing he tractor as second hand or used.The used tractor prices and market conditions should be evaluated for the correct agricultural machinery management decisions. Price analysis of the used tractors has to be used in hiring or purchasing decision. In addition to that, Optimum equipment size calculations require the price data of used tractors.In the scope of this research, second hand tractor price data gathered from the showrooms in the Çanakkale province were evaluated. Before all else, general structure of second hand tractor market were defined by applying a comprehensive questionnaire to showroom owners. In addition, second hand tractor prices were arranged according to brand-model, age and power category.

  15. Oil and gas fiscal regimes of the western Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs

  16. Risk for commercial fishing deaths in Canadian Atlantic provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Neutel, C I

    1990-01-01

    The risk of mortality related to occupation was determined for commercial fishermen in the Canadian Atlantic coast provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The subjects were a cohort of 31,415 fishermen licensed by the Canadian Department of Fisheries during 1975-83. Mortality and cause of death were obtained from the Canada Mortality Data Base and the Marine Casualty Investigation Unit (MCI), and were confirmed by examination of death certificates. Eighty four deaths likely to be related to fishing were recorded over 183,378 person-years of exposure for an annual mortality of 45.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0-55.6) per 100,000 fishermen. The rate of potential years of life lost up to age 75 was 1583 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Inclusion of 14 additional deaths, which were possibly related to occupation, would increase these rates further. Bias in this study is likely to underestimate the risks. It is concluded that fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of mortality related to work. PMID:2383520

  17. Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barone

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs, total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E. coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B. cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L. monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

  18. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

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    Nurdan Demirci

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. "nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. "nResults: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future."nConclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  19. Uranium in granitoids: Recognition criteria of uranium provinces in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium distribution in granitoids, including gneisses and migmatites were investigated for the rocks of entire Brazilian territory. Uranium concentrations were determined in 1800 Rb-Sr whole rock isotopic analysed samples with known geological setting. The samples were plotted in Brazil's geotectonic outline, and those with high U contents (above 12 ppm) provide the characterization of probable uraniferous provinces. In addition the results were interpreted in relation to age, tectonic environment, lithologies, Rb contents and 97Sr/94Sr initial ratios. With respect to the lithology, the granites with alkaline compositions showed higher U contents than their host rocks which consist of gneissic-migmatic terranes, and other granitoids. In general the Uranium-enriched rocks are mainly related to the Mid-Proterozoic time. In terms of isotopic geochemistry, the higher 97Sr/94Sr ratio rocks (high Rb contents) showed a uranium enrichment trend when compared with those less differentiated material. On the other hand, rocks with low Sr initial ratio may present Uranium concentrations similar to those with high initial ratios, which suggest the primary Uranium enrichment process during the mantle-derived rock-forming process. (author). 30 refs, 9 figs

  20. Inventory of anthropogenic mercury emission Southwest China: I. Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)

  1. Inventory of anthropogenic mercury emission Southwest China: I. Guizhou province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Shiqiang; Lindqvist, O.; Xiao Zifan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mou Shusen; Qing Changle [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing (China)

    1995-12-31

    The anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air is considered to contribute by 50-75 % of the total, and is thus responsible for elevated mercury concentration in the global atmosphere. These elevated atmospheric levels may be a serious threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to wet or dry deposition. Hence, measures must be taken in controlling the anthropogenic emissions of mercury. A fundamental step of a global mercury control is realistic mapping of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Today, reasonably well documented mercury emission inventories of anthropogenic point sources exist in Europe and North America. The amount of anthropogenic emissions in other parts of the world is quite uncertain, as well as world-wide diffuse emissions (anthropogenic and natural). Guizhou is situated on a plateau with a mean altitude of about 1000 m. Its climate is a typical subtropical humid monsoon with an average annual temperature of 15 dec C and a precipitation of 1100-1400 mm. The province accounts for about 2.8% of the total population in China. (orig.)

  2. Petroleum possibilities of Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska: region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William W., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The Yukon-Koyukuk province covers 100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km) along the west coast of Alaska, extending from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta, but excluding the Seward Peninsula. It is essentially a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks locally veneered by Quaternary alluviated beds and volcanic rocks. The Cretaceous section contains a large volume of volcanic rocks, and most of the sedimentary sequence consists of first- and second-cycle volcanic debris. Above basal andesitic rocks is a 10,000-ft (3,048 m) section of graywacke and mudstone of Albian age, overlain by 10,000 ft or more of shallow-marine and nonmarine paralic sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and coal--dated as late Early and early Late Cretaceous. This part of the stratigraphic section may contain hydrocarbons but severe structural complications limit the possibilities to two belts, one in the north along the Kobuk River and the other a narrow northeast-southwest band extending 300 mi (483 km) from the Koyukuk Flats to the Yukon-Kuskokwim lowland.

  3. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Multi-staged remote sensing of French uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been conducted in the frame of an exploratory research program on the global evaluation of spatial relationships between large scale lineaments and uranium provinces in France. The global interpretation is based on the computer processing and enhancement of meteorological satellite data. It is followed on specific areas of Massif Central by a multi-staged study using the progressive refinement capabilities of HCMM, LANDSAT and airborne observations. The principal advantage in the use of large scale satellite observations lies in the good spectral and temporal homogeneity in the data throughout the territory of France. This is usually not the case when working with LANDSAT mosaics over such large areas. The use of thermal imagery as well as multiseasonal observations brings unique information on the signature of large scale lineaments and structures. A detailed study is undertaken on the granite formations of Bretagne/Vendee and Massif Central. The persistent linear structures revealed in the imagery have been put into relationship with the location of known uranium deposits

  5. Epidemiology of livestock fasciolosis in Mendoza province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fasciolosis, parasitic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, affects many mammals, particularly ruminants, and is now considered an important zoonotic disease. In Mendoza province, the data from the local slaughterhouses and observations made by veterinarians indicated that fasciolosis could be an important disease in cattle with 5,7% (1) liver condemnation registered which is well over the national average that oscillates yearly around 1%. Thus, even though fasciolosis seemed to be an important disease for livestock, the epidemiological information was lacking. Since the recent identification of the most efficient vector of fasciolosis in Mendoza, the introduced lymnaeid snail Galba truncatula (2), the epidemiological situation of fasciolosis needs to be addressed. Our objective was to gain insight in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Mendoza province. Mendoza province is in the west of Argentina. To the east is a plains region and at the west are the Andes Mountains. The rivers run from the mountains in the west towards the east traversed by valleys were livestock is managed extensively and trashumance is a common practice To investigate the distribution of the lymnaeid snails, samples where recovered following an altitudinal gradient, from the plains region at 600 m.a.s.l. up to above 3000 m.a.s.l. In each sampling point, by means of a GPS, altitude, longitude and latitude was registered, water pH, conductivity and hardness evaluated, and tconductivity and hardness evaluated, and the environmental characteristics of the site recorded. To investigate the possible reservoirs fasciolosis coprological studies were performed (Lumbreras rapid sedimentation and Formo-ether sedimentation) and liver inspection at the slaughterhouse was recorded. Lymnaeid snails where found in 27 sites, belonging to all of the river basins of Mendoza. The range of altitude was from 649 masl to 2971 masl, (?1674). They were found in small streams with slow current in 18 sites (66,7%) small irrigation channels in 6 sites (22,2%) and ponds with still water in 3 sites (11,1%). In 24 sites (88,8%) the snails where constantly exposed to direct sunlight since there was no high vegetation or banks surrounding the water body, 23(85,2%)of the sites were in a rural setting and 4 (14,8%) of them where urban areas. In all the rural sites, livestock was to be found near the snail populations. The conductivity of the waters where the lymaneid snails were presented ranged from 121-2830 m? (? 675), ph ranged from 5,95-7,4 (? 6,91) and hardness 48- 1210 ppm (?288,7) Cattle, sheep, goats, horses mules, donkeys and llamas where positive for fasciolosis. Out of 705 coprological studies performed, 186 (26.38%) where positive. The highest prevalence where in goats, out of 434 animals tested, 139 (32%) where positive. In equines, out of 114 tested, 29 (25%) where positive. All the positive animals where from altitudes of over 900 m.a.s.l. and no positive animals where found in the plains region. At the provincial abattoir, out of 754 cattle raised in Mendoza, 258 (34%) where positive for fasciolosis. All the positive animals came from the Andean valleys. At the local abattoir, which only butchered cattle from Tupungato region, principally Andean valleys, out of 653 animals inspected, 441 (67,5%) had fasciolosis. In Mendoza province, the prevalence in livestock is amongst the highest in Argentina, superior to what could have been initially concluded from the national abattoir statistics. Even though livestock is found from the plains regions up to the mountain valleys, fascioliosis affects almost exclusively animals from the mountainous regions where the highest prevalence are to be found, being a very rare and almost unknown disease in the lowlands. This correlates almost perfectly with the lymnaied distribution that we found. The altitudinal range of the snail populations, which can be found at very high altitudes, speak of the great adaptability that it has to extreme environmental conditions. It also colonized many man made irrigation

  6. Leaching Mathematical Modeling for Two Zones of North Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of present study are evaluation desalinization and desodification mathematical modeling in two zones of Northeast of Khuzestan province in Southwest of Iran with and without emendator material (Sulfuric acid. To reach the aims, the experiment was done in two zones with four treatments; 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of water irrigation and four iterations in each plot (1*1 m from surface to 150 cm of soil depth. Data that have used in this paper were Electrical Conductivity (EC and Exchange Sodium Percentage (ESP. Data obtained from experimental results and with SPSS12.0 software eleven mathematic models have extracted. Results show that in zone one with and without acid Cubic equation for Electrical Conductivity and Exchange Sodium Percentage have the most and S, Logic equations have the least coefficient of determination. In addition, in zone two with and without acid for Electrical Conductivity Component, Growth and Power equations have the most and S, Logic equations have the least coefficient of determination. In zone two, the results of Exchange Sodium Percentage are similar to zone one.

  7. Joint malaria surveys lead towards improved cross-border cooperation between Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongvongsa Tiengkham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Savannakhet province, Laos and Quang Tri province, Vietnam, malaria is still an important health problem and most cases are found in the mountainous, forested border areas where ethnic minority groups live. The objectives of this study were to obtain a better joint understanding of the malaria situation along the border and, on the basis of that, improve malaria control methods through better cooperation between the two countries. Methods Fourteen villages in Savannakhet and 22 villages in Quang Tri were randomly selected within 5?km from the border where a blood survey for microscopic diagnosis (n?=?1256 and n?=?1803, respectively, household interviews (n?=?400, both sides and vector surveys were conducted between August and October 2010. Satellite images were used to examine the forest density around the study villages. Results Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in Laos (5.2% than in Vietnam (1.8% and many other differences were found over the short distance across the border. Bed net coverage was high (> 90% in both Laos and Vietnam but, while in Laos more than 60% of the nets were long-lasting insecticide-treated, Vietnam used indoor residual spraying in this area and the nets were untreated. Anopheles mosquitoes were more abundant in Laos than in Vietnam, especially many Anopheles dirus were captured in indoor light traps while none were collected in Vietnam. The forest cover was higher around the Lao than the Vietnamese villages. After this study routine exchange of malaria surveillance data was institutionalized and for the first time indoor residual spraying was applied in some Lao villages. Conclusions The abundance of indoor-collected An. dirus on the Laos side raises doubts about the effectiveness of a sole reliance on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in this area. Next to strengthening the early detection, correct diagnosis and prompt, adequate treatment of malaria infections, it is recommended to test focal indoor residual spraying and the promotion of insect repellent use in the early evening as additional vector interventions. Conducting joint malaria surveys by staff of two countries proved to be effective in stimulating better collaboration and improve cross-border malaria control.

  8. [Sandfly fever outbreak in a province at Central Anatolia, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun Edis, Ci?dem; Ya?ç? Ça?lay?k, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Korukluo?lu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Sandfly fever virus (SFV), which is classified in Phlebovirus genus, Bunyaviridae family, is widely seen in the Middle East and Mediterranean basin. SFV has four serotypes known as Sicilian (SFSV), Cyprus (SFCV), Naples (SFNV) and Toscana virus (TOSV). Sandfly fever, which is transmitted to human by different species of sandflies, especially Phlebotomus spp., starts with acute onset of high fever and lasts for three days. Headache, anorexia and myalgia are the most common symptoms. The aim of this study was to present the clinical and laboratory findings of the patients who were diagnosed during sandfly fever outbreak in Kirikkale province (located in central Anatolia in Turkey) during July 2009. A total of 20 patients from different districts of Kirikkale province with the history of fly bite and with the clinical findings of fever, myalgia-arthralgia, headache, conjunctival hyperemia and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and nausea-vomiting were admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit of State Hospital. All the patients were followed up after hospitalization. A sandfly fever outbreak has been considered in the area since the cases shared a common history of insect bite, similar clinical and laboratory features in a particular time interval. The first patients from each different districts were accepted as the "index case" and 11 patients' serum samples have been sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory, Ankara. Serum samples were analyzed by using a commercial mosaic immunofluorescence test (IFT) (Euroimmun, Germany) to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against SFSV, SFCV, SFNV and TOSV. SFV-IgM positivity was demonstrated in 8 out of 11 patients (Naples virus in 5, Sicilian virus in 3 cases), while all of the cases were IgG negative. Of seropositive patients, two were female and six were male with a mean age of 30.7 (age range: 16-53) years. Sandfly fever was diagnosed in five cases by the positive IgM results and in three cases by the detection of IgM seroconversion in the second samples collected 6 days later. Clinically, fever and myalgia-arthralgia were detected in all of the cases, diarrhea and nausea-vomiting in 7, headache in 5 and conjunctival hyperemia in 1 of 8 seropositive patients. The evaluation of laboratory findings revealed leukopenia (1800-3800 cell/µl) in all cases, thrombocytopenia (69000-140.000 cell/µl) in 7, elevated AST (42-271 IU/L) in 7, elevated ALT (46-173 IU/L) in 5, elevated CK (185-1560 U/L) in 6 and elevated CRP (5.18-83.6 mg/L in 5 of 8 patients. All the patients were treated symptomatically without any sequella and discharged with complete cure. Turkey is a country in the Mediterranean basin and it is known that there is a favorable sandfly fauna in Anatolia. Therefore sandfly fever should be considered in patients presenting with fever and arthralgia-myalgia and with a history of insect bite especially during summer months. PMID:21063993

  9. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while increased the harmfulness of others. Some disease agents became obsolete, but others gained importance. New agents of root diseases were found. The most frequent damages, persisting over long periods of time were caused by seedling damping-off, Fusarium root rot, charcoal root rot, parasitic (Rhizomania and non-parasitic root bearding. The parasitic damping-off caused by several fungal species but most frequently by Phoma betae occurred at the time when multigerm seeds were used in combination with extensive cultural practices. The agents of seedling diseases completely lost their significance as the consequence of switching to fungicide - treated monogerm seeds, earlier planting and improved soil tillage. In the period of intensive use of agricultural chemicals, seedling damping-off occurred frequently due to the phytotoxic action of chemicals (insecticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers. In some years, frosts caused damping- off of sugar beet seedlings on a large scale in the Vojvodina Province. Poor sugar beet germination and emergence were frequently due to spring droughts. Sometimes they were due to strong winds. The occurrence of Fusarium root rot and charcoal root rot intensified on poor soils. Fusariosis symptoms were exhibited as plant wilting and different forms of root rot. In recent years root tip rot has occurred frequently in the first part of the growing season causing necrosis and dying of plants. Lateral roots tended to proliferate from the healthy tissue, giving the root a bearded appearance similar to Rhizomania. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent agent of this fusariosis. F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. solani have also been identified in recent years as the agent of root rot, but its importance was much lower. Charcoal root rot and plant wilting (Macrophomina phaseolina have caused extensive damages in sugar beets, especially under the conditions of severe drought and high temperatures in summer. In some years, it was the dominant agent of root rot. Mixed infections caused by fungi from the genera Fusarium and M. phaseolina were encountered frequently. The extent of damage caused by these diseases was reduced by improved pro- duction technology. Rhizomania of sugar beet (caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus was identified in Serbia in the 1970s. Results of recent investigations have shown that BNYVV is widespread in Vojvodina, since the virus was found on 36,7% (24,674 ha of acreages from 67,213 ha of total sugar beet acreages inspected on incidence of BNYVV in the period from 1997 to 2004 year. In the last few years, the occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctonia solani was registered in some localities in Vojvodina.

  10. Characterization and Origin of Zonal Sapphire from Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Linghao

    2015-02-01

    Shandong Province is the main producer of sapphire in China. Among the sapphire deposits discovered in China, Shandong sapphire hosted in Cenzoic basalt shows a great variety of features, especially for in zoning. These sapphire crystals are generally large in size, with depth in color and well-developed zoning. In this article, the characteristics of zonal sapphire have been studied by using petrography, trace element data from laser ablation inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry. The trace elements variation is proposed to correspond with their parent magma composition, and the changes in growth environment of sapphire have resulted in the formation of zoning features. Sapphires from different geological settings have different characteristics. Trace elements in sapphire not only affect the color but also reflect the changes of physical and chemical conditions of sapphire growth. The concentration of impurity elements in the zoning core of Shandong sapphire is the highest, indicating that the parent magma of Shandong sapphire-host basaltic rock is rich in trace elements. Fe content is more than 2.00% in the zoning core, which causes the deepest color in the samples. It also suggests that the total content of Fe is positively correlated to the band color. The Raman spectrum shows that the spectrum peaks at 246 cm-1 caused by Fe3+ vary regularly with the band color, which shows that Fe is dominated by Fe3+ in Shandong sapphire. With the changes of forming condition, the parent magma composition has changed accordingly, which causes the zoning formation.

  11. Discovery of the Sierra Pintada uranium district, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1956, uranium-bearing minerals have been known to exist in Sierra Pintada, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Based on paragenetic considerations, a first radiometric prospection was carried out, leading to the discovery of two groups of anomalies (Puesto Agua del Toro and Cuesta de los Terneros), such as vein-type deposits, with uraninite and 'yellow minerals' and one sandstone-type deposit (Puesto La Josefa), related to sediments with carbon trash. Some recent geological research and surveys in the area, and a reduced drilling programme carried out on selected anomalies, led to reinterpretation of the potential of the area. Furthermore, and as a result of an airborne radiometric prospection performed in mid-1968, numerous anomalies have been discovered. The main constellation of anomalies, along the flanks of the El Tigre Brachyanticline, occurs in sandstones of Permian age. Explored by 80 000 m of drilling, they have shown the existence of several peneconcordant lens-shaped ore bodies of economic size, with uranophane on the surface and prevailing uraninite and some brannerite, coffinite and davidite below the water table. Reserves exceed 20 000 tonnes of U3O8. A new regional programme with a 4-km drill-grid initiated in 1978 led to the discovery of new ore bodies which are at present being evaluated. The alternatives and discontinuities during the development of the district, the prospecting and exploration techniques employed, and the resultration techniques employed, and the results achieved in the different stages of the operation are discussed in detail. This case history attempts to illustrate the developing philosophy which was successfully applied in Sierra Pintada, with emphasis on the following points: (a) the need for adequate geological knowledge of the area; (b) the advantage of a massive survey (in this case, air survey); (c) the necessity for exploration (drilling) in order to define the anomalies and make their evaluation possible; and (d) the convenience of extending exploration when geology and control factors have been properly surveyed and recognized

  12. The petrogenesis of metamorphosed carbonatites in the Grenville Province, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins and dikes of calcite-rich rocks within the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary zone (CMBbz) in the Grenville Province of Ontario have been interpreted to be true carbonatites or to be pseudocarbonatites derived from interaction of pegmatite melts and regional Grenville marble. The putative carbonatites have been metamorphosed and consist mainly of calcite, biotite, and apatite with lesser amounts of clinopyroxene, magnetite, allanite, zircon, titanite, cerite, celestite, and barite. The rocks have high P and rare earth element (REE) contents, and calcite in carbonatite has elevated Sr, Fe, and Mn contents relative to Grenville Supergroup marble and marble melange. Values of ?18OSMOW (9.9 - 13.3o/oo) and ?13CPDB (-4.8 to -1.9o/oo) for calcite are also distinct from those for marble and most marble melange. Titanites extracted from clinopyroxene -calcite-scapolite skarns formed by metasomatic interaction of carbonatites and silicate lithologies yield U-Pb ages of 1085 to 1035 Ma. Zircon from one carbonatite body yields a U-Pb age of 1089 ± 5 Ma; zircon ages from two other bodies are 1170 ± 3 and 1143 ± 8 Ma, suggesting several carbonatite formation events or remobilization of carbonatite during deformation and metamorphism around 1080 Ma. Values of ?Nd(T) are 1.7 - 3.2 for carbonatites, -1.5 -1.0 for REE-rich granite dikes intruding the CMBbz, and 1.6 - 1.7 for marble. The mineralogy and geochemical dae. The mineralogy and geochemical data are consistent with derivation of the carbonatites from a depleted mantle source. Mixing calculations indicate that interaction of REE-rich pegmatites with regional marbles cannot reproduce selected major and minor element abundance, REE contents, and O and Nd isotope compositions of the carbonatites. (author)

  13. Otter Work in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Somers

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The work being done by the University of Stellenbosch investigating otters as biological indicators of freshwater ecosystem in South Africa is progressing well. The first aim of the project is to assess the role of both species of otter (spotted-necked otters Lutra maculicollis and Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis in freshwater ecosystems, and the factors and mechanisms responisble for limiting their populations (their role as biological indicators will be inferred from these results and secondly, to contribute to our understanding of carnivore behavioural ecology.The first stage in determining the distribution and status of spotted-necked otters and Cape clawless otters, in South Africa, and possible effects of environmental variants have, is almost complete. A detailed autecological study of Cape clawless otters in two rivers is now the main focus of the project. Six otters have had radio transmitters implanted: MP/300/L, implantable transmitter, 40g 80 x 20 mm diameter cylinder (Telonics Inc., Arizona, USA. Since implanting, one male has died of unknown causes. A post mortem revealed total healing from the operation. Much new behavioural and ecological information has been gained by the use of the radio tracking. One adult male has a home range of at least 45 km, much more than first expected for the species. Work has also been done in the Eastern Cape Province determining the diet of three coexisting carnivores, spotted-necked otters, Cape clawless otters and water mongoose (Atilax paludinosus. This work is about to be submitted for publication. We thank the Southern African Nature Foundation (WWF, for providing funds, and Mazda Wildlife Fund for providing a vehicle for the project.

  14. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bob, Mash; Hilary, Rhode; Michael, Pather; Gillian, Ainslie; Elvis, Irusen; Angeni, Bheekie; Pat, Mayers.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in [...] adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. METHODS: The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. CONCLUSION: The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.

  15. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Jeonbug Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photofluorographic mass survey of P-A chest had been done to the 13136 residents (male 6264, female 6872) in Jeonbug province, Korea for about 2 years from May 5, to Dec.19, 1978 and from Mar. 5, to Dec. 22, 1979. The results are as follows: 1. The prevalence rate of all active pulmonary tuberculosis is 5.3%. 2. The prevalence rate of male(8.8%) is 4.2 times higher than that of female (2.1%). 3. The prevalence rates of all old age groups above fifty years are higher than that of remainder under fifty years of age. Of these, 61-70 years old age group is highest in prevalence rate. 4. According to extent of active pulmonary tuberculosis, 77.5% is minimal, 15.4% is moderately advanced, and 7.1% is far advanced. Inactive pulmonary tuberculosis are 39 cases (0.3% to objective population). 5. In the incidence of the involved side, right side is about 2 times higher than the left, and involvement of both sides is increased in moderately and far advance pulmonary tuberculosis. In all pulmonary tuberculosis, one or both upper lung fields are most commonly involved. The incidences of cavity in moderately and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis show no significant difference. 6. The incidences of other intrathoracic lesions are as follows: suspected hypertensive heart disease 2.4%, dextrocardia with situs inversus 0.04%, pleural calcification 0.4%, pleural thickening 0.2%, pleural effusion 0.1%, pneumonia 0.02%, bronchiectasis 0.1%, lung abscess 0.02%, C.O.P.D. 0.2%, suspectedng abscess 0.02%, C.O.P.D. 0.2%, suspected lung tumor 0.06%, pneumothorax 0.0076%, and suspected mediastinal tumor 0.02%

  16. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  17. PLANTS OF JAHAN NAMA PROTECTED AREA, GOLESTAN PROVINCE, N. IRAN

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    H. AKHANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Jahan Nama Protected Area is located in the eastern parts of Alborz Mountains, between 36º35? and 36º42? northern latitudes and 54º08? and 54º36? eastern longitudes, with an altitude ranging from 800 to 3100 m. The complicated topography and habitat heterogeneity, in addition to influencing the area by humid Caspian climate at the north and Mediterranean-like climate at the south have caused formation of diverse vegetation types including deciduous montane forests, cold-resistant Juniper woodlands, montane steppes, grasslands and meadows, cliff and riverine vegetation. Based on collection of about 1350 specimens during 1999, 2000 and 2004 to 2007, a total number of 607 vascular plant species were identified from this area belonging to 329 genera and 85 families. The Dicots with 469 species are the richest group of flora of the area followed by Monocots with 119 species, Gymnosperms with 6 species and Pteridophytes with 13 species. The largest families in the area are Poaceae (53 species, Labiatae (50 species and Brassicaceae (52 species, and the most diverse genera include Astragalus (16 species, Carex (11 species and Veronica (11 species. The floristic composition of the area is strongly influenced by large number of Euro-Siberian (boreal elements in the mesic parts and Irano-Turanian elements in the Juniper woodland and montane steppe parts of the area. The area inhabited by several endemic plants of the Hyrcanian and Kopetdagh-Khorassan floristic provinces in addition to local endemics of the eastern and Central Alborz like Ferula glaucopruinosa (Rech.f. Akhani comb. nov. and trees like Taxus baccata which is considered as a protected and threatened species in Iran.

  18. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  19. Interdepartmental communication at tertiary hospital campus in the Limpopo Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TM, Mothiba; BL, Dolamo; ME, Lekhuleni.

    Full Text Available Interdepartmental communication in a hospital setting is fundamental to the provision of quality patient care. Effective communication modes are important because they result in the improvement of patient care (Tappen, 1995:181). Preliminary investigations into the main problems that underscore pati [...] ents' dissatisfaction have identified, among others, the failure of health professionals to communicate effectively. In this study an attempt was made to describe experiences of health professionals with regard to inter-departmental communications , define inter-departmental communication in selected departments of a tertiary hospital campus in the Limpopo Province and lastly, to formulate inter-departmental communication guidelines for health professionals. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research method was followed as a holistic approach in research for participants to describe their experiences regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113). Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in all selected departments for each participant. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1985) in De Vos (1998:331) relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998) to ensure the quality of the study. Three themes and categories emerged from the data analysis using Tech's open coding approach (1990) as outlined in De Vos (1998:343), namely, existence versus non-existence of inter-departmental meetings, inter-departmental communication barriers and limited communication guidelines. The guidelines were developed using Ellis, Gates and Kenworthy's model of effective communication (1995:59) that includes the establishment of interdepartmental meetings, using effective communication modes, providing accurate and constant reporting, establishing staff development programmes, creating an effective communication environment and using skills for effective communication.

  20. Impact induced melting and the development of large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian P.; Price, G. David; Price, Neville J.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Clegg, Richard A.

    2002-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic modelling combined with known data on mantle melting behaviour to examine the potential for decompression melting of lithosphere beneath a large terrestrial impact crater. This mechanism may generate sufficient quantity of melt to auto-obliterate the crater. Melting would initiate almost instantaneously, but the effects of such massive mantle melting may trigger long-lived mantle up-welling that could potentially resemble a mantle hotspot. Decompression melting is well understood; it is the main method advocated by geophysicists for melting on Earth, whether caused by thinned lithosphere or hot rising mantle plumes. The energy released is largely derived from gravitational energy and is outside (but additive to) the conventional calculations of impact modelling, where energy is derived solely from the kinetic energy of the impacting projectile, be it comet or asteroid. The empirical correlation between total melt volume and crater size will no longer apply, but instead there will be a discontinuity above some threshold size, depending primarily on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. We estimate that the volume of melt produced by a 20 km diameter iron impactor travelling at 10 km/s may be comparable to the volume of melt characteristic of terrestrial large igneous provinces (˜10 6 km 3); similar melting of the mantle beneath an oceanic impact was also modelled by Roddy et al. [Int. J. Impact Eng. 5 (1987) 525]. The mantle melts will have plume-like geochemical signatures, and rapid mixing of melts from sub-horizontal sub-crater reservoirs is likely. Direct coupling between impacts and volcanism is therefore a real possibility that should be considered with respect to global stratigraphic events in the geological record. We suggest that the end-Permian Siberian Traps should be reconsidered as the result of a major impact at ˜250 Ma. Auto-obliteration by volcanism of all craters larger than ˜200 km would explain their anomalous absence on Earth compared with other terrestrial planets in the solar system.

  1. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Increased Incidence in Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noori-Shadkam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010 and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on all infants (13022 births born in 1389 (March 2010-March 2011. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was measured using ELISA technique. Results: Forty five infants suffered from congenital hypothyroidism with an overall incidence of one in 289 live births. Twenty five of the diagnosed infants were males (incidence 1:261 and twenty were females (incidence 1:325. The incidence of CH in boys was more than girls (P-value = 0.295. The highest incidence of CH was observed in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter (P-value=0.000. Conclusion: The CH incidence was 10.3 to 13.8 times more than other countries. The highest CH incidence was in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter. It is important that a larger size of cases need to be screened and more information on the aetiology of the affected infants to be obtained

  2. Current analysis of orcharding in the Isparta Province (Turkey

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    Sargin Sevil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, orcharding activity in the Isparta Province, Turkey, is analysed. Until a few years ago, the economy of Isparta was associated with hand carpet weaving, rose-growing and rose-oil extraction. However, over the last few years orcharding has attracted attention as the most important economic activity in Isparta. This is especially visible in the districts of E?irdir, Gelendost, Senirkent and Yalvac where many kinds of fruits, specifically apples and cherries, are grown for the market. Physical geography features of Isparta have an important potential for developing orcharding. Suitable climatic conditions, fertile soils and fresh water resources, both surface and underground, are distinctive elements of this potential. In addition, irrigation projects, modern agricultural techniques, quality and resistible fruit types, appropriate fertilisation, pruning and disinfecting are human activities effecting the development of orcharding. Moreover, establishing modern and high capacity cold stores nearby the areas where fruits are grown is regarded an important factor increasing the value of Isparta fruits on the national and international markets. Thus, developing commercial orcharding in Isparta is gaining importance as a profitable activity as well as an opportunity for rural population for employment in fruit picking, storing, packaging and transporting. The emphasis of this study is put on current development of orcharding, distribution of apple, cherry, grape and other fruits production, reasons for this distribution and problems associated with orcharding in Isparta. Besides formal data collection, the findings obtained during field studies in Bo?azova as well as on the Uluborlu-Senirkent and Gelendost Plains enable the authors to conclude that orcharding has become the most important rural activity in the region.

  3. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

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    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  4. [Analysis on nucleoprotein gene sequence of 25 rabies virus isolates in Guizhou Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Ding-Ming; Tang, Qing; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Zhuang, Yan; Zhou, Jian-Zhu; Wang, Yue; Tian, Ke-Cheng; Tang, Guang-Peng

    2011-11-01

    To analyze 25 nucleoprotein gene (N gene) sequences of rabies viruses circulating in Guizhou province during 2005-2010, China, and to explore the epidemic characteristics and the probable mutant of rabies in Guizhou Province. Rabies virus RNA in human brain tissues, human saliva, and domestic dog brain tissues derived from different prefectures of Guizhou Province were detected with RT-nested PCR, and the amplified products were then sequenced. Bioinformatics software was used to determine the genetic characteristics of these rabies viruses. The sequences of N gene of 25 Guizhou provincial isolates were identical with homogeny between 97.5% - 99.3% and 98.4% - 99.8% at nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, respectively, while the identities between them and isolated strains from other province of China were 88% - 99.1% and 88% - 99.7%. There were several amino acid substitutions in the nucleoprotein of 25 Guizhou isolates compared with the known genotype 1 isolates. The analysis of phylogenetic tree of 25 Guizhou isolates was demonstrated to be genetically divided into two groups, indicating that the virus presented a unique characteristics in geographic distribution and in a time dependent-manner. And phylogenetic tree of 25 Guizhou isolates and 7 genotype 1 strains isolated from other Province of China was also divided into two groups, which were further composed of several subgroups, respectively. From these observations, the rabies viruses derived from Guizhou province were still genotype 1. These isolates of rabies virus were diverged from the strains isolated from other provinces in both gene sequences and deduced amino acid sequences, and these divergences were characterized in geographic distribution and in a time-dependent manner. PMID:22263267

  5. Contribution to knowledge of the genus Chydaeus in Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) and Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini)

    OpenAIRE

    Boris M. Kataev; Hongbin Liang; David Kavanaugh

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the genus Chydaeus Chaudoir, 1854 are described from China: Chydaeus fugongensis sp. n. (Shibali, Fugong County, Yunnan Province), Chydaeus gutangensis sp. n. (Gutang, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus hanmiensis sp. n. (Hanmi, Medog County, Xizang Autonomous Region [Tibet]), Chydaeus asetosus sp. n. (NE of Fugong, Yunnan Province), and Chydaeus baoshanensis sp. n. (N of Baoshan, Yunnan Province). Taxonomic and faunistic notes on elev...

  6. Relationship between Type of Risks and Income of the Rural Households in the Pattani Province of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pha-isah Leekoi; Ahmad Zafarullah Abdul Jalil; Mukaramah Harun

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between type of risks and income of the rural households in Pattani province, Thailand using the standard multiple regression analysis. A multi-stage sampling technique is employed to select 600 households of 12 districts in the rural Pattani province and a structured questionnaire is used for data collection. Evidences from descriptive analysis show that the type of risks faced by households in rural Pattani province are job loss, reduction of salary, hou...

  7. HIV epidemic in South Africa: A comparison of HIV epidemic patterns of two extreme provinces in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Khangelani Zuma; Khanyisile Manzini; Neo Mohlabane

    2014-01-01

    Background: South Africa is experiencing one of the worst HIV epidemics, which varies by province and by districts within each province. Objective: To explore and compare HIV trends and patterns between two provinces in South Africa. Method: ‘Know your epidemic’ synthesis suggests that HIV prevalence is rising in older age groups and falling in younger people. Using secondary data analyses of population-based and antenatal care surveillance (ANC) surveys, we explored trends and pa...

  8. Quantitative Estimation of Biomass Energy and Evaluation of Biomass Utilization - A Case Study of Jilin Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Junnian Song; Wei Yang; Helmut Yabar; Yoshiro Higano

    2013-01-01

    Jilin Province, as a large agricultural province, has abundant reserve of biomass resources. At the same time Jilin Province is currently suffering from energy shortage. Besides, consumption of conventional fossil fuels has resulted in the exacerbation of global warming and air pollution. Biomass energy as a renewable and substitutive energy, can mitigate the energy crisis and global warming, and improve environmental quality once it is fully utilized. This paper estimated the supply potentia...

  9. Selected conditions for the development of tourism in the sieradzkie province in the Years 1975-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz P?omi?ski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available On 1st June 1975 a new two-tier administrative division of the country was introduced creating 49 new provinces. One of the newly created provinces was sieradzkie. On the territory of the sieradzkie province the development of tourism was coordinated and supervised by the department for physical education and tourism (the name of the department during the period changed repeatedly. The main factors for the development of tourism in the sieradzkie province included: the amount of funding spent on tasks related to tourism, tourism infrastructure (accommodation and catering, qualified tourist staff, as well as activities in the field of information and promotion of tourism.

  10. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western perimeter of the belt. We believe that this is a result of the LAB jumping up to a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) as the less stable lower lithosphere was thinned or removed. This same MLD appears above the intact LAB in the eastern portion of the Cheyenne Belt. This suggests that the western end of the Cheyenne Belt has undergone more deformation over time than the eastern end.

  11. Dynamic ocean provinces: a multi-sensor approach to global marine ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, M.; Campbell, J.; Moore, T.

    The concept of oceanic provinces or domains has existed for well over a century. Such systems, whether real or only conceptual, provide a useful framework for understanding the mechanisms controlling biological, physical and chemical processes and their interactions. Criteria have been established for defining provinces based on physical forcings, availability of light and nutrients, complexity of the marine food web, and other factors. In general, such classification systems reflect the heterogeneous nature of the ocean environment, and the effort of scientists to comprehend the whole system by understanding its various homogeneous components. If provinces are defined strictly on the basis of geospatial or temporal criteria (e.g., latitude zones, bathymetry, or season), the resulting maps exhibit discontinuities that are uncharacteristic of the ocean. While this may be useful for many purposes, it is unsatisfactory in that it does not capture the dynamic nature of fluid boundaries in the ocean. Boundaries fixed in time and space do not allow us to observe interannual or longer-term variability (e.g., regime shifts) that may result from climate change. The current study illustrates the potential of using fuzzy logic as a means of classifying the ocean into objectively defined provinces using properties measurable from satellite sensors (MODIS and SeaWiFS). This approach accommodates the dynamic variability of provinces which can be updated as each image is processed. We adopt this classification as the basis for parameterizing specific algorithms for each of the classes. Once the class specific algorithms have been applied, retrievals are then recomposed into a single blended product based on the "weighted" fuzzy memberships. This will be demonstrated through animations of multi-year time- series of monthly composites of the individual classes or provinces. The provinces themselves are identified on the basis of global fields of chlorophyll, sea surface temperature and PAR which will also be subsequently used to parameterize primary production (PP) algorithms. Two applications of the proposed dynamic classification are presented. The first applies different peer-reviewed PP algorithms to the different classes and objectively evaluates their performance to select the algorithm which performs best, and then merges results into a single primary production product. A second application illustrates the variability of P I parameters in each province and- analyzes province specific variability in the quantum yield of photosynthesis. Finally results illustrating how this approach is implemented in estimating global oceanic primary production are presented.

  12. Application of NURE data to the study of crystalline rocks in the Wyoming uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wyoming uranium province study is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. The ultimate objective of the entire project is the integration of NURE and other data sources to develop a model for a uranium province centered in Wyoming. This paper presents results of the first phase of the Wyoming uranium province study, which comprises characterization of the crystalline rocks of the study area using NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment data, aerial radiometric and magnetic data, and new data generated for zircons from intrusive rocks in the study area. The results of this study indicate that the stream-sediment, aerial radiometric, aerial magnetic, and zircon data are useful in characterization of the crystalline rocks of the uranium province. The methods used in this project can be applied in two ways toward the recognition of a uranium province: (1) to locate major uranium deposits and occurrences, and (2) to generally identify different crystalline rock types, particularly those that could represent significant uranium source rocks. 14 figures, 8 tables

  13. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010-2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claude T, Sabeta; Jacqueline, Weyer; Peter, Geertsma; Debra, Mohale; Jacobeth, Miyen; Lucille H, Blumberg; Patricia A, Leman; Baby, Phahladira; Wonderful, Shumba; Johan, Walters; Janusz T, Paweska.

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from si [...] tes where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, deadend introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  14. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output. PMID:22720632

  15. THE CHANGES IN THE DIRECTION OF MIGRATION FROM MARD?N PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the changes in the direction of migration from Mardin province and Mardin origin population residing in provinces. First, Mardin province continuously has given migration more from take because of demographic and economic indicators. For security reasons, in 1990’s, it has been seen an increase in migration. Besides the amount of migration, the direction of migration has changed also. For example, in period of 1975-1980, while the ranking of the provinces in migration from Mardin was ?zmir (15.1%, ?stanbul (13.2%, Diyarbak?r (12.8%, Adana (9.8%, Siirt (7.9%, Hatay (4.5% and ?çel (4.4%, the ranking has changed as ?stanbul (26.6%, Adana (10.4%, ?zmir (9.0%, Diyarbak?r (5.9%, Mersin (5.0%, Ankara (4.4%, ?anl?urfa (3.3% and Batman (3.3% in period of 2009-2010. According to this result, ?zmir, Manisa and Hatay getting the first waves of immigration from Mardin province have lost importance today and ?stanbul, Adana, Mersin and Gaziantep have become important instead of them.

  16. Sustainable Development of Agricultural Product Processing Industry in Jilin Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lian Song

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jilin is a big agricultural province in northeast China. Development of agricultural product processing industry and improvement of agro-food additional value play a vital role in improvement of living standard of farmer and increase of local government financial revenue. Therefore, agricultural product processing industry is regarded as the third pillar industry after automotive industry and petrochemical industry in Jilin Province, China. Considering the characteristics of agricultural product processing industry, such as water-consuming, over-dependent on water and agricultural products and so forth, its sustainable development seems more necessary than other industries. Sustainable development is not to limit development of agricultural product processing industry, but to further development. The investigation results demonstrated that development of agricultural product processing industry in Jilin Province is still at stage of extensive growth and the sustainable development faces big challenges. In this study, the factors that affect sustainable development of agricultural product processing industry in Jilin Province were discussed and the practicable strategies for sustainable development of agricultural product processing industry of Jilin Province were proposed.

  17. [Reserves and spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon in Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Haihua; Wu, Shunhui; Fan, Xiudan

    2003-09-01

    Soil organic carbon is the main part of terrestrial carbon reservoir and important part of soil fertility. The spatial distribution and reserves of soil organic carbon are very important for studying soil carbon cycle. According to the data from the second soil survey, soil organic carbon reserves was estimated and its spatial distribution was analysed by using GIS technique. The results showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon is about 17.52 x 10(8) t. The carbon density of laterite, lateritic red soil and red soil in Guangdong Province is 8.83, 10.31, 9.15 kg.m-2, respectively; lower than the mean carbon density of China. The carbon density of yellow soil and rice soil is 12.08, 12.17 kg.m-2, respectively; higher than the mean carbon density of China. Soil carbon density is about 10.44 kg.m-2 in Guangdong. The spatial distribution characteristic of soil organic carbon density in Guangdong is that the carbon density in south Guangdong Province is higher than that in north Guangdong Province, in that soil organic carbon density in north and middle Guangdong Province is 5-10 kg.m-2 and in east Guangdong Province is 10-15 kg.m-2. Soil organic carbon density mostly vary among 5-15 kg.m-2. PMID:14733007

  18. Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 ?g L?1 As occupies approximately 8100 km2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ? We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ? Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ? Area of 8112 km2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ? Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

  19. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  20. Chemical zoning of muscovite megacrystal from the Brazilian Pegmatite Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia R. Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magmatic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration due to percolation of hydrothermal fluids. Enrichment of Rb towards the border is interpreted as resulting from the chemical evolution of the residual magma during crystal growth. The depletion in (IV Al+VI Al as well as the increase in (Fe+Mg and Si along a fracture could be due to the hydrothermal celadonitic substitution of muscovite. This alteration also caused depletion in the contents of Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn and residual concentration of Ti. Elements such as Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn, rarely considered in the discussion of differentiation or alteration processes in micas, have been shown to be as significant as the alkali-elements.Um grande cristal de muscovita, macroscopicamente homogêneo, procedente do Pegmatito Cruzeiro, localizado na Província Pegmatítica Oriental, em Minas Gerais, exibe padrão de distribuição complexa para alguns elementos traços. Em estudos geocronológicos e petrológicos, como, por exemplo, na separação entre micas magmáticas e pós-magmáticas, a causa de zoneamento deve ser levada em consideração. O complexo zoneamento químico no cristal de mica estudado é melhor explicado pelo crescimento em um magma evoluído, seguido pela alteração, proveniente da percolação de fluidos hidrotermais. O enriquecimento de Rb nas bordas é interpretado como resultado da evolução química do magma residual durante o crescimento do cristal. A diminuição em (IV Al+VI Al, bem como o aumento de (Fe+Mg e Si ao longo da fratura é explicado pela substituição hidrotermal celadonítica da muscovita. A alteração hidrotermal causou, também, a diminuição nos conteúdos de Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn e Zn ao longo desta fratura, além da concentração residual de Ti. Elementos tais como, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, e Zn, pouco considerados em discussão de diferenciação ou processos de alteração, mostraram significância tanto quanto os elementos alcalinos.

  1. Chemical zoning of muscovite megacrystal from the Brazilian Pegmatite Province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rúbia R., Viana; Hanna J., Evangelista; Willem B., Stern.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Um grande cristal de muscovita, macroscopicamente homogêneo, procedente do Pegmatito Cruzeiro, localizado na Província Pegmatítica Oriental, em Minas Gerais, exibe padrão de distribuição complexa para alguns elementos traços. Em estudos geocronológicos e petrológicos, como, por exemplo, na separação [...] entre micas magmáticas e pós-magmáticas, a causa de zoneamento deve ser levada em consideração. O complexo zoneamento químico no cristal de mica estudado é melhor explicado pelo crescimento em um magma evoluído, seguido pela alteração, proveniente da percolação de fluidos hidrotermais. O enriquecimento de Rb nas bordas é interpretado como resultado da evolução química do magma residual durante o crescimento do cristal. A diminuição em (IV Al+VI Al), bem como o aumento de (Fe+Mg) e Si ao longo da fratura é explicado pela substituição hidrotermal celadonítica da muscovita. A alteração hidrotermal causou, também, a diminuição nos conteúdos de Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn e Zn ao longo desta fratura, além da concentração residual de Ti. Elementos tais como, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, e Zn, pouco considerados em discussão de diferenciação ou processos de alteração, mostraram significância tanto quanto os elementos alcalinos. Abstract in english Macroscopically homogenous muscovite plate from the Cruzeiro pegmatite, located in the Eastern Pegmatite Province in Minas Gerais, may show complex distribution patterns of some trace elements. In geochronological and petrological studies, as for example in the distinction of magmatic and post-magma [...] tic mica, the cause of zoning could be taken into consideration. The complex chemical zoning in the studied mica plate can be best explained by growth in an evolving magma followed by alteration due to percolation of hydrothermal fluids. Enrichment of Rb towards the border is interpreted as resulting from the chemical evolution of the residual magma during crystal growth. The depletion in (IV Al+VI Al) as well as the increase in (Fe+Mg) and Si along a fracture could be due to the hydrothermal celadonitic substitution of muscovite. This alteration also caused depletion in the contents of Rb, Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn and residual concentration of Ti. Elements such as Ga, Y, Nb, Sn, and Zn, rarely considered in the discussion of differentiation or alteration processes in micas, have been shown to be as significant as the alkali-elements.

  2. Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Granados, Roberto; Jiménez, Juan de Dios; Martín, José

    2007-03-01

    This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially. PMID:17161891

  3. An assessment of the environmental benefits of demand management for the province of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on the environmental impacts of fossil-fired generation that is expected to be displaced by electrical efficiency improvement programs and higher efficiency standards in the province on Ontario by the year 2000. Air emission dispersions were modelled by generating station. The impacts of air emission reductions on human mortality, human morbidity, building materials, agricultural crops, forests and lakes and fisheries were quantified using dose-response functions taken from the literature or estimated for the province of Ontario. Environmental impacts were monetized using cost data specific to Ontario. The final outcome was an estimate of the environmental benefits associated with emission reductions in fossil-fuelled power plants due to efficiency improvements in electricity use in the province of Ontario. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Micromammals in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, past and present

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D. Margaret, Avery; Graham, Avery.

    Full Text Available This paper provides a basis for conservation work by detailing the micromammalian taxa occurring in the Northern Cape Province. It presents new evidence from 30 barn owl pellet collections, augmented by previously published material from trapping or observation (here called 'conventional' reports) a [...] nd owl roosts, divided into pre-1930, 1930-1979 and 1980 and newer as an indication of continuity of occurrence. A historical perspective is added by the inclusion of material from two archaeological sites dating to the Pleistocene (before about 10 000 years ago) and || from the Holocene (after about 10 000 years ago). Northern Cape Province synonymies are provided as an aid to equating older records with modern taxonomy. In all, 77 currently recognized micromammalian species have been recorded from the province. These comprise five Afrosoricida (golden moles), six Macroscelidea (elephant shrews), eight Soricomorpha (forest shrews), 16 Chiroptera (bats), and 42 Rodentia (rodents).

  5. Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones. Part IV. Kohgilouyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidpour, S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available According to previous surveys, only Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889, Orthochirus zagrosensis Kova?ík, 2004, and Hemiscorpius lepturus Peters, 1861 have been recorded from Kohgilouyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province. Collections made by a team under Shahrokh Navidpour (Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Ahvaz, Khoozestan, Iran reveal eight other species belonging to two families recorded from the province for the first time: Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807; Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905; Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880; Hottentotta zagrosensis Kova?ík, 1997; Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço et Pézier, 2002; Orthochirus iranus Kova?ík, 2004; Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903; and Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900. Also presented is a key to all species of scorpions found in the province.

  6. An Empirical Analysis on the Relationship between Logistics industry and Economic development of Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-jie Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of modern logistics industry in economic development playing an increasingly important role, in order to explore the relationship between logistics industry and economic development of Henan province, this paper selects its relevant data of 1990-2010, establishing econometric model, quantitatively studying the relationship between economic development and its logistics industry, in the end we draw conclusions with logistics industry leading to a significant contribution to the economic development of Henan Province.  According to the conclusion, we can be more effective in considering the status of logistics industry in the economic development of the Henan Province, providing basis which related with decisions making for logistics policy. Finally, we make corresponding suggestions according to the conclusions.

  7. Efficiency Evaluation Between Port Logistics and Economic Growth by DEA: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the development of modern logistics industry can promote the development of economy. Meanwhile, vigorously develop the port logistics is an important approach for Zhejiang province to seek new economic growth point. In this study, Grey correlation analysis was used to study the correlation between regional logistics and economic growth, concluded that there is a large degree of correlation between logistics industry and economic growth. Next, with the application of Data Envelopment Method, the efficiency between port logistics and economic growth of Zhejiang province was calculated, results showed that the overall influence efficiency is not satisfactory, coordination needs to be strengthened. Finally, logistics industry development countermeasures were put forward based on Marine economy perspective. The results can provide reference to Marine economic development of Zhejiang province.

  8. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence. PMID:25050398

  9. Present-Day deformation across the basin and range province, western united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher; Foulger; Julian; Svarc; Quilty; Bawden

    1999-03-12

    The distribution of deformation within the Basin and Range province was determined from 1992, 1996, and 1998 surveys of a dense, 800-kilometer-aperture, Global Positioning System network. Internal deformation generally follows the pattern of Holocene fault distribution and is concentrated near the western extremity of the province, with lesser amounts focused near the eastern boundary. Little net deformation occurs across the central 500 kilometers of the network in western Utah and eastern Nevada. Concentration of deformation adjacent to the rigid Sierra Nevada block indicates that external plate-driving forces play an important role in driving deformation, modulating the extensional stress field generated by internal buoyancy forces that are due to lateral density gradients and topography near the province boundaries. PMID:10073932

  10. Barriers to wind power exports from the Maritime provinces to the US northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed a study that evaluated wind energy export potential from the Maritime provinces to the northeastern United States. The study assessed key market issues likely to affect the exports. The study showed that the Maritime provinces are capable of generating 5500 to 7500 MW of wind. The current electricity system is capable of integrating 2100 MW. Wind power integration between the 2 regions would require transmission upgrades, increased transmission capacity, and better coordination between system operators. Barriers to exports from the Maritimes include limited capacity on existing interties and high transmission tariffs. Uniform transmission tariffs are needed throughout the Maritime provinces. Coordination and integration of operators and utilities is needed to reduce the costs of wind power integration. Increased wind power production reduces price risks related to high energy prices. It was concluded that wind power is a cost-effective method of providing renewable and low carbon dioxide (CO2) generation electricity in the northeastern United States. tabs., figs

  11. Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km2, equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs

  12. A ten years (2000–2009 surveillance of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Zhejiang Province, there are several highly developed cities near the coast and several relatively under-developed mountain areas. Analysis of the composition of bacteria isolated from patients as well as their antibiotic resistance profile from various areas of this province, and tracing of such data year-by-year, will help to delineate the bacterial resistance profile of these areas and to understand how the stage of socio-economical development impacts on the composition of clinical micro-flora and their resistance profile. Methods: In order to investigate variation in resistance rates and isolation rates of Enterobacteriaceae, from 2000 to 2009 in Zhejiang Province, China, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from 15 hospitals located in different regions of the province were surveyed. Results: The total numbers of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated increased more than 20-fold from 2000 to 2009. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the dominant isolates. The percentage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae that produced detectable extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs increased from 2000 to 2007, and then declined slightly in 2008 and 2009. The percentages of K. pneumoniae and E. coli that were resistant to ceftazidime increased sharply from 2000 to 2009. There were remarkable increases in the carbapenem resistant rates during the decade, but they were much higher for the isolates from the developed cities than from the rural areas. In 2002, carbapenem-resistant E. coli was first found in Hangzhou, one of the highly developed cities in Zhejiang Province. By 2009, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were found for all species of Enterobacteriaceae surveyed in almost all areas of the province, although they were more frequently identified in developed areas than in rural areas. Conclusion: Much restrictive actions have to be taken in terms of rational use of antibiotics and nosocomial control to prevent the further spread of the drug-resistant pathogens.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of indigenous and imported dengue fever cases in Guangdong province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhongjie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever has been a major public health concern in China since it re-emerged in Guangdong province in 1978. This study aimed to explore spatiotemporal characteristics of dengue fever cases for both indigenous and imported cases during recent years in Guangdong province, so as to identify high-risk areas of the province and thereby help plan resource allocation for dengue interventions. Methods Notifiable cases of dengue fever were collected from all 123 counties of Guangdong province from 2005 to 2010. Descriptive temporal and spatial analysis were conducted, including plotting of seasonal distribution of cases, and creating choropleth maps of cumulative incidence by county. The space-time scan statistic was used to determine space-time clusters of dengue fever cases at the county level, and a geographical information system was used to visualize the location of the clusters. Analysis were stratified by imported and indigenous origin. Results 1658 dengue fever cases were recorded in Guangdong province during the study period, including 94 imported cases and 1564 indigenous cases. Both imported and indigenous cases occurred more frequently in autumn. The areas affected by the indigenous and imported cases presented a geographically expanding trend over the study period. The results showed that the most likely cluster of imported cases (relative risk?=?7.52, p? Conclusions This study demonstrated that the geographic range of imported and indigenous dengue fever cases has expanded over recent years, and cases were significantly clustered in two heavily urbanised areas of Guangdong province. This provides the foundation for further investigation of risk factors and interventions in these high-risk areas.

  14. Deep seismic refraction experiment in northeast Brazil: New constraints for Borborema province evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcus Vinicius A. G. de; Berrocal, Jesus; Soares, José E. P.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2015-03-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is a major Proterozoic crustal province that, until now, has never been explored using deep crustal seismic methods. Here are reported the first results obtained from a high-quality seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile that has defined the internal seismic velocity structure and thickness of the crust in this region. Almost 400 recording stations were deployed in the Deep Seismic Refraction (DSR) experiment through an NW-SE ca. 900 km linear array and 19 shots were exploded at every 50 km along the line. Data from the 10 southeastern most shots of the seismic profile were processed in this work. The main features and geological structures crossed by the studied portion of the profile belong to the so-called Central Sub-province of the Borborema tectonic province. The crustal model obtained is compatible with a typical structure of extended crust. The model was essentially divided into three layers: upper crust, lower crust, and a half-space represented by the shallower portion of the mantle. The Moho is an irregular interface with depth ranging between 31.7 and 34.5 km, and beneath the Central Sub-province it varies from 31.5 to 33 km depth, where its limits are related to major crustal discontinuities. The distribution of velocities within the crust is heterogeneous, varying vertically from 5.7 to 6.3 km/s in the upper crust and from 6.45 to 6.9 km/s in the lower crust. From the average crustal velocity distribution it is evident that the Central Sub-province has seismic characteristics different from neighboring domains. The crust is relatively thin and crustal thickness variations in the profile are subtle due to stretching that occurred in the Cretaceous, during the fragmentation of Pangaea, opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and separation of South America from Africa.

  15. Research on New Energy Industry Development in Shandong Province with Financial Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu-han

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shangdong Province is a major energy exporter as well as a green city of economic development. However, amid the rapid development of economy, Shandong province has witnessed the development of some non-economic and green industries, therefore, to fulfill the government’s obligation and to make the industry planning better and to create green environmental industry, it is necessary to study the development function of new energy industry in Shandong under the support of government finance. Energy plays an important role in developing economy and sustaining human life, without which human cannot survive. Nowadays, due to the mass consumptions of energy on earth by humankind, it is urgent for humankind to seek new alternative energy sources and develop environmental protection industry. As one of the key industries supported by the state in recent years, new energy industry, including industries supported by hydropower, wind power, tidal energy and luminous energy, is under rapid development and has become the main driving force to change the enterprise structure and promote the development in Shandong Province. Based on the data of energy developmental level within 20 years from 1993 to 2012 in Shandong Province, this thesis is to build a financial support model suitable for new energy development in Shandong Province by using the basic principle of factor analysis. After unit root test, co-integration test and causality test on the data and analysis, a conclusion that the measurement index between financial efficiency, scale and results are indeed co-integrate and moreover, it gives a major push to the development of new energy industry. Therefore, the major drivers of the development of new energy in China with the financial support can be summarized. This research can provide theoretical basis for the structure of new energy industry in Shandong Province.

  16. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, andthe developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  17. PRELIMINARY GEOID MODEL IN SAN JUAN PROVINCE: A CASE STUDY IN THE ANDES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tocho, Claudia; Miranda, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution and high-precision detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for San Juan province in Argentina, ranging from 27 degrees S to 34 degrees S in latitude and 72 degrees W to 65 degrees W in longitude. The gravimetric geoid was calculated using the RTM method, a multiband spherical Stokes Fast Fourier Transformation, and the removerestore technique for the spherical harmonic reference field and the terrain. As an external evaluation, the gravimetric quasigeoid/geoid was compared to the geoid heights obtained from 90 GPS/levelling points available for the province. Finally, a GPS-tailored local geoid, which fits the GPS observations, was computed.

  18. Les infrastructures et équipements locaux dans la province de Saragosse (1985-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tricas Lamana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l'évolution d'un ensemble d'infrastructures dans les communes de la province de Saragosse (Espagne entre 1985 et 2010. On y présente aussi un appareillage cartographique qui mobilise les indicateurs territoriaux issus de l'Enquête sur les infrastructures et équipements locaux (EIEL, et qui constitue une aide à la décision technique et politique visant à une distribution équitable des fonds publics et à une hiérarchisation des besoins des municipalités de la province.

  19. [An outbreak of cholera (El Tor) in Samarkand Province, Uzbekistan in 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedov, S M; Inzhevatova, M V; Seredin, V G; Inogamova, I A

    1992-01-01

    A group outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio eltor in the Samarkand Province++ in 1990 is analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the isolation of V. cholerae from water of surface reservoirs has been made. The study points out that since the cholera epidemic of 1985 V. cholerae avirulent strains, serogroup O1, have been periodically isolated in the Samarkand Province. The conclusion has been made that the isolation of even avirulent strains only from environmental objects is indicative of the unfavorable epidemiological situation in this area and of the necessity to take measures for improving epidemiological surveillance. PMID:1481601

  20. Estimation of the population dose from medical X-ray diagnostic examination in Shandong province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure doses on the examinated body surface for verious types of X-ray diagnostic examanition in Shandong Province were surveyed. The collective effective dose equivalent in per million population were calculated with the measured results, the ratios of orga absorbed doses to irradiated surface exposure doses and the frequencies of X-ray examination in Shandong Province. The result was 326 man.Sv per million total population in 1980, of which chest fluoroscopies. lumbar spine radiographies and G.I. examination were estimated to be about 78, 9 and 5 precent, respectively

  1. The Mathematical Analysis on the Terror Caused Fatalities in Provinces of Pakistan 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zichao

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Osama Bin Laden was killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan, and then the security situation in Pakistan suffered even more severe challenges. Although the security situation in Pakistan was very bad, but in each provinces of Pakistan, the performances of security situation were not the same, and the Fatality toll in each provinces of Pakistan had a big gap. This article will apply mathematical analysis on the Fatality toll of civilians, security forces and terrorists in each ...

  2. The Demand Analysis of Life Insurance for Ethnic Regions in Gansu Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianshen Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed life insurance demand for ethnic regions in Gansu province in China, using the large and high-quality micro sample provided by China household finance survey(CHFS. From the perspective of the demography variables, culture and psychological factors and protection patterns, the authors investigate and analyze ethnic life insurance ownership ratio, the specific types of insurance as well as the insurance coverage amount in Gansu province. There are few domestic literature studies this problem from individual level, so this paper plays a beneficial role for further study on this topic.

  3. A serological study of Leishmania infantum in dogs of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sabzevari, S.; Razmi, G. R.; Naghibi, A.; Khoshnegah, J.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the principal agent of visceral leishmaniosis (kala-azar) in all areas of Iran. The disease is endemic in Fars, Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and Bushehr provinces while it is sporadic in other parts of the country. Dog as a member of canidae family is the main animal reservoir host of kala-azar. The present study was carried out to determine the sero-prevalence of canine leishmaniosis in Mashhad, the capital city of Khorasan Razavi Province, in the north east of Iran. Two-h...

  4. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui Infection among Riparian People in Saravane and Champasak Province, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for sma...

  5. Matrilineal Marriage in Tibetan Areas In Western Sìchu?n Province (English translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Min

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The marriage and family organization of the Zhaba ?? people in Western Sìchu?n ?? Province is similar to that practiced by the Nàxi Mós?o ???? during the 1960s. The Zhaba ??2 Region is another matrilineal culture region in addition to the Lúg? ?? Region in Yúnnán ?? Province. The area has only recently begun modernizing because of its isolation. 'Visiting marriages' and matrilineal family organization continue to play an important role in Zhaba culture. This research contributes new material to the anthropological study of matrilineal societies.

  6. The Economics of Smallholder Dairy Goat Production in Mafefe Community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Mosoma; A. Belete; G.M. Senyolo; M.B. Masuku

    2012-01-01

    This study presents cost-return analysis of the leasing system of smallholder dairy goat production in the Mafefe area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. The study was carried out to analyze the economic viability and sustainability of leasing system to the development of dairy goat’s keepers in Mafefe ward of Limpopo Province. The study used the NPV and BCR analysis to assess the economic impact of the proposed technology. The primary data used for the analysis were obtained during a 200...

  7. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faramarzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The vari­ous forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chry­somya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two differ­ent regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this prov­ince.  

  8. E-commerce Promote the Development of Low-carbon Economy in Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the Northeast old industrial base, Jilin province has relatively complete industrial categories, So, studying its low-carbon economy development has typical significance. The study analyzes the favorable conditions of low-carbon economy development based on the perspective of energy, describes the economic benefits from low-carbon development which uses e-commerce by the pillar industry of Changchun FAW, Jilin petrochemical, agricultural production, etc. and the major initiatives of low-carbon development in advocated by province government, These all escort for Jilin’s development of low-carbon economy.

  9. Ranking of the World's Oil and Gas Provinces by Known Petroleum Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    A recent USGS open file report entitled Ranking of the World's Oil and Gas Provinces by Known Petroleum Volumes groups the worlds 937 geologic provinces into eight regions by known petroleum volumes of field. This site succintly describes the ranking methods used and results of the study. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Middle East and North Africa was found to contain nearly twice as many billions of barrels of oil than any other area. The researchers hope that the rankings will "facilitate studies of reserve growth, assessment of undiscovered resources, and analysis of economics and risk".

  10. Integrating decision support tools and environmental information systems: a case study on the Province of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper demonstrates an application of advanced decision support tools within the framework of the environmental information system of the Province of Milan. These tools include environmental simulation models, multi criteria analysis, risk analysis and environmental accounting for marketable emission permits. After describing the general structure of the system, three demonstrational case studies are introduced concerning: groundwater pollution management; atmospheric pollution management; urban environmental quality perception and management. In the conclusion, potential use of tools like the ones implemented by the province of Milan within the framework of Local Agenda 21 processes is recalled

  11. Comparative analysis of physical recreation of Chinese youth as a means of Anhui Province sports tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Shouling

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the recreational facilities of Anhui Province, contributing to the development of the sports tourism in China. Material and Methods: analysis and generalization of literature and electronic sources, official web-sites, survey. Results: revealed the interest of young people to cultural and leisure activities in Anhui Province and the increase in the number of tourists at different ages. Development of sports tourism indicates an increase in mass and popularity among the population. Conclusions: addressing public interest in the development of sports tourism in China leads to the enhancement of the role of cultural holiday in physical development and rehabilitation of youth.

  12. GEOPHYTES OF SULDUZ REGION, WEST AZERBAYJAN PROVINCE, IRAN AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Rahimi; Ne?et Arslan; Mehrab Aghaalinejad

    2012-01-01

    Iran is very rich in terms of plant diversity. Sulduz region (36:57º E, 45:22 ºN), West Azerbaijan Province, Iran; occupies an area of over 1050 km², which is more than 2.5 percent of the total area of West Azerbaijan province. The altitude of region is between 1000–2100 m. The systematic study of flora especially in virgin regions has its own special challenges and excitement. Commercial collection and trade represents principle threat to individual species. The present research is conc...

  13. Income Distribution in Rural Areas of Turkey: A Case Study in Adana Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dagistan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have focused on income distribution in rural areas in Adana Province of Turkey. According to the research, the richest 20% of households receive 58.47% of the total income, while the poorest twenty percent receive 3.21% of total income earned in rural areas of Adana province. A Gini coefficient for the region is 0.539. Income distribution in the region is getting worse. The main reason for this is that, a 6.4% reduction in GNP in 1999.

  14. Mammalia, Didelphimorphia and Rodentia, Southwest of the province of Mendoza, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauthier, D. U.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We documented terrestrial micromammal assemblages at five localities of southwestern Mendoza province,Argentina. We added new localities for several of the most uncommon small mammal species of this region (e.g.Loxodontomys micropus and Tympanoctomys barrerae. Two main groups of terrestrial non-volant micromammals arerepresented in southwestern province of Mendoza: one group is related to the South American arid diagonal, andincludes species typically adapted to the xeric environments of the Monte Desert; a second group includes Patagonianand High Andean species. Some Patagonian species reached in the study area their northernmost distributional records(e.g. Abrothrix longipilis, A. olivaceus, Chelemys macronyx, Loxodontomys micropus.

  15. Petroleum systems and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Anadarko Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas: USGS Province 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides research results and related data in support of the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resource potential of the Anadarko Basin Province of western Oklahoma and Kansas, northern Texas, and southeastern Colorado. This province area includes the Las Animas arch of southeastern Colorado, part of the Palo Duro Basin of Texas, and the Anadarko Basin. Results of the geologic analysis and resource assessment are based on the geologic elements of each defined total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphic and petrophysical properties), hydrocarbon traps (trapping mechanisms and timing), and seals. Using this geologic framework, the U.S. Geological Survey defined 2 total petroleum systems, the Woodford Composite total petroleum system and Pennsylvanian Composite total petroleum system and 12 included assessment units, and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within these conventional and continuous (unconventional) AUs.

  16. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Finance and the Economic Growth of Counties in China's Shandong Province

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of financial development and economic growth, an investigation has been conducted to reveal the contradictions and correlations between the finance and economic growth in the counties of China's Shandong Province. This paper has proposed some countermeasures through the investigation of counties of Shandong Province.

  17. THE SURVEY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVITY OF STAFFS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS (Case study of: The East Azarbaijan province and Ardebil Province Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakkol Salimi Maghvan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between employee creativity and organizational effectiveness in educational organizations of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces. This investigation was an applied research using a descriptive methodology with correlation tests. The statistical population for this research included all employees of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces in 2010, comprising 45 and 19 departments, respectively, or a total of 64 departments. Using Morgan table for estimation of sample size, and according to random sampling method, 56 departments (29 and 17 departments, respectively with 297 employees (179 and 118 employees, respectively were selected, and were tested using simple random technique. Data collection was performed using two questionnaires, for which validity and reliability testing had been performed previously. The creativity questionnaire was filled by organizational employees, while the organizational effectiveness questionnaire was filled by executives of educational departments. In this research, according to the objectives of the research, descriptive statistics was used for creation of frequency tables and charts and computation of suitable central indices, while the study hypothesis was tested using Pearson’s correlation test. The results of this investigation showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between employee creativity and organizational effectiveness in educational departments of East Azerbaijan and Ardabil provinces (p < 0.05.

  18. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellowish and reddish tans, to white at the highest elevations. A measure of relative local topographic height was added as brightness to enhance the contrast of stream channels to their surrounding terrain.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 536 by 710 kilometers (332 by 440 miles) Location: 10.4 degrees South latitude, 67.25 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  19. Folic Acid Consumption in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Massumi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Spina bifida and anencephaly are among serious and fatal anomalies in infants that may lead to a 50-70% of reduction in incidence when folic acid is consumed before conception.

    Methods: In a cross sectional study, 2997 pregnant women were evaluated to determine the level of their knowledge and practice about using folic acid in Fars Province, southern Iran.

    Results: Eighty percent of pregnant women were familiar with the name of folic acid, 44.7% had the knowledge of its importance during pregnancy, 31.2% and 8% had the knowledge about its effect in reduction of fatal and neurotic anomalies in fetuses, respectively. 86.6% consumed folic acid and 11% used it before awareness of their pregnancy.

    Conclusion: Regarding the importance of the starting time of folic acid consumption in prevention of neural tube defects, the women should be trained in relation to starting of its consumption before conception.

  20. The Comparative Study of the Competitive Power of the Steel Industry of Every Province in China Based on Correspondence Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibo, Ren; Kai, Liu; Wei, Wu

    This paper analyzed and compared the competitive power of steel industry of 30 provinces in our country. At first, we extracted the data containing 16 economic indicators to reflect each province's business conditions of steel industry, then used correspondence analysis method to process the data. We can get every province's level located in the domestic steel industry and its corresponding advantage. This conclusion has important reference value for every province to develop its steel industry's policy.

  1. Family clusters of avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lina; Guan, Dawei; Kang, Min; Wu, Jie; Zeng, Xianqiao; Lu, Jing; Rutherford, Shannon; Zou, Lirong; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Ke, Changwen

    2015-01-01

    Since its first identification, the epizootic avian influenza A H7N9 virus has continued to cause infections in China. Two waves were observed during this outbreak. No cases were reported from Guangdong Province during the first wave, but this province became one of the prime outbreak sites during the second wave. In order to identify the transmission potential of this continuously evolving infectious virus, our research group monitored all clusters of H7N9 infections during the second wave of the epidemic in Guangdong Province. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological data on these patients were collected and analyzed. Three family clusters including six cases of H7N9 infection were recorded. The virus caused severe disease in two adult patients but only mild symptoms for all four pediatric patients. All patients reported direct poultry or poultry market exposure history. Relevant environment samples collected according to their reported exposures tested H7N9 positive. Virus isolates from patients in the same cluster shared high sequence similarities. In conclusion, although continually evolving, the currently circulating H7N9 viruses in Guangdong Province have not yet demonstrated the capacity for efficient and sustained person-to-person transmission. PMID:25339399

  2. Demographic Factors Affecting Employment in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pun Thongchumnum

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of demographic factors on the employment of people in Pattani and Songkla Provinces of Thailand. The outcome variable is binary employment status (employed or unemployed. The determinant variables are education completion level (none, elementary, secondary, high and the demographic factors gender, religion (Islam or Other, seven 5-year age groups (25-29 to 54-59, and district. We used data from the 2000 Census of the National Statistical Office. The analysis method involved first stratifying by religion, gender and district and then fitting logistic regression models in each stratum to determine odds ratios for the association between the outcome and the education completion level factor after adjusting for age group, and then combining these odds ratios using meta-analysis to obtain the overall independent association between education completion and unemployment in each province. The results showed that in Songkla province persons who had completed secondary education had no advantage in gaining employment over those who had completed only elementary education. And in Pattani province, those who had completed secondary education had a substantially higher unemployment rate than those with only an elementary education.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  4. Chapter 18: Geology and petroleum potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province represents the northeastern-most cratonic block of Eastern European Russia. More than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered in this basin. Three geological assessment units (AU) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The NW Izhma Depression AU encompasses all potential structures and reservoirs in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, but this part of the basin contains little source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively. The Main Basin Platform AU includes all structures and reservoirs that developed in the central part of the basin where the tectonic evolution and development of petroleum systems were complex. The Foredeep Basins AU includes all potential reservoirs within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins developed during the Permo-Triassic Uralian Orogeny. For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG and 0.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL). For the areas of the AUs north of the Arctic Circle in the Timan- Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG and 0.2 BBNGL. The Pechora Sea was assessed with the South Barents Sea Province and is not included in this assessment. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  5. A discussion on the sustainable development of 60Co irradiation processing in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the situation of irradiation processing in Jiangsu Province after China's entered into WTO. Irradiation processing has been developed very rapidly in recent years. The potential problems were analyzed, and some proposals related with sustainable development were raised up. (authors)

  6. Infant mortality rate in Al-Ramadi province from 2000 through 2010, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed M. Hantush

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the IMR in Al-Ramadi province, the center of Al-Anbar Governorate, Western Iraq, from 2000-2010 with rate comparison of the three different stages of that period. Methods: Data collected from the birth and death certificate center in Al-Ramadi province, Western Iraq, included; name, age, sex, residence, date of birth and death, in three different stages (the first stage 2000-2002, the second stage 2003-2007, and the third stage 2008-2010 in a study period from July to December, 2010. The IMRs were analyzed and compared with other studies. Results: The IMR of the last 3 years of sanction was 54.3/1000, 55.7/1000 and 50.6/1000 respectively, this rate had been increased in the war and violence period to reach its maximum rate 58.6/1000 in 2006, then decreased to reach its minimum rate 44.5/1000 in 2008. Approximately two-third of deaths occurred during the neonatal period and one third in the post neonatal period. Males had higher IMR than females, and rural residence higher than urban. Conclusion: Infant mortality rate is still high in Al-Ramadi province, since the American invasion (2003-2007, when compared with other developing countries. This study found increase of IMR in Al-Ramadi province during that period more than other studied years.

  7. Bank’s Distribution of Sichuan Province in the Republic of China (1912-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai YANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the Republic of China, Sichuan Province was a critical period for banks to develop, not only in terms of quantity, but also in the regional distribution, fundamental change had occurred than before. This paper firstly generalized the bank’s distribution pattern, then analyzed the bank’s evolution causes and at last did a brief summary.

  8. An evaluation of criteria for defining tectonic, seismic, or seismotectonic provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation and generic critique of the diagnostic siting criteria now in use throughout the world to delineate or approximate bounded tectonic, seismic, or seismotectonic provinces or zones, are presented. The criteria are referenced and tabulated to facilitate determination of their regulatory, scientific and practical application to siting of important engineered structures in Canada

  9. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  10. Electricity intensity across Chinese provinces: New evidence on convergence and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy intensity has gone through different stages across Chinese regions. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic electricity-intensity convergence across the Chinese provinces. Unlike previous work, this paper highlights the relevance of the level of technology of each province and takes into account the economic geography through the examination of club convergence. We perform several unit root tests that introduce structural breaks, nonlinearities and time variation, with the aim to capture the economic transformation of the Chinese economy. Results indicate that the majority of the Chinese regions have converged according to the unit-root tests in time-series analysis, indicating that technological differences diminish over time. However, this convergence pattern occurs within groups of regions, according with club convergence test. Indeed, we find a dominant club and others smaller clubs that few regions belong. However, it is observed that there are regions that still diverge. These findings support our argument that special policy attention is required for those regions displaying divergence. - Highlights: ? Electricity-intensity convergence across the Chinese provinces is investigated. ? We use monthly data. ? We highlight the relevance of the level of technology of each province and the economic geography. ? Recent unit root tests are employed. ? We found club convergence

  11. [Detection of DNA erlichia and anaplasma in ticks Ixodes trianguliceps in Tyumen Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    kolchanova, L P; Bragina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The data on the study of Ixodes trianguliceps Bir. collected from small mammals in the southern taiga forests of Tyumen Province with the PCR-hybridization with fluorescent detection method are given. DNA of Erlichua and Anaplasma was revealed in ticks of this species for the first time; mixed infection with both these pathogens was also demonstrated. PMID:22141249

  12. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  15. Mathematics Achievement in Yunnan Province: The Effects of Family, Region, and Teacher Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Post, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines student mathematics achievement in rural and urban areas of Yunnan Province (China) using a sample of students in 162 schools to study the effect of the students' school location, family background, and teacher qualifications. Reveals that the level of teacher training greatly affects student knowledge. (CMK)

  16. Notes on the Nazeris fauna of Yunnan Province, China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-long Zhao; Jia Yao Hu; Li-Zhen Li

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Nazeris Fauvel collected from Nabanhe Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, are described under the names of Nazeris nabanhensis sp. n. and Nazeris caoi sp. n. The male sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key to the Nazeris species of Yunnan is provided. A map of the collecting sites is given.

  17. Clinical Malaria along the China–Myanmar Border, Yunnan Province, China, January 2011–August 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Guofa; Sun, Ling; Xia, Rongji; Duan, Yizhong; Xu, Jianwei; Yang, Henglin; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Xiang, Zheng; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Passive surveillance for malaria cases was conducted in Yunnan Province, China, along the China–Myanmar border. Infection with Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum protozoa accounted for 69% and 28% of the cases, respectively. Most patients were adult men. Cross-border travel into Myanmar was a key risk factor for P. falciparum malaria in China.

  18. RNA-Based Investigation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Peng; Wang, Fengping; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2010-01-01

    Using RNA-based techniques and hot spring samples collected from Yunnan Province, China, we show that the amoA gene of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea can be transcribed at temperatures higher than 74°C and up to 94°C, suggesting that archaeal nitrification can potentially occur at near boiling temperatures.

  19. Assessment of the Prescriptions Written in Different Provinces of Turkey in Terms of Drug Utilization Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih MOLLAHAL?LO?LU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn how physicians' prescribing habits contribute to the rational use of medicine (RUM. We investigated the content of prescriptions written out in different provinces.Material and Method: A total of 3201 prescriptions written in Bartin, Bayburt, Cankiri, Denizli, Eskisehir, Gumushane, Karabuk, Kirsehir, Nevsehir and Nigde were collected from pharmacies. Prescriptions were analyzed using some indicators such as average number of medicines per-prescription (NMPP, average cost per-prescription (CPP etc. Prescriptions indicating anxiety, hypertension, osteoarthritis, acute (A otitis media, A.sinusitis, A.tonsillopharyngitis, A.cystitis, diabetes mellitus, dyspepsia and A.diarrhea were evaluated by provinces.Results: Except in three provinces, respiratory drugs were the most commonly written agents. NMPP was highest in Denizli (3.21±0.95, lowest in Cankiri (2.65±1.09. CPP was highest in Denizli (133.35±650.92TRL, lowest in Bartin (42.54±49.91TRL. As for gold standard-compatibility, the prescribed medicines in 4/10 indications seemed better in Cankiri and Gumushane. Injections, antibiotics, analgesics and gastroprotectives were most commonly prescribed in Denizli (14.1%, Kirsehir (43.3%, Gumushane (48.1% and Bayburt (19.8% respectively.Conclusion: In the provinces, there were substantial differences in the content of prescriptions. Generally, rational drug prescribing performance was found quite low. These findings should be considered in the activities to the extension of RUM. (Marmara Medical Journal 2011;24:160-71

  20. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  1. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0mg/kg for As, 0.2mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  2. Factors Associated with Bullying Behavior in Islamic Private Schools, Pattani Province, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between students’ bullying behaviors in Islamic private schools, Pattani province and classroom management factors (democracy, authoritarian, and permissive classroom management), family upbringing factors (strict, permissive, and democracy upbringing), environment violence factors (influence of peers violence, community violence, and parents violence), and to identify risk factors for bullying behaviors. A cross-sectional sur...

  3. Survey of radon concentrations in cave dwellings in the east of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of Radon concentrations in cave dwellings in the east area of Gansu Province was conducted. SSNTD had been used and the exposure time was 190 days. The results showed that the average Radon concentration in the cave dwellings was 171 Bq·m-3, while the Radon concentration in 27.3% of the cave dwellings exceeded 200 Bq·m-3

  4. Analysis of Regional Economic Disparities in Guizhou Province Based on ESDA-GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haili Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Take the county as the research scale and the per capita GDP as the measure index as well to reveal the difference of Guizhou Province’s regional economy which based on ESDA and GeoDA-GIS. It shows that the level of economic develop of Guizhou’s central area is high and surrounded area is low. The difference between North and south is greater than the difference between East and West. There is a clear spatial correlation among them. Moran scatter diagram shows that the majority of counties are located in the first and third quadrants, which accounted for 73.86% of the total number of the county. The number of “L-L” type is more than the number of “H-H” type 37 counties. Most parts of the provinces are relatively poor. Finding the “H-H” area and “L-L” area and “L-H” area and “H-L” area of economic development level of county based on the spatial correlation model. That can provide scientific basis for the future economic construction and social development of Guizhou province.

  5. Provincial nuclear regulatory authority?: The case of the province of Cordoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of social and political events in the province of Cordoba after the Law 8157 of 1992, that establishes the provincial nuclear policy, are analysed as well as the recent sanction and veto of the Law 8775, which creates the provincial Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The authors conclude that is necessary and convenient to enforce provincial nuclear regulations and controls

  6. Prevalence of viral hepatitis B in children from the Luricocha District at the Huanta Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe to estimate virus infection of the hepatitis B in children from twelve communities from the Luricocha district in the Huanta province, Ayacucho

  7. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012.

  8. Hydrogeological and geophysics study of Conaprole industrial plant Tarariras Colonia province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To application of the National Cooperative of Producers of Milk (CONAPROLE), it proceeded to a hydro geologic and geophysical studies for the industrial plant of that Cooperative, located in Tarariras city (Colonia province) where it was determined the technical feasibility of exploration and exploitation of groundwater in one or more waterdrills to be executed in the proximities of the industrial plant .

  9. Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae) – a new species from Talamanca Mountain in Veraguas province, Western Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae), a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, Guzmania berteroniana, Guzmania elvallensis, and Guzmania skotakii.

  10. ABET and Development in the Northern Cape Province: Assessing Impacts of CACE Courses, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Caroline

    The impacts of the adult basic education and training (ABET) courses offered by the Centre for Adult and Continuing Education (CACE) in South Africa's Northern Cape Province were examined. Data were collected through questionnaires, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, observations, and document analysis. Of the 221 students enrolled in the…

  11. Notes on the true bug (Heteroptera) fauna of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    GHARAAT, Mohammad Ali; HASSANZADEH, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The Heteroptera fauna in east Azerbaijan and west Azerbaijan provinces in northwestern Iran was surveyed during 2005-2006. In all, 73 species from 18 families were collected and identified, of which 1 species, Mozena lunata (Burmeister, 1835) (Coreidae), is a new record for the Palearctic ecozone and 6 species are newly recorded from Iran.

  12. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arthur M., Spickett; Ingard H., Heyne; Roy, Williams.

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutiv [...] e years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids). The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis) were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  13. Flooding and Earthquake Risk Interpretation for Kutahya Province, Turkey, Using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Erdem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kutahya Province is a significant cultural heritage area of Turkey; it is susceptible to flooding when sudden heavy rain falls and is located in a high-risk earthquake region. The objective of this study was to acquire geo-information from Kutahya Province and interpret the risk levels to the population from floods and earthquakes. In this study, the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflection Digital Elevation Model of Kutahya Province was used to create maps that illustrate the digital terrain model and the 3D fly-through dynamic model of the study region. The maps exhibit landform characteristics, fault zones, earthquake locations, thermal locations, stream drainages and water-flow accumulation areas. From the interpretation of the maps, the results revealed that the most susceptible areas to flooding are the settlements and agricultural plains of Kutahya, Altintas, and Simav, in decreasing order. Gediz, Simav, Kutahya, Emet, Tavsanli, Dumlupinar, Domanic, Hisarcik, Pazarlar and Saphane are at high risk of earthquake damage, in decreasing order. The results of this study can help planners involved in regional urban and infrastructure development as well as environmental planning in Kutahya province.

  14. Precipitation extremes in a karst region: a case study in the Guizhou province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Zhang, Zengxin; Chen, Xi; Han, Zhaoqing

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed the changing properties of precipitation extremes in the Guizhou province, a region of typical karst geomorphology in China. Precipitation extremes were defined by the largest 1- and 5-day precipitation total. Trends of precipitation extremes were detected by using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Besides, we also investigated moisture flux variations based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset with the aim to further explore the possible causes behind the changes in precipitation extremes. The results of this study indicated that: (1) Although the changes in precipitation extremes at most of the stations were not significant, enhanced precipitation extremes were still detected after the early 1990s mainly in the middle and west parts of the Guizhou province; (2) In winter, east and south parts of the Guizhou province were characterized by increasing precipitation extremes; In summer, enhanced precipitation extremes were observed mainly in the middle and east parts of the Guizhou province; (3) A significant increase of moisture flux was observed after the 1990s when compared to that before the 1990s. Cumulative departure analysis results of moisture flux and precipitation extremes confirmed the influences of moisture flux on the variations of precipitation extremes in the study region. This study clarified the changes of weather extremes and their linkages with large-scale atmospheric circulation in the karst region of China, which will definitely enhance human mitigation to natural hazards in the fragile ecological environment under the influences of changing climate.

  15. Testing the influence of environmental heterogeneity on fish species richness in two biogeographic provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Massicotte, Philippe; Proulx, Raphaël; Cabana, Gilbert; Rodríguez, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental homogenization in coastal ecosystems impacted by human activities may be an important factor explaining the observed decline in fish species richness. We used fish community data (>200 species) from extensive surveys conducted in two biogeographic provinces (extent >1,000 km) in North America to quantify the relationship between fish species richness and local (grain

  16. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  17. Sedimentational, structural and migmatitic history of the Archaean Dharwar tectonic province, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, K.; Srinivasan, R.; Jayaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    A detailed study is reported of the sedimentational, structural, and migmatitic history of the Archaean Dharwar tectonic province in southern India. The sequence of development of the Peninsular Gneiss, Dharwar supracrustal sequence, basic granulites and charnockites, and Closepet Granite are examined and used to infer the interrelations of the different rock groups.

  18. Becoming "Neuquino" in Mapuzugun: Teaching Mapuche Language and Culture in the Province of Neuquen, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the sense of belonging promoted by the current program of Educacion Intercultural Bilingue (EIB) of the province of Neuquen for Mapuche children, examining the design and implementation of this program. The analysis reveals how this program reinforces a hegemonic definition of Mapuche identity, which relegates Mapuche culture…

  19. Mineral chemistry of tantalate species new in the Borborema Pegmatitic Province, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beurlen Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tantalate samples, supposedly of the columbite group, were collected in the Borborema Pegmatitic Province, aiming to test the Mn/(Mn+Fe and Ta/(Ta+Nb ratios as geochemical indicators of pegmatite fractionation. Surprisingly, preliminary microprobe data allowed recognizing some species, so far unknown in the Province, namely titanian ixiolite, fersmite, brannerite, strüverite, natrobistantite, plumbo- and stibiomicrolite, plumboand uranpyrochlore. The identification of these exotic tantalates with unusual composition, in addition to its distribution in several pegmatites, far from the classical Alto do Giz and Seridozinho pegmatites, indicate that the elevated degree of fractionation is not restricted to these two occurrences but may be reached in other pegmatite areas of the Province. It indicates also that this degree of fractionation may be very variable between pegmatites in small areas. The zoning patterns observed in the titanian ixiolite, with Ti and Nb enrichment at the borders at expense of Ta enriched in the core, are also quite unusual and reverse in comparison with the normal trend of progressive Ta and Mn enrichment in tantalates with the degree of fractionation. A similar "reverse" trend was observed in titanian wodginite of petalite/pollucite bearing pegmatites of the Separation Rapids Province in Ontario, Canada.

  20. Arge pyracanthae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Argidae) feeding on Pyracantha fortuneana in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai; Kiyoshi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Arge pyracanthae Wei & Shinohara, n. sp. is described from Mt. Hupingshan, Hunan Province, China, including COI sequences from two specimens. Larvae are solitary external leaf feeders on Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H. L. Li (Rosaceae). Field observations and rearing experiments showed that this species has a multivoltine life cycle. This is the first record of an argid sawfly associated with Pyracantha. PMID:25947744

  1. Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae – a new species from Talamanca Mountain in Veraguas province, Western Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae, a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, G. berteroniana, G. elvallensis, and G. skotakii.

  2. An Analysis of Influencing Factors in Collaboration of the Three Industries in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Chinese government has promulgated in succession seven strategic emerging industries development plans, ten industrial development plans, Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone planning and the outline of the 12th five-year plan. The country has attached more and more importance on the mode of industrial development, the direction of development and path of development. The industries should not be developed rapidly, but should also be developed with health and collaboration. Industrial collaboration is a self requirement of industrial development in the future and is also a long-term target.This article studies the collaborative development condition of the three industries in Sichuan Province under the above background. Through an analysis on the establishment of indicator system for evaluation on collaboration of the three industries, it is discovered that there are still a lot of problems that are urgent to be adjusted and improved in collaborative development of the three industries in Sichuan Province. Through the Principal Component Analysis, we find out the principal influencing factors for collaborative development of the three industries in Sichuan Province, which includes the three major influencing factors of relevant industries in construction and real estate, tourism industry and great industrial industry. Given the existing problems at present in collaboration of the three industries in Sichuan Province, this article proposes the five policy suggestions of accelerating adjustment of industrial structure, making full use of resource endowment to develop regional economy, boost healthy and orderly development of construction and real estate industry, encouraging rapid development of tourism industry, bringing in steady development of new types of strategic industries and carrying forward industrial transfer and supporting industrial cluster. The aim of these five policy suggestions is to promote collaborative development of the three industries in Sichuan Province, resolve the issue of 1+1>2 and 1+1+1>3, better facilitate industrial promotion in Sichuan Province and lay a foundation and provide conditions for fast and benign development of industries in Sichuan Province.

  3. Ridge Regression Analysis on the Influential Factors of FDI in Jiangsu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CAO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available
    As Chinese eastern coastal developed areas, through the use of foreign capital, Jiangsu Province has not only promoted economic growth rapidly, enhanced the regional comprehensive competitiveness, promoted employment, but also created a new famous mode of economic development called Sunan. Based on the qualitative analysis of factors affecting the inflow of foreign capital in Jiangsu, the paper establish a mathematical model between the FDI and major economic indicators in Jiangsu, in accordance with its own characteristics. And then taken 1992-2006 time-series data for the background, the paper use the method of ridge regression to analysis the influential factors of FDI in Jiangsu.
    Key words: foreign direct investment, ridge regression, factors, Jiangsu
    Résumé: En tant qu’une région développée dans la côte-est de la Chine, grâce à l’usage du capital étranger, la province du Jiangsu a non seulement eu une croissance économique rapide, augmenté la compétitivité générale, créé desemplois mais aussi inventé un nouveau modèle du développement économique qu’on appelle Sunan. En se basant sur les analyses qualitatives des facteurs affectant l’afflux du capital étranger dans la province de Jiangsu, l’article étalit un modèle mathématiqueentre le FDI et les principaux indicateurs économiques dans la Province, conformément à ses caractéristiques appropriées. Et puis, en employant les données de la période de l’année 1992 à 2006 comme l’arrière-plan, l’article utilise la méthode d’analyse de ridge régressionn pour étudier les facteurs influents de FDI dans la province de Jiangsu.
    Mots-Clés: investissements directs étrangers, ridge régression, facteurs, Jiangsu

  4. Assessment of geo-environmental problems of the Zonguldak province (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, D.; Nefeslioglu, H. A.; Zorlu, K.; Gokceoglu, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Zonguldak province is a coastal settlement area that has been suffering from serious natural and human-induced environmental problems sourced by its geology and geomorphology. Since the province locates at the heart of a coal-producing basin, the geo-environmental problems related to mining activities such as esthetic degradation, disposal of mining wastes and subsidence of the abandoned coal galleries are badly affecting every day life in Zonguldak province. Disposal of municipal wastes is also a big problem since only one municipality out of 32 has a sanitary disposal area. The rest of the municipalities dispose their solid wastes to rivers or to the sea. The province has also some health problems, which are pointed out in the literature, related to coal mining and geologic environment. These are cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes and pheumoconiosis (most commonly seen at coal workers), goiter and cancer. Landslides are the most important hazards in the area since 13% of the total surface of the Zonguldak is affected by landslides. In this study, considering the hazard potential special attention is given to deep landslides and using the stepwise forward conditional logistic regression technique, the landslide susceptibility map for the Zonguldak province is produced. The results showed that the most important independent variables governing the landslides are slope gradient, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks of Eocene and clastic and carbonate units of Cretaceous. The landslide map is used as a base map for the production of geo-hazard reconnaissance map on which areas subjected to other important geo-hazards (flood, earthquake and subsidence) are also shown to provide guidance for both existing settlement areas to take the necessary preventive measures and for new developing settlement areas to avoid the problematic areas.

  5. Hyperendemicity of Haplorchis taichui infection among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Yun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sisabath, Lay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we found that Haplorchis taichui, a heterophyid intestinal fluke, is highly prevalent, with heavy worm loads, among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 1,460 people (717 men and 743 women) in 12 riparian (Mekong river) districts and were examined by the Kato-Katz fecal smear technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 78.8% and 66.4% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which included H. taichui and other heterophyids, Opisthorchis viverrini, and lecithodendriids, was 69.9% and 46.3% in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively. To obtain adult flukes, 30 STE-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and then purged. Whole diarrheic stools were collected 4-5 times for each person and searched for fluke specimens using a stereomicroscope. Mixed infections with various species of trematodes (H. taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, O. viverrini, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Centrocestus formosanus, and Echinochasmus japonicus) and a species of cestode (Taenia saginata) were found. However, the worm load was exceptionally high for H. taichui compared with other trematode species, with an average of 21,565 and 12,079 specimens per infected person in Saravane and Champasak province, respectively, followed by H. pumilio (41.9 and 22.5, respectively) and O. viverrini (9.4 and 1.5, respectively). These results show that diverse species of intestinal and liver flukes are prevalent among riparian people in Saravane and Champasak province, Lao PDR, with H. taichui being the exceptionally dominant species. PMID:23864741

  6. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels. PMID:23435155

  7. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

    How to cite this article: Spickett, A.M., Heyne, I.H. & Williams, R., 2011, ‘Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1, Art. #305, 12 pages. doi:10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.305

  8. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer???1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P?>?0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR?=?10.956, 95% CI?=?1.632-73.545, P?=?0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P?>?0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  9. Liberalización económica y desigualdad salarial en 12 áreas urbanas de México, 1987-2002: la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ismael, Plascencia López.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad del ingreso salarial, medida por el coeficiente de Gini en 12 áreas urbanas del país -por tamaño de población y producto interno bruto (PIB) estatal- de 1987 a 2002, y su relación con otras variables asociadas al proceso de liberalización ec [...] onómica, como la apertura comercial (AC), las exportaciones, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) nacional y el PIB manufacturero estatal. Se contrasta la relación entre variables con la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets, mediante datos en panel, corte trasversal y series de tiempo en el análisis regional (zonas urbanas y entidades federativas). Abstract in english This article analyzes the evolution of income wage inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, in 12 urban areas of Mexico- by population and state gross domestic product (GDP)-from 1987 to 2002, and the relationship with other variables associated with the process of economic liberalization, such [...] as commercial openness (CO), exports, foreign direct investment (FDI), and gdp by state manufacturer. We contrast the relationship between variables with the Kuznets' inverse "U" hypothesis using panel data analysis, cross section and time series in the regional analysis (urban zones and federal states).

  10. Liberalización económica y desigualdad salarial en 12 áreas urbanas de México, 1987-2002: la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Plascencia López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad del ingreso salarial, medida por el coeficiente de Gini en 12 áreas urbanas del país -por tamaño de población y producto interno bruto (PIB estatal- de 1987 a 2002, y su relación con otras variables asociadas al proceso de liberalización económica, como la apertura comercial (AC, las exportaciones, la inversión extranjera directa (IED nacional y el PIB manufacturero estatal. Se contrasta la relación entre variables con la hipótesis de la "U" invertida de Kuznets, mediante datos en panel, corte trasversal y series de tiempo en el análisis regional (zonas urbanas y entidades federativas.

  11. Further evidence for geographic differentiation in R. appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, Jupiter; Madder, Maxime; Van Bortel, Wim; Chaka, George; Berkvens, Dirk; Backeljau, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Studies in the biology, ecology and behaviour of R. appendiculatus in Zambia have shown considerable variation within and between populations often associated with their geographical origin. We studied variation in the mitochondrial COI (mtCOI) gene of adult R. appendiculatus ticks originating from the Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks from the two provinces were placed into two groups on the mtCOI sequence data tree. One group comprised all haplotypes of specimens from the Eastern province plateau districts of Chipata and Petauke. The second group consisted of a single haplotype of specimens from the Southern province districts and Nyimba, an Eastern province district on the fringes of the valley. This variation provides additional evidence to the earlier observations in the 12S rDNA and ITS2 data for the geographic subdivision of R. appendiculatus from Southern province and Eastern province plateau. The geographic subdivision further corresponds with differences in body size and diapause between R. appendiculatus from these geographic areas. The possible implications of these findings on the epidemiology of East Coast fever (ECF) the disease for which R. appendiculatus is one of the vectors are discussed. PMID:17340215

  12. Reconstituting the epidemic history of mono lineage of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Guizhou province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Binlian; Li, Lingnuo; Li, Yanpeng; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yao; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Rongge

    2014-08-01

    Guizhou province, located between border provinces and Central province of China, plays a crucial role in the transmission of HIV-1, implying it is important to monitor the epidemic of HIV-1 in this region. Available HIV-1 infected patients' plasma (n=78) were collected from Tongren city, Eastern Guizhou. Full-length gag, partial pol and env gene sequences were amplified and analyzed using phylogenetic, recombinant and Bayesian molecular clock approaches. Phylogenetic and recombinant analyses showed that CRF01_AE predominated among injecting drug users and heterosexuals in Tongren city with 85.9% proportion, it was followed by B' (5.1%), CRF07_BC (3.8%), CRF08_BC (3.8%), and B (1.3%). Moreover, 98.5% of CRF01_AE strains belonged to the distinct lineage CRF01_AE-v previously found in Guangxi province. To infer the most probable origin of CRF01_AE-v in Guizhou province, we download all available full length of CRF01_AE gag, pol and env gene region sequences from China in Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that the expanding CRF01_AE-v epidemic in Guizhou province was the result of local epidemic driven by multiple independent introductions of CRF01_AE-v strains from Guangxi province in early 2000s. High prevalence of CRF01_AE in Guizhou province may bridge the epidemic to Central China. It provides a new insight for the understanding of HIV-1 epidemic in Guizhou province and makes the evolutionary history of CRF01_AE in China more intact. PMID:24823961

  13. Forecasting time and place of earthquakes using a Semi-Markov model (with case study in Tehran province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    The paper examines the application of semi-Markov models to the phenomenon of earthquakes in Tehran province. Generally, earthquakes are not independent of each other, and time and place of earthquakes are related to previous earthquakes; moreover, the time between earthquakes affects the pattern of their occurrence; thus, this occurrence can be likened to semi-Markov models. In our work, we divided the province of Tehran into six regions and grouped the earthquakes regarding their magnitude into three classes. Using a semi-Markov model, it proceeds to predict the likelihood of the time and place of occurrence of earthquakes in the province.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Anadarko Basin Province of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, D.K.; Gaswirth, S.B.; Abbott, M.M.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Ellis, G.S.; Gianoutsos, N.J.; Hatch, J.R.; Klett, T.R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pearson, O.N.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geoscience-based assessment methodology, estimated mean technically-recoverable undiscovered continuous and conventional resources that total 495 million barrels of oil, 27.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 410 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Anadarko Basin Province; this assessment includes the Las Animas arch area of southeastern Colorado. The province is at a mature stage of exploration and development for conventional resources. Mean undiscovered continuous resources are estimated at 79 percent of oil, 90 percent of natural gas, and 81 percent of natural gas liquids in the province.

  15. Survey of knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in nurses of community-based health services in Hainan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xiu-zhen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR among the nurses ( n= 302 of community-based health services in Hainan province of China, a survey was made by randomized stratified cluster sampling using self-designed questionnaires. The passing rate for qualification of the knowledge of CPR was found to be very low in Hainan province (23.18 %. A significant difference of regions and different educational level among the nurses were also noticed (P<0.01. It may be concluded from the study that nurses of community-based health services in Hainan province lack the basic knowledge of CPR, especially in rural region.

  16. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittaker Maxine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 1 whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD and 22 key informant interviews (KII were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria surveillance system in Isabel Province. Due to financial and logistical restraints local health authorities have concluded that a system of community-based vigilance to identify new arrivals in villages and direct them to have malaria testing is more feasible than formal screening at ports and airports. A surveillance response system to prevent introduction of malaria into Isabel Province can be integrated into the National Malaria Control Programme provided the operational steps are carefully planned with regards to human and financial resources.

  17. Uranium in South America with Emphasis on the Brazilian Uranium Province (Summary L'uranium en Amérique du Sud et plus particulièrement dans la province uranifère brésilienne (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forman J. M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The search for uranium hos been going on in South America for the last 30 years and has led to discoveries of deposits in the following countries: Brazil, Argentine, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Colombia and Ecuador. - In addition to the already known deposits in Brazil at Pocas de Caldas (Minas Gerais, Figueira (Parana and Quadrilatère Ferrifère (Minas Gerais, other deposits have been discovered at Itatiaia where the uranium is associated with phosphates, in the Lagoa Real region where the uranium is in microclinal gneiss, and in the Rio Preto region. Nearly 100 ore shows have been found in Lower Precarnbrian shales covered by Middle Precambrion quartzose sandstore. The industrial complexes of Pocas de Caldas and Fiqueira will start production respectively in 1980 and 1983. - In Argentina the mains deposits are in the Serra Pintada (Mendoza Province, at Los Adobes and Cerro Condor (Chubut Province and at Don Otto in the northern part of the country. Reserves now known and those being developed are very promising for the future. Pendant les 30 dernières années la recherche de l'uranium s'est poursuivie en Amérique du Sud et a abouti à la découverte de gisements dans les pays suivants : Brésil, Argentine, Venezuela, Pérou, Chili, Colombie et Équateur. . - Au Brésil, outre les gisements déjà connus de Poças de Caldas (Minas Gerais de Figueira (Parana et du Quadrilatère Ferrifère des Minas Gerais, d'autres gisements ont été découverts à Itatiaia où l'uranium est associé à des phosphates, dans la zone de Lagoa Real où l'uranium se trouve dans des gneiss à microcline et dans la région de Rio Preto. Près de 100 indices minéralisés sont reconnus dans les schistes du Précambrien inférieur recouverts par des grès quartzeux d'âge précambrien moyen. Les complexes industriels de Pocas de Caldas et de Figueira entreront en production respectivement en 1980 et 1983. - En Argentine, les principaux gisements se trouvent dans la Serra Pintada (Province de Mendoza, à Los Adobes et Cerre Condor (Province de Chubut et à Don Otto dans le nord du pays. Les réserves actuellement connues et celles en cours de développement sont très prometteuses pour l'avenir.

  18. Chapter 32: Geology and petroleum potential of the Arctic Alaska petroleum province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, K.J.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska petroleum province encompasses all lands and adjacent continental shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald Arch orogenic belt and south of the northern (outboard) margin of the Beaufort Rift shoulder. Even though only a small part is thoroughly explored, it is one of the most prolific petroleum provinces in North America with total known resources (cumulative production plus proved reserves) of c. 28 BBOE. The province constitutes a significant part of a displaced continental fragment, the Arctic Alaska microplate, that was probably rifted from the Canadian Arctic margin during formation of the Canada Basin. Petroleum prospective rocks in the province, mostly Mississippian and younger, record a sequential geological evolution through passive margin, rift and foreland basin tectonic stages. Significant petroleum source and reservoir rocks were formed during each tectonic stage but it was the foreland basin stage that provided the necessary burial heating to generate petroleum from the source rocks. The lion's share of known petroleum resources in the province occur in combination structural-stratigraphic traps formed as a consequence of rifting and located along the rift shoulder. Since the discovery of the super-giant Prudhoe Bay accumulation in one of these traps in the late 1960s, exploration activity preferentially focused on these types of traps. More recent activity, however, has emphasized the potential for stratigraphic traps and the prospect of a natural gas pipeline in this region has spurred renewed interest in structural traps. For assessment purposes, the province is divided into a Platform assessment unit (AU), comprising the Beaufort Rift shoulder and its relatively undeformed flanks, and a Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU, comprising the deformed area north of the Brooks Range and Herald Arch tectonic belt. Mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources include nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 122 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of nonassociated gas in the Platform AU and 2 BBO and 59 TCF of nonassociated gas in the Fold-and-Thrust Belt AU. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Across-province standardization and comparative analysis of time-to-care intervals for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent Zoann

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A set of consistent, standardized definitions of intervals and populations on which to report across provinces is needed to inform the Provincial/Territorial Deputy Ministries of Health on progress of the Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care. The objectives of this project were to: 1 identify a set of criteria and variables needed to create comparable measures of important time-to-cancer-care intervals that could be applied across provinces and 2 use the measures to compare time-to-care across participating provinces for lung and colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in 2004. Methods A broad-based group of stakeholders from each of the three participating cancer agencies was assembled to identify criteria for time-to-care intervals to standardize, evaluate possible intervals and their corresponding start and end time points, and finalize the selection of intervals to pursue. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were identified for the patient population and the selected time points to reduce potential selection bias. The provincial 2004 colorectal and lung cancer data were used to illustrate across-province comparisons for the selected time-to-care intervals. Results Criteria identified as critical for time-to-care intervals and corresponding start and end points were: 1 relevant to patients, 2 relevant to clinical care, 3 unequivocally defined, and 4 currently captured consistently across cancer agencies. Time from diagnosis to first radiation or chemotherapy treatment and the smaller components, time from diagnosis to first consult with an oncologist and time from first consult to first radiation or chemotherapy treatment, were the only intervals that met all four criteria. Timeliness of care for the intervals evaluated was similar between the provinces for lung cancer patients but significant differences were found for colorectal cancer patients. Conclusion We identified criteria important for selecting time-to-care intervals and appropriate inclusion criteria that were robust across the agencies that did not result in an overly selective sample of patients to be compared. Comparisons of data across three provinces of the selected time-to-care intervals identified several important differences related to treatment and access that require further attention. Expanding this collaboration across Canada would facilitate improvement of and equitable access to quality cancer care at a national level.

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Depth to the top of the Dakota Sandstone

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows depth ranges to the top of the Dakota Sandstone within the Uinta-Piceance Province, northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah.