WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

Ladkany, Samaan G.

1998-01-01

2

Wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This evaluation of wind turbines is part of a series of Technology Evaluations of possible components and subsystems of community energy systems. Wind turbines, ranging in size from 200 W to 10 MW, are discussed as candidates for prime movers in community systems. Estimates of performance characteristics and cost as a function of rated capacity and rated wind speed are presented. Data concerning material requirements, environmental effects, and operating procedures also are given and are represented empirically to aid computer simulation.

Yeoman, J.C. Jr.

1978-12-01

3

Wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

1982-01-01

4

Proposal and Development of Radial Air-gap Coreless Generator Suitable for Small Wind Turbine using in Urban Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Independent distributed generations using small wind turbines are widely spread as increasing of wind power generation. Installation of small wind turbines in densely-populated urban area is not only useful from the viewpoint of digging up wind power source in weak-wind area but also for enlightenment of renewable energy due to closing power supplies to consumptions. From the point of view, the authors proposed “urban wind power generation" using collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as Savonius windmill. Standardized on a coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to let direction of magnetic fluxes radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction gives realization of maximized speed of flux change and output voltage in the limited space. With above composition, the power of the proposed one is independent on the diameter. In this report, we describe evaluated fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. As the result of the experiments, the maximum output power of 283W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is enough small to begin to rotate at weak wind condition of no more than 1m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed “radial” coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low speed wind.

Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ohmoto, Shingo; Hara, Takehisa

5

Wind turbine noise diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

6

Type IV Wind Turbine Model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level. In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individualwind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in the IEC61400-27-1 Committee Draft for electrical simulation models for wind power generation, which is currently under review, [1]. The Type 4 wind turbine model described in this report includes a set of adjustments of the standard Type 4 wind turbine model in order account for the dynamic features of interest to EaseWind project. The document presents a short overview of the overall structure of the wind turbine model. Descriptions of individual submodels as well as some preliminary simulation results are included to illustrate the performance of the model.

Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

2014-01-01

7

Small wind turbines  

CERN Document Server

Small Wind Turbines provides a thorough grounding in analysing, designing, building, and installing a small wind turbine. Small turbines are introduced by emphasising their differences from large ones and nearly all the analysis and design examples refer to small turbines.The accompanying software includes MATLAB(R) programs for power production and starting performance, as well as programs for detailed multi-objective optimisation of blade design. A spreadsheet is also given to help readers apply the simple load model of the IEC standard for small wind turbine safety. Small Wind Turbines repr

Wood, David

2011-01-01

8

Wind Turbine Blade Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection ...

Crossley, Richard J.; Schubel, Peter J.

2012-01-01

9

Wind Turbine Blade Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection and optimal attack angles. A detailed review of design loads on wind turbine blades is offered, describing aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, gyroscopic and operational conditions.

Richard J. Crossley

2012-09-01

10

Parametric Study on a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Proposed for Water Pumping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pumping is considered an economically competitive sustainable process of providing water to communities, rural areas and livestock's. A parametric analysis on HAWT is carried out to explore the influence of the performance parameters on the power generated and withdrawal quantity of water. Effect of wind speed, radius of rotor, ambient condition, well depth, and efficiencies of turbine, generator and the pump were studied and reflected in important generalized performance maps. These performance graphs are valuable in best understanding of on?design and off? design constraints of the horizontal axis wind turbine in water pumping. The blade geometry was also studied. Results showed the reasonable range of wind turbine performance and the corresponding water discharge within the abovementioned constraints. Rating and the effect of pitch angle on discharged water are also presented. Methodology necessary to achieve the abovementioned results is processed by a computer program written in Matlab

Dr. Abdullateef A. Jadallah

2014-01-01

11

Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines.

Vermeer, L.; SØrensen, Jens NØrkær

2003-01-01

12

Wind turbine technology  

CERN Document Server

Presents an introduction to the wind turbine technology, which can generate electrical energy with lower costs and zero greenhouse effects. Highlighting limitations, capabilities, and benefits, this text identifies the critical components of a wind turbine and describes the functional capabilities of each component.

Jha, A R

2010-01-01

13

Noise from wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

2002-02-01

14

Noise from wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

15

Wind turbine wake meandering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this master thesis the meandering of the wake of a three bladed horizontal axis model wind turbine has been studied. Measurements have been conducted by the use of four hot-wire probes located at multiple nearby points in the wake at X/D = 1, 3 and 5 downstream the model wind turbine. The meandering has been studied based on the location of the tip vortices shed by the turbine blades. The experiments were conducted in the wind tunnel at NTNU at the Department of Energy and Process Engineer...

Lynum, Susanne

2013-01-01

16

Extreme Response for Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements and a new method for estimating the characteristic load based on field measurements is proposed.

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2009-01-01

17

Noise from wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

18

Wind turbine pitch optimization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model.

Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten

2011-01-01

19

An integrated modeling method for wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a Simulink environment to study the flicker contribution of the wind turbine in the wind-diesel system. By using a new wind power plant representation method, a large wind farm (consisting of 96 fixed speed wind turbines) is modelled to study the power quality of wind power system. The flicker contribution of wind farm is also studied with different wind turbine numbers, using the flickermeter model. Keywords. Simulink, FAST, TurbSim, AreoDyn, wind energy, doubly-fed induction generator, variable speed wind turbine, voltage sag, tower vibration, power quality, flicker, fixed speed wind turbine, wind shear, tower shadow, and yaw error.

Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

20

Wind Turbine Blade Design  

Science.gov (United States)

Students go through the design process and the scientific method to test the effect of blade design on power output. There is an optional extension to use the data to create an optimal set of wind turbine blades.

Project, Kidwind

 
 
 
 
21

Vertical axis wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

2011-03-08

22

Annoyance rating of wind turbine noise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a simple criterion for noise limitation of wind turbines: 'The LaA50 from a Wind Farm should not exceeding the LA50 of the wind generated background plus 5dB at any place of potential complaint'. This criterion is then examined and developed in the light of experience to date with turbine noise complaint and procedures. (author)

23

Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravit...

Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

2007-01-01

24

The Dutch wind turbine industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the manufacturers of wind turbines and wind turbine blades in the Netherlands. Special attention is paid to the impact of the Dutch Integral Program Wind energy (IPW) on the developments and activities of the Dutch wind turbine industry. Implementation of wind energy is less than expected. The activities to reduce the prices for wind turbines have not yet resulted in cheaper wind turbines. The efficiency of wind energy however does not only depend on the costs for wind turbines but also on the value adjudged to the electric power from wind energy. Implementation of wind turbines must be better planned based on the condition that the developments in the wind turbine industry should be continued. Problems regarding the selection of sites and licensing procedures have to be solved. 4 tabs

25

Wind turbines and health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

26

European wind turbine catalogue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

27

Wind turbines and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C. [National Colaborating Centre for Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2010-01-15

28

Alcoa wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

Ai, D. K.

1979-01-01

29

Wind turbine state estimation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator was always active the results where not as convincing because the output prediction errors where not white. Usingreal data it has not been possible to get really good results so far. There remains a number of challenges: verifying turbine parameters and getting the most suitable measurement signals, including the 3P effect in the model and perhaps including the 1P effect. It is obviously difficult to make a final conclusion before the above challenges has been resolved.

Knudsen, Torben

2014-01-01

30

Floating wind turbine system  

Science.gov (United States)

A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

31

Wind Turbine Acoustics  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

2009-01-01

32

Wind turbines, is it just wind?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

33

Superconducting wind turbine generators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely on in the future. The work presented in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have designed and constructed an HTS machine experimental setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises an HTS synchronous machine where a revolv- ing armature winding spins around an open bath liquid nitrogen cryostat, which contains the HTS coils cooled down to 77 K. A significant part of the thesis is allocated to the description of the setup, particularly the torque transfer element and the compact cryostat design, where a concept with 20 W of heat transfer is achieved. Following the setup description, the focus turns to the electromagnetic design of the HTS machine. Particularly, an approach to increase the performance of HTS coils and the influence of the armature reaction to the HTS field winding will be discussed. Two design strategies are proposed, novel in a machine design, in order to reduce the amount of HTS required in a machine whereby the merits of both have been experimentally verified. The first employs a multiple HTS types in the machine design, since each type of the HTS tape has a specific magnetic characteristic with respect to the critical current. I have showed that the potential for the reduction of HTS conductor can be significant, if the coils are placed strategically, whereby the coils wound with BSCCO performed 40% better depending on the placement in the field winding. The 2G coils were less sensitive to the placement which made them particularly useful for high magnetic field regions in the eld winding. The second design approach proposed and tested was to use multiple current supplies which allowed each coil to operate close to its critical current. I have demonstrated that by introducing one additional power supply, an order of 12% higher MMF was generated (or equivalent HTS savings achieved). Increasing in the number of additional power supplies did not show the same potential for HTS reduction. The implications of an armature reaction impact on the HTS field Winding performance were examined and veried throughout a series of Locked Armature experiments. The interaction have been dened in the terms of two (direct and quadrature) axis machine theory (Park transformation), where significant reduction of 20% was observed for the rated armature reaction in the q axis. Building on this observation,a control strategy for the excitation current to improve a partial load eciency of a HTS machine is proposed. Thus, this work has shown that a signicant savings of a the costly HTS tape could be realized indicating that the HTS machine design can still be optimized towards more competitive alternative to conventional machines. Additionally, by constructing the HTS machine setup we went through most of the issues related to the HTS machine design which we managed to address in rather simple manner using everyday materials and therefore proving that HTS machines are close to commercialization.

Mijatovic, Nenad

2014-01-01

34

Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from a HTS synchronous machine where a revolving armature winding spins around an open bath liquid nitrogen cryostat, which contains the HTS coils cooled down to 77 K. A significant part of the thesis is allocated to the description of the setup, particularly the torque transfer element and the compact cryostat design, where a concept with ~20 W of heat transfer is achieved. Following the setup description, the focus turns to the electromagnetic design consideration of the HTS machine. Particularly, an approach to increase the performance of HTS coils and the influence of the armature reaction to the HTS field winding will be discussed. Two design strategies are proposed, novel in a machine design, in order to reduce the amount of HTS required in a machine whereby the merits of both have been experimentally verified. The first employs a multiple HTS types in the machine design, since each type of the HTS tape has a specific magnetic characteristic with respect to the critical current. I have showed that the potential for the reduction of HTS conductor can be significant, if the coils are placed strategically, whereby the coils wound with BSCCO performed 40% better depending on the placement in the field winding. The 2G coils were less sensitive to the placement which made them particularly useful for high magnetic field regions in the field winding. The second design approach proposed and tested was to use multiple current supplies which allowed each coil to operate close to its critical current. I have demonstrated that by introducing one additional power supply, an order of 12% higher MMF was generated (or equivalent HTS savings achieved). Increasing in the number of additional power supplies did not show the same potential for HTS reduction. The implications of an armature reaction impact on the HTS field winding performance were examined and verified throughout a series of Locked Armature experiments. The interaction have been defined in the terms of two (direct and quadrature) axis machine theory (Park transformation), where significant reduction of ~ 20% was observed for the rated armature reaction in the q axis. Building on this observation, a control strategy for the excitation current to improve a partial load eciency of a HTS machine is proposed. Thus, this work has shown that a significant savings of a the costly HTS tape could be realized indicating that the HTS machine design can still be optimized towards more competitive alternative to conventional machines. Additionally, by constructing the HTS machine setup we went through most of the issues related to the HTS machine design which we managed to address in rather simple manner using everyday materials and therefore proving that HTS machines are close to commercialization.

Mijatovic, Nenad

2012-01-01

35

Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1990-01-01

36

Wind turbine design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using wind energy to generate power has become an attractive and feasible possibility as a complement to the traditional power generation methods. This is mainly due to advances in aerodynamic analysis, development of new composite materials and the experience gained through innovative and pioneering designs. Wind energy is abundant and inexhaustible. Its use to generate power in remote areas of developing countries with less developed infrastructure could accelerate the modernisation of such regions. This paper attempts to give an overview of the technical aspects of wind turbine design and is meant for an audience new to the subject. It is not the purpose of this presentation to deal in detail with the technical aspects, but rather to highlight the salient aspects of the design. After a brief introduction, the topics covered are aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of wind turbines with a discussion of the structural dynamics and vibration engineering aspects. (author)

37

Noise from wind turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expectedin the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines ona large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact,notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed windturbines offer a promising solution for applications in denselypopulated areas like the European countries, as this designwould enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect dueto ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where windturbi...

Fe?geant, Olivier

2001-01-01

38

Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently for wind turbines at some selected wind high speeds.

Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso

2012-01-01

39

Tornado type wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01

40

Vision on Mini Wind Turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document sketches the vision of the Netherlands Wind Energy Association (NWEA) with respect to the options for implementing small wind turbines in the Netherlands. Next to a description of the characteristics of mini turbines, mini turbines are compared to large wind turbines and solar panels and unique opportunities for mini turbines are described. Next, the market is described as well as the bottlenecks and their solutions. Finally ongoing projects with mini turbines are described, an estimate is provided for the potential for mini turbines and the ambitions are discussed as well as the recommended action plan.

 
 
 
 
41

Wind turbine spoiler  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

Sullivan, William N. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

42

MEASUREMENTS OF WIND TURBINE CHARACTERISTICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This diploma paper presents measurements of characteristics for the wind turbine. Here are described two experimental setups. The first one is used for determination of the wind speed influence on the electrical quantities of a wind turbine synchronous generator. For torque measurement of the wind turbine the second experimental setup is used considering the same conditions as in the first experimental setup. As a result from both experimental setups are complete electrical and mechanical cha...

Hrastovec, Tomaz?

2011-01-01

43

European wind turbine standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the project on the title subject (EWTS 1) are presented and the contents of the second project (EWTS 2), which has started in January 1996, are outlined. An important activity in both EWTS projects is the development of a network of measuring institutes in Europe, called MEASNET. Members of MEASNET will perform wind energy related measurements in accordance with strict and well documented procedures. The measurement results will be mutually accepted by all other members and MEASNET can thus be considered as a major breakthrough in the harmonization of the wind turbine market within the European Community. The MEASNET activities are also highlighted. 1 tab., 1 ref

44

Wind Turbine Blade  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced plastic material, will have a high level of stretched fibres as well as a far better controlled resin distribution and content and also a low void content.

Jensen, Find MØlholt Technical University of Denmark,

45

Harmonic Current Predictors for Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The harmonic impact caused by wind turbines should be carefully investigated before wind turbines are interconnected. However, the harmonic currents of wind turbines are not easily predicted due to the variations of wind speed. If the harmonic current outputs can be predicted accurately, the harmonic impact of wind turbines and wind farms for power grids can be analyzed efficiently. Therefore, this paper analyzes the harmonic current characteristics of wind turbines and investigates the feasibility of developing harmonic current predictors. Field measurement, data sorting, and analysis are conducted for wind turbines. Two harmonic current predictors are proposed based on the measured harmonic data. One is the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA-based harmonic current predictor, which can be used for real-time prediction. The other is the stochastic harmonic current predictor considering the probability density distributions of harmonic currents. It uses the measured harmonic data to establish the probability density distributions of harmonic currents at different wind speeds, and then uses them to implement a long-term harmonic current prediction. Test results use the measured data to validate the forecast ability of these two harmonic current predictors. The ARMA-based predictor obtains poor performance on some harmonic orders due to the stochastic characteristics of harmonic current caused by the variations of wind speed. Relatively, the prediction results of stochastic harmonic current predictor show that the harmonic currents of a wind turbine in long-term operation can be effectively analyzed by the established probability density distributions. Therefore, the proposed stochastic harmonic current predictor is helpful in predicting and analyzing the possible harmonic problems during the operation of wind turbines and wind farms.

Shun-Yu Chan

2013-03-01

46

Make Your Own Wind Turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners create a wind turbine model using a simple pattern, a thumbtack, and a pencil with an eraser. After constructing the model, learners blow on the wind turbine to simulate the wind. Use this activity to introduce alternative energy and electricity generation.

History, National M.

2012-06-26

47

Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start by considering the average failure rate of turbine populations and then the average failure rates of wind turbine subassemblies. This analysis yields some surprising results about which subas...

Spinato, F.; Tavner, P. J.; Bussel, G. J. W.; Koutoulakos, E.

2009-01-01

48

Wind Power! Designing a Wind Turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn how engineers transform wind energy into electrical energy by building their own miniature wind turbines and measuring the electrical current it produces. They explore how design and position affect the electrical energy production.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

49

Online wind turbine measurement laboratory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of the International Master of Science Program in Wind Energy at DTU, a complete interactive wind turbine measurement laboratory has been developed. A 500 kW stall regulated wind turbine has been instrumented with sensors for recording 1) turbine operational parameters, 2) meteorological conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students...

Hansen, K. S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K. O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

2012-01-01

50

Methodological proposal for the design of the turbine blades of wind of horizontal axis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is developed to estimate the chord distribution airfoil and blade twist along the radius of the blade by using axial and angular moment conservation equations, blade element theory and optimization processes. This methodology takes into account the concept related with getting wind power for different chord blade values and selecting one that facilitates to get the maximum value for wind power. This work is based on project wind energy market in Colombia: operation, risk and expansion possibilities

51

Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 "Wind turbines - Design requirements" and different stochastic modelsfor the uncertainties are compared.

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2008-01-01

52

The 200-kilowatt wind turbine project  

Science.gov (United States)

The three 200 kilowatt wind turbines described, compose the first of three separate systems. Proposed wind turbines of the two other systems, although similar in design, are larger in both physical size and rated power generation. The overall objective of the project is to obtain early operation and performance data while gaining initial experience in the operation of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines in typical utility environments. Several of the key issues addressed include the following: (1) impact of the variable power output (due to varying wind speeds) on the utility grid (2) compatibility with utility requirements (voltage and frequency control of generated power) (3) demonstration of unattended, fail-safe operation (4) reliability of the wind turbine system (5) required maintenance and (6) initial public reaction and acceptance.

1978-01-01

53

Superconducting wind turbine generators  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

2010-03-01

54

Superconducting wind turbine generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.onducting drive train.

55

Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also conducted which give qualitatively correct flow direction change, however quantitative agreement with data is only moderately acceptable.

Selvaraj, Suganthi

56

Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

2010-06-01

57

CFD modelling of wind turbine airfoil aerodynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the first findings of an ongoing research programme on wind turbine computational aerodynamics at the University of Glasgow. Several modeling aspects of wind turbine airfoil aerodynamics based on the solution of the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are addressed. One of these is the effect of an a priori method for structured grid adaptation aimed at improving the wake resolution. Presented results emphasize that the proposed adaptation strategy g...

Campobasso, M. S.; Zanon, A.; Foerster, M.; Fraysse, F.; Bonfiglioli, A.

2008-01-01

58

Harmonic Current Predictors for Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The harmonic impact caused by wind turbines should be carefully investigated before wind turbines are interconnected. However, the harmonic currents of wind turbines are not easily predicted due to the variations of wind speed. If the harmonic current outputs can be predicted accurately, the harmonic impact of wind turbines and wind farms for power grids can be analyzed efficiently. Therefore, this paper analyzes the harmonic current characteristics of wind turbines and investigates the feasi...

Shun-Yu Chan; Chuo-Yean Chang; Jen-Hao Teng; Rong-Ceng Leou

2013-01-01

59

Effects of Icing on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The external conditions occurring at cold climate sites will affect wind turbines in different ways. The effects of ice accretion on wind turbines and the influence on the turbine fatigue loads are examined. The amount of icing prior to turbine installation needs to be estimated by using standard measurement data and considering the geometry of the proposed turbine. A procedure to calculate the expected ice accretion on wind turbines out of standard measurement data is explained and the results are discussed. Different parameters to describe the accreted ice on the turbine are examined separately in a fatigue load calculation. The results of the fatigue load calculation are discussed and selected cases are presented

60

Wind Turbines and Human Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the s...

Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Mccallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; Mcdaniel, Mary

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Operational monitoring of horizontal axis wind turbines with inertial measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Operational monitoring of wind turbine rotor blades was proposed in this research as an enabling technology for structural load and damage identification, improved turbine control, and future smart adaptive enhancements of wind turbines. The objective of operational monitoring was to estimate the quasi-static and dynamic loading and deflection of an operating wind turbine rotor. To enable operational monitoring, methods for sensor selection, placement, and fabrication and algorithms for estim...

White, Jonathan Raymond

2010-01-01

62

Online wind turbine measurement laboratory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As part of the International Master of Science Program in Wind Energy at DTU, a complete interactive wind turbine measurement laboratory has been developed. A 500 kW stall regulated wind turbine has been instrumented with sensors for recording 1) turbine operational parameters, 2) meteorological conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables online access for real-time recordings, which are used both for demonstration purposes, in individual [student] exercises and in scientific investigations. Long-term registration of wind turbine loads results in a unique database of noncommercial time series, which are available for practicing fatigue calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical quantities. Measurements are acquired by a PC placed at the wind turbine site near Risø National Laboratory. The PC can be remotely controlled from DTU, which gives the students the opportunity to work on an operating wind turbine. Furthermore, measurements are published on WindData.com, which facilitates cooperation with other Universities.

Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.

2006-01-01

63

Extreme Response for Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time se...

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2009-01-01

64

Design of 50 kilowatt wind turbine blade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma thesis presents the development of wind turbine blade. The wind turbine blade is a part of the rotor for wind turbine which exploits the wind energy due to its design that is later generated into the electricity. The wind turbine blade, having a better efficiency, namely one that will produce more power than its predecessor, needs to be developed. The main characteristics, methods and instructions how to develop an efficient wind turbine blade are described in the first part of th...

Podgrajs?ek, Simon

2013-01-01

65

Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field  

Science.gov (United States)

WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar including combined RF-acoustic antenna installed coaxially with the gondola of the wind power turbine. The work of the technique is synchronized with rotation of blades to eliminate their shielding action. Dangerous in terms of dynamic strength is the wind load pulse, the rise time which is comparable with the period of the natural frequency of the wind turbine elements (blade, tower, rotor, etc.). The amplitude decay of resonant vibrations at critical values of the speed of rotation can be realized through the use of mechanical elastic supports with nonlinear artificial dampers. They have a high coefficient of resistance, but may cause self-excited oscillations. We propose the way to deal with raised vibration of wind turbine elements at the expense of short-term increase of damping in the range of critical rotary axis speeds or during impulsive effects of wind loadings (wind gusts). This is possible through the use of non-linear electromagnetic dampers or active magnetic bearings. Their feature is the possibility of varying the mechanical stiffness and damping properties by changing the electrical parameters of electromagnets. The controlling of these parameters is carried out by the control system (CS) with the information feedback on the spatial-temporal structure of the wind field obtained from IRASS. In the composition of the CS can also be included the rotational speed sensor of the WPT rotor. This approach to the adaptation of wind turbines will allow to reduce vibration and to perform early compensation of the load on their components, which arise under the wind gusts. In addition, corrections about the wind field obtained with IRASS, would increase the mean power of WPT.

Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

2010-05-01

66

Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

67

Potential health impact of wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

68

Potential health impact of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

NONE

2010-05-15

69

Airship-floated wind turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether line system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.

Watson, W. K.

1985-01-01

70

Innovation in wind turbine design  

CERN Document Server

Innovation in Wind Turbine Design addresses the fundamentals of design, the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. Always referencing a state of the art system for comparison, Jamieson discusses the basics of wind turbine theory and design, as well as how to apply existing engineering knowledge to further advance the technology, enabling the reader to gain a thorough understanding of current technology before assessing where it can go in the future. Innovation in Wind Turbine Design is divided into four mai

Jamieson, Peter

2011-01-01

71

Wind turbine supply in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

72

Design Tool for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generators : Proposed solutions for direct drive Darrieus generators 20MW  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The current work offers a comparison of the proposed machine geometries for 6 [MW] direct drive wind generator candidates with the prospective of up scaling to 20MW. The suggestions are based on a design tool especially built for this investigation. The in-built flexibility of the design tool gives the possibility of calculating a large variation of geometries using existing modules. The main goal is to be able to quickly and transparently asses the feasibility of a proposed machine for a set of requirements. As a first step, a set of suitable machine types for the 6 [MW] design were investigated. A comparison of the selected machine types in view of up-scaling to 20 [MW] was performed. As an example fitness criterion, the use of active materials for the generators was considered. Based on this, suggestions for 20 [MW] generators were made. The results are discussed and future work, directions and suggestions for potential improvement were listed. The design is obtained analytically at first; then visualised in 3D CAD (Computer Assisted Design) and evaluated in FEM. An analytical optimisation (Particle Swarm –PSO and Genetic Algorithms -GA) patch is available for improving the design. The tool is destined for engineers that are involved in the design of wind turbine systems. The visualisation of the design in work is important for the overall assessment of the machine concept. The tool provides facilities for reporting on a shaped design: list of geometrical and electromagnetic quantities, pictures of the machine itself (3D particular drawing); FEM (Finite Element Model) electromagnetic profile, dynamic simulation model results and characteristic curves. The structure of the design tool is modular and independent so that new machine types and geometries can be designed by reusing recombining and altering the different calculation modules. The design algorithm is transparent as logging of location and comments is used throughout the program. The purpose of this is to enable further development of the design tool by several contributors. The tool was validated by both software and laboratory tests on a prototype and by comparing results with literature reporting of similar machines.

Leban, Krisztina Monika

2014-01-01

73

Noise immission from wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

74

Noise immission from wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

NONE

1999-10-01

75

Noise immission from wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project alsoincluded a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

NONE

1999-07-01

76

Wind turbine storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled stornergy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

77

Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)

Perfiliev, D.

2013-11-01

78

Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed to extreme loads and fatigue, respectively.

SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2014-01-01

79

Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability levels and recommendation for consideration of system aspects. The uncertainties are characterized as aleatoric (physical uncertainty or epistemic (statistical, measurement and model uncertainties. Methods for uncertainty modeling consistent with methods for estimating the reliability are described. It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated.

Henrik S. Toft

2010-02-01

80

The aerodynamics of wind turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines.

SØrensen, Jens NØrkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Lightning protection of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbines are, due to their design and often their locations, prone to a relatively high incidence of lightning strikes, the earthed tower providing an extremely attractive lightning path. The damage done by a lightning strike can result in a large amount of turbine down-time and resulting loss in revenue. A Framework 4 Joule project has recently started to investigate the risk that lightning poses to wind turbines and what can be done to minimise the damage in the event of a lightning strike. This paper gives details of the project, explaining the various areas in which work will be undertaken, including earthing, personnel safety, blade protection and bearing protection. Preliminary findings of a data collection exercise are presented. The data, provided by ISET in Germany and WindStats in Denmark, has been analysed at UMIST. The results serve to further underline the need for lightning protection and also give a guide to which components of a turbine are most vulnerable to lightning damage. Initial results detailing the level of risk posed by lightning to a wind turbine are also presented. These calculations examine the worst case increase in the number of lightning strikes to a wind turbine when lightning protection is added to a set of blades on a turbine with full span pitch control. (Author)

Cotton, I.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology; Haigh, S. [AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); Hatziargyriou, N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Hancock, M.; Carter, J. [Taywood Aerolaminates (United Kingdom); Jaquemotte, P. [Tacke WindTechnik GmbH (United Kingdom)

1997-06-01

82

Diffuser augmentation of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind tunnel investigation of models of two diffuser design concepts is directed toward unconventional, very short, cost-effective configurations. One approach uses the energetic external wind to prevent separation of the diffuser's internal boundary layer. Another method used high lift airfoil contours for the diffuser wall shape. Diffuser model tests have indicated almost a doubling of wind power extraction capability for DAWTs compared to conventional turbines. Economic studies of DAWTs have used these test data and recent (1975) cost projections of wind turbines with diameter. The specific power costs ($/kW) for a realistic DAWT configuration are found to be lower than conventional wind turbines for very large size rotors, above 50 meters diameter, and for rotor diameters less than about 20 meters. The cost-to-benefit assessment for intermediate size rotors is affected by the uncertainty band of cost for these rotor sizes.

Foreman, K. M.; Gilbert, B.; Oman, R. A.

1976-01-01

83

75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge...Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge...proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps...

2010-05-25

84

Active robust control of wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

The research work conducted in this thesis focuses on robustness of wind energy conversion system with respect to faults in pitch actuator in order to prevent unnecessary emergency shutdown, and keep the turbine operational without significant inefficiency in its overall performance. The objective is to investigate the feasibility of using a fault estimator and a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system as additional sensors to design a suitable control system for wind turbines. Robust control technique is used to address these issues. Three controllers are proposed in this work that try to address sources of inaccuracy in wind turbine operation: An active fault tolerant controller is first designed using a fault estimator. It is shown that a set of locally robust controllers with respect to the fault, together with a suitable smooth mixing approach, manages to overcome the problem of faults in the pitch actuator. To address the wind-dependent behavior of turbines, a second controller is designed using the LIDAR sensor. In this configuration, LIDAR provides the look ahead wind information and generates a smooth scheduling signal to provide active robustness with respect to the changes in wind speed. Lastly, utilizing both the fault estimator and LIDAR, a 2-dimensional wind-dependent active fault tolerant controller is developed to control the wind turbine in region 3 of operation. The feasibility of the proposed ideas is verified in simulation. For this purpose, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST code is used to model the 3-balded controls advanced research turbine. A discussion on practical considerations and ideas for future work are also presented.

Rezaei, Vahid

85

Asynchronous Generators for use in Gearless Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this presentation the squirrel cage induction generator is proposed for a direct-drive wind turbine. The squirrel cage induction generator is proposed for direct drive wind turbines, because of its simple and rugged construction and because it does not require rare earth elements, which are a key element in permanent magnets and might become difficult to source affordably in the future.

Jensen, Bogi Bech Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

86

Foundations for offshore wind turbines.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

2003-12-15

87

Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators  

Science.gov (United States)

Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

1981-01-01

88

Control system on a wind turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim for this project is to prepare a wind turbine controller and a wind turbine computer model suitable for controller development. The wind turbine is a Vestas V27, and the wind turbine drive train is modified by ChapDrive with a specified hydraulic transmission. Both the pitch and the rotor speed can be regulated for the modified wind turbine. The model is primarily based on a set of given wind turbine rotor characteristics, transmission specifications and transmission test data. The co...

Varpe, Steffen Andreas

2008-01-01

89

Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbines with a nominal effect of 5MW with a rotor diameter of up to 126m are produced today. With the increasing size wind turbines also become more and more optimized with respect to structural dimensions and material usage, without increasing the stiffness proportionally. Consequently, large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind tur...

Larsen, Jesper Winther

2005-01-01

90

Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold meth...

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2008-01-01

91

Active control: Wind turbine model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

Bindner, Henrik

1999-07-01

92

Results of a wind turbine FDI competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper some newly published methods for fault detection and isolation developed for a wind turbine benchmark model are tested, compared and evaluated. These methods have been presented as a part of an international competition. The tested methods cover different types of fault detection and isolation methods, which include support vector machines, observer based methods, and auto generated methods. All of these methods show interesting potentials for usage in the wind turbine application, but all with different strong and weak sides in relation to the requirements specified in the proposed benchmark model.

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

2012-01-01

93

Wind turbines and human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40?dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

2014-01-01

94

Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters, therefore the evaluations are mainly focused on the power device thermal performances, which are closely related to the life time and cost of the converter. Simulation results of different converter cand...

Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

2011-01-01

95

Extended Kalman Filter based State Estimation of Wind Turbine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available State estimation provides the best possible approximation for the state of the system by processing the available information. In the proposed work, the state estimation technique is used for the state estimation of wind turbine. Modern wind turbines operate in a wide range of wind speeds. To enable wind turbine operation in such a variety of operating conditions, sophisticated control and estimationalgorithms are needed. The theoretical basis of Extended Kalman Filter algorithm is explained in detail and performance is tested with the simulation. A nonlinear state estimator named ExtendedKalman Filter can be used for estimating the states of wind turbine. The Extended Kalman Filter is a recursive estimator that can be decomposed into two phases such as prediction and correction performed at every time instant. The states estimated by usingExtended Kalman Filter for wind turbine application includes rotor speed of turbine, tower top displacement and its velocity.

Kavitha N

2013-11-01

96

DOE/SNL-TTU scaled wind farm technology facility : research opportunities for study of turbine-turbine interaction.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) hosted by Texas Tech University at Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, will provide a facility for experimental study of turbine-turbine interaction and complex wind farm aerodynamics. This document surveys the current status of wind turbine wake and turbine-turbine interaction research, identifying knowledge and data gaps that the proposed test site can potentially fill. A number of turbine layouts is proposed, allowing for up to ten turbines at the site.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; White, Jonathan

2011-09-01

97

Diffuser augmented wind turbine analysis code  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind Energy is becoming a significant source of energy throughout the world. This ever increasing field will potentially reach the limit of availability and practicality with the wind farm sites and size of the turbine itself. Therefore, it is necessary to develop innovative wind capturing devices that can produce energy in the locations where large conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are too impractical to install and operate. A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is one such innovation. DAWTs increase the power output of the rotor by increasing the wind speed into the rotor using a duct. Currently, developing these turbines is an involved process using time consuming Computational Fluid Dynamics codes. A simple and quick design tool is necessary for designers to develop efficient energy capturing devices. This work lays out the theory for a quick analysis tool for DAWTs using an axisymmetric surface vorticity method. This method allows for quick analysis of duct, hubs and rotors giving designers a general idea of the power output of the proposed hub, blade and duct geometry. The method would be similar to the way blade element momentum theory is used to design conventional HAWTs. It is determined that the presented method is viable for preliminary design of DAWTs.

Carroll, Jonathan

98

Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which are also used to detect and isolate these faults. The scheme is tested on a known benchmark for FDI and FTC of wind turbines. Tests on this benchmark model show a clear potential of the proposed scheme.

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

2012-01-01

99

Wind turbine noise source characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind turbine noise is a function of many parameters. Aerodynamics noise is a direct function of the rotor characteristics and wind speed, which can change rapidly with time. Mechanical noise is primarily a function of electrical power output, but the radiation of such noise is highly modified by vibration behaviour within the turbine. An experiment has been performed to isolate the behaviour of the major WTG noise sources with respect to electrical power output and wind speed. Twelve ground based microphones equispaced around the turbine gave detailed noise directionality information. Additional instrumentation was added to allow the separation of aerodynamic and mechanical noise components. Noise was found to be very well correlated to electrical power output. (author)

100

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

Science.gov (United States)

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

 
 
 
 
101

Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

2006-03-01

102

Vertical axis wind turbine foundation parameter study  

Science.gov (United States)

The foundation/anchor requirements for the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine are identified. Information is supplied concerning the selection, design, and cost estimates for the geologic conditions which may be encountered at potential wind turbine sites.

Ludde, P. F.

1980-07-01

103

Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the 1970s the oil price crisis encouraged investigation of non-petroleum energy sources of which wind energy was the most promising one. Lately global warming concerns have even intensified the demand for green and sustainable energy resources and opened up several lines of research in this area. Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context. This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure reasonable, the ratio of mass to size should be reduced. This trend results in more flexible structures. Control of the flexible structure of a wind turbine in a wind field with stochastic nature is very challenging. In this thesis we are examining a number of robust model based methods for wind turbine control. Firstly we examine potentials of -synthesis methods and use -tools to analyze robustness of the resulting controllers both in terms of robust stability and robust performance. Afterwards we employ model predictive control (MPC) and show that the way MPC solves control problems suits wind turbine control problems very well, especially when we have preview measurements of wind speed using LIDARs. For the control problem with LIDAR measurements we have proposed a new MPC approach which gives better results than linear MPC while it has almost the same computational complexity. We have also tackled wind turbine control using robust MPC. In general, robust MPC problems are very computationally demanding, however we have shown that with some approximations the resulting robust MPC problem can be specialized with reduced computational complexity. After a short introduction on wind energy and wind turbines in chapter 1, we briefly explain wind turbine modeling in chapter 2. Introductions to different control design methods are given in chapter 3. The goal of this chapter is to show how different control methods are chosen. The next eight chapters comprise the body of the thesis and are scientific papers that are published or going to be published. Control methods which were briefly introduced in chapter 3 are explained in these chapters in details.

Mirzaei, Mahmood

2012-01-01

104

Bayesian network for wind turbine fault diagnosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbine reliability studies have become more important because good wind turbine reliability with predictable turbine maintenance schedule will reduce the cost of energy and determine the success of a wind farm project. Previous research on wind turbine SCADA system has made progress in this respect. However, SCADA data volume is usually too huge and alarm information is too unclear to indicate failure root causes. In addition, SCADA signals and alarms are not currently interpreted as a ...

Chen, Bindi; Tavner, P. J.; Feng, Y.; Song, W. W.; Qiu, Y. N.

2012-01-01

105

Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and sof...

Shoubin Wang; Wei Gong; Gang Su; Hongyue Sun

2013-01-01

106

Predicting Faults in Wind Turbines Using SCADA Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cost of operation and maintenance of wind turbines is a significant part of the overall cost of wind turbines. To reduce this cost a method for enabling early fault detection is proposed and tested in this paper. The method is taking advantage of the fact that wind turbines in wind farms are located near similar wind turbines. This is done by generating a model for each turbine, the model is then used to evaluate the performance of that turbine and the nearby turbines. The evaluations from the models are then combined and used as votes to identify the faulty turbines. The method is applied and tested on historical Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from nine operational turbines over a testing period of nine months. The performance of the fault detection is found to be acceptable based on the testing period. During the testing period several gear related services were performed, some of these were predicted by the proposed fault detection systems. The advantage of the purposed method isthat it applicable for operational turbines without requiring any extra measurements, since the used SCADA data is available from most modern wind turbines.

Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

2013-01-01

107

Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Control of Wind Turbine Emulator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a Wind Turbine Emulator (WTE) based on a separately excited direct current (DC) motor is studied. The wind turbine was emulated by controlling the torque of the DC motor. The WTE is used as a prime mover for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM). In order to extract maximum power from the wind, PI and Fuzzy controllers were tested. Simulation results are given to show performance of proposed fuzzy control system in maximum power points tracking in a wind energy convers...

Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Zine, Souhila; Allaoui, Tayeb

2014-01-01

108

Hywind floating wind turbine project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hywind floating wind turbine concept was developed by StatoilHydro. Technip was awarded the contract for engineering, fabrication and installation of a demonstration unit in May 2008 and the completed wind turbine was installed mid June 2009 at the west coast of Norway on 220 m water depth. The demonstration unit will generate 2,3 MW and is equipped with instrumentation for monitoring mooring forces, strains and motions. The fabrication of the SPAR type steel substructure was performed at Technip Offshore Finland facilities in Pori and was towed horizontally from Finland to Norway, where it was upended to a vertical position by water filling. The completed floating wind turbine was towed vertically to the final location west of Karmoey and connected to the pre-installed three legged anchor system using an Anchor Handling Tug type vessel. The wind turbine test period is scheduled to start in September 2009. Statoil will monitor the performance of the system for two years before decision will be taken for further development. The paper will present the main challenges and lessons learned through design, fabrication and installation of this first of its kind structure. Main emphasis will be on the special challenges experienced for this floating, catenary moored, slender unit which is highly exposed for wind induced forces in addition to current and waves in hostile North Sea environments. (Author)

Crome, Tim

2010-07-01

109

The noise generated by wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sound propagation damps down with distance and varies according to different parameters like wind direction and temperature. This article begins by recalling the basic physics of sound wave propagation and gives a list of common noises and corresponding decibels. The habitual noise of wind turbines 500 m away is 35 decibels which ranks it between a quiet bedroom (30 decibels) and a calm office (40 decibels). The question about whether wind turbines are a noise nuisance is all the more difficult as the feeling of a nuisance is so objective and personal. Any project of wind turbines requires a thorough study of its estimated acoustic impact. This study is a 3 step approach: first the initial noise environment is measured, secondly the propagation of the sound generated by the wind turbine farm is modelled and adequate mitigation measures are proposed to comply the law. The law stipulates that the increase of noise must be less than 5 db during daylight and less than 3 db during night. (A.C.)

110

Dynamic modeling and simulation of wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using wind energy for generating electricity in wind turbines is a good way for using renewable energies. It can also help to protect the environment. The main objective of this paper is dynamic modeling by energy method and simulation of a wind turbine aided by computer. In this paper, the equations of motion are extracted for simulating the system of wind turbine and then the behavior of the system become obvious by solving the equations. The turbine is considered with three blade rotor in wind direction, induced generator that is connected to the network and constant revolution for simulation of wind turbine. Every part of the wind turbine should be simulated for simulation of wind turbine. The main parts are blades, gearbox, shafts and generator

111

New guidelines for wind turbine gearboxes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American Gear Manufacturers Association in cooperation with the American Wind Energy Association will soon be publishing AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 {open_quotes}Recommended Practices for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for Wind Turbine Generator Systems.{close_quotes} Much has been learned about the unique operation and loading of gearboxes in wind turbine applications since the burgeoning of the modern wind turbine industry in the early 1980`s. AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 documents this experience in a manner that provides valuable information to assist gear manufacturers and wind turbine designers, operators, and manufacturers in developing reliable wind turbine gearboxes. The document provides information on procurement specification development, wind turbine architecture, environmental considerations, and gearbox load determination, as well as the design, manufacturing, quality assurance, lubrication, operation and maintenance of wind turbine gearboxes. This paper presents the salient parts of the practices recommended in AGMA/AWEA 921-A97.

McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States); Errichello, R. [GEARTECH, Townsend, MT (United States)

1997-12-31

112

Integrated installation for offshore wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project to investigate the feasibility of integrating the offshore installation of foundation, turbine and tower for offshore wind turbines into one operation is described. Three separate objectives are listed. They are: (1) Telescopic tower study - reversible process incorporating lift and lock mechanisms; (2) Transportation study - technical and economic feasibility of transporting and installing a wind turbine unit via a standard barge with minimal conversion and (3) Self-burial system study - to demonstrate the feasibility of self burial of a slab foundation via controlled jetting beneath the slab. The background to the study and the proposed concepts are discussed. The work carried out to date and the costs are reported together with the findings. Recommendations for future work are listed. The work was carried out by Corus UK Ltd and is managed by Future Energy Solutions for the DTI.

Way, J.; Bowerman, H.

2003-07-01

113

Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi-megawatt wind turbines targeted for secondary wind turbine markets.

Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

114

Mechanical noise from wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Community annoyance due to noise from wind turbines is often the result of noise character rather than level. Although the overall contributions from each of the two main classes of noise source, namely aerodynamic and mechanical, are often of a similar order for an untreated turbine, it is usually the mechanical sources which provide the dominant noise characteristics that may lead to annoyance. In this paper, the sources of mechanical noise are identified primarily with reference to horizontal axis wind turbines and then attention is concentrated on the rotor-shaft step-up gearbox, which is normally the top-ranking source. The major gearbox noise mechanisms and transmission paths are discussed and reference made to Noise Specifications and procedures applicable to the gearbox prior to its installation. The reduction of machinery noise is reviewed both at source and by treatment of transmission paths. (author)

115

Wind Turbine Siting: Wildlife Concerns  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document on wildlife concerns in relation to the siting of wind turbines. The material includes individual student activities and a list of web resources intended to help teachers. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Everhart, Roger; Lawton, Wendy

2012-11-21

116

Small-Scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis focuses on the design of a small vertical axis wind turbine rotor with solid wood as a construction material. The aerodynamic analysis is performed implementing a momentum based model on a mathematical computer program. A three bladed wind turbine is proposed as candidate for further prototype testing after evaluating the effect of several parameters in turbine efficiency, torque and acceleration. The results obtained indicate that wood is a suitable material for rotor cons...

Castillo Tudela, Javier

2011-01-01

117

Risk of collision between service vessels and offshore wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Offshore wind farms are growing in size and are situated farther and farther away from shore. The demand for service visits to transfer personnel and equipment to the wind turbines is increasing, and safe operation of the vessels is essential. Currently, collisions between service vessels and offshore wind turbines are paid little attention to in the offshore wind energy industry. This paper proposes a risk assessment framework for such collisions and investigates the magnitude of the collision risk and important risk-influencing factors. The paper concludes that collisions between turbines and service vessels even at low speed may cause structural damage to the turbines. There is a need for improved consideration of this kind of collision risk when designing offshore wind turbines and wind farms.

118

Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

Shoubin Wang

2013-04-01

119

Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

120

Modelling and control of large wind turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to make the wind energy an economical alternative for energy production, upscaling of turbine to 10 - 15MW may be necessary to reduce the overall cost of energy production. This production target requires a considerable increase in the turbine size and placing the turbines at high wind speed locations. But increase in turbine size also increases the uneven load distribution across the turbine structure. Therefore an efficient load reduction technique is necessary to increase the turb...

Zafar, Syed Hammad

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. Cost of energy (COE) is a key project evaluation metric, both in commercial applications and in the U.S. federal wind energy program. To reflect this commercial reality, the wind energy research community has adopted COE as a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The COE metric accounts for the effects of reliability through levelized replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. However, unlike the other cost contributors, such as initial capital investment and scheduled maintenance and operating expenses, costs associated with component failures are necessarily speculative. They are based on assumptions about the reliability of components that in many cases have not been operated for a complete life cycle. Due to the logistical and practical difficulty of replacing major components in a wind turbine, unanticipated failures (especially serial failures) can have a large impact on the economics of a project. The uncertainty associated with long-term component reliability has direct bearing on the confidence level associated with COE projections. In addition, wind turbine technology is evolving. New materials and designs are being incorporated in contemporary wind turbines with the ultimate goal of reducing weight, controlling loads, and improving energy capture. While the goal of these innovations is reduction in the COE, there is a potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

2004-11-01

122

RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake effects in wind farms and also the reliability level which is typically significantly lower than for oil & gas installations. An illustrative example is presented.

Ramírez, José G. Rangel; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2009-01-01

123

The stiffness tailoring of megawatt wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind power has developed rapidly in recently years, the wind turbine's blades determine the performance of the device and the power. In this paper, we used integrated tailoring aimed at institutional characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbine with the composite laminated plate theory, then analyzed the composite blades of wind turbine by combining experimental analysis and finite elements method, and finally studied the influences that composite material properties on stiffness tailoring with changes in the number of different layers.

Li, Z. M.; Li, C.; Ye, Z.; Wu, P.; Lu, Y. F.

2013-12-01

124

Multiobjective Optimization of a Passive Wind Turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms have been applied to the design of a small passive Wind Turbine Generator (WTG). Results show that the optimized configurations of the full passive wind turbine are able to match very closely the behaviour of active wind turbine operating at optimal wind powers by using a MPPT control device. Four simulation models with different granularity and accuracy have been developed: an instantaneous global model for the system analysis and three simpl...

Abdelli, Abdenour

2007-01-01

125

Chapter 14: Wind Turbine Control Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by gravity, stochastic wind disturbances, and gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional turbulent wind inflow field that drives fatigue loading. Wind turbine modeling is also complex and challenging. Accurate models must contain many degrees of freedom (DOF) to capture the most important dynamic effects. The rotation of the rotor adds complexity to the dynamics modeling. Designs of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for these complexities. Algorithms must capture the most important turbine dynamics without being too complex and unwieldy. Off-the-shelf commercial soft ware is seldom adequate for wind turbine dynamics modeling. Instead, specialized dynamic simulation codes are usually required to model all the important nonlinear effects. As illustrated in Figure 14-1, a wind turbine control system consists of sensors, actuators and a system that ties these elements together. A hardware or software system processes input signals from the sensors and generates output signals for actuators. The main goal of the controller is to modify the operating states of the turbine to maintain safe turbine operation, maximize power, mitigate damaging fatigue loads, and detect fault conditions. A supervisory control system starts and stops the machine, yaws the turbine when there is a significant yaw misalignment, detects fault conditions, and performs emergency shut-downs. Other parts of the controller are intended to maximize power and reduce loads during normal turbine operation.

Wright, A. D.

2009-01-01

126

Fault ride through and voltage regulation for grid connected wind turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High penetration of wind generation challenges wind turbine operators to supply reliable power and extract optimum power from the wind. Hence, the fault ride through (FRT) capability of wind turbine together with the optimum power tracking and regulation of wind turbine output voltage due to fluctuating nature of the wind becomes essential. In this paper, a method is proposed to ensure that the double fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine continues to operate during severe grid faults and maintains a constant output voltage, irrespective of the fluctuating wind. The proposed controller also allows the DFIG wind turbine to track optimum power from the wind. Extensive simulation is performed using PSCAD/EMTDC software and results obtained show that the DFIG output voltage fulfills the grid code requirements. The results also show that the proposed method is able to track the optimum power, regulate the DFIG output voltage and perform fault ride through of wind turbine. (author)

Kyaw, Min Min; Ramachandaramurthy, V.K. [Power Quality Research Group, Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 43009 Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-01-15

127

New wind turbines of high profitability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To generate more quantities of electric energy from wind it is necessary to use the new type of wind turbine built in regulable mantle's nozzle, which the free air stream of wind replaces in programmed i.e. regulated and partially concentrated. In this way their efficiency is multiplied. New turbines are getting more power (P = f(v3)) from cube of higher speeds from weaker and medium winds. Short economic analysis evidently indicates that profit achieved by new wind turbines is 5 (five) times higher than that by conventional turbines. (author)

128

Cooperative investment in wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fiscal options to invest in wind turbines are available in the Netherlands for enterprises: the EIA (energy investment deduction) and the VAMIL (random debit of environmental investments). Non-profit organizations (in this case, e.g. private persons, foundations, associations) can make use of the subsidy EINP (energy supply in non-profit and other special sectors). Attention is paid to the use of the fore-mentioned legal forms, while there are other, more advantageous forms, that can be used to start a cooperative to set up a wind farm

129

Implementation of wind turbine controllers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three of the important, generic, implementation issues encountered when developing controllers for pitch-regulated constant-speed wind turbines are considered, namely, (1) accommodation of the strongly nonlinear rotor aerodynamics; (2) automatic controller start-up/shut-down; and (3) accommodation of velocity and acceleration constraints within the actuator. Both direct linearisation and feedback linearisation methods for accommodating the nonlinear aerodynamics are investigated a...

Leith, D. J.; Leithead, W. E.

1997-01-01

130

Motion of floating wind turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motion of floating wind turbines has been studied. A literature study on different concepts and what tools are available for simulating them is presented. Marintek’s simulation software SIMO is used for time simulations. In the calculations, the hydrodynamic forces, mooring line forces and aerodynamic forces from the tower and rotor are taken into account. In addition a pitch control algorithm is used for the rotor blades. Results are compared to available experimental results from mo...

Linde, Børge

2010-01-01

131

Probabilistic fatigue methodology and wind turbine reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbines subjected to highly irregular loadings due to wind, gravity, and gyroscopic effects are especially vulnerable to fatigue damage. The objective of this study is to develop and illustrate methods for the probabilistic analysis and design of fatigue-sensitive wind turbine components. A computer program (CYCLES) that estimates fatigue reliability of structural and mechanical components has been developed. A FORM/SORM analysis is used to compute failure probabilities and importance factors of the random variables. The limit state equation includes uncertainty in environmental loading, gross structural response, and local fatigue properties. Several techniques are shown to better study fatigue loads data. Common one-parameter models, such as the Rayleigh and exponential models are shown to produce dramatically different estimates of load distributions and fatigue damage. Improved fits may be achieved with the two-parameter Weibull model. High b values require better modeling of relatively large stress ranges; this is effectively done by matching at least two moments (Weibull) and better by matching still higher moments. For this purpose, a new, four-moment {open_quotes}generalized Weibull{close_quotes} model is introduced. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methodology for design against fatigue is proposed and demonstrated using data from two horizontal-axis wind turbines. To estimate fatigue damage, wind turbine blade loads have been represented by their first three statistical moments across a range of wind conditions. Based on the moments {mu}{sub 1}{hor_ellipsis}{mu}{sub 3}, new {open_quotes}quadratic Weibull{close_quotes} load distribution models are introduced. The fatigue reliability is found to be notably affected by the choice of load distribution model.

Lange, C.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

132

Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

Huskey, A.

2011-11-01

133

Wind Turbine Noise Modelling Based on Amiet's Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Broadband noise generated aerodynamically is the dominant noise source for a modern wind turbine(Brooks et al, 1989; Oerlemans et al, 2007). In this paper, two main broadband noise mechanisms, namely trailing edge noise and turbulent inflow noise, are examined in detail using frequency domain noise prediction models based on Amiet's analytical theory. Improvements are proposed to adapt the original model to wind turbines . First, a wall pressure spectral model proposed recently by Rozenberg, ...

Tian, Yuan; Cotte, Benjamin; Chaigne, Antoine

2013-01-01

134

Numerical Simulations of Wakes of Wind Turbines in Wind Farms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wakes of both a stand-alone wind turbine and 3 wind turbines placed in a row is analysed using a numerical method where a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver is combined with an actuator line technique. The computations on the single turbine indicate the appearance of low frequency fluctuations of the wake similar to what is observed behind a disc. Furthermore, the computations on a row of turbines demonstrate that downstream turbines might experience the distinct tip vortices formed in the wake of upstream turbines. Results also show that placing the turbines too closely can significantly reduce the produced power.

Troldborg, Niels; SØrensen, Jens NØrkær

2006-01-01

135

Constant Power Control Of 15 DFIG Wind Turbines With Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the increasing penetration of wind power into electric power grids, energy storage devices will be required to dynamically match the intermittency of wind energy. This paper proposes a novel two-layer constant power control scheme for a wind farm equipped with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines. Each DFIG wind turbine is equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage system (ESS) and is controlled by the low-layer wind turbine generator (WTG) controllers and coo...

V Krishnamurthy, Ch Rajesh Kumar

2013-01-01

136

Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations during continuous operation due to wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects. This paper presents an individual pitch control (IPC) strategy to mitigate the wind turbine power fluctuation at both above and below the rated wind speed conditions. Three pitch angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The IPC strategy scheme is proposed and the...

Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

2012-01-01

137

Development of superconducting wind turbine generators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors; and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are, however, not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down to somewhere between 4 K and 50 K, depending on what type of superconductor is employed, which poses a significant challenge both from a construction and operation point of view. The high temperature superconductors can facilitate a higher operation temperature and simplified cooling, but the current price and production volumes prohibit a large scale impact on the wind sector. The low temperature superconductors are readily available, but will need more sophisticated cooling. Eventually the Cost of Energy from superconducting wind turbines, with particular emphasis on reliability, will determine if they become feasible or not and for such investigations large-scale demonstrations will be needed. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

2013-01-01

138

Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors (LTS); one is based on high temperature superconductors (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down to somewhere between 4K and 50K, depending on what type of superconductor is employed, which poses a significant challenge both from a construction and operation point of view. The high temperature superconductors can facilitate a higher operation temperature and simplified cooling, but the current price and production volumes prohibit a large scale impact on the wind sector. The low temperature superconductors are readily available, but will need more sophisticated cooling. Eventually the CoE from superconducting wind turbines, with particular emphasis on reliability, will determine if they become feasible or not and for such investigations large-scale demonstrations will be needed.

Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

2012-01-01

139

Optimization of wind turbine rotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest of the parameters are optimized. The model requires modest computer resources, and seems to be well suited for use as an industrial design tool. (author)

Nygaard, Tor Anders

1999-07-01

140

Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main failure modes of modern large wind turbines are fatigue failure of wings, hub, shaft and main tower, local buckling of main tower, and failure of the foundation. This paper considers reliability-based optimal design of wind turbines. Compared to onshore wind turbines and building structures, humans spent little time in the vicinity of offshore wind turbines and the probability of human injury during storm conditions is small. Further environmental pollution will also in general be small in case of failure. One could therefore argue that the reliability level of offshore wind turbines can be lower than for onshore wind turbines and other civil engineering structures and can be assessed by reliability-based cost-optimization. Specifically this paper considers the main tower and foundation. Both fatigue and ultimate strength failure modes are included. Different formulations of the objective function are considered.

SØrensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turb...

Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca D.; Poul Sørensen; Hatziargyriou, Nikolaos D.

2010-01-01

142

Aerodynamic Electrical Energy: Wind Turbine Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renewable resources such as wind, solar, and water, are important in energy production. This project was to design a wind turbine electricity generation system and gain an understanding of the engineering involved in producing electricity from the wind. Having observed the wind patterns on the campus of Utah State University, it was decided to obtain both a horizontal axis (HAWT) and a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and mount them on the roof of the USU Dean F. Peterson, Jr. Engineering La...

Nielson, Andrew; Marchant, Scott; Baker, Doran; Engh, Michael; Kang, Alvin; Estrada, Gustavo; Graham, Brandon; Johnson, Jason; Nieveen, Jacob

2012-01-01

143

Report on the safety of wind turbines installations; Rapport sur la securite des installations eoliennes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report aims to study the regulatory framework governing the safety of wind turbines and proposes improvement actions. It concerns the wind turbines risk assessment, the technical bases of the wind turbines safety, the regulation relative to the safety and possible evolutions. (A.L.B.)

Guillet, R.; Leteurtrois, J.P.

2004-07-01

144

Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

2012-06-15

145

On System Identification of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used. In the case of black-box identification no "physical" model structure is assumed and a large number of parameters have to be defined by the identification techniques. For the identified black-box models, it is difficult to perform model analysis since the internal states are not known to the user. The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey-box identification method can be used. This paper reviews proposed system identification methods and the durability and the limitations of the different methods are outlined.

Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena

146

Electromagnetic Interference on Large Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can both affect and be transmitted by mega-watt wind turbines. This paper provides a general overview on EMI with respect to mega-watt wind turbines. Possibilities of measuring all types of electromagnetic interference are shown. Electromagnetic fields resulting from a GSM transmitter mounted on a mega-watt wind turbine will be analyzed in detail. This cellular system operates as a real-time communication link. The method-of-moments is used to analytically d...

Florian Krug; Bastian Lewke

2009-01-01

147

Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

2005-10-01

148

Influence of refraction on wind turbine noise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A semi-empirical method is applied to calculate the time-average sound level of wind turbine noise generation and propagation. Both are affected by wind shear refraction. Under upwind conditions the partially ensonified zone separates the fully ensonified zone (close to the turbine) and the shadow zone (far away from the turbine). Refraction is described in terms of the wind speed linear profile fitted to the power law profile. The rotating blades are treated as a two-dimens...

Makarewicz, Rufin

2013-01-01

149

Experimental Research for MW Wind Turbine Blade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was get acquiring dependable results of MW wind turbine blade performance at work condition to design new-style blade. Most of the research study on structural analysis of wind turbine blade by make model test and use the finite element, but there were certain differences from real MW wind turbine blade. Therefore full-scale experiments were employed in the research, the strains, stresses and displacements of all parts were gained. The test results shown that...

He Bin; Song Lin-Hui; Fu Jie, .; Fan Qin-Shan

2013-01-01

150

Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines are controlled by pitching the blades and by controlling the electro-magnetic torque of the generator, thus slowing the rotation of the blades. Improved control of wind turbines, leadin...

Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

2010-01-01

151

RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone det...

Rami?rez, Jose? G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2009-01-01

152

Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Control of Wind Turbine Emulator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a Wind Turbine Emulator (WTE based on a separately excited direct current (DC motor is studied. The wind turbine was emulated by controlling the torque of the DC motor. The WTE is used as a prime mover for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM. In order to extract maximum power from the wind, PI and Fuzzy controllers were tested. Simulation results are given to show performance of proposed fuzzy control system in maximum power points tracking in a wind energy conversion system under various wind conditions. The strategy control was implemented in simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.

BOUZID Mohamed Amine

2014-03-01

153

Grid support capabilities of wind turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wind power has gained a significant penetration level in several power systems all over the world. Due to this reason modern wind turbines are requested to contribute to power system support. Power system operators have thus introduced grid codes, which specify a set of requirements for wind turbines, such as fault ride-through and reactive power supply during voltage sags. To date different wind turbine concepts exist on the market comprising different control features in order to provide ancillary services to the power system. In the first place the present chapter emphasizes the most important issues related to wind power grid integration. Then different wind turbine concepts are characterized and their grid support capabilities are analysed and compared. Simulation cases are presented in which the respective wind turbine concepts are subjected to a voltage dip specified in a grid code.

Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

2013-01-01

154

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

155

Design loads for offshore wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The offshore environment is very reasonably viewed as a tough challenge to wind energy technology. The added difficulties in establishing foundations for wind turbines and providing electrical transmission to shore contributed to an early view of offshore wind as inevitably much more expensive than land based projects. This view has been modified in recent years by the appreciation that offshore sites often offer higher mean wind speeds, lower wind shear and turbulence, and reduced extreme wind gusts as compared to onshore sites. This paper examines further stages in optimising offshore technology for improved overall cost benefit taking into consideration the scope for higher speed designs as a basis for wind turbine cost reduction, the benefits of variable speed and the implications of reduced offshore wind turbulence levels and trends in offshore wind farm infrastructure. The combination of more advanced turbine design and benefits in the offshore wind regime are shown to lead to improved economics for offshore wind energy developments. (orig.)

Camp, T.R.; Bossanyi, E.A.; Quarton, D.C. [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd., Folleigh Lane, Long Ashton, Bristol (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

156

Wind profiles for large wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12MW project aimed to describe wind profiles and turbulence at levels high in the atmosphere where large wind turbines operate. During the project observations up to 180 m above sea level were collected using mast and lidar offshore in the North Sea at the Horns Rev wind farm in 2006. Later also land-based observations were collected at the coastal station Høvsøre at the North Sea coast of Jutland, Denmark. The most recent observations include wind profiles up to 300 m above ground. In addition, ceilometers observations were collected. Based on the observations results have been obtained and published. Some of the interesting findings are that the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) often is rather shallow, and as the logarithmic wind profile is only valid in the lower 10% of the PBL, other scaling parameters than roughness is needed. It has been shown that the height of the PBL is an important scaling parameter. Other results include variations in the wind profile as a function of stability, and in particular, for stable stratification the results deviate much from the simple profile equation. The observations and the new profile equations and the results will be presented. Part of the work in the 12MW project has been to compare mast observations to lidar observations, and the results are good indeed. This has given a basis to merge the observations into profiles using mast data at the lower levels and lidar data at the higher levels, thus extending the wind profiles up to high levels in the atmosphere.

Hasager, C. B.; Peña, A.; Gryning, S.-E.; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.

2009-04-01

157

Background sound levels and wind turbine noise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviewed the regulators' approach to the challenge of establishing sound level limits in wind turbine arrays that allow for variations in background sound level with wind speed. Wind speed influences the amount of noise produced by wind turbines and also the noise associated with wind passing over terrain and through foliage. New guidelines by Ontario's Ministry of the Environment were discussed along with wind noise as a function of speed in remote locations having a variety of terrain and foliage types. It was concluded that wind induced noise can effectively mask the steady noise of wind turbine generators, especially during high wind conditions. The extent of wind induced noise depends on the local terrain, foliage and wind speed through vegetation. Masking wind turbine noise by wind induced noise in vegetation can be reduced during stable atmospheric conditions which are common at night. The extent of masking by wind induced noise depends on the level and characteristics of wind turbine noise and wind induced noise. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

158

Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed.

Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering

2003-08-01

159

Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.d on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed

160

Spatial planning of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

NONE

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Mechanical noise from wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Community annoyance due to noise from wind turbines is often the result of noise character rather than level. Although the overall contributions from each of the two main classes of noise source, namely aerodynamic and mechanical, are often of a similar order for an untreated turbine, it is usually the mechanical sources which provide the dominant noise characteristics that may lead to annoyance. In this paper, the sources of mechanical noise are identified primarily with reference to HAWTs and then attention is concentrated on the rotor-shaft step-up gearbox, which is normally the top-ranking source. The major gearbox noise mechanisms and transmission paths are discussed and reference made to Noise Specifications and procedures applicable to the gearbox prior to its installation. The reduction of machinery noise is reviewed both at source and by treatment of transmission paths. (author)

162

Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To analyse the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors, the main tool in use today is the 1D-Blade Element Momentum (BEM) technique combined with 2D airfoil data. Because of its simplicity, the BEM technique is employed by industry when designing new wind turbine blades. However, in order to obtain more detailed information of the flow structures and to determine more accurately loads and power yield of wind turbines or cluster of wind turbines, it is required to resort to more sophisticated techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). As computer resources keep on improving year by year (about ten times every five years from statistics over the last twenty years), CFD has now become a popular tool for studying the aerodynamics of wind turbines. The present thesis consists of 19 selected papers dealing with the development and use of CFD methods for studying the aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according tothe list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind turbines. The main objective of the research was to develop new computational tools and techniques for analysing flows about wind turbines. A few papers deal with applications of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to wind turbines. In most cases the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier-Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code, which originally was developed in a cooperation between DTU (Michelsen, 1992) and Risø (Sørensen, 1995). In [6] – [8] different actuator disc techniques combined with CFD are presented. This includes actuator disc, actuator line and actuator surface techniques, which were developed to simulate flows past one or more wind turbines. In [9] and [10] a tip loss correction method that improves the conventional models was developed for use in combination with BEM or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the ability of controlling and minimising noise emission may be advantageous when competing on the world energy market. To predict generation and propagation of aerodynamic noise, it is required to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. As the scales of the flow and the acoustic waves are quite different (about 1/M, M=Mach number=U/c), it is difficult to resolve them together at the same time. Hardin and Pope proposed a non-linear two-step (viscous incompressible flow and inviscid acoustic perturbation) splitting procedure for computational aero-acoustics that is suitable for both generation and propagation. The advantage of the splitting approach, as compared to the acoustic analogies, is that the source strength is obtained directly and that it account

Shen, Wen Zhong

2009-01-01

163

Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

Ayman B. Attya

2014-08-01

164

Implementation of Pitch Control Of wind Turbine Using Simulink (Matlab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown that how the variable speed wind turbine can be used to generate a fixed value of voltage at the output with the help of a pi controller and it is done by varying the pitch angle of the blades Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. The block diagram of the proposed speed control system which consists of speed controller, actuator model and the turbine linearized model is simulated by Matlab-Simulink software package. the simulation results show that the controller accurately adjusts the blade pitch angle to set the wind turbine power output to its reference value.

Sachin Khajuria, Jaspreet Kaur

2012-06-01

165

Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

2005-09-01

166

Noise measurements around the Nibe (Denmark) wind turbines and the Windane 31 wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

Noise around the two 640 kW wind turbines, and a 300 kW wind turbine at various distances and wind velocities was measured. The results are stated partly as the energy equivalent, A-weighted sound pressure level as a function of the wind velocity, partly as frequency analyses based on tape recordings of the A-weighted sound pressure level. A subjective evaluation of the noise emission from the wind turbines is given.

Kristensen, J.

167

Aeroacoustic (noise) measurements on wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents aeroacoustic measurement on wind turbines. The Waterloo wind energy research group focused on wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. They conducted small-scale experiments on airfoils, and large-scale experiments on turbines. The motivation came from the concern over wind turbine sound emissions. The aim was to design, fabricate, calibrate and test low-cost microphone arrays for wind turbine noise applications. Background information on areas such as sound, beam forming, wind turbine and airfoil noise is given. Two types of microphone are generally used, condenser or electret. The experimental setup for data acquisition on a large-scale array monopole source is given. Results at 333m and 5kHz are shown. A large-scale array wind turbine of 600W was also evaluated. The results are given. From these results it was concluded that LSA correctly located and isolated multiple sources; measurements of 600W wind turbine at 5.5 m/s wind speed show substantial evidence of trailing edge noise. The paper concludes with recommendations for future work.

Johnson, David; Bale, Adam [University of Waterloo (Canada)

2011-07-01

168

Lidars and wind turbine control. Pt. 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years lidar technology found its way into wind energy. The main application is still the site assessment, but the possibility to optimize the energy production and reduce the loads by nacelle or spinner based lidar systems is becoming an important issue. In terms of control the inflowing wind field is the main disturbance to the wind turbine and most of the wind turbine control is designed to deal with variations in this disturbance. From control theory, the control performance can ...

Schlipf, David

2013-01-01

169

Fuzzy regulator design for wind turbine yaw control.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes the development of an advanced fuzzy logic controller which aims to perform intelligent automatic control of the yaw movement of wind turbines. The specific fuzzy controller takes into account both the wind velocity and the acceptable yaw error correlation in order to achieve maximum performance efficacy. In this way, the proposed yaw control system is remarkably adaptive to the existing conditions. In this way, the wind turbine is enabled to retain its power output close to its nominal value and at the same time preserve its yaw system from pointless movement. Thorough simulation tests evaluate the proposed system effectiveness. PMID:24693237

Theodoropoulos, Stefanos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria; Koulouras, Grigorios

2014-01-01

170

Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics  

CERN Document Server

"Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

Hau, Erich

2013-01-01

171

OUT Success Stories: Wind Turbine Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost-shared projects with the U.S. Department of Energy and the wind industry have produced new, commercially available turbines that generate power at low costs. Advanced wind turbine technologies will be instrumental for the United States and other countries in meeting their commitments to reduce greenhouse gases

172

Design evolution of large wind turbine generators  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

Spera, D. A.

1979-01-01

173

Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters, therefore the evaluations are mainly focused on the power device thermal performances, which are closely related to the life time and cost of the converter. Simulation results of different converter candidates regarding the loss and junction temperature are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the three-level and five-level H-bridge converter topologies both have potential to achieve improved thermal performances compared to the three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped converter topology in the wind power application.

Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

2011-01-01

174

Virtual inertia for variable speed wind turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Inertia provision for frequency control is among the ancillary services that different national grid codes will likely require to be provided by future wind turbines. The aim of this paper is analysing how the inertia response support from a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) to the primary frequency control of a power system can be enhanced. Unlike fixed speed wind turbines, VSWTs do not inherently contribute to system inertia, as they are decoupled from the power system through electronic converters. Emphasis in this paper is on how to emulate VSWTs inertia using control of the power electronic converter and on its impact on the primary frequency response of a power system. An additional control for the power electronics is implemented to give VSWTs a virtual inertia, referring to the kinetic energy stored in the rotating masses, which can be released initially to support the system’s inertia. A simple Matlab/Simulink model and control of a VSWT and of a generic power system are developed to analyse the primary frequency response following different generation losses in a system comprising VSWTs provided with virtual inertia. The possibility of substituting a 50% share of conventional power with wind is also assessed and investigated. The intrinsic problems related to the implementation of virtual inertia are illustrated, addressing their origin in the action of pitch and power control. A solution is proposed, which aims at obtaining the same response as for the system with only conventional generation. The range of wind speeds near the power limitation zone seems to be the most critical from a primary response point of view. The theoretical reasons behind this are elucidated in the paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zeni, Lorenzo; Rudolph, Andreas Jakob

2013-01-01

175

An experimental investigation of wind turbine wakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study the wake behind a scaled; Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) has been investigated. The experiments were performed at the Department of Energy and Process Engineering, at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU. The turbine was installed in the wind tunnel at the department and measurements were performed at several distances behind the turbine to examine the development of the flow. A five-hole pitot probe was applied as measurement instrument. The inst...

Blomhoff, Hedda Paulsen

2012-01-01

176

Discord amongst the wind turbine buyers with regard to Dutch wind turbine manufacturers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Netherlands two medium-large manufacturers of wind turbines exist: NedWind (Hollandia Kloos) and Windmaster Nederland (Begemann Groep). Also Lagerwey, which constructs wind turbines for the private market (farmers, cooperatives), is important for the Dutch market and successfull in Germany. There is a tendency amongst the Dutch energy utilities, which cooperate in the foundation WindPlan, to buy wind turbines from foreign manufacturers. Some energy utilities want to take advantage of the most attractive offers, while others want to cooperate in building up a Dutch wind turbine industry. 5 ills

177

Superconductivity for Large Scale Wind Turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conceptual design has been completed for a 10MW superconducting direct drive wind turbine generator employing low temperature superconductors for the field winding. Key technology building blocks from the GE Wind and GE Healthcare businesses have been transferred across to the design of this concept machine. Wherever possible, conventional technology and production techniques have been used in order to support the case for commercialization of such a machine. Appendices A and B provide further details of the layout of the machine and the complete specification table for the concept design. Phase 1 of the program has allowed us to understand the trade-offs between the various sub-systems of such a generator and its integration with a wind turbine. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) analysis have been completed resulting in the identification of high risk components within the design. The design has been analyzed from a commercial and economic point of view and Cost of Energy (COE) calculations have been carried out with the potential to reduce COE by up to 18% when compared with a permanent magnet direct drive 5MW baseline machine, resulting in a potential COE of 0.075 $/kWh. Finally, a top-level commercialization plan has been proposed to enable this technology to be transitioned to full volume production. The main body of this report will present the design processes employed and the main findings and conclusions.

R. Fair; W. Stautner; M. Douglass; R. Rajput-Ghoshal; M. Moscinski; P. Riley; D. Wagner; J. Kim; S. Hou; F. Lopez; K. Haran; J. Bray; T. Laskaris; J. Rochford; R. Duckworth

2012-10-12

178

Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

179

Intermittent fingerprints in wind-turbine interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that the turbulent wind observed at an offshore wind farm is non-Gaussian through analysis of velocity increments, extended self-similarity and intermittency in the energy flux. We then modify Gaussian turbulence using multi-fractal fields and reproduce most of the observed non-Gaussianity. By using cubed velocities as a simplistic wind-turbine interaction model, we demonstrate how the turbulence intensity, integral length, and the intermittency seen in non-Gaussian turbulence make fingerprints on the turbine power. These fingerprints are to some extend verified by comparing measured power with simulated power using a wind-turbine interaction simulator. (orig.)

Hedevang, Emil [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark); Siemens Wind Power, Hamburg (Germany); Biss, Klaus [Giessen Univ. (Germany); Cleve, Jochen [Siemens Wind Power, Hamburg (Germany); Greiner, Martin [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

2012-07-01

180

Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads ...

Torben Knudsen; Søren Christiansen; Thomas Bak

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one-way fluid-structure interaction method is introduced. A procedure combining finite element analysis and particle swarm algorithm to optimize composite structures of the wind turbine blade is developed. The procedure proposed not only allows thickness variation but also permits the spar cap location variation over the structure. The results show that, compared to the initial blade, the mass of the optimized blades is reduced and especially for the scheme II (the location of blade spar cap is seen as one of the variables) which exhibit more mass saving. This present study has important significance for the structural design and optimization of wind turbine blades. © 2012.

Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong

2013-01-01

182

Turbulent flow simulation over ice-accreted wind turbine blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reported on the results of a numerical and experimental research project on the effect of ice accretion on wind turbines. The study involved optimization of de-icing procedures as well as prediction of performance reduction in aerodynamics of iced airfoils. The purpose of the project was to analyze the impact of ice accretion on a wind turbine performance simulating the flow around clean and iced NACA 63-415 airfoils using the commercial package Fluent. The presentation outlined the problems caused by ice accreted over wind turbine blades and de-icing systems. The numerical model and results were also presented. The study proposed the most appropriate turbulence model to be used for airfoils with very large separated regions to determine the aerodynamic performance of iced airfoils and therefore to predict the production loss of a wind turbine during icing events. tabs., figs.

Villalpando, F.; Reggio, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group

2009-07-01

183

Urban wind turbines. Guidelines for small wind turbines in the built environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the WINEUR project (Wind Energy Integration in the Urban Environment) is to determine the deployability of small wind turbines in built environments while identifying the current significant constraints and possible solutions. The purpose of this document is to Inform the stakeholders about the state of the development of small wind turbines for the built environment; Provide practical guidelines to actors dealing with installation of small wind turbines in urban areas; and Provide recommendations for future products and for market development

184

Optimization of a small passive wind turbine based on mixed Weibull-turbulence statistics of wind  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A "low cost full passive structure" of wind turbine system is proposed. The efficiency of such device can be obtained only if the design parameters are mutually adapted through an optimization design approach. An original wind profile generation process mixing Weibull and turbulence statistics is presented. The optimization results are compared with those obtained from a particular but typical time cycle of wind speed.

Roboam, Xavier; Abdelli, Abdenour; Sareni, Bruno

2008-01-01

185

Design and development of direct drive generators for wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses various options for wind generators in modern wind turbines without any gearbox. Various power converter configurations are also discussed. The design of modern and efficient variable speed generators is also proposed. The design of a novel permanent magnet generator is also given. (author)

186

Power Control Design for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers power generation control in variable-speed variable-pitch horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at high wind speeds. A dynamic chattering torque control and a proportional integral (PI pitch control strategy are proposed and validated using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind turbine simulator FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence code. Validation results show that the proposed controllers are effective for power regulation and demonstrate high-performances for all other state variables (turbine and generator rotational speeds; and smooth and adequate evolution of the control variables for turbulent wind conditions. To highlight the improvements of the provided method, the proposed controllers are compared to relevant previously published studies.

Francesc Pozo

2012-08-01

187

Overview of power converter designs feasible for high voltage transformer-less wind turbine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many leading wind turbine manufacturers are pushing forward in variable-speed wind turbines, often exceeding 5 MW. Therefore, novel designs and concepts for optimal high power wind turbines appeared. One of the most promising concepts is the high voltage (10-35 kV) transformer-less topology. High voltage design enables low power losses and elimination of bulky step-up transformer from the wind turbine system. However, new challenges appear for such topology, which have to be properly identified and successfully overcome. This paper presents possible concept for transformer-less wind turbine topology along with an overview of most promising candidates for optimal full-scale power converter design. Study is carried with proposed and justified high voltage wind turbine application along with selection of existing and most promising multilevel power converter topologies, which could be successfully proposed for transformer-less wind turbines.

Sztykiel, Michal

2011-01-01

188

Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute to power system security. An overview of ancillary services provided by wind turbine technology nowadays is provided, i.e., fault ride-through capability, reactive power supply and frequency-active power control.

Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela

2010-01-01

189

Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

1981-01-01

190

Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices such as gain margin, vector gain margin and phase margin are used in order to emphasise the differences between the two wind farms.

Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper

2013-01-01

191

Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines are controlled by pitching the blades and by controlling the electro-magnetic torque of the generator, thus slowing the rotation of the blades. Improved control of wind turbines, leading to reduced fatigue loads, can be exploited by using less materials in the construction of the wind turbine or by reducing the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving the actual control algorithm. Both possibilities have been investigated in this thesis. The level of modeling detail has been expanded as dynamic in ow has been incorporated into the control design model where state-of-the-art controllers usually assume quasi-steady aerodynamics. Floating wind turbines have been suggested as an alternative to ground-fixed wind turbines as they can be placed at water depths usually thought outside the realm of wind turbine placement. The special challenges posed by controlling a floating wind turbine have been addressed in this thesis. Model predictive control (MPC) has been the foundation on which the control algorithms have been build. Three controllers are presented in the thesis. The first is based on four different linear model predictive controllers where appropriate switching conditions determine which controller is active. Constraint handling of actuator states such as pitch angle, pitch rate and pitch acceleration is the primary focus of this controller. The wind turbine is a highly nonlinear plant and a gain scheduling or relinearizing model predictive controller forms the next step to improve performance compared to a linear controller. Finally, a nonlinear model predictive controller has been devised and tested under simplified conditions. At present, the nonlinear model predictive controller is however not expected to be an realistic option for real world application as the computation burden is to heavy to achieve real-time performance. This thesis is comprised of a collection scientific papers dealing with the various topics presented in this summary.

Henriksen, Lars Christian

2011-01-01

192

Low frequency noise and wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns have been raised in the UK that noise radiated from wind Turbines contains sufficiently high levels of low frequency energy that may pose a threat to human health. It was suggested that symptoms included nausea, headaches and anxiety. This document, issued by the British Wind Energy Association (BWEA), provides information on the issue of low frequency noise and wind turbines, based on current knowledge. (author)

193

Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance  

CERN Document Server

The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

Tavner, Peter

2012-01-01

194

Direct Driven Generators for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind power is a renewable energy source that is increasingly used all over the world. Most wind turbines have a horizontal axis of rotation but a few have a vertical axis of rotation. The concept presented in this thesis is a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a direct driven cable-wound permanent magnet synchronous generator. A comparison of the two different types of wind turbines, vertical axis wind turbines and horizontal axis wind turbines, have been performed considering se...

Eriksson, Sandra

2008-01-01

195

Structural Reliability Aspects in Design of Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reliability assessment, optimal design and optimal operation and maintenance of wind turbines are an area of significant interest for the fast growing wind turbine industry for sustainable production of energy. Offshore wind turbines in wind farms give special problems due to wake effects inside the farm. Reliability analysis and optimization of wind turbines require that the special conditions for wind turbine operation are taken into account. Control of the blades implies load reductions fo...

Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2007-01-01

196

Influence of refraction on wind turbine noise  

CERN Document Server

A semi-empirical method is applied to calculate the time-average sound level of wind turbine noise generation and propagation. Both are affected by wind shear refraction. Under upwind conditions the partially ensonified zone separates the fully ensonified zone (close to the turbine) and the shadow zone (far away from the turbine). Refraction is described in terms of the wind speed linear profile fitted to the power law profile. The rotating blades are treated as a two-dimensional circular source in the vertical plane. Inside the partially ensonified zone the effective A-weighted sound power decreases to zero when the receiver moves from the turbine toward the shadow zone. The presented results would be useful in practical applications to give a quick estimate of the effect of refraction on wind turbine noise.

Makarewicz, Rufin

2013-01-01

197

Floating wind turbines and their associated risks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sgurr energy is a leading independent engineering consultancy that deals with hydro, wind, wave and tidal, solar and bio-energy related projects. The aim of this paper is to present floating wind turbines and the risks associated with them. Floating wind turbines are stronger than conventional turbines and have more consistent winds, reduced visual impact, fewer environmental constraints and can be mass-produced and assembled close to the shore. Types of floating turbine include tension leg platform (TLP), spar buoy, and semi-submersible. A comparison between the designs of the various types is discussed briefly. Failures related to turbines and floating platforms are instanced and the risks and concerns, from the designer's point of view, are detailed. Some examples of failures are described and explained. The paper concludes that it is understood that there is no single optimal platform design; every type of platform has its own advantages and disadvantages and catastrophic failure is considered doubtful.

Briggs, Charles; Capaldo, Michael [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

2011-07-01

198

Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient is high, wake losses are proportionally larger and decrease to be virtually undetectable at wind speeds above rated wind speeds. Wind direction is also critical. Not only does it determine the effective spacing between turbines but also the wind speed distribution is primarily determined by synoptic forcing and typically has a predominant direction from which wind speeds tend to be higher (from southwest for much of the central United States and northern Europe). Two other interlinked variables, turbulence intensity (TI), and atmospheric stability also dictate wake losses. Quantifying, understanding, modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore wind farms located at Horns Rev and Nysted in Denmark.

Barthelmie, Rebecca J. Indiana University

2013-01-01

199

Active load control techniques for wind turbines.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

2008-07-01

200

Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined. The statistical uncertainty related to the limited number of simulations of the response during operation is explored together with the influence of the threshold value.

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

202

Optimization and Control of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to propose a control strategy and also analyse a fairly typical configuration of a wind turbine generating system connected with permanent magnet synchronous generator under varying speed. To reduce output power variations in wind turbine generating system, pitch angle controller of wind turbine has been used broadly. When the wind speed crosses the rated speed pitch angle controller become s active and control the power and speed to their rated values. To obtain this...

Satyam Kumar Upadhyay, Gaurav Srivastava

2013-01-01

203

Experimental Research for MW Wind Turbine Blade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was get acquiring dependable results of MW wind turbine blade performance at work condition to design new-style blade. Most of the research study on structural analysis of wind turbine blade by make model test and use the finite element, but there were certain differences from real MW wind turbine blade. Therefore full-scale experiments were employed in the research, the strains, stresses and displacements of all parts were gained. The test results shown that the stress distribution was different at every direction and work condition and 12~18 m of the blade is the dangerous area.

He Bin

2013-01-01

204

Damage tolerance and structural monitoring for wind turbine blades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper proposes a methodology for reliable design and maintenance of wind turbine rotor blades using a condition monitoring approach and a damage tolerance index coupling the material and structure. By improving the understanding of material properties that control damage propagation it will be possible to combine damage tolerant structural design, monitoring systems, inspection techniques and modelling to manage the life cycle of the structures. This will allow an efficient operation of the wind turbine in terms of load alleviation, limited maintenance and repair leading to a more effective exploitation of offshore wind.

McGugan, Malcolm; Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira

2015-01-01

205

Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotorwith LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows agood agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputationsand measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values ofpower and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFDcomputations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. Thedifferent systematic methods show theimportance of rotational and 3D effects on rotors. Furthermore, the methods show high lift coefficients in stall at the inboard part of the blade and low lift coefficients in stall at the outboard part of the bladecompared to 2D wind tunnel measurements.

Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.

1999-01-01

206

Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils/Blades and Wind Farm Layouts  

Science.gov (United States)

Shape optimization is widely used in the design of wind turbine blades. In this dissertation, a numerical optimization method called Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to address the shape optimization of wind turbine airfoils and blades. In recent years, the airfoil sections with blunt trailing edge (called flatback airfoils) have been proposed for the inboard regions of large wind-turbine blades because they provide several structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. The FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils are thick airfoils widely used for wind turbine blade application. They have several advantages in meeting the intrinsic requirements for wind turbines in terms of design point, off-design capabilities and structural properties. This research employ both single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (SOGA and MOGA) for shape optimization of Flatback, FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils to achieve maximum lift and/or maximum lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and a three equation k-kl-o turbulence model. The optimization methodology is validated by an optimization study of subsonic and transonic airfoils (NACA0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils). In this dissertation, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and lambda and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter. In addition, a simplified dynamic inflow model is integrated into the BEM theory. It is shown that the improved BEM theory has superior performance in capturing the instantaneous behavior of wind turbines due to the existence of wind turbine wake or temporal variations in wind velocity. The dissertation also considers the Wind Farm layout optimization problem using a genetic algorithm. Both the Horizontal --Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are considered. The goal of the optimization problem is to optimally position the turbines within the wind farm such that the wake effects are minimized and the power production is maximized. The reasonably accurate modeling of the turbine wake is critical in determination of the optimal layout of the turbines and the power generated. For HAWT, two wake models are considered; both are found to give similar answers. For VAWT, a very simple wake model is employed. Finally, some preliminary investigation of shape optimization of 3D wind turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers is conducted. The optimization employs a 3D straight untapered wind turbine blade with cross section of NACA 0012 airfoils as the geometry of baseline blade. The optimization objective is to achieve maximum Cl/Cd as well as maximum Cl. The multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed together with the commercially available software FLUENT for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a one-equation Sparlart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results show excellent performance of the optimized wind turbine blade and indicate the feasibility of optimization on real wind turbine blades with more complex shapes in the future. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chen, Xiaomin

207

Interconnection of direct-drive wind turbines using DC grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the concept of a DC grid to interconnect wind turbines in offshore wind farms. The proposed converter topology allows series interconnection of wind turbines with need of neither transformer nor offshore platform at the sending end. Each wind turbine is equipped with a 5MW permanent-magnet synchronous generator and an ac-dc-dc converter. The converter topology is a voltage-source converter (ac-dc) cascaded with a single-switch step-down converter (dC-dc). The ac-dc stage regulates the wind turbine to operate at maximum power extraction. The dc-dc stage allows the current to flow at all times in the dc link with each dc-dc converter contributing to the net dc link voltage. The system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC and a 150MW wind farm is simulated. Simulation demonstrates operation of the proposed configuration where each turbine is able to independently perform peak power tracking. (orig.)

Veilleux, Etienne; Lehn, Peter W. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

2009-07-01

208

Structured Control of LPV Systems with Application to Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper deals with structured control of linear parameter varying systems (LPV) with application to wind turbines. Instead of attempting to reduce the problem to linear matrix inequalities (LMI), we propose to design the controllers via an LMI-based iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm can synthesize structured controllers like decentralized, static output and reduced order output feedback for discrete-time LPV systems. Based on a coordinate decent, it relies on a sufficient matrix inequality condition extended with slack variables to an upper bound on the induced L2-norm of the closed-loop system. Algorithms for the computation of feasible as well as optimal controllers are presented. The general case where no restrictions are imposed on the parameter dependence is treated here due to its suitability for modeling wind turbines. A comprehensive numerical example of a gain-scheduled LPV controller design with prescribed pattern for wind turbines illustrate the utilization of the proposed algorithm.

Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

2012-01-01

209

Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades. The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials offers a comprehensive review of the recent advances and challenges encountered in wind turbine blade materials and design, and will provide an invaluable reference for researchers and innovators in the field of wind energy production, including materials scientists and engineers, wind turbine blade manufacturers and maintenance technicians, scientists, researchers and academics.

2013-01-01

210

LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays.

Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

2014-12-01

211

Stochastic Modeling Of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cost reduction is a substantial requirement for wind turbines to become competitive compared to other energy supply techniques. For offshore wind turbines the costs for Operation and Maintenance (OM) are significant. One of the reasons for the high OM costs is unplanned repair, and therefore reliable components are needed for wind turbine. In this paper focus is on reliability of critical components in drivetrain such as bearings and shafts. High failure rates of these components imply a need for more reliable components. To estimate the reliability of these components, stochastic models are needed for initial defects and damage accumulation. In this paper, stochastic models are formulated considering some of the failure modes observed in these components. The models are based on theoretical considerations, manufacturing uncertainties, size effects of different scales. It is illustrated how the stochastic models can be used to obtain estimates of failure rates for wind turbine components.

Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2014-01-01

212

Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

Foreman, Kenneth M. (North Bellmore, NY); Gilbert, Barry L. (Westbury, NY)

1984-01-01

213

Reliability of Wind Turbine Components-Solder Elements Fatigue Failure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The physics of failure for electrical components due to temperature loading is described. The main focus is on crack propagation in solder joints and damage accumulation models based on the Miner’s rule. Two models are proposed that describe the initial accumulated plastic strain depending on the temperature mean and temperature range. Constant terms and model errors are estimated. The proposed methods are useful to predict damage values for solder joint in power electrical components. Based on the proposed methods it is described how to find the damage level for a given temperature loading profile. The proposed methods are discussed for application in reliability assessment of Wind Turbine’s electrical components considering physical, model and measurement uncertainties. For further research it is proposed to evaluate damage criteria for electrical components due to the operational temperature fluctuations within Wind Turbines

Kostandyan, Erik; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2012-01-01

214

Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms  

Science.gov (United States)

Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages.

Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

2014-06-01

215

Available and announced offshore wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of 2011, about 4000 MW of offshore wind capacity had been installed in Europe. With market shares of respectively 50% and 40%, Siemens and Vestas are the dominant manufacturers on this market. In the field of offshore wind, Siemens is primarily successful with its wind turbine type SET3,6 (3.6 MW) and Vestas with the V90 of 3.0 MW. The offshore wind turbines of other manufacturers that have a higher capacity do not play a significant role with their market share.

216

Aerodynamical noise from wind turbine generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two extensive measurement series of noise from wind turbines have been made during different modifications of their rotors. One series focused on the influence from the tip shape on the noise, while the other series dealt with the influence from the trailing edge. The experimental layout for the two investigations was identical. The total A-weighted noise from the wind turbine was measured in 1/3 octave bands from 50 Hz to 10 kHz in 1-minute periods simultaneously with wind speed measurements. The microphone was mounted on a hard board on the ground about 40 m directly downwind of the wind turbine, and the wind speed meter was placed at the same distance upwind of the wind turbine 10 m above ground. Regression analysis was made between noise and wind speed in each 1/3 octave band to determine the spectrum at 8 m/s. During the measurements care was taken to avoid influence from background noise, and the influence from machinery noise was minimized and corrected for. Thus the results display the aerodynamic rotor noise from the wind turbines. By use of this measurement technique, the uncertainty has been reduced to 1.5 - 2 dB per 1/3 octave band in the relevant frequency range and to about 1 dB on the total A-weighted levels. (au) (10 refs.)

217

Wind turbine measurements for noise source indentification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the results of a study developing a method of measuring and analysing noise from a wind turbine that provides repeatability and can be used to obtain data on noise, vibration, weather conditions and wind turbine operation. The experimental setup is described, and the overall level analysis, and the analyses of mechanical and aerodynamic noise are examined. The effects of turbulence on noise, and investigation of blade swish are discussed

218

Wind turbine dynamic - application to foundations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These latest years, the green energy is highlighted and new technologies appeared. It is the case for wind turbines. The aim of latest developments has been to increase the power output. The use of new material enables the design of wind turbine with an impressive height, more and more flexible, inducing significant dynamic forces. However, several problems have been encountered on the connection between the foundation and the tower, which threaten the entire integrity of the structure. The i...

Bailly, Cyril

2014-01-01

219

Atmospheric icing on large wind turbine blades  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A numerical study of atmospheric ice accretion on a large horizontal axis ‘NREL 5 MW’ wind turbine blade has been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics based technique. Numerical analyses were carried out at five different sections along the wind turbine blade for both rime and glaze ice conditions. Based upon the flow field calculation and the droplet collision efficiency, the rate and shape of accreted ice was simulated at different atmospheric temperatures. Results indicat...

Muhammad S Virk, Matthew C. Homola

2012-01-01

220

Optimal Control of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Floating Offshore Wind Power is an emerging and promising technology that is particularly interesting from a Norwegian point of view because of our long and windy coast. There are however still several remaining challenges with this technology and one of them is a possible stability problem due to positive feedback from tilt motion of the turbine tower. The focus of this report is to develope a simulator for a floating offshore wind turbine that includes individual, vibrating blades. Se...

Lindeberg, Eivind

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verificat...

Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik

2011-01-01

222

Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed for two Tjæreborg 2 MW wind turbines in tandem with separation distances of 4D, 5D, 6D, 7D, 8D and 10D at the design wind speed of 10 m/s. The power performance of the wake turbine showed to be about 23...

Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

2011-01-01

223

Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

Vinayagalingam, T.

1980-06-01

224

Site-optimization of wind turbine generators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

1997-12-31

225

Slotted Blades Savonius Wind Turbine Analysis by CFD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap only. Parametric analyses are performed, for a fixed overlap ratio, by varying the slot position; the results show that for slot positioned near the blade root, the Savonius rotor improves performances at low tip spe...

Andrea Alaimo; Antonio Esposito; Alberto Milazzo; Calogero Orlando; Flavio Trentacosti

2013-01-01

226

Computational aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present thesis consists of 19 selected papers dealing with the development and use of CFD methods for studying the aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind turbines. The main objective of the research was to develop new computational tools and techniques for analysing flows about wind turbines. A few papers deal with applications of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to wind turbines. In most cases the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier-Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code. In [6] - [8] different actuator disc techniques combined with CFD are presented. This includes actuator disc, actuator line and actuator surface techniques, which were developed to simulate flows past one or more wind turbines. In [9] and [10] a tip loss correction method that improves the conventional models was developed for use in combination with BEM or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the iv Wen Zhong Shen ability of controlling and minimising noise emission may be advantageous when competing on the world energy market. To predict generation and propagation of aerodynamic noise, it is required to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. As the scales of the flow and the acoustic waves are quite different (about 1/M, M=Mach number=Uinfinity/c), it is difficult to resolve them together at the same time. Hardin and Pope proposed a non-linear two-step (viscous incompressible flow and inviscid acoustic perturbation) splitting procedure for computational aero-acoustics that is suitable for both generation and propagation. The advantage of the splitting approach, as compared to the acoustic analogies, is that the source strength is obtained directly and that it accounts for sound radiation as well as scattering. In [13] and [14] an inconsistency in the original formulation of Hardin and Pope 1994 was analysed and a consistent formulation was proposed and applied to laminar flows. An aero-acoustic formulation for turbulent flows was in [15] developed for Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (URANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). In [16] a collocated grid / finite volume method for aero-acoustic computations was developed and implemented in the EllipSys2D/3D code. In [17] and [18] three dimensional flowacoustic computations were carried out. Finally, the aero-acoustic formulation using high order Finite Difference schemes (Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP) / Optimized Compact schemes) was developed in [19] and implemented in the EllipSys2D/3D code. (LN)

Shen, W.Z.

2009-10-15

227

Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible. Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important role. If it can be emphasis on control design. The models have beenvalidated by experimental data obtained from an existing wind turbine. The e ective wind speed experienced by the rotor of a wind turbine, which is often required by some control methods, is estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind measuring device. The investigation of control design is divided into below rated operation and above rated operation. Below ratedpower, the aim of control is to extract maximumenergy from the wind. The pitch angle of the rotor blades is xed at its optimal value and turbine speed is adjusted to follow thechanges in wind speed. Above rated power, the control design problem is to limit and smooth the output electrical power. The pitch control is investigated for both constant speed and variable speed wind turbines. The minimization of the turbine transient loads is focussed in both cases.

Ma, Xin

1997-01-01

228

Birds and wind turbines: can they co-exist?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wind farm is situated along an exposed pier at Blyth Harbour and has now been designated as part of a SSI and part of a proposed RAMSAR site. The bird activity within the harbour is high and is also the wintering home of the Purple Sandpiper. An offshore wind farm is proposed for the area, one kilometre from the pier. Two turbines will be erected with the support of the European Commission THERMIE Programme. The bird study at Blyth has been funded by Border Wind, Blyth Harbour Wind Farm Company and the DTI as part of an ETSU funded study. (UK)

229

Maximum Output Power Tracking of Wind Turbine Using Intelligent Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The output power of wind turbine is determined by wind speed. The Output power can be adjusted by controlling the generator speed and pitch angle of wind turbine. When the wind speed below the wind turbine rated, the output power of generator can be maximized by controlling the generator speed at point of maximum power coefficient. When the wind speed above the wind turbine rated, output power of wind turbine will exceed the power generators rated. In this condition, the output power of wind ...

Mauridhi Hery Purnomo; Mochamad Ashari; Muldi Yuhendri

2011-01-01

230

Wind turbine SCADA alarm analysis for improving reliability.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous research for detecting incipient wind turbine failures, using condition monitoring algorithms, concentrated on wind turbine Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) signals, such as power output, wind speed and bearing temperatures, using power-curve and temperature relationships. However, very little research effort has been made on wind turbine SCADA alarms. When wind turbines are operating in significantly sized wind farms, these alarm triggers are overwhelming for operato...

Qiu, Y. N.; Feng, Y. H.; Tavner, P. J.; Richardson, P.; Erdos, G.; Chen, Bindi

2012-01-01

231

Dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ever increasing demand for renewable energy, combined with limited areas suitable for large wind farms, has put focus on the development of floating wind turbines. In this thesis the dynamic response of a floating wind turbine, subjected to forces from wind and waves, is analyzed. The wind turbine is of a spar buoy design, similar to Statoil's Hywind project. Simulations with two main type of load cases were run, based on the international offshore wind turbine standard IEC 61400-3. These...

Stølsmark, Rasmus

2010-01-01

232

Behavior of bats at wind turbines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

2014-10-21

233

Wind turbines turbulence effects on cable structures in their vicinity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actual wind turbines size can be as large as 80 meters diameter (1 MW and over). Behind the wind turbines, mean wind speed is sensibly reduced (approximately 50%) and turbulence severely increased. The spectral density power of disturbed wind can be assumed similar to classical wind but centred on the rotational speed of the motor. Due to classical speed and shape of wind turbine, corresponding key frequency for disturbed wind is close to one Hz. Any structure in the vicinity of wind t...

Lilien, Jean-louis; Keutgen, Renaud; Raimarckers, Nicolas

2001-01-01

234

Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines during continuous operation.

Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

2014-01-01

235

Design Oriented Aerodynamic Modelling of Wind Turbine Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a wind turbine aerodynamics model using a Boundary Integral Equation model (BIEM) is presented. The methodology is valid to study inviscid unsteady flows around three dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape and arbitrarily moving with respect to the incoming flow. The extension of this methodology to study viscosity effects in turbine blade flow at high angle of attack is addressed and an approach to determine aerodynamic loads over a wide range of turbine operating conditions is proposed. Numerical applications considering a selected test cases from the NREL experimental dataset are presented. Finally, the application of the proposed turbine aerodynamics model into a multi-disciplinary study including aeroelasticity of pylon-turbine assembly and aeroacoustics modelling of induced noise is briefly described.

Greco, Luca; Testa, Claudio; Salvatore, Francesco [INSEAN, Via di Vallerano, 00128 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: f.salvatore@insean.it

2007-07-15

236

Design Oriented Aerodynamic Modelling of Wind Turbine Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a wind turbine aerodynamics model using a Boundary Integral Equation model (BIEM) is presented. The methodology is valid to study inviscid unsteady flows around three dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape and arbitrarily moving with respect to the incoming flow. The extension of this methodology to study viscosity effects in turbine blade flow at high angle of attack is addressed and an approach to determine aerodynamic loads over a wide range of turbine operating conditions is proposed. Numerical applications considering a selected test cases from the NREL experimental dataset are presented. Finally, the application of the proposed turbine aerodynamics model into a multi-disciplinary study including aeroelasticity of pylon-turbine assembly and aeroacoustics modelling of induced noise is briefly described.

Greco, Luca; Testa, Claudio; Salvatore, Francesco

2007-07-01

237

Design Oriented Aerodynamic Modelling of Wind Turbine Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a wind turbine aerodynamics model using a Boundary Integral Equation model (BIEM) is presented. The methodology is valid to study inviscid unsteady flows around three dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape and arbitrarily moving with respect to the incoming flow. The extension of this methodology to study viscosity effects in turbine blade flow at high angle of attack is addressed and an approach to determine aerodynamic loads over a wide range of turbine operating conditions is proposed. Numerical applications considering a selected test cases from the NREL experimental dataset are presented. Finally, the application of the proposed turbine aerodynamics model into a multi-disciplinary study including aeroelasticity of pylon-turbine assembly and aeroacoustics modelling of induced noise is briefly described

238

A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper. In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine. This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor dynamics, platform motion and mooring dynamics. Verification of this method is made through model-to-model comparisons. Finally, some dynamic response results for the platform motion are presented as an example for application of this method.

Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

2013-01-01

239

Analysis of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been studied

240

Analysis of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been studied.

Shen, W. Z.; Zakkam, V. A. K.; Sørensen, J. N.; Appa, K.

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Analysis of Counter-Rotating Wind Turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been studied.

Shen, W Z [Appa Renewable Energy Systems Incorporated, 22242 Anthony Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 (United States); Zakkam, V A K [Appa Renewable Energy Systems Incorporated, 22242 Anthony Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 (United States); Soerensen, J N [Appa Renewable Energy Systems Incorporated, 22242 Anthony Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 (United States); Appa, K [Appa Renewable Energy Systems Incorporated, 22242 Anthony Drive, Lake Forest, CA 92630 (United States)

2007-07-15

242

Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)

Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)

2012-07-01

243

Infrasound emission generated by wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. Such systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors, which are accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to humans. At infrasound station IGADE, north of Bremen, a constantly increasing background noise has been observed throughout the years since its installation in 2005. The spectral peaks are reflecting well the blade passing harmonics, which vary with prevailing wind speeds. Overall, a decrease is noted for the infrasound array's detection capability. This aspect is particularly important for the other two sites of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica, because plans for installing wind turbines near these locations are being under discussion. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise. Therefore data obtained during a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations for measuring the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine have been revisited. The results of this experiment successfully validate a theoretical model which estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and makes it possible to specify the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. Since the theoretical model also takes wind turbine design parameters into account, suitable locations for planned infrasound stations outside the determined disturbance range can be found, which will be presented; and vice versa, the model calculations' results for fixing the minimum distance for wind turbines planned for installation in the vicinity of an existing infrasound array.

Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

2014-05-01

244

Tribological advancements for reliable wind turbine performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind turbines have had various limitations to their mechanical system reliability owing to tribological problems over the past few decades. While several studies show that turbines are becoming more reliable, it is still not at an overall acceptable level to the operators based on their current business models. Data show that the electrical components are the most problematic; however, the parts are small, thus easy and inexpensive to replace in the nacelle, on top of the tower. It is the tribological issues that receive the most attention as they have higher costs associated with repair or replacement. These include the blade pitch systems, nacelle yaw systems, main shaft bearings, gearboxes and generator bearings, which are the focus of this review paper. The major tribological issues in wind turbines and the technological developments to understand and solve them are discussed within. The study starts with an overview of fretting corrosion, rolling contact fatigue, and frictional torque of the blade pitch and nacelle yaw bearings, and references to some of the recent design approaches applied to solve them. Also included is a brief overview into lubricant contamination issues in the gearbox and electric current discharge or arcing damage of the generator bearings. The primary focus of this review is the detailed examination of main shaft spherical roller bearing micropitting and gearbox bearing scuffing, micropitting and the newer phenomenon of white-etch area flaking. The main shaft and gearbox are integrally related and are the most commonly referred to items involving expensive repair costs and downtime. As such, the latest research and developments related to the cause of the wear and damage modes and the technologies used or proposed to solve them are presented. PMID:20855322

Kotzalas, Michael N; Doll, Gary L

2010-10-28

245

Anechoic wind tunnel study of turbulence effects on wind turbine broadband noise  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes recent results obtained at MIT on the experimental and theoretical modelling of aerodynamic broadband noise generated by a downwind rotor horizontal axis wind turbine. The aerodynamic broadband noise generated by the wind turbine rotor is attributed to the interaction of ingested turbulence with the rotor blades. The turbulence was generated in the MIT anechoic wind tunnel facility with the aid of biplanar grids of various sizes. The spectra and the intensity of the aerodynamic broadband noise have been studied as a function of parameters which characterize the turbulence and of wind turbine performance parameters. Specifically, the longitudinal integral scale of turbulence, the size scale of turbulence, the number of turbine blades, and free stream velocity were varied. Simultaneous measurements of acoustic and turbulence signals were made. The sound pressure level was found to vary directly with the integral scale of the ingested turbulence but not with its intensity level. A theoretical model based on unsteady aerodynamics is proposed.

Loyd, B.; Harris, W. L.

1995-01-01

246

Voltage Recovery of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG After a Short-Circuit Fault  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fast development of wind power generation brings new requirements for wind turbine integration to the network. After clearance of an external short-circuit fault, the voltage at the wind turbine terminal should be re-established with minimized power losses. This paper concentrates on voltage recovery of variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). A simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a DFIG developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented, and the control and protection schemes are described. A new control strategy is proposed to re-establish the wind turbine terminal voltage after the clearance of an external short-circuit fault, and the restore the normal operation of the variable speed wind turbine with DFIG, which has been demonstrated by simulation results.

Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

247

Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs and of the development plan about the proposal of law from M. Jean-Francois Le Grand relative to the layout of wind turbines and to the protection of environment; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques et du plan (1) sur la proposition de loi de M. Jean-Francois Le Grand relative a l'implantation des eoliennes et a la protection de l'environnement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This proposal of law aims at clarifying and uniformizing the law relative to the layout of wind turbines. Wind turbines can have a bad aesthetical impact on landscapes, and thus the development of wind energy requires a normative framework for the selection of the best projects. Each project will have to fulfill both an impact study and a public inquiry if the wind turbine exceeds 12 m of height. (J.S.)

Le Grand, J.F.

2002-07-01

248

Wind power integration: from individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power during disturbances, and dynamic behaviours of power system with large wind power integration. The work in this thesis is in a down-up approach, starting with concepts for individual wind turbines, i...

Zhou, Y.

2009-01-01

249

Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical behaviour of the turbine, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission.

Friis Pedersen, Troels

1986-01-01

250

Slotted Blades Savonius Wind Turbine Analysis by CFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap only. Parametric analyses are performed, for a fixed overlap ratio, by varying the slot position; the results show that for slot positioned near the blade root, the Savonius rotor improves performances at low tip speed ratio, evidencing a better starting torque. This circumstance is confirmed by static analyses performed on the slotted blades in order to investigate the starting characteristic of the proposed Savonius wind generator configuration.

Andrea Alaimo

2013-12-01

251

Wind turbines - localisation strategy in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sites for 1500 MW wind power in Denmark by 2005 will be found through a decentralized planning process with public participation. The wind turbines will be sited in parks and clusters in order to secure good economy and satisfactory locations in the landscape. (author)

252

Dynamic Stall Model for Wind Turbine Airfoils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

 A model is presented for aerodynamic lift of wind turbine profiles under dynamic stall. The model combines memory delay effects under attached flow with reduced lift due to flow separation under dynamic stall conditions. The model is based on a backbone curve in the form of the static lift as a function of the angle of attack. The static lift is described by two parameters, the lift at fully attached flow and the degree of attachment. A relationship between these parameters and the static lift is available from a thin plate approximation. Assuming the parameters to be known during static conditions, nonstationary effects are included by three mechanisms: a delay of the lift coefficient of fully attached flow via a second-order filter, a delay of the development of separation represented via a first-order filter, and a lift contribution due to leading edge separation also represented via a first-order filter. The latter is likely to occur during active pitch control of vibrations. It is shown that all included effects can be important when considering wind turbine blades. The proposed model is validated against test data from two load cases, one at fully attached flow conditions and one during dynamic stall conditions. The proposed model is compared with five other dynamic stall models including, among others, the Beddoes-Leishman model and the ONERA model. It is demonstrated that the proposed model performs equally well or even better than more complicated models and that the included nonstationary effects are essential for obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the influence of camber and thickness distribution on the backbone curve are analysed. It is shown that both of these effects are adequately accounted for via the static input data.

Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, SØren R.K.

2007-01-01

253

The social acceptability of wind turbines: some resident are ready to pay to keep their wind turbines. Survey on four French wind farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a study which aimed at exploiting and deepening the results of a 2001 survey on visual and sound disturbances caused by wind turbines in Sigean (Aude), at identifying all the attitudes and opinions with respect with wind energy, and at assessing the different characteristics of a wind farm (height, localization, and so on). A survey has been performed on four sites located in different French regions. The authors discuss the social-demographic characteristics of the population samples, the global opinion on wind energy, and the opinion of the people on wind turbines located in their neighbourhood. They propose an estimation of benefits and damages related to the vicinity of wind turbines. By applying a method of choice experiments, they reveal the preferences of residents

254

Subhourly wind forecasting techniques for wind turbine operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three models for making automated forecasts of subhourly wind and wind power fluctuations were examined to determine the models' appropriateness, accuracy, and reliability in wind forecasting for wind turbine operation. Such automated forecasts appear to have value not only in wind turbine control and operating strategies, but also in improving individual wind turbine control and operating strategies, but also in improving individual wind turbine operating strategies (such as determining when to attempt startup). A simple persistence model, an autoregressive model, and a generalized equivalent Markhov (GEM) model were developed and tested using spring season data from the WKY television tower located near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The three models represent a pure measurement approach, a pure statistical method and a statistical-dynamical model, respectively. Forecasting models of wind speed means and measures of deviations about the mean were developed and tested for all three forecasting techniques for the 45-meter level and for the 10-, 30- and 60-minute time intervals. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a persistence-based approach, using onsite measurements, will probably be superior in the 10-minute time frame. The GEM model appears to have the most potential in 30-minute and longer time frames, particularly when forecasting wind speed fluctuations. However, several improvements to the GEM model are suggested. In comparison to the other models, the autoregressive model performed poorly at all time frames; but, it is recommended that this model be upgraded to an autoregressive moving average (ARMA or ARIMA) model. The primary constraint in adapting the forecasting models to the production of wind turbine cluster power output forecasts is the lack of either actual data, or suitable models, for simulating wind turbine cluster performance.

Wegley, H.L.; Kosorok, M.R.; Formica, W.J.

1984-08-01

255

Review paper on wind turbine aerodynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models. Also a discussion of the use of passive and active aerodynamic devices is included such as, e.g., Vortex Generators and distributed active flaps. Finally the problem of wakes in wind farms is addressed and a section of the likely future development of aerodynamic models for wind turbines is included. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

2011-01-01

256

Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Optimization of the design of offshore wind turbine substructures with respect to fatigue loads is an important issue in offshore wind energy. A stochastic model is developed for assessing the fatigue failure reliability. This model can be used for direct probabilistic design and for calibration of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented.

Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2012-01-01

257

Robust Utilization of Wind Turbine Flexibility for Grid Stabilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work considers the use of wind turbines for stabilizing an electrical grid, by employing temporary overproduction with respect to available power. We present a simple model describing a turbine, and show how the possible period of overproduction, can be maximized through a series of convex problems, where the load is distributed among several turbines in a farm. We then present an optimization scheme that guarantees a lower limit for the overproduction period and subsequently propose an adaptive implementation that is robust against parameter uncertainties.

Juelsgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

2012-01-01

258

Computer control for remote wind turbine operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light weight wind turbines located in harsh, remote sites require particularly capable controllers. Based on extensive operation of the original ESI-807 moved to such a location, a much more sophisticated controller than the original one has been developed. This paper describes the design, development and testing of that new controller. The complete control and monitoring system consists of sensor and control inputs, the control computer, control outputs, and additional equipment. The control code was written in Microsoft Visual Basic on a PC type computer. The control code monitors potential faults and allows the turbine to operate in one of eight states: off, start, run, freewheel, low wind shut down, normal wind shutdown, emergency shutdown, and blade parking. The controller also incorporates two {open_quotes}virtual wind turbines,{close_quotes} including a dynamic model of the machine, for code testing. The controller can handle numerous situations for which the original controller was unequipped.

Manwell, J.F.; Rogers, A.L.; Abdulwahid, U.; Driscoll, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

259

A review of wind turbine noise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IEC standard 61400-11 wind turbines - Part 11 'acoustic noise measurement techniques' was revised recently in order to present a procedure expected to provide accurate results that can be replicated by others. Immission measurements are not within the scope of this IEC standard. The different measurement procedures of noise immission from wind turbines at noise receptor locations are described in an IEA recommendation. In this general review the history and the state of the art of wind turbine noise is given with special emphasis on: noise sources, propagation effects, standards and recommendations, noise reduction, measurement procedures at high wind speeds, noise characteristics (e.g. tonality) and declaration and verification of sound levels. (orig.)

Klug, H. [DEWI Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

2006-08-15

260

UNSTEADY SIMULATION OF FLOW IN MICRO VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Though wind turbines and windmills have been used for centuries, the application of aerodynamics technology to improve reliability and reduce costs of wind-generated energy has only been pursued in earnest for the past 40 years. Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. Wind is a renewable energy source. Power production from wind turbines is affected by certain conditions: wind speed, turbine speed, turbulence and the changes of wind direction. These conditions are not alway...

Bayeul-laine, Annie-claude; Bois, Ge?rard

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First several potential converter topologies and power semiconductor devices for the future wind power application are presented in respect to the advantages/drawbacks. And then the criteria for evaluating the wind power converter are generally discussed, where the importance of thermal stress in the power semiconductors is emphasized and a multidisciplinary approach for the stress analysis is introduced. Based on the proposed criteria and tools, the electrical and thermal behaviors of wind power converters are investigated under both normal and fault conditions, where the factors of wind speeds, grid codes, converter controls and grid conditions are taken into account. In order to relieve the electrical and thermal stress of the converter in wind turbine system, some new control methods and concepts are thereby proposed. In Chapter 4 a thermal control concept which utilizes the reactive power is used to stabilize the thermal excursion under wind gust. In Chapter 5 a series of special modulation methods which can achieve better thermal loading of power devices under grid faults are introduced. Also in Chapter 5 a series of power control strategies utilizing the zero sequence current are presented to achieve better control performance under the unbalanced AC source. It is concluded that power electronics will play more important role and regulate all the generated power in the next generation wind turbine system. In this case, the stress in the converter components becomes more critical because the power conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important performance for the next generation wind power converter. It is found that the thermal behaviors of wind power converter could be rather adverse under some required operating conditions. On the other hand it is also possible to improve the thermal behaviors by many aspects like the smart control, special modulation, advanced modeling, as well as new converter designs.

Ma, Ke

2013-01-01

262

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines : Electrical System and Experimental Results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wind power research at the division of Electricity at Uppsala University is aimed towards increased understanding of vertical axis wind turbines. The considered type of wind turbine is an H-rotor with a directly driven synchronous generator operating at variable speed. The experimental work presented in this thesis comprises investigation of three vertical axis wind turbines of different design and size. The electrical, control and measurement systems for the first 12 kW wind turbine have...

Kjellin, Jon

2012-01-01

263

A neuro-fuzzy controlling algorithm for wind turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind turbine control system is stochastic and nonlinear, offering a demanding field for different control methods. An improved and efficient controller will have great impact on the cost-effectiveness of the technology. In this article, a design method for a self-organizing fuzzy controller is discussed, which combines two popular computational intelligence techniques, neural networks and fuzzy logic. Based on acquisited dynamic parameters of the wind, it can effectively predict wind changes in speed and direction. Maximum power can always be extracted from the kinetic energy of the wind. Based on the stimulating experiments applying nonlinear dynamics to a `Variable Speed Fixed Angle` wind turbine, it is demonstrated that the proposed control model 3rd learning algorithm provide a predictable, stable and accurate performance. The robustness of the controller to system parameter variations and measurement disturbances is also discussed. (author)

Li Lin [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Eriksson, J.T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

1995-12-31

264

A wind turbine evaluation model under a multi-criteria decision making environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper proposes an evaluation model to select suitable turbines in a wind farm. ? Interpretive structural modeling is used to know the relationship among factors. ? Fuzzy analytic network process is used to calculate the priorities of turbines. ? The results can be references for selecting the most appropriate wind turbines. - Abstract: Due to the impacts of fossil and nuclear energy on the security, economics, and environment in the world, the demand of alternative energy resources is expanding consistently and tremendously in recent years. Wind energy production, with its safe and environmental characteristics, has become the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world. The construction of new wind farms and the installation of new wind turbines are important processes in order to provide a long-term energy production. In this research, a comprehensive evaluation model, which incorporates interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP), is constructed to select suitable turbines when developing a wind farm. A case study is carried out in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of several potential types of wind turbines, and experts in a wind farm are invited to contribute their expertise in determining the importance of the factors of the wind turbine evaluation and in rating the performance of the turbines with respect to each factor. The most suitable turbines for installation can finally bnes for installation can finally be generated after the calculations. The results can be references for decision makers in selecting the most appropriate wind turbines.

265

H? Based Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article demonstrates a strategy to design multivariable and multi-objective controllers based on the H? norm reduction applied to a wind turbine. The wind turbine model has been developed in the GH Bladed software and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project. The designed control strategy works in the above rated power production zone and performs generator speed control and load reduction on the drive train and tower. In order to do this, two robust H? MISO (Multi-Input Single-Output controllers have been developed. These controllers generate collective pitch angle and generator torque set-point values to achieve the imposed control objectives. Linear models obtained in GH Bladed 4.0 are used, but the control design methodology can be used with linear models obtained from any other modelling package. Controllers are designed by setting out a mixed sensitivity problem, where some notch filters are also included in the controller dynamics. The obtained H? controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases. The analysis compares the proposed control strategy based on H? controllers to a baseline control strategy designed using the classical control methods implemented on the present wind turbines.

Aron Pujana-Arrese

2012-04-01

266

Aerodynamic design of optimum wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on performance envelopes derived by Wilson et al. at Oregon State University, and on a new aerodynamic theory recently proposed by the author, a design procedure is presented and illustrated for one-, two- or three-bladed horizontal axis, constant chord wind turbines of optimum performance. Following specification of the number of blades, B, the lift coefficient, L, and the lift-to-drag ratio, L/D, at the design point, algorithms are developed for finding the tip-speed ratio, X, at which the optimum power coefficient is developed; the ratio of blade chord to radius; and the manner in which each blade should be twisted along its axis. Programs are given for implementing the calculations iteratively on a programmable calculator.

De Paor, A.M.

1982-11-01

267

The design of wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysian wind characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the study of a wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. In this research, the wind turbine is designs based on the local wind characteristics and tries to avoid the problems faced in the past (turbine design, access, manpower and technical). The new wind turbine rotor design for a medium speed wind speed turbine utilises the concept of open-close type of horizontal axis (up-wind) wind turbine is intended to widen the optimum performance range for electrical generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. The wind turbine has been designed to cut-in at a lower speed, and to provide the rotation speed that high enough to run a generator. The analysis and design of new low speed wind turbine blades and open-close turbine rotor and prediction of turbine performance are being detailed in this paper. (Author)

268

Atmospheric stability affects wind turbine power collection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power generated by a wind turbine largely depends on the wind speed. During time periods with identical hub-height wind speeds but different shapes to the wind profile, a turbine will produce different amounts of power. This variability may be induced by atmospheric stability, which affects profiles of mean wind speed, direction and turbulence across the rotor disk. Our letter examines turbine power generation data, segregated by atmospheric stability, in order to investigate power performance dependences at a West Coast North American wind farm. The dependence of power on stability is clear, regardless of whether time periods are segregated by three-dimensional turbulence, turbulence intensity or wind shear. The power generated at a given wind speed is higher under stable conditions and lower under strongly convective conditions: average power output differences approach 15%. Wind energy resource assessment and day ahead power forecasting could benefit from increased accuracy if atmospheric stability impacts were measured and appropriately incorporated in power forecasts, e.g., through the generation of power curves based on a range of turbulence regimes. (letter)

269

Defect Distribution and Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbine Blades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size, based on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models, additional information, such as number, type, and size of the defects, is included as stochastic variables. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a generic wind turbine blade model both with and without defects in terms of delaminations. The reliability of the blade decreases when defects are included. However, the distribution of the defects influences how much the reliability is decreased. It is also shown how non-destructive inspection (NDI) after production can be used to update the reliability for the wind turbine blade using Bayesian statistics.

Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Branner, Kim

2011-01-01

270

Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines based on an integrated design and control approach. © 2009 IEEE.

Hansen, Anca D.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

2009-01-01

271

Impact of wind turbines on birds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

272

Assessment and prediction of wind turbine noise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The significance of basic aerodynamic noise sources for wind turbine noise are assessed, using information on the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. Based on this analysis, a new model for prediction of wind turbine noise is presented and comparisons made between prediction and experiment. The model is based on well established aeroacoustic theory and published laboratory data for the two principal sources, inflow turbulence and boundary layer trailing edge interaction. The new method gives good agreement with experiment with the case studied so far. Parametric trends and sensitivities for the model are presented. Comparisons with previous prediction methods are also given. A consequence of the new model is to put more emphasis on boundary layer trailing edge interaction as a noise source. There are prospects for reducing noise from this source detail changes to the wind turbine design. (author)

273

Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines Based on Amplitude Demodulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. In order to make wind turbine reliable and competitive, it is important to reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The most efficient way to reduce it relies on condition monitoring and fault diagnostics. This paper proposes a new fault detector based on the amplitude demodulation of the three-phase stator current. Simulations show that this low-complexity method is well suited f...

Amirat, Yassine; Choqueuse, Vincent; Benbouzid, Mohamed

2010-01-01

274

Mitigation of Fatigue Loads Using Individual Pitch Control of Wind Turbines Based on FAST  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the increase of wind turbine dimension and capacity, the wind turbine structures are subjected to prominent loads and fatigue which would reduce the lifetime of wind turbines. Individual pitch control (IPC) is used in this paper to attenuate the blade root bending moment and the tilt and yaw moments and fatigue. The loading transfer from rotational coordinate system to the fixed coordinate system of the wind turbine is analyzed. In order to make the simulation results more reliable, the wind turbine code FAST is applied to doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based power system to demonstrate the correctness of individual pitch control strategy. The performance of the proposed control method is tested and compared with that using collective pitch control (CPC), demonstrating the effectiveness of individual pitch control of wind turbines.

Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

2011-01-01

275

Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural dynamics, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission.

Friis Pedersen, Troels

1986-01-01

276

Wind energy cooperatives and private wind turbines in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience of wind energy cooperatives in establishing and running wind turbines in the Netherlands is reported. The Dutch government provides subsidies of about 35% of the investment cost. Despite that, there are still problems and the paper outlines possible solutions. (UK)

277

Performance of spanish wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

278

Structural Reliability Aspects in Design of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reliability assessment, optimal design and optimal operation and maintenance of wind turbines are an area of significant interest for the fast growing wind turbine industry for sustainable production of energy. Offshore wind turbines in wind farms give special problems due to wake effects inside the farm. Reliability analysis and optimization of wind turbines require that the special conditions for wind turbine operation are taken into account. Control of the blades implies load reductions for large wind speeds and parking for high wind speeds. In this paper basic structural failure modes for wind turbines are described. Further, aspects are presented related to reliability-based optimization of wind turbines, assessment of optimal reliability level and operation and maintenance.

SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2007-01-01

279

A review of large wind turbine systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Research areas in the design and operation of large wind turbines in the U.S. and Europe are detailed, with attention given to current and completed programs. Theoretical work in the U.S. is focused on aerodynamics of blades, structural dynamics, control systems, and safety through safe life design, redundancy, and quality assurance. Work is continuing on wind characteristics over the rotor disk and design criteria with regard to cost/benefits and tradeoffs involving various configurations and materials for the rotor blades, placement, pitch control, blade articulation, the tower, the drive train, the gear box, a quill shaft, generator type, and reliability and maintenance. Costing models are being developed. Test experience has been gained through the manufacture and operation of the five Mod 0A, one Mod-1, four Mod-2, and one WTS-4 wind turbines. The European work on blade loading, wind turbine dimensioning, materials, wind structure, environmental impacts, and economics are reviewed, together with the operational experience with the Gedser, two Nibe, the Tvind, and Growian machines. Several countries are also testing smaller wind turbines manufactured indigenously or imported.

Selzer, H.; Lerner, J. I.

280

Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Evaluating the impact of electrical grid connection on the wind turbine performance for Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growth of wind energy is attributed to the development of turbine size and the increase in number of units in each wind farm. The current modern design of large wind turbines (WT) is directed towards producing efficient, sensitive and reliable units. To achieve this goal, modern turbines are equipped with several devices which are operated with highly advanced electronic circuits. Sensing instruments, measuring devices and control processes of major systems and subsystems are based on various types of electronic apparatus and boards. These boards are very sensitive to the voltage variations caused by abnormal conditions in both the turbine itself and the electric grid to which the wind farm is connected. This paper evaluates wind farm records and proposes a number of methods to overcome such obstacles associated with the design of large wind turbines. Several cases of grid abnormality such as sudden feeder interruption due to the short circuit, network disconnection, voltage variation and circuit breaker opening affecting wind turbines operation and availability are classified and presented. The weight of such impact is determined for each type of disturbances associated with electronic problems in the wind turbine. Wind turbine performance at Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan is taken as a case study

282

Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

Livingston, Jamie T. (Pensacola, FL); Burke, Arthur H. E. (Gulf Breeze, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Billen, Andrew (Daarlerveen, NL)

2008-04-01

283

Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model. The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.

Svendsen, Martin Nymann Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

284

Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lynette, R. [FloWind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

285

Electromagnetic Interference on Large Wind Turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can both affect and be transmitted by mega-watt wind turbines. This paper provides a general overview on EMI with respect to mega-watt wind turbines. Possibilities of measuring all types of electromagnetic interference are shown. Electromagnetic fields resulting from a GSM transmitter mounted on a mega-watt wind turbine will be analyzed in detail. This cellular system operates as a real-time communication link. The method-of-moments is used to analytically describe the electro-magnetic fields. The electromagnetic interference will be analyzed under the given boundary condition with a commercial simulation tool. Different transmitter positions are judged on the basis of their radiation patterns. The principal EMI mechanisms are described and taken into consideration. (author)

Krug, F. [Siemens AG, Wittelsbacherplatz 2, 80333 Munich (Germany); Lewke, B. [Siemens Wind Power A/S, 7330 Brande (Denmark)

2009-07-01

286

A ?-Synthesis Approach to Robust Control of a Wind Turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of robust control of a wind turbine is considered in this paper. A set of controllers are designed based on a 2 degrees of freedom linearized model of a wind turbine. An extended Kalman filter is used to estimate effective wind speed and the estimated wind speed is used to find the operating point of the wind turbine. Due to imprecise wind speed estimation, uncertainty in the obtained linear model is considered. Uncertainties in the drivetrain stiffness and ...

Mirzaei, Mahmood; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

2011-01-01

287

Aerodynamic study of a small horizontal-axis wind turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbine will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, nowadays, the noise emissions from wind turbines represent one of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. Moreover, the energetic efficiency of these wind turbines has to be high even at low and medium wind velocities because, usual...

Nita, Cornelia; Cojocaru, Marius Gabriel; Niculescu, Mihai Leonida

2012-01-01

288

Wind turbine on line in Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

The largest wind machine in the United States started generating electricity in late July in Hawaii. The Mod-5B wind-powered turbine, located on the northern tip of the island of Oahu, is rated at 3.2 megawatts and is expected to generate enough clean electricity to supply the needs of 1300 homes. The machine was developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, and paid for by the Department of Energy.The turbine is based on new technology that allows its 320-ft (˜100-m) rotor to operate at variable speeds to suit changing wind conditions. It is the result of 15 years of federally sponsored research at NASA-Lewis. Conventional turbines operate at a fixed speed. After 6 months of tests, Mod-5B will be taken over and operated by the Hawaiian Electric Company, under a sales agreement with NASA. The turbine was located at the northend of Oahu primarily because of the high incidence of steady trade winds in that part of the Hawaiian chain. Renewable energy sources like the turbine are also desirable in Hawaii because of the high cost of electricity on the islands, which is principally the result of the need to import all diesel fuel and a prohibition on nuclear power plants in the state.

Maggs, William Ward

289

Optimization of wind farm turbines layout using an evolutive algorithm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optimum wind farm configuration problem is discussed in this paper and an evolutive algorithm to optimize the wind farm layout is proposed. The algorithm's optimization process is based on a global wind farm cost model using the initial investment and the present value of the yearly net cash flow during the entire wind-farm life span. The proposed algorithm calculates the yearly income due to the sale of the net generated energy taking into account the individual wind turbine loss of production due to wake decay effects and it can deal with areas or terrains with non-uniform load-bearing capacity soil and different roughness length for every wind direction or restrictions such as forbidden areas or limitations in the number of wind turbines or the investment. The results are first favorably compared with those previously published and a second collection of test cases is used to proof the performance and suitability of the proposed evolutive algorithm to find the optimum wind farm configuration. (author)

290

Aerodynamic analysis of rotor-nacelle interactions for wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a numerical method for investigating rotor-nacelle aerodynamic interactions of an horizontal axis wind turbine. The flowfield around the turbine and nacelle is described by the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The k - ? model has been chosen for the closure of time-averaged turbulent flow equations. The turbine is modeled using the actuator disk concept. Most of the nacelle region is represented by its real geometrical shape as wall boundary, except for the cooling system (radiator) of the electric generator which is modeled as a permeable surface with some prescribed pressure jump. An unstructured Control-Volume Finite Element Method has been developed to solve the resulting governing equations. The main purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between the nacelle wind speed and free stream wind speed for an isolated turbine, in order to assess the impacts of the variation of some operational parameters (e.g. blade pitch angle changes) on this relationship. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental data (from typical a stall-controlled wind turbine rated more than 600kW and commercially available). In general, good agreements have been found proving the validity of the proposed method. It has been concluded that the accuracy of the predicted results depends mainly on the prescribed pressure jump across the permeable surface representing the generator cooling system. (author)stem. (author)

291

Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab/Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system.

Zhao, B.; Li, H.

2011-01-01

292

Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters.

Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik

2011-01-01

293

Wind turbine blade pitch control system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention provides an improvement for a wind turbine (20) having at least one blade (21) mounted on a hub (22) for controlled rotation about a blade axis (yb-yb) to vary the pitch of the blade relative to an airstream. The hub is mounted on a nacelle (23) for rotation about a hub axis (xh-xh). The wind turbine includes a main pitch control system for selectively controlling the pitch of the blade, and/or a safety pitch control system for overriding the main blade pitch control sys...

Potter, Benjamin Alexander; Nagasaki, Ryuichi; Shiga, Mamoru

2010-01-01

294

Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written in polar coordinates. The developed algorithm is combined with a so-called actuator-line technique in which the loading is distributed along lines representing the blade forces. Computations are carried out for the 500kW Nordtank wind turbine equipped with three LM19 blades. ©2001 The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. and ASME

Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess

2002-01-01

295

Design and Development of a Wind Turbine Simulator Using a Separately Excited DC Motor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the course of the past decade, power generation based on wind energy has become a significant component in modern power systems, which has caused substantial increase in the wind power based research. As it is complicated to use a real wind turbine for laboratory purposes, development of a replica of a real wind turbine that can be connected and used indoors is imperative. This paper presents the design and development of a wind turbine simulator that operates on the typical power-speed characteristics of a wind turbine. First, the mathematical model of the wind turbine simulator is developed and the corresponding CAD simulations are carried out. Proposed hardware implementations involve a DC motor-DC generator set, a variable load and a control system based on PI controllers. It is a simple, low power and low cost design that can be easily connected to an AC system through an inverter.

K. K. M. S. Kariyawasam

2013-06-01

296

Comparative Study of Voltage Recovery Behaviors of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fast development of wind power generation brings new requirements for wind turbine integration to the network. After the clearance of an external short-circuit fault, the voltage at the wind turbine terminal should be re-established with minimized power losses. This paper concentrates on voltage recovery of variable speed wind turbines. The models of two different kinds of variable speed wind turbines, respectively with slip control and with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), are developed in PSCAD/EMTDC. In both wind power generation systems, control strategies are proposed to re-establish the wind turbine terminal voltage after the clearance of an external short-circuit fault, which have been demonstrated by simulation results.

Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe

2004-01-01

297

An investigation of the levels of electromagnetic radiation generated by wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of electromagnetic interference is arising with some regularity as various wind energy projects throughout the UK reach the stage where local authority planning approval is sought. To many of the parties involved, wind turbines represent an unknown quantity and hence objections to their siting must be expected. Wind turbines may cause electromagnetic interference through two quite distinct processes. The first occurs when the wind turbine scatters electromagnetic signals passing through the area of the site and essentially, provides a second path between the transmitter and receiver of the signal. The second source of interference arises when signals generated within the wind turbine itself affect communications equipment or, indeed, any electronic circuitry. A case in point is a wind farm project under development by Bonython Estates of Cornwall. The aim of this project was to investigate the emissions from the wind turbines proposed for the Bonython development. This was achieved by means of field measurements on existing installations. (author)

298

Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds : Masking, Propagation and Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbines are an environmentally friendly and sustainable power source. Unfortunately, the noise impact can cause deteriorated living conditions for nearby residents. The audibility of wind turbine sound is influenced by ambient sound. This thesis deals with some aspects of noise from wind turbines. Ambient sounds influence the audibility of wind turbine noise. Models for assessing two commonly occurring natural ambient sounds namely vegetation sound and sound from breaking waves are pres...

Bolin, Karl

2009-01-01

299

Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between ...

Makarewicz, Rufin; Golebiewski, Roman

2013-01-01

300

Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise  

CERN Document Server

Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between the maximum and minimum of LpA characterizes thump modulation (Fig.2).

Makarewicz, Rufin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of wind turbines on birdlife  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migratioeas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs

302

Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

Yoonsu Nam

2012-06-01

303

Variable speed wind turbine using full conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of power control strategies have been suggested for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The implemented control strategy is based on an off-line optimisation. It has been verified on a test installation at Risoe National Laboratory comprising a 500 kW Nordtank wind turbine and a 630 kW Siemens frequency converter. After a short presentation of the test installation the developed control strategy is described. The presented variable speed concept is compared to the conventional fixed speed concept by looking at power quality performance and flicker emission. As a first step towards wind power plants, the control strategy supports controllable power output from the wind turbine. It is demonstrated how the power output of the test installation can be limited to e.g. 300 kW. (au)

Hansen, L.H.; Soerensen, P.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Lab. Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

2000-07-01

304

75 FR 2138 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming (DOE/EIS-0438)  

Science.gov (United States)

...environmental impact statement...transmission grid...of up to 200 wind turbine generators with...environmental impacts of SWE's proposed...process for the wind turbine strings and...the level of impact...

2010-01-14

305

Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating  

Science.gov (United States)

Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

2013-01-01

306

Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-12-01

307

Electrical Aspects of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is the most authoritative single volume on offshore wind power yet published. Distinguished experts, mainly from Europe's leading universities, have contributed a collection of peer reviewed papers on the interfaces between wind power technology and marine engineering. The range of issues covered by the book include: wind as a resource; wind power generation; connection to the grid; the marine environment and engineering issues particular to it. This book is essential for academic departments of mechanical engineering/energy engineering/ renewable energy. Offshore wind power generation will be the driver of the offshore industry for the foreseeable future: all organisations involved in offshore engineering should have this book.

Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

2009-01-01

308

76 FR 38677 - Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee; Announcement of Public Meeting and Webcast  

Science.gov (United States)

...94300-1122-0000-Z2] Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...will host a Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines. DATES...Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines were...Federal Officer, Wind Turbine Guidelines...

2011-07-01

309

76 FR 20006 - Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee; Teleconference Line Available for Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...94300-1122-0000-Z2] Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...will host a Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines. DATES...docs/Wind_Energy_Guidelines...Federal Officer, Wind Turbine Guidelines...

2011-04-11

310

76 FR 54481 - Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee; Announcement of Public Meeting and Webcast  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1018-AX45 Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...will host a Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines. The...Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines were...Federal Officer, Wind Turbine Guidelines...

2011-09-01

311

Structured Linear Parameter Varying Control of Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High performance and reliability are required for wind turbines to be competitive within the energy market. To capture their nonlinear behavior, wind turbines are often modeled using parameter-varying models. In this chapter, a framework for modelling and controller design of wind turbines is presented. We specifically consider variable-speed, variable-pitch wind turbines with faults on actuators and sensors. Linear parameter-varying (LPV) controllers can be designed by a proposed method that allows the inclusion of faults in the LPV controller design. Moreover, the controller structure can be arbitrarily chosen: static output feedback, dynamic (reduced order) output feedback, decentralized, among others. The controllers are scheduled on an estimated wind speed to manage the parametervarying nature of the model and on information from a fault diagnosis system. The optimization problems involved in the controller synthesis are solved by an iterative LMI-based algorithm. The resulting controllers can also be easily implemented in practice due to low data storage and simple math operations. The performance of the LPV controllers is assessed by nonlinear simulations results.

Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Sloth, Christoffer

2012-01-01

312

Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. In this paper, power converter technologies are reviewed with focus on existing ones and on those that have potential for higher power but which have not been yet adopted due to the important risk associated with the high-power industry. The power converters are classified into single- and multicell topologies, in the latter case with attention to series connection and parallel connection either electrical or magnetic ones (multiphase/windings machines/transformers). It is concluded that as the power level increases in wind turbines, medium-voltage power converters will be a dominant power converter configuration, but continuously cost and reliability are important issues to be addressed.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco

2012-01-01

313

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01

314

Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Megawatt-size wind turbines nowadays operate in very complex environmental conditions, and increasingly demanding power system requirements. Pursuing a cost-effective and reliable wind turbine design is a multidisciplinary task. However nowadays, wind turbine design and research areas such as aeroelastic and mechanical, electrical and control, and grid integration, make use of simulation tools dedicated to specific areas. Practical experience shows there is a need to bridge the expertise from different design areas. The focus of this Ph.D. study is on the integrated dynamic analysis of operating conditions that stem from disturbances in the power system. An integrated simulation environment, wind turbine models, and power system models are developed in order to take an integral perspective that considers the most important aeroelastic, structural, electrical, and control dynamics. Applications of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power system frequency control studies of variable-speed wind turbines with the integrated simulation environment, show that is possible to make a sensible estimation of the contribution of a wind farm to power system frequency control, while studying the impact on wind turbine structural loads. Finally, studies of the impact that voltage faults have on wind turbine loads are presented. The case of unbalanced faults is addressed, the possibilities and drawbacks for reduction of structural loads using electrical control actions is investigated. Load reduction using resonant damping control is proven and quantified.

Barahona Garzón, Braulio

2012-01-01

315

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

2011-07-01

316

Modeling and control of wind turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the world is currently facing an energy and climate crisis, the development and utilization of alternative sources of energy has become an important challenge. From all types of renewable energy sources, wind turbines proved to be one of the cleanest and most reliable solutions for energy production. Wind energy conversion systems have in the last decades been subject of a strong interest as they could offer a viable source of electrical energy. This is why, it is important to focus on com...

Luis Arturo Soriano; Wen Yu; Jose de Jesus Rubio

2010-01-01

317

Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system and tower side-side motion, including gyroscopic effects. The models support a model-based design that includes estimators for wind speed and wave frequency. The design is applied to a number of examples representing different wind and wave conditions and successfully demonstrates a reduction in the structural oscillations, while improving power performance.

Christiansen, SØren; Bak, Thomas

2013-01-01

318

Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken in to consideration in the study. It is shown that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine ...

Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

2012-01-01

319

A geographic analysis of wind turbine placement in Northern California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of new wind energy projects requires a significant consideration of land use issues. An analytic framework using a Geographic Information System (GIS) was developed to evaluate site suitability for wind turbines and to predict the locations and extent of land available for feasible wind power development. The framework uses rule-based spatial analysis to evaluate different scenarios. The suitability criteria include physical requirements as well as environmental and human impact factors. By including socio-political concerns, this technique can assist in forecasting the acceptance level of wind farms by the public. The analysis was used to evaluate the nine-county region of the Greater San Francisco Bay Area. The model accurately depicts areas where large-scale wind farms have been developed or proposed. It also shows that there are many locations available in the Bay Area for the placement of smaller-scale wind turbines. The framework has application to other regions where future wind farm development is proposed. This information can be used by energy planners to predict the extent that wind energy can be developed based on land availability and public perception

320

PowerJet Wind Turbine Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PROJECT OBJECTIVE The PowerJet wind turbine overcomes problems characteristic of the small wind turbines that are on the market today by providing reliable output at a wide range of wind speeds, durability, silent operation at all wind speeds, and bird-safe operation. Prime Energy�s objective for this project was to design and integrate a generator with an electrical controller and mechanical controls to maximize the generation of electricity by its wind turbine. The scope of this project was to design, construct and test a mechanical back plate to control rotational speed in high winds, and an electronic controller to maximize power output and to assist the base plate in controlling rotational speed in high winds. The test model will continue to operate beyond the time frame of the project, with the ultimate goal of manufacturing and marketing the PowerJet worldwide. Increased Understanding of Electronic & Mechanical Controls Integrated With Electricity Generator The PowerJet back plate begins to open as wind speed exceeds 13.5 mps. The pressure inside the turbine and the turbine rotational speed are held constant. Once the back plate has fully opened at approximately 29 mps, the controller begins pulsing back to the generator to limit the rotational speed of the turbine. At a wind speed in excess of 29 mps, the controller shorts the generator and brings the turbine to a complete stop. As the wind speed subsides, the controller releases the turbine and it resumes producing electricity. Data collection and instrumentation problems prevented identification of the exact speeds at which these events occur. However, the turbine, controller and generator survived winds in excess of 36 mps, confirming that the two over-speed controls accomplished their purpose. Technical Effectiveness & Economic Feasibility Maximum Electrical Output The output of electricity is maximized by the integration of an electronic controller and mechanical over-speed controls designed and tested during the course of this project. The output exceeds that of the PowerJet�s 3-bladed counterparts (see Appendix). Durability All components of the PowerJet turbine assembly�including the electronic and mechanical controls designed, manufactured and field tested during the course of this project�proved to be durable through severe weather conditions, with constant operation and no interruption in energy production. Low Cost Materials for the turbine, generator, tower, charge controllers and ancillary parts are available at reasonable prices. Fabrication of these parts is also readily available worldwide. The cost of assembling and installing the turbine is reduced because it has fewer parts and requires less labor to manufacture and assemble, making it competitively priced compared with turbines of similar output manufactured in the U.S. and Europe. The electronic controller is the unique part to be included in the turbine package. The controllers can be manufactured in reasonably-sized production runs to keep the cost below $250 each. The data logger and 24 sensors are for research only and will be unnecessary for the commercial product. Benefit To Public The PowerJet wind-electric system is designed for distributed wind generation in 3 and 4 class winds. This wind turbine meets DOE�s requirements for a quiet, durable, bird-safe turbine that eventually can be deployed as a grid-connected generator in urban and suburban settings. Results As described more fully below and illustrated in the Appendices, the goals and objectives outlined in 2060 SOPO were fully met. Electronic and mechanical controls were successfully designed, manufactured and integrated with the generator. The turbine, tower, controllers and generators operated without incident throughout the test period, surviving severe winter and summer weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, ice and sustained high winds. The electronic controls were contained in weather-proof electrical boxes and the electrical wires were fully contained inside

Bartlett, Raymond J

2008-11-30

 
 
 
 
321

Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

322

Noise measurements in 4 wind turbine farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title wind turbine arrays are situated in Herbayum (Newinco 23PI250), Callantsoog (Bouma 160/20), Noordoostpolder (Windmaster WM300), and Ulketocht (Newinco 500 kW). Measurements were carried out by means of the so-called Ecofys Correlating Noise Meter to determine the source level of the wind turbines. The resulting source level as a function of the wind speed is interpolated to a source level for a wind speed of 8 m/s at 10 m height, on the basis of which the noise contours can be calculated. The noise contours are determined to analyze the noise load for people living in the neighbourhood of the wind parks. The source levels are compared with values as indicated in certificates, which are granted on the basis of a so-called Restricted Quality Certificate (BKC, abbreviated in Dutch) or the new standard NNI 6096/2 for the above-mentioned wind turbines. In general the results of this study agree quite well with the certified values. 12 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs

323

Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

2012-11-01

324

Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper, a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination of improved cooperative particle swarm optimization (ICPSO) and PID, subsequently, it was used to tune the pitch controller parameters; thus the difficulty in PID tuning was removed when a wind speed was above the rated speed. It was indicated that the proposed optimization algorithm can tune the pitch controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller with ICPSO-PID algorithm has a smaller overshoot, a shorter tuning time and better robustness. The design method proposed in the paper can be applied in a practical electro-hydraulic pitch control system for WTG.

Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang

2013-01-01

325

Floating axis wind turbines for offshore power generation—a conceptual study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost of energy produced by offshore wind turbines is considered to be higher than land based ones because of the difficulties in construction, operation and maintenance on offshore sites. To solve the problem, we propose a concept of a wind turbine that is specially designed for an offshore environment. In the proposed concept, a floater of revolutionary shape supports the load of the wind turbine axis. The floater rotates with the turbine and the turbine axis tilts to balance the turbine thrust, buoyancy and gravity. The tilt angle is passively adjustable to wind force. The angle is 30° at rated power. The simplicity of the system leads to further cost reduction of offshore power generation.

326

Transient stability of DFIG wind turbines at an external short-circuit fault  

Science.gov (United States)

The fast development of wind power generation brings new requirements for wind turbine integration into the network. After clearance of an external short-circuit fault, grid-connected wind turbines should restore their normal operation without power loss caused by disconnections. This article concentrates on the transient stability of variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) at an external short-circuit fault. A simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a DFIG developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented and the control and protection schemes are described in detail. The transient process of grid-connected wind turbines with DFIGs at an external short-circuit fault is analysed, and in critical post-fault situations a measure is proposed for the voltage recovery of DFIG wind turbines after fault clearance. Simulation results demonstrate that in uncritical post-fault situations the control schemes are able to restore the wind turbine's normal operation without disconnections. It is also proved that the proposed measure is effective in re-establishing the voltage at the wind turbine terminal in critical post-fault situations. Copyright

Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

2005-07-01

327

Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

328

Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

Frost, Susan

2010-01-01

329

Wind Turbines on CO2 Neutral Luminaries in Urban Areas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present work, an overview of three different wind turbines used in hybrid luminaries is presented. The turbines are: vertical-axis twisted Savonius, three-blade horizontal-axis, and vertical-axis three-blade helical H-rotor. The considered luminaries are also equipped with photovoltaic panels and batteries, detailed investigation of which is outside the scope of the present manuscript. Analysis of the turbines’ performance based on producer-supplied power curves is presented together with an estimation of the wind climate in Copenhagen district comprising 1-2 story single family buildings. A new vertical-axis twisted Savonius rotor is proposed for a luminary being designed for such a district within the “Development of CO2 neutral urban luminary” project.

Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Bak, Christian

2013-01-01

330

An experimental investigation of wind turbine aerodynamic interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind turbine installed capacity in the United States has seen an exponential growth over the last decade and mostly coming in the form of large wind farm installations. The wind farms themselves too have been increasing in size, incorporating more wind turbines in larger areas than ever before. ^ Wind turbines have become a viable component in the overall energy makeup of the United States due to improved economics where energy prices have risen and production costs dropped. For a fixed co...

Ennis, Brandon Lee

2013-01-01

331

Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined by the effective wind speed on the rotor disc. We take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore, the scheduling variable is ...

Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

2013-01-01

332

Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely due to advances in large wind turbines, particularly off-shore wind turbines. Small wind turbines on the other hand have not been developing at such an impressive rate. In the past few years, an a...

Ani, S. O.

2013-01-01

333

Large wind turbine development in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

1996-12-31

334

Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar - A Recap  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication, and wear. It is an important phenomenon that not only impacts the design and operation of wind turbine gearboxes, but also their subsequent maintenance requirements and overall reliability. With the major growth and increasing dependency on renewable energy, mechanical reliability is an extremely important issue. The Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar was convened to explore the state-of-the-art in wind turbine tribology and lubricant technologies, raise industry awareness of a very complex topic, present the science behind each technology, and identify possible R&D areas. To understand the background of work that had already been accomplished, and to consolidate some level of collective understanding of tribology by acknowledged experts, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted a wind turbine tribology seminar. It was held at the Renaissance Boulder Flatiron Hotel in Broomfield, Colorado on November 15-17, 2011. This report is a summary of the content and conclusions. The presentations given at the meeting can be downloaded. Interested readers who were not at the meeting may wish to consult the detailed publications listed in the bibliography section, obtain the cited articles in the public domain, or contact the authors directly.

Errichello, R.; Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Greco, A.

2012-02-01

335

Flutter of Darrieus wind turbine blades  

Science.gov (United States)

The testing of Darrieus wind turbines has indicated that under certain conditions, serious vibrations of the blades can occur, involving flatwise bending, torsion, and chordwise bending. A theoretical method of predicting the aeroelastic stability of the coupled bending and torsional motion of such blades with a view to determining the cause of these vibrations, and a means of suppressing them was developed.

Ham, N. D.

1978-01-01

336

Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby strengthening the shell against transverse shear distortion.

Jensen, Find MØlholt Technical University of Denmark,

337

Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Different equipment for mounting the accelerometers are investigated and the most suitable are chosen. Different excitation techniques are tried during experimental campaigns. After a discussion the pendulum hammer were chosen, and a new improved hammer was manufactured. Some measurement errors are investigated. The ability to repeat the measured results is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use of accelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on a blade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Oeyes blade{sub E}V1 program. (au)

Broen Pedersen, H.; Dahl Kristensen, O.J.

2003-02-01

338

Evaluation of airfoils for small wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

A new set of blades have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas in an attempt to improve the overall performance of small (1-10 kilowatt) wind turbines. The ...

339

Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

2011-01-01

340

Dynamic Response of Flexible Wind Turbine Blade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the non-stationary and stall flutter problems of wind turbine blade caused by transient load fluctuations, the dynamic properties of wind turbine were studied, the blade was simplify to a cantilever beam in case of the action of shear deformation and cross section rotating effect were considered in this analysis, equations of the blade were established based on D'Alemberts' principle and the principle of virtual displacement. The dynamic response of the wind turbine was solved by using the finite element method under the transient load environment. A 29.2 m rotor blade, previously reported in specialized literature, was chosen as a case study to validate dynamic behaviour predicted by a Timoshenko beam model. It is concluded that despite its simplicity, The cross-sectional shear-deformation  has great influence on  dynamic response of the blade.Dynamic model is sufficiently accurate to serve as a design tool for the recursive analyses required during design and optimization stages of wind turbines using only readily available computational tools.

Yu-qiao Zheng

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Blades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper analyses the possibility of reducing the expected damage accumulation during tower passage by modifying the wind turbine tower design from a traditional mono-tower to a tripod. Due to a narrow stagnation zone the stress reversals and hence the damage accumulation in the blades is substantial smaller in the tripod tower design compared to the mono-tower.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2010-01-01

342

Grid fault and design-basis for wind turbines - Final report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is the final report of a Danish research project “Grid fault and design-basis for wind turbines”. The objective of this project has been to assess and analyze the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and ultimate structural loads of wind turbines. The fulfillment of the grid connection requirements poses challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. The development of wind turbine models and novel control strategies to fulfill the TSO’s requirements are of vital importance in this design. Dynamic models and different fault ride-through control strategies have been developed and assessed in this project for three different wind turbine concepts (active stall wind turbine, variable speed doublyfed induction generator wind turbine, variable speed multipole permanent magnet wind turbine). A computer approach for the quantification of the wind turbines structural loads caused by the fault ride-through grid requirement, has been proposed and exemplified for the case of an active stall wind turbine. This approach relies on the combination of knowledge from complimentary simulation tools, which have expertise in different specialized design areas for wind turbines. In order to quantify the impact of the grid faults and grid requirements fulfillment on wind turbines structural loads and thus on their lifetime, a rainflow and a statistical analysis for fatigue and ultimate structural loads, respectively, have been performed and compared for two cases, i.e. one when the turbine is immediately disconnected from the grid when a grid fault occurs and one when the turbine is equipped with a fault ride-through controller and therefore it is able to remain connected to the grid during the grid fault. Different storm control strategies, that enable variable speed wind turbines to produce power at wind speeds higher than 25m/s and up to 50m/s without substantially increasing the structural loads, have also been proposed and investigated during the project. Statistics in terms of mean value and standard deviation have been analysed and rainflow calculations have been performed to estimate the impact over the lifetime of a variable speed wind turbine.

Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

2010-01-01

343

Leasing wind turbines (and its alternatives)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The financing of wind farms has historically consisted of a mixture of traditional debt and equity, with debt generally being provided by high street or specialist banks, through inter-company loans, or from International Funding Agencies (IFA's) via National Funding Agencies in developing countries. The use of more innovative financing methods has to date been limited. One possible methods of attracting finance for wind farms is the leasing of wind turbines, and this paper sets out the reasons leasing is particularly appropriate for renewable energy (RE) projects (in particular wind farms), the effect leasing may have on returns available to investors, and some of the obstacles that have to be overcome by the RE and wind industry to increase the utilisation of leasing. This paper concludes by discussing the possibility of using a pan-European leasing company as means of providing overseas aid to developing countries, thereby facilitating the implementation of wind energy in these important regions. (Author)

344

Development of the Risoe wind turbine aerofoils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the wind turbine airfoil development at Risoe. The design method is described together with our target characteristics for wind turbine airfoils. The use of the CFD code Ellipsys2D for prediction of final target characteristics is described together with the VELUX wind tunnel testing setup. Three airfoil families were developed; Risoe-Al, Risoe-P and Risoe-B1. The Risoe-A1 airfoil family was developed for rotors of 600 kW and larger. Wind tunnel testing and field testing showed that this airfoil family is well suited for stall and active stall control. However, sensitivity to roughness was higher than expected. Field tests of a 600 kW active stall wind turbine showed an estimated reduction in blade fatigue loading of up to 15% at the same annual energy yield and at the same time reduced blade weight and blade solidity. The Risoe-P airfoils were developed to replace the Risoe-A1 airfoils for use on pitch controlled wind turbines. Improved design objectives should reduce the sensitivity to roughness, but measurements are not yet available. The Risoe-B I airfoil family was developed for variable speed operation with pitch control of large megawatt sized rotors. Wind tunnel testing verified the high maximum lift for these airfoils, and the airfoils were found to be very insensitive to leading edge roughness. Performance with vortex generators and Gurney flaps in combination was found to be attractive for the blade root part. Field testing of a 1.5 MW rotor is in progress. (author)

Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.

2004-07-01

345

Fault tolerant wind speed estimator used in wind turbine controllers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advanced control schemes can be used to optimize energy production and cost of energy in modern wind turbines. These control schemes most often rely on wind speed estimations. These designs of wind speed estimators are, however, not designed to be fault tolerant towards faults in the used sensors. In this paper a fault tolerant wind speed estimator is designed based on a set of unknown input observers, each designed to the different sets of non-faulty sensors. Faults in the rotor, generator a...

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

2012-01-01

346

Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu- ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established techniques from the energy and in- dustry sector, such as vibration analysis, are commercially available and functioning successfully in fixed speed and vari- able speed turbines. Power performance analysis is a method specifically applicable to wind turbines for the detection of power generation changes due to external factors, such as ic- ing, internal factors, such as controller malfunction, or delib- erate actions, such as power de-rating. In this paper, power performance analysis is performed by sliding a time-power window and calculating the two eigenvalues corresponding to the two dimensional wind speed - power generation dis- tribution. The power is classified into five bins in order to achieve better resolution and thus identify the most proba- ble root cause of the power deviation. An important aspect of the proposed technique is its independence of the power curve provided by the turbine manufacturer. It is shown that by detecting any changes of the two eigenvalues trends in the five power bins, power generation anomalies are consistently identified

Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

2014-01-01

347

Multidisciplinary Constrained Optimization of Power Quality in Doubly Fed Wind Turbine Induction Generator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shape optimization of turbine blade to maximize the output power usually changes the power factor due to compensate Repower in a wind turbine. This article presents a multidisciplinary optimization technique to maximize the output power in Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG wind turbine. The most common parameters when operating the turbine, namely, active power, reactive power and power factor, are considered as the problem constraints and the pitch angle grid side variable frequency converter of the turbine blades are optimized to maximize the output power. Numerical simulation has been illustrated to present the performance of the proposed design approach.

Abolghasem Zabihollah

2013-05-01

348

Orthogonal Bases used for Feed Forward Control of Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In optimizing wind turbines it can be of a large help to use information of wind speeds at upwind turbine for the control of downwind turbines, it is, however, problematic to use these measurements directly since they are highly in?uenced by turbulence behind the wind turbine rotor plane. In this paper an orthogonal basis is use to extract the general trends in the wind signal, which are forward to the down wind turbines. This concept controller is designed and simulated on a generic 4.8 MW...

Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

2011-01-01

349

Laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations is obtained by a similarity transformation technique. This approach allows to transform the boundary layer equations that have included the effect of the Coriolis and centrifugal forces into a set of couple partial differential equations, that are more convenient to solve numerically. The solution have been parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been obtained by solving the stability equations as an eigenvalue problem. The Keller box Scheme that is second order accurate was used as a numerical method. Have found to be stable and effective in terms of computing time. The solution of the eigenvalue problem provide connection between the parameters used to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils are selected to performe parametrical studies with rotational effects. Finally a wind turbine rotor is used for comparison with transition experiments. The relative motion between the flow and the blade geometry defines the response of the flow to disturbances. Have been found that flow on the suction side of the blade has a stabilizating effect, while on the region from the stagnation point to the rotor plane has a destabilizating effect on the boundary layer. The tendency is that rotational effect stabilize the boundary layer on the wind turbine blade. (Author)

Martinez Hernandez, G.G.

2011-01-15

350

European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation.

Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels

2001-01-01

351

Effects of wind turbines on UHF television reception: field tests in Denmark, November 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of a planning application for a wind farm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, it became necessary to produce a Report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on UHF television reception. In order to make that Report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used to Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This Report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (Author)

352

Dust Effect on the Performance of Wind Turbine Airfoils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes algorithm and the SST k-? turbulence model were used to investigate incom-pressible viscous flow past the wind turbine two-dimensional airfoil under clean and roughness surface conditions. The NACA 63-430 airfoil is chosen to be the subject, which is widely used in wind turbine airfoil and generally located at mid-span of the blade with thickness to chord length ratio of about 0.3. The numerical simulation of the airfoil under clean surface condition has been done. As a result, the numerical results had a good consistency with the experimental data. The wind turbine blade surface dust accumulation according to the operational periods in natural environment has been taken into consideration. Then, the lift coefficients and the drag coefficients of NACA 63-430 airfoil have been computed under different roughness heights, different roughness areas and different roughness locations. The role that roughness plays in promoting premature transition to turbulence and flow separation has been verified by the numeri-cal results. The trends of the lift coefficients and the drag coefficients with the roughness height and roughness area increasing have been obtained. What’s more, the critical values of roughness height, roughness area, and roughness location have been proposed. Furthermore, the performance of the airfoil under different operational periods has been simulated, and an advice for the period of cleaning wind turbine blades is proposed. As a result, the numerical simula-tion method has been verified to be economically available for investigation of the dust effect on wind turbine airfoils.

Jinping Ou

2009-06-01

353

The Mod-2 wind turbine development project  

Science.gov (United States)

A major phase of the Federal Wind Energy Program, the Mod-2 wind turbine, a second-generation machine developed by the Boeing Engineering and Construction Co. for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is described. The Mod-2 is a large (2.5-MW power rating) horizontal-axis wind turbine designed for the generation of electrical power on utility networks. Three machines were built and are located in a cluster at Goodnoe Hills, Washington. All technical aspects of the project are described: design approach, significant innovation features, the mechanical system, the electrical power system, the control system, and the safety system.

Linscott, B. S.; Dennett, J. T.; Gordon, L. H.

1981-07-01

354

Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

2010-11-01

355

Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turb...

Kai Goebel; Frost, Susan A.; Léo Obrecht

2013-01-01

356

Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

Clifton, A.

2012-12-01

357

Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of clean energy sources was realised rapidly after the negative effects of the pollution caused by generators on the environment became clear. Wind energy is a clean and renewable energy source whose applications exist worldwide. Some countries changed their national energy forward planning for renewable clean energy projects. In developed countries some researchers have worked on developing new kinds of wind turbines in order to produce a part of their power from renewable wind energy. The rotational speed of the wind blades can be increased using steering aerofoils surrounding the blades. A prototype of this wind turbine has been made in the laboratory; a ventilator whose flow rate is variable generates the 'wind'. The blade profiles are designed using the theory of aerodynamics. The steering aerofoils are fixed surrounding the wind blades at an optimum distance. The number of the aerofoils and the angle of inclination (tilt) of the foils can be changed. In the experiment the ambient conditions are held constant. Because of the optimum adjustment of the distance and angle of the aerofoils the rotational speed of the blades can be increased by 32% on the experimental device. In this paper the theoretical and experimental results will be discussed.

Varol, A. [Communications Faculty, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Ilkilic, C. [Technical Education Faculty, Department of Material Science, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Varol, Y. [Technical Education Faculty, Department of Mechanical Science, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

2001-07-01

358

A continuous bivariate model for wind power density and wind turbine energy output estimations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wind power probability density function is useful in both the design process of a wind turbine and in the evaluation process of the wind resource available at a potential site. The continuous probability models used in the scientific literature to estimate the wind power density distribution function and wind turbine energy output assume that air density is independent of the wind speed. A constant annual value for air density of 1.225 kg m-3, corresponding to standard conditions (sea level, 15 oC), is generally used. A bivariate probability model (BPM) is presented in this paper for wind power density and wind turbine energy output estimations. This model takes into account the time variability of air density and wind speed, as well as the correlation existing between both variables. Contingency type bivariate distributions with specified marginal distributions have been used for this purpose. The proposed model is applied in this paper to meteorological data (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed) recorded over a one year period at a weather station located at the facilities of the Technological Institute of the Canary Islands (Spain). The conclusion reached is that the BPM presented in this paper is more realistic than the univariate probability models (UPMs) normally used in the scientific literature. In the particular case under study, and for all the situations analysed, the BPM has provided values for the annual mean winas provided values for the annual mean wind power density and annual energy output of a wind turbine that fit the sample data better than the UPMs. However, as a result of the climatological characteristics of the area where the analysis was performed, the results do not differ notably from those obtained through the use of a UPM and the mean air density of the area

359

The Effect of Additional Mooring Chains on the Motion Performance of a Floating Wind Turbine with a Tension Leg Platform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, two types of floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) systems were proposed: a traditional tension leg platform (TLP) type and a new TLP type with additional mooring chains. They were both based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model. Taking the coupled effect of dynamic response of the top wind turbine, tower support structure and lower mooring system into consideration, not only were the 1/60 scale model tests for the two floating wind turbi...

Jinping Ou; Nianxin Ren; Yugang Li

2012-01-01

360

Wind-tunnel simulations of wind-turbine arrays in neutral and non-neutral winds  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind tunnel simulations have been made of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), a stable layer and an unstable layer, typical of offshore conditions, in order to better understand wake development and turbine-wake interactions. Measurements of the wake of a single turbine showed a slower reduction of the velocity deficit for the stable case, and a more rapid reduction for the unstable case, compared with the neutral. It is proposed that there are two effects of non-neutral conditions, indirect and direct. Indirect effects are seen in the earlier part of the wake, influenced by the turbulence level in the ABL but not by buoyancy forces directly; direct effects, caused by buoyancy forces, are seen further downstream. In the stable case, direct effects were seen from about 3 rotor diameters, while for the unstable case they were not seen until about 10 diameters. Two-point measurements in the wakes of four turbines aligned with the flow, compared with those of the ABL, exhibited very different flow characteristics, suggesting a lateral oscillation of the wakes of the later turbines. The effects of laterally adjacent turbines, in a 3-wide x 4-deep array, but with closer-than-typical lateral spacing (2.4 diameters) so as to give early interaction in the short array, were also investigated, and showed only limited interaction.

Hancock, P. E.; Farr, T. D.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-lens Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed a new wind turbine system that consists of a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery and a wind turbine inside it. The shrouded wind turbine with a brimmed diffuser has demonstrated power augmentation by a factor of about 2–5 compared with a bare wind turbine, for a given turbine diameter and wind speed. This is because a low-pressure region, due to a strong vortex formation behind the broad brim, draws more mass flow to the wind turbine inside the dif...

Yuji Ohya; Takashi Karasudani

2010-01-01

362

Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

Gordon, L. H.

1985-12-01

363

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

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The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compared with the proposed wind field parameters in the IEC standard 61400-3. Based on this analysis, aeroelastic simulations are performed to determine the effect of wind field parameters on the fatigue...

Seume, Jo?rg R.; Benedikt Ernst

2012-01-01

364

Modern control design for flexible wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted on taller towers, and are more dynamically active than their predecessors. Control systems to regulate turbine power and maintain stable closed-loop behavior in the presence of turbulent wind inflow will be critical for these designs. New advanced control approaches and paradigms must account for low-damped flexible modes in order to reduce structural dynamic loading and achieve the 20--25 year operational life required of today's machines. This thesis applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering hub upwind machine located at the National Wind Technology Center. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. Starting with simple control algorithms based on linear models, complexity is added incrementally until the desired performance is firmly established. The controls approach is based on the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) method and provides accountability for wind-speed fluctuations. First, controls are designed using the single control input rotor collective pitch to stabilize the 1st drive-train torsion as well as the tower 1st fore-aft bending modes. Generator torque is then incorporated as an additional control input. This reduces some of the demand placed on the rotor collective pitch control system and enhances 1st drive train torsion mode damping. Individual blade pitch control is then used to attenuate wind disturbances having spatial variation over the rotor and effectively reduces blade flap deflections due to wind shear. Finally, results from these modern controls are compared to results from simpler classical controls in order to assess modern controller performance. These modern controls are shown to more effectively mitigate tower fore-aft motion, drive-train shaft torsion moments, and blade root flap bending moments when compared to the classical control approaches.

Wright, Alan Duane

365

Generators of Modern Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed.

Chen, Zhe

2008-01-01

366

Adaptive control algorithm for improving power capture of wind turbines in turbulent winds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The standard wind turbine (WT) control law modifies the torque applied to the generator as a quadratic function of the generator speed (K!2) while blades are positioned at some optimal pitch angle (). The value of K and should be properly selected such that energy capture is increased. In practice, the complex and time-varying aerodynamics a WT face due to turbulent winds make their determination a hard task. The selected constant parameters may maximize energy for a particular, but not all, wind regime conditions. Adaptivity can modify the controller to increase power capture under variable wind conditions. This paper present new analysis tools and an adaptive control law to increase the energy captured by a wind turbine. Due to its simplicity, it can be easily added to existing industry-standard controllers. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is assessed by simulations on a high-fidelity aeroelastic code.

Diaz-Guerra, Lluis; Adegas, Fabiano Daher

2012-01-01

367

Design and wind tunnel experimentation of a variable blade drag type vertical axis wind turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary purpose of this research effort is to propose a novel efficiency boosting design feature in a drag type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), explore practicality through design and fabrication, and test the viability of the design through wind tunnel experiments. Using adaptive control surface design and an improved blade shape can be very useful in harnessing the wind's energy in low wind speed areas. The new design is based on a series of smaller blade elements to make any shape, which changes to reduce a negative resistance as it rotates and thus maximizing the useful torque. As such, these blades were designed into a modified Savonius wind turbine with the goal of improving upon the power coefficient produced by a more conventional design. The experiment yielded some positive observations with regard to starting characteristics. Torque and angular velocity data was recorded for both the conventional configuration and the newly built configuration and the torque and power coefficient results were compared.

Mays, Samuel; Bahr, Behnam

2012-04-01

368

Large mills attract the wind. Wind and noise measurements of high wind turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that under specific weather conditions wind turbines produce more noise than expected, according to the theory that wind speed increases with height on a logarithmic scale. However, from the results of the project on the title subject it appears that this correlation between wind speed and height is not correct for a stabile atmosphere: in that case wind speed increases more with height and subsequently the turbine will produce more noise

369

Design Optimization of a Cost-Effective Micro Wind Turbine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of a specially designed micro wind turbine for urban environment where the wind speed is usually low. Differing from the traditional wind turbine that can be connected directly to the grid, the micro wind turbine is linked to a small generator and mainly used for local applications. The advantage of the micro wind turbine is that, apart from its low cost, it can be propelled by a wind speed as low as 2 m/s. In this paper, the performance...

Leung, D. Y. C.; Deng, Y.; Leung, M. K. H.

2010-01-01

370

Lightning discharges produced by wind turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

observations with a 3-D Lightning Mapping Array and high-speed video are presented and discussed. The first set of observations shows that under certain thunderstorm conditions, wind turbine blades can produce electric discharges at regular intervals of ~3 s in relation to its rotation, over periods of time that range from a few minutes up to hours. This periodic effect has not been observed in static towers indicating that the effect of rotation is playing a critical role. The repeated discharges can occur tens of kilometers away from electrically active thunderstorm areas and may or may not precede a fully developed upward lightning discharge from the turbine. Similar to rockets used for triggering lightning, the fast movement of the blade tip plays an important role on the initiation of the discharge. The movement of the rotor blades allows the tip to "runaway" from the generated corona charge. The second observation is an uncommon upward/downward flash triggered by a wind turbine. In that flash, a negative upward leader was initiated from a wind turbine without preceding lightning activity. The flash produced a negative cloud-to-ground stroke several kilometers from the initiation point. The third observation corresponds to a high-speed video record showing simultaneous upward positive leaders from a group of wind turbines triggered by a preceding intracloud flash. The fact that multiple leaders develop simultaneously indicates a poor shielding effect among them. All these observations provide some special features on the initiation of lightning by nonstatic and complex tall structures.

Montanyà, Joan; Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.

2014-02-01

371

A New Structure Based on Cascaded Multilevel Converter for Variable Speed Wind Turbine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An alternative structure for variable speed wind turbine, using multiple permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) drive-train configuration and cascaded multilevel converter is proposed in this paper. This study presents a power electronic solution for the wind turbine. A transformer-less cascaded multilevel converter interface based on PMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal output voltage. The benefits of high power and high ac voltage make this structure possible to be applied in the wind power generation. In addition, the bulky transformer could be omitted. A simulation model of 10 MW variable speed wind turbine based on PMSGs developed in PSCAD/EMTDC is presented. The dynamic performance of grid-connected wind turbine is analyzed. Simulation results shows that the proposed structure may be attractive in wind power generation.

Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

2010-01-01

372

Semiconductor Laser Lidar Wind Velocity Sensor for Turbine Control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dual line-of-sight CW lidar that measures both wind speed and direction is presented . The wind lidar employs a semiconductor laser, which allows for inexpensive remote sensors geared towards enhanced control of wind turbines .

Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi

2014-01-01

373

A new generation of wind turbines; Une nouvelle generation d'eoliennes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although homeowners have expressed a desire to use wind energy to supply their electricity needs, many technical barriers have stood in the way of installing wind turbines in urban settings. This was due in part to three-bladed vertical axis turbines, high technical costs, limited performances in urban settings and questionable aesthetics. Tesnic has considered these issues and proposed a completely different turbine that uses a different method for extracting energy from the wind. The first approved 3.6 kW model should appear by the end of 2009. This new turbine is based on the same principal of the steam turbine patented in 1913 by Nikola Tesla. Instead of having blades, the Tesla turbine used closely spaced parallel disks and was recognized as being very robust with a high efficiency rating. Tesnic's new wind powered turbine is a vertical axis turbine with a series of valves that directs the wind on a rotor assembly of disk space. A series of blades on its circumference redirects the wind through the assembly of discs and accelerates the rotation of the rotor. The turbine extracts the wind energy in several ways, including conventional drag and lift, adherence and the vortex effect. This gives a 50 per cent added value of efficiency compared to other wind powered turbines. The global market for small wind powered energy is in full expansion. It has been projected that small turbines with 1 kW capacity will be abundant by 2020. It was noted that for household wind powered energy, the market must consider issues of cost, low maintenance, noise pollution, visual aesthetics, durability and safety. Wind energy can also be used in several industries, including plastics, composites, light metals, textiles and electronics. 2 figs.

Nica, H. [Tesnic, Laval, PQ (Canada)

2008-06-15

374

Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

Kai Goebel

2013-01-01

375

Advanced CFD methods for wind turbine analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Horizontal-axis wind turbines operate in a complex, inherently unsteady aerodynamic environment. Even when the rotor is not stalled, the flow over the blades is dominated by three-dimensional (3-D) effects. Stall is accompanied by massive flow separation and vortex shedding over the suction surface of the blades. Under yawed conditions, dynamic stall may be present as well. In all operating conditions, there is bluff-body shedding from the turbine nacelle and support structure which interacts with the rotor wake. In addition, the high aspect ratios of wind turbine blades make them very flexible, leading to substantial aeroelastic deformation of the blades, altering the aerodynamics. Finally, when situated in a wind farm, turbines must operate in the unsteady wake of upstream neighbors. Though computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made significant inroads as a research tool, simple, inexpensive methods, such as blade element momentum (BEM) theory, are still the workhorses in wind turbine design and aeroelasticity applications. These methods generally assume a quasi-steady flowfield and use two-dimensional aerodynamic approximations with very limited empirical 3-D corrections. As a result, they are unable to accurately predict rotor loads near the edges of the operating envelope. CFD methods make very few limiting assumptions about the flowfield, and thus have much greater potential for predicting these flows. In this work, a range of unstructured grid CFD techniques for predicting wind turbine loads and aeroelasticity has been developed and applied to a wind turbine configuration of interest. First, a nearest neighbor search algorithm based on a k-dimensional tree data structure was used to improve the computational efficiency of an approximate unsteady actuator blade method. This method was then shown to predict root and tip vortex locations and strengths similar to an overset method on the same background mesh, but without the computational expense of modeling the blade surfaces. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes / Large Eddy Simulation (HRLES) turbulence model, previously developed for structured grids, was extended to an unstructured framework. It was demonstrated to improve predictions of unsteady loading and shedding frequency in massively separated cases. The sensitivity of the model to highly stretched grid topologies was also explored. For aeroelastic predictions, a methodology for tight coupling between an unstructured CFD solver and a computational structural dynamics tool was developed. Due to the lack of experimental data pertaining to a flexible turbine, the coupling algorithm was validated for a helicopter rotor, but the method is sufficiently general that it can be immediately applied to a wind turbine when suitable correlation data becomes available in the future. Finally, time-accurate overset rotor simulations of a complete turbine---blades, nacelle, and tower---were conducted using both RANS and HRLES turbulence models. The HRLES model was able to accurately predict rotor loads when stalled. In yawed flow, excellent correlations of mean blade loads with experimental data were obtained across the span, and wake asymmetry and unsteadiness were also well-predicted.

Lynch, C. Eric

2011-12-01

376

On Using Wind Speed Preview to Reduce Wind Turbine Tower Oscillations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the potential of using previewed wind speed measurements for damping wind turbine fore-aft tower oscillations. Using recent results on continuous-time H2 preview control, we develop a numerically efficient framework for the feedforward controller synthesis. One of the major benefits of the proposed framework is that it allows us to account for measurement distortion. This results in a controller that is tailored to the quality of the previewed data. A simple yet meaningful para...

Kristalny, Maxim; Madjidian, Daria; Knudsen, Torben

2013-01-01

377

Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, impo...

Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

2009-01-01

378

Noise Pollution Prevention in Wind Turbines: Status and Recent Advances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global push towards sustainability has led to increased interest in alternative power sources other than coal and fossil fuels. One of these sustainable sources is to harness energy from the wind through wind turbines. However, a significant hindrance preventing the widespread use of wind turbines is the noise they produce. This study reviews recent advances in the area of noise pollution from wind turbines. To date, there have been many different noise control studies. While there are ma...

Greg Naterer; Rosen, Marc A.; Ofelia Jianu

2012-01-01

379

Condition Parameter Modeling for Anomaly Detection in Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, used widely in wind farms to obtain operational and condition information about wind turbines (WTs), is of important significance for anomaly detection in wind turbines. The paper presents a novel model for wind turbine anomaly detection mainly based on SCADA data and a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) for automatic selection of the condition parameters. The SCADA data sets are determined through analysis o...

Yonglong Yan; Jian Li; David Wenzhong Gao

2014-01-01

380

Weather response to a large wind turbine array  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrical generation by wind turbines is increasing rapidly, and has been projected to satisfy 15% of world electric demand by 2030. The extensive installation of wind farms would alter surface roughness and significantly impact the atmospheric circulation due to the additional surface roughness forcing. This forcing could be changed deliberately by adjusting the attitude of the turbine blades with respect to the wind, which would enable the "management" of a large array of wind turbines. Us...

Barrie, D. B.; Kirk-davidoff, D. B.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Wind turbine control and model predictive control for uncertain systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents both an applied study and a theoretical study within the field of control theory. Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch between mathematics and engineering dealing with the manipulation of systems to produce a desired output. The applied study deals with wind turbine control. Wind turbines are controlled to optimize energy extraction from the wind. This must be done while respecting physical restrictions and ensuring that loads on the wind turbin...

Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

2010-01-01

382

76 FR 18238 - Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee; Announcement of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...94300-1122-0000-Z2] Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...Service), will host a Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory...Draft Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines. DATES...Designated Federal Officer, Wind Turbine Guidelines...

2011-04-01

383

Multiple turbine wind power transfer system loss and efficiency analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A gearless hydraulic wind energy transfer system utilizes the hydraulic power transmission principles to integrate the energy of multiple wind turbines in a central power generation location. The gearless wind power transfer technology may replace the current energy harvesting system to reduce the cost of operation and increase the reliability of wind power generation. It also allows for the integration of multiple wind turbines to one central generation unit, unlike the traditional wind powe...

Pusha, Ayana T.

2013-01-01

384

Optimal, reliability-based turbine placement in off-shore wind turbine parks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offshore wind turbines for electricity production placed in wind farms are expected to be of one of the major future contributors for sustainable energy production. In this paper some of the problems associated with optimal planning and design of wind turbine parks are addressed. The number of wind turbines in a park is usually restricted to be placed within a fixed, limited geographical area. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases and the turbulence intensity increases. The distance between the turbines is among other things dependent on the recovery of wind energy behind the neighboring turbines and the increased wind load. Models for the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity in wind turbine parks are considered with emphasis on modeling the spatial correlation. Representative limit state equations for structural failure of wind turbine towers are formulated. The probability of failure is determined taking into account that wind turbines are parked for wind speeds larger than 25 m/s resulting in reduced wind loads. An illustrative example is presented where illustrative models for the spatial correlation is taken into account.

SØrensen, John Dalsgaard

2007-01-01

385

Bearing Fault Detection in DFIG-Based Wind Turbines Using the First Intrinsic Mode Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind energy conversion systems have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. In order to make the DFIG-based wind turbines so competitive as the classical electric power stations it is important to reduce the operational and maintenance costs by continuously monitoring the condition of these systems. This paper provides a method for bearing fault detection in DFIG-based wind turbines. The proposed method uses the first Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) of the stator curre...

Amirat, Yassine; Choqueuse, Vincent; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Charpentier, Jean-frederic

2010-01-01

386

An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatial distribution of the wind field exerts unbalanced loads on wind turbine structures and it is shown these loads could be mitigated by controlling each blade’s angle individually (individual pitch control). In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variablepitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We lineariz...

Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

2013-01-01

387

Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropri...

Barote, L.; Marinescu, C.

2012-01-01

388

Simulation and experiment of a fuzzy logic based MPPT controller for a small wind turbine system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy for a variable speed wind turbine system (VSWT). For this scope, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was described, simulated and tested on a real time "hardware in the loop" wind turbine emulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the controller is able to track the maximum power point for various wind conditions and validate the proposed control strategy.

Petrila, Diana; Muntean, Nicolae

2012-09-01

389

Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

2010-11-23

390

Wavelet Transformation for Damage Identication in Wind Turbine Blades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper documents a proposed modal and wavelet analysis-based structural health monitoring (SHM) method for damage identification in wind turbine blades. A finite element (FE) model of a full-scale wind turbine blade is developed and introduced to a transverse surface crack. Hereby, post-damage mode shapes are derived through modal analysis and subsequently analyzed with continuous two-dimensional wavelet transformation for damage identification, namely detection, localization and assessment. It is found that valid damage identification is obtained even when utilizing the mode shape of the first structural blade mode. However, due to the nature of the proposed method, it is also found that the accuracy of the damage assessment highly depends on the number of employed measurement points.

Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Skov, Jonas falk

2014-01-01

391

Power optimization of wind turbines with data mining and evolutionary computation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A data-driven approach for maximization of the power produced by wind turbines is presented. The power optimization objective is accomplished by computing optimal control settings of wind turbines using data mining and evolutionary strategy algorithms. Data mining algorithms identify a functional mapping between the power output and controllable and non-controllable variables of a wind turbine. An evolutionary strategy algorithm is applied to determine control settings maximizing the power output of a turbine based on the identified model. Computational studies have demonstrated meaningful opportunities to improve the turbine power output by optimizing blade pitch and yaw angle. It is shown that the pitch angle is an important variable in maximizing energy captured from the wind. Power output can be increased by optimization of the pitch angle. The concepts proposed in this paper are illustrated with industrial wind farm data. (author)

Kusiak, Andrew; Zheng, Haiyang; Song, Zhe [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, 3131 Seamans Center, Iowa City, IA 52242-1527 (United States)

2010-03-15

392

Detecting salt deposition on a wind turbine blade using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of pollution performance on a wind turbine blade due to lightning is important, as it can cause major damage to wind turbine blades. In the present work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is used to understand the influence of pollutant deposited on a wind turbine blade in an off-shore environment. A methodical experimental study was carried out by adopting IEC 60507 standards, and it was observed that the lightning discharge propagates at the interface between the pollutant and the glass fiber reinforced plastic (Material used in manufacturing of wind turbine blades). In addition, as a diagnostic condition monitoring technique, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed and demonstrated to rank the severity of pollutant on the wind turbine blades from a remote area. Optical emission spectra observed during surface discharge process induced by lightning impulse voltage is in agreement with the spectra observed during LIBS.

Sathiesh Kumar, V.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Sarathi, R.

2013-07-01

393

Fault Detection and Isolation and Fault Tolerant Control of Wind Turbines Using Set-Valued Observers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research on wind turbine Operations & Maintenance (O&M) procedures is critical to the expansion of Wind Energy Conversion systems (WEC). In order to reduce O&M costs and increase the lifespan of the turbine, we study the application of Set-Valued Observers (SVO) to the problem of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of wind turbines, by taking advantage of the recent advances in SVO theory for model invalidation. A simple wind turbine model is presented along with possible faulty scenarios. The FDI algorithm is built on top of the described model, taking into account process disturbances, uncertainty and sensor noise. The FTC strategy takes advantage of the proposed FDI algorithm, enabling the controller reconfiguration shortly after fault events. Additionally, a robust controller is designed so as to increase the wind turbine's performance during low severity faults. Finally, the FDI algorithm is assessed within a publicly available benchmark model, using Monte-Carlo simulation runs.

Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre

2012-01-01

394

Small wind turbines: the unsung heroes of the wind industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most discussions concerning wind energy usually focus on utility-size projects on a megawatt scale and how to get such projects off the ground. Whilst silently whirring away in the background are the millions of small (less than 100kW) and micro-turbines (less than 5kW) that have been installed on a huge scale for decades making significant contributions to supplying electricity in off-grid and grid connected areas. Here we take a closer look at these unsung heroes of wind, issues surrounding their installation and use, and highlight companies around the world that manufacture a variety of small and micro-wind turbines for a range of applications. (Author)

Anon.

2002-04-01

395

Wind turbine reliability database update.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

2009-03-01

396

Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Project supported by the CMEP-TASSILI Project (Grant No. 14MDU920).

Manal, Messadi; Adel, Mellit; Karim, Kemih; Malek, Ghanes

2015-01-01

397

Enhanced wind turbine noise prediction tool SILANT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind turbine noise often is quantified in terms of time averaged overall sound power levels, whilst annoyance due to noise level fluctuations in mid- to high-range frequencies ('swish') are not taken into account. Recent experimental research on wind turbine noise has revealed the major causes of the swishing noise to be due to the directivity of the noise sources and convective amplification effects of the moving turbine blades. The findings have been incorporated in the noise prediction tool SILANT which in addition to sound power levels gives sound pressure level predictions for specified observer positions. The noise sources that are taken into account are trailing edge, inflow and tip noise, using the models of Brooks, Pope and Marcolini (BPM) and Amiet and Lowson. The blade is divided into a number of independent elements for which effective inflow velocity and angle of attack information is a necessary input. A distinction is made between the various profiles along the blade span by including their boundary layer displacement thicknesses at the trailing edge in a profile database. The propagation model includes directivity, convective amplification, Doppler shift and atmospheric absorption. The effect of the retarded time is taken into account individually for the separate elements along the blade span using the time dependent rotor azimuth position. A simple empirical model is applied to quantify meteorological effects influencing refraction and ground effects influencing refraction and ground effects. Prediction results are compared to SIROCCO project measurements from microphones positioned in a circle around a turbine. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the SILANT simulations gives new insights in the variation of wind turbine inflow and trailing edge noise as a function of observer position, rotor azimuth angle and frequency band. The influence of directivity is illustrated for the dominant noise sources.

398

Enhanced wind turbine noise prediction tool SILANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind turbine noise often is quantified in terms of time averaged overall sound power levels, whilst annoyance due to noise level fluctuations in mid- to high-range frequencies ('swish') are not taken into account. Recent experimental research on wind turbine noise has revealed the major causes of the swishing noise to be due to the directivity of the noise sources and convective amplification effects of the moving turbine blades. The findings have been incorporated in the noise prediction tool SILANT which in addition to sound power levels gives sound pressure level predictions for specified observer positions. The noise sources that are taken into account are trailing edge, inflow and tip noise, using the models of Brooks, Pope and Marcolini (BPM) and Amiet and Lowson. The blade is divided into a number of independent elements for which effective inflow velocity and angle of attack information is a necessary input. A distinction is made between the various profiles along the blade span by including their boundary layer displacement thicknesses at the trailing edge in a profile database. The propagation model includes directivity, convective amplification, Doppler shift and atmospheric absorption. The effect of the retarded time is taken into account individually for the separate elements along the blade span using the time dependent rotor azimuth position. A simple empirical model is applied to quantify meteorological effects influencing refraction and ground effects. Prediction results are compared to SIROCCO project measurements from microphones positioned in a circle around a turbine. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the SILANT simulations gives new insights in the variation of wind turbine inflow and trailing edge noise as a function of observer position, rotor azimuth angle and frequency band. The influence of directivity is illustrated for the dominant noise sources.

Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

2012-02-15

399

Structural Robustness Evaluation of Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wind turbines are complex structures that should deal with adverse weather conditions, are exposed to impacts or ship collisions and, due to the strategic roles in the energetic supplying, can be the goal of military or malevolent attacks. Even if a structure cannot be design to resist any unforeseeable critical event or arbitrarily high accidental action, this kind of systems should be able to maintain integrity and a certain level of functionality also under accidental circumstances, which are not contemplated or cannot be considered in the usual design verification. According to a performance-based design view, the entity of actions to be resisted and the services levels to be maintained are the design objectives, which should be defined by the stakeholders and by the designer in respect of the regulation in force. For what said above, the structural integrity of wind turbines is a central issue in the framework of a safe design: it depends on different factors, like exposure, vulnerability and robustness.Particularly, the requirement of structural vulnerability and robustness are discussed in this paper and a numerical application is presented, in order to evaluate the effects of a ship collision on the structural system of an offshore wind turbine. The investigation resorts nonlinear dynamic analyses performed on the finite element model of the turbine and considers three different scenarios for the ship collision. The review of the investigation results allows for an evaluation of the turbine structural integrity after the impact and permits to identify some characteristics of the system, which are intrinsic to the chosen organization of the elements within the structure.

Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

2010-01-01

400

Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)

Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.

2011-12-15

 
 
 
 
401

Offshore Wind Turbine Design : Addressing Uncertainty Drivers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep to shallow waters, integrated re-sponse modelling, wake effects, response extrapola-tion and clarification of the relevance of deterministic load cases in the operational regime.

Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp

2006-01-01

402

Large mills attract the wind. Part 2. Noise pollution of wind turbines at night  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Noise measurements were carried out for the wind turbine array (17 wind turbines) in Bellingwedde, Netherlands. Residents complained about shadows (flickering of light) in the morning hours and noise at night