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Sample records for production unit fpu

  1. A chain of FPU cells

    Verhulst, F.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the classical Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chain, the inhomogeneous FPU chain shows nearly all the principal resonances. Using this fact, we can construct a periodic FPU chain of low dimension, for instance a FPU cell of four degrees-of-freedom, that can be used as a building block for a chain of FPU cells. Differences between chains in nearest-neighbour interaction and those in overall interaction are caused by symmetry. We will also show some results on the dynamics of a particular...

  2. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  3. SCR (Steel Catenary Risers) installation from a production unit

    Pollack, Jack; Riggs, David C.; Guo, Feng [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

    2004-07-01

    A deep water installation method has been developed to self-install Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs) from Floating Production Units (FPUs). Multiple risers can be deployed from an FPU using modular J-lay equipment while the pipe is joined by welding or mechanical connectors. A DP (Dynamically Positioned) work boat pulls the pipeline outward from the FPU as the pipe string is lowered from the J-lay tower. The work boat moves incrementally and maintains an acceptable catenary configuration while sliding the pipeline along the seabed. A pipeline may be pulled to long distances (10 kilometers or more) for sub sea tie-ins to a wellhead or another pipeline. When the pipeline is extended to its final length, the SCR is pulled into its final topside angle and supported in a receptacle on the FPU. This method can be applied to any deep water floating system. Having J-lay equipment onboard an FPU enables riser installation to proceed according to field development schedules, thus avoiding pipeline vessel mobilizations. This results in substantial savings over typical deep water pipeline vessel mobilization, stand-by and day-rate charges, which in turn leads to more economical deep water field developments. The paper will describe the equipment and lay operation of multiple SCRs from a typical FPU. (author)

  4. Symmetry and Resonance in Periodic FPU Chains

    Rink, Bob

    The symmetry and resonance properties of the Fermi Pasta Ulam chain with periodic boundary conditions are exploited to construct a near-identity transformation bringing this Hamiltonian system into a particularly simple form. This ``Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form'' retains the symmetries of the original system and we show that in most cases this allows us to view the periodic FPU Hamiltonian as a perturbation of a nondegenerate Liouville integrable Hamiltonian. According to the KAM theorem this proves the existence of many invariant tori on which motion is quasiperiodic. Experiments confirm this qualitative behaviour. We note that one can not expect this in lower-order resonant Hamiltonian systems. So the periodic FPU chain is an exception and its special features are caused by a combination of special resonances and symmetries.

  5. Anomalous Energy Transport in FPU- Chain

    Mellet, Antoine; Merino-Aceituno, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of a macroscopic fractional diffusion equation describing heat transport in an anharmonic chain. More precisely, we study here the so-called FPU- chain, which is a very simple model for a one-dimensional crystal in which atoms are coupled to their nearest neighbors by a harmonic potential, weakly perturbed by a quartic potential. The starting point of our mathematical analysis is a kinetic equation: Lattice vibrations, responsible for heat transport, are modeled by an interacting gas of phonons whose evolution is described by the Boltzmann phonon equation. Our main result is the rigorous derivation of an anomalous diffusion equation starting from the linearized Boltzmann phonon equation.

  6. Anomalous energy transport in FPU-$\\beta$ chain

    Mellet, Antoine; Merino-Aceituno, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of a macroscopic fractional diffusion equation describing heat transport in an anharmonic chain. More precisely, we study here the so-called FPU-$\\beta$ chain, which is a very simple model for a one-dimensional crystal in which atoms are coupled to their nearest neighbors by a harmonic potential, weakly perturbed by a quartic potential. The starting point of our mathematical analysis is a kinetic equation: Lattice vibrations, responsible for heat transp...

  7. Design of an On Ground Experimental Growth Unit (OGEGU) for space applications

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Tse, T.C.; Vanrobaeys, X.; Hagenbeek, D.; Chaerle, L.; Straeten, D. van der; Mas, J.L.; Elvira, J.; Hovland, S.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of producing fresh food meeting crew's nutritional requirements is an essential need for long-term planetary missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) has commissioned a feasibility study of Food Production Units (FPU) for their application in microgravity, transit and plan

  8. Hydrogen production unit

    Podgornyy, A.N.; Droshenkin, B.A.; Khmelnitskaya, I.A.; Varshavskiy, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    The unit for hydrogen production consists of a reactor, tank for fuel, tank for water, connected to the injector, and motor. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce energy outlays by purifying the hydrogen and separating it from the gas mixture, it is equipped with a hydrogen separator arranged between the reactor and the motor. The separator is made in the form of a cylindrical shell separated by semipermeable partition into a chamber for pure hydrogen connected to the motor, and a chamber of ballast gas whose outlet is connected to the pressure nozzle of the injector. The use of the semipermeable partition for water vapor and permeable for hydrogen in combination with the injector makes it possible to exclude from the equipment a water pump and outlets of electricity associated with it. In addition, it is not necessary to install a current generator to power the electric motor of this pump. The heat exchanger for heating the water is also excluded.

  9. Efficient cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    Ikeda, Yuko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Naoyuki; Park, Enock Y

    2007-01-01

    Cellulase production was investigated in a culture of a strain of Acremonium cellulolyticus. The medium components were optimized for the improvement of cellulase production. The maximum production of cellulolytic enzymes was obtained in a medium containing (grams per liter) 50 Solka Floc, 5 (NH4)2SO4, 24 KH2PO4, 4.7 potassium tartrate hemihydrate, 1.2 MgSO4.7H2O, 1 Tween 80, 4 urea, 0.01 ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.01 MnSO4.6H2O, and 0.01 CuSO4.7H2O, with a pH of 4.0. In the flask culture, 15.5 filter paper units (FPU)/mL of maximum cellulase activity was obtained, 17.42 FPU/mL in a 7-L bioreactor, and 13.08 FPU/mL in a 50-L scale bioreactor for 4-8 d at 30 degrees C. Average production rates were 1.94 FPU/mL.d in flasks, 2.86 FPU/mL.d in the 7-L bioreactor, and 2.56 FPU/mL.d in the 50-L bioreactor. Cellulase production on a small scale was successfully reproduced in the 50-L pilot scale bioreactor. Saccharification activity from A. cellulolyticus was compared with cellulolytic enzymes produced by other strains. The A. cellulolyticus culture broth had a comparable saccharification yield in comparison with those of other Trichoderma enzymes (GC220 or Cellulosin T2) under the same total cellulase activity. Its saccharification yield (percent of released reducing sugar to used dried substrate) was 60%, and its glucose content was 83%. PMID:17253723

  10. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  11. Product Quality of Parenteral Vancomycin Products in the United States

    Nambiar, S; Madurawe, R. D.; Zuk, S. M.; Khan, S. R.; Ellison, C. D.; Faustino, P.J.; Mans, D. J.; Trehy, M. L.; Hadwiger, M. E.; Boyne, M. T.; K Biswas; Cox, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo ac...

  12. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  13. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First... United States Mint Web site. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  14. Additive Units of Product System of Hilbert Modules

    Biljana Vujosevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the notion of additive units and roots of a central unital unit in a spatial product system of two-sided Hilbert C∗-modules. This is a generalization of the notion of additive units and roots of a unit in a spatial product system of Hilbert spaces introduced in [B. V. R. Bhat, M. Lindsay, M. Mukherjee, Additive units of product system, arXiv:1501.07675v1 [math.FA] 30 Jan 2015]. We introduce the notion of continuous additive unit and continuous root of a central unital unit ω in a spatial product system over C∗-algebra B and prove that the set of all continuous additive units of ω can be endowed with a structure of two-sided Hilbert B − B module wherein the set of all continuous roots of ω is a Hilbert B − B submodule.

  15. Potato production in the United States

    Potatoes have been a staple in the American diet for almost 250 years. The United States is the world's fifth biggest producer, behind China, India, the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine. Potatoes in the United States are grown in nearly every state. Idaho produces approximately 1/3 of all potatoe...

  16. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  17. Uranium production, the United States perspective

    U.S. uranium production appears to be headed for a level of approximately one quarter of the peak production of the early 1980's. In a free world market the majority of the U.S. production capability is noncompetitive and unnecessary to supply the free world's demand. Those world producers which can produce into the competitive uranium market of the present and the foreseeable future will be sufficient to supply the uranium needs of the world for the next ten to fifteen years. Thus, the U.S. production industry once the leading producer in the world will not regain nor approach that status in the foreseeable future

  18. United Kingdom experience of uranium tetrafluoride production

    Uranium tetrafluoride, the key intermediate in the production of uranium hexafluoride and uranium metal, has been produced for more than 35 years at the Springfields Works of British Nuclear Fuels Limited. A brief summary of the background history of UF4 production at Springfields is given, together with a description of the present manufacturing route employing rotary kilns. Comments are included on some safety issues involved

  19. Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.

    Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

    2010-05-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases. PMID:19997787

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  1. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  2. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  3. Qualification of the GMP compliant FDG production and distribution unit

    Recently we installed in our laboratory a GMP-compliant compact combined FDG production and dose distribution unit. This unit, constructed by HWM, Rossendorf, consists of the mini-cell, housing the FDG synthesis module from GE, standing side-by-side with the class A shielded isolator containing remotelly controlled dose distribution module. Use of the isolator technology combined with laminar flow HEPA filtered air inside the dose distribution hot-cell allows to achieve class A environment for the aseptic filing of FDG into the opened sterile vials. Synthesis of FDG and preparation of the mother batch solution is achieved inside the hot-cells providing class C clean room environement. The whole production unit is standing in the class D laboratory. The complete set of IQ-OQ-PQ tests was performed to assure that the FDG production and distribution unit is performing accordingly to GMP requirements and is providing the product of consistent quality. The majour component in the qualification tests are the aseptic procedure validations, which consisted of the procedures recommended by GMP guidelines and adapted for the specificity of the FDG production. As a minimum for the aseptic validation we considered the Mediafil Test, Bioburden Test and test productions. All the test results assure that the FDG production unit allows to produce FDG for central distribution in accordance with the requirements of European pharmacopoeia and GMP guidelines. (author)

  4. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  5. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  6. Productivity Gaps Between European and United States Agriculture

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Ball, V. Eldon; Butault, Jean Pierre; Barkaou, Ahmed

    1997-01-01

    A set of purchasing power parities was constructed for the inputs and the outputs of the agricultural sector in 10 European countries and the United States. This made it possible to deflate both spatially and in time the nominal agricultural accounts. Real values of inputs and outputs made it possible to construct spatial indexes of productivity. These indexes measure the productivity gaps between countries for a given year. Extrapolation between 1973 and 1989 measures how these gaps have cha...

  7. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    Zhineng Hu; Yurong Pei; Ruikun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before ...

  8. Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units

    Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

  9. Computers for WWER-440 unit production and technology control

    The systems for technological process inspection and control are of the Soviet origin and were designed in the 70's. They should thus be reconstructed and upgraded or replaced. In the meantime, a number of minor innovations have been accomplished, such as the replacement of relays, substitution of floppy disk drives by Winchester and RAM disk drives, temperature measurement standby systems and a direct control of the Hindukus system. The most important thing is the production of a communication system interconnecting the unit information systems to the central computer and expansion of the unit information system functions. Schematics of the systems are shown

  10. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  11. MEASURING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    1986-01-01

    The agricultural sector has operated in a period of high real interest rates for over half a decade. Some are concerned that this has limited capital availability and stagnated the historic capital for labor substitution occurring in the sector. This study proposes new procedures for estimating the aggregate production function of United States agriculture. Improvements include incorporation of total returns and revised measures of both durable and nondurable capital inputs. Results indicate ...

  12. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  13. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughou...

  14. Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2013-2014.

    Hu, S Sean; Neff, Linda; Agaku, Israel T; Cox, Shanna; Day, Hannah R; Holder-Hayes, Enver; King, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    While significant declines in cigarette smoking have occurred among U.S. adults during the past 5 decades, the use of emerging tobacco products* has increased in recent years (1-3). To estimate tobacco use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). During 2013-2014, 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.5% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking, during 2013-2014, cigarettes remained the most commonly used tobacco product among adults. Young adults aged 18-24 years reported the highest prevalence of use of emerging tobacco products, including water pipes/hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Furthermore, racial/ethnic and sociodemographic differences in the use of any tobacco product were observed, with higher use reported among males; non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanics of other races(†); persons aged household income product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting tobacco use, in conjunction with FDA regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States.(§). PMID:27416365

  15. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life...

  16. The productivity advantge of one/two unit mines

    Throughout the 1980s there has been tremendous competition in the coal market. This competition has fueled a relentless search for productivity. The employment census has steadily decreased while the total production has been at record levels. Between 1988 and 1989 production increased by three percent while employment decreased approximately fifteen percent. Where longwalls are not financially feasible to purchase and operate, the method of extraction has evolved predominantly to the one or two section coal mines. Both the large and small companies have adopted this philosophy. This paper provides one operator's opinion on why the one and two section coal mines have distinct advantages over the multiple unit mines. It focuses on the opportunity that the smaller mine affords in the areas of employee relations

  17. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Jenn-Yeu Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  18. Pollution associated with intensive livestock-production units

    J. C. Venter

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of market proximity, intensive livestock-production units are established on the outskirts of cities. Approximately 70 percent of the poultry and pigs in the Republic is kept in the Transvaal and Western Cape. The total amount of wastes produced in intensive animal units in South Africa is estimated at 9,8 million tons per annum. Waste contains large amounts of plant nutrients, and if handling is incorrect, serious pollution will occur. Pollution takes place when plant nutrients and salts infiltrate the soil in excess of the crop requirement and would result in saline soil or pollution of the groundwater. Waste washed away by surface run-off, will render rivers and dams useless. Water contaminated with pathogenes present in animal waste can cause and spread disease. Although the technology for the safe handling of animal waste exists, the number of cases of pollution is annually increasing.

  19. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin and First Spouse Medal Sets\\TM\\, 2010 United States...

  20. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    Zhineng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before the product being launched. Multiple-unit purchasing behavior can increase sales to make more profit for a firm, and it needs more samples to make the product known much better. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the increase of both external coefficients and internal coefficients has a negative influence on the sampling level, but the internal influence on the subsequent multiple-unit adoptions has little significant influence on the sampling. Using the logistic regression along with linear regression, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all factors, which manifests the external influence and multiunit purchase rate are two most important factors to influence the sampling level and net present value of the new product, and presents a two-stage method to determine the sampling level.

  1. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...... of a small number of firms within each industry rather than catch-up of lagging firms. We then use these finding to investigate on-going patterns of catch-up during 2007 to 2011...

  2. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  3. Design and optimization of artificial cultivation units for algae production

    This paper focuses on finding the optimum design of artificial cultivation units for biomass production depending on geographical location and kind of algal species selected for growth. Here, the optimum is defined as the design that yields the lowest net present sink for the lifetime of the cultivation unit. Models are developed for tubular, column, and flat plate photobioreactors by considering diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations. As part of the case study, algae growth is modeled for 10 years in each cultivation unit using two species and four locations, resulting in twenty-four optimization problems. Each optimization model is implemented in GAMS 23.6.5 and the solution is obtained using CONOPT (version 3.14W) solver. The results indicate that algae species with higher oil content requires smaller reactor volume to produce the desired amount of biomass. The results also reveal that the geographical location with higher incident solar irradiance may not necessarily be the optimal location for algae culturing because higher irradiance may lead to cell damage, and hence, lower growth rates. Among the options considered in the case study, the design of tubular photobioreactor for culturing Phaeodactylum tricornutum at Hyderabad, India yields the minimum net present sink. - Highlights: • Studied 3 types of outdoor cultivation units: tubular, column, and flat plate PBRs. • Developed dynamic model to find best combination of species, location, and reactor. • Considered the diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations for a year. • Species with higher oil content and location with moderate irradiance is preferable. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown at Hyderabad, India in a tubular PBR occupies a volume of 29 L

  4. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  5. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  6. Global law for commercial digital products: work in progress at the United Nations and in United States commercial law

    Ritter, Jeffrey B.

    1996-03-01

    Recent efforts at the United Nations and in the United States to define the legal structures for electronic commerce are providing insights into the component elements of a global legal structure for commercial digital products. Critical is the important role of originators in defining the rules for the transport, storage and use of standards-based digital messages, and the function of intermediaries as third party resources for assuring the integrity of transactions in digital products.

  7. Xylanase production by Trichoderma strains in solid substrate fermentation

    Krisztina Kovacs; George Szakacs; Lew Christopher

    2004-01-01

    @@ The importance of microbial enzymes in pulp and paper manufacturing has grown significantly in the last two decades. Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) holds tremendous potential for the production of microbial enzymes of commercial interest. SSF can be of special interest in those processes where the crude fermented product (whole SSF culture, in situ enzyme) may be used directly as the enzyme source. Xylanase preparations practically free of cellulase activity are especially useful for biobleaching of crude cellulose pulps. Thirty-nine Trichoderma isolates have been screened in SSF for xylanase production on hardwood oxygen-delignified soda-aq pulp as carbon source and enzyme inducer.Xylanase activities varied between 0 and 2200 IU/g dry matter (DM) of initial substrate. In most instances, the simultaneously produced cellulase levels were below 1.0 Filter Paper Unit (FPU) /g DM. The xylanase to cellulase activity ratio varied in the range of 5 to 3500. The three most promising isolates (TUB F-1647, TUB F-1658 and TUB F-1684) yielded xylanase activity of 2040,1300 and 1500 IU/g DM xylanase, respectively, and 0.64, 0.43 and 0.43 FPU/g DM cellulase with a xylanase to cellulase activity ratio of 3200, 3000 and 3500, respectively. Wild strains F-1647, F-1658 and F-1684 were isolated from tree bark of Maldives, soils of Peru (last two), respectively.Medium optimization experiments to enhance the xylanase yield and to increase the xylanase to cellulase ratio have also been performed.

  8. Efficiency and productivity in the operational units of the armed forces

    Hanson, Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Most nations spend a considerable part of their gross domestic product (GDP) on defense. However, no previous study has addressed the productivity and efficiency of the core area of the armed forces, operational units, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Introducing a model for the production process of an operational unit, productivity and efficiency are estimated by DEA for units of one branch of the Norwegian armed forces. Small samples are a characteristic of DEA studies in the militar...

  9. Semi Quantitative Risk Assessment of a Hydrogen Production Unit

    MOHAMMADJAVAD JAFARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety of hydrogen generation facilities is the main concern in their process operation. This study was conducted to identify the hazards and evaluate the risks of a hydrogen generation plant. For this purpose, PrHA (Process Hazard Analysis was applied for hazard identification while LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis was used for risk assessment. The study was conducted in the hydrogen production unit of Behshahr Industrial Complex, Iran in 2011 and 2012. In the process of risk assessment, the records of the accidents and plant flow diagrams were studied. Then, the knowledge of the experts and operators were used through brainstorming prior to the application of LOPA technique. LOPA standard template was applied using PHA-Pro6 software. The initiating events, consequences, independent protection layers and probability of failure were determined for 16 scenarios in 7 nodes. The results showed that without the application of IPLs, the risks of 2 scenarios needed immediate action, 9 scenarios required action at next opportunity and 5 scenarios were operational. The application of IPLs would significantly decrease the risks. The study concluded that LOPA has sufficient credibility for semi quantitative risk assessment of high potentially hazardous plants. 

  10. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  11. Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems

    Lange, Linda L.; Detmer, Sarah

    1989-01-01

    Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

  12. Dynamic action units slip in speech production errors ☆

    Goldstein, Louis; Pouplier, Marianne; Chen, Larissa; Saltzman, Elliot; Byrd, Dani

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the nature of the compositional units proposed for spoken language has largely diverged from the types of control units pursued in the domains of other skilled motor tasks. A classic source of evidence as to the units structuring speech has been patterns observed in speech errors – “slips of the tongue”. The present study reports, for the first time, on kinematic data from tongue and lip movements during speech errors elicited in the laboratory using a repetition task. Our data a...

  13. Price equilibrium in address models of product differentiation: unit-elastic demand

    Martin Peitz

    2002-01-01

    I present a class of address models of product differentiation with unit-elastic individual demand and show the existence of Nash equilibrium in prices under assumptions on utility functions and the taste and income heterogeneity across consumers. This paper complements the work by Caplin and Nalebuff (1991, Econometrica), who analyze unit demand models of product differentiation.

  14. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... processed agricultural products that are stored in climate controlled, cooler, and freezer warehouses....

  15. Organization of international market introduction: Can cooperation between central units and local product management influence success

    Baumgarten, Antje; Herstatt, Cornelius; Fantapié Altobelli, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    When organizing international market introductions multinational companies face coordination problems between the leading central organizational unit and local product management. Based on the assumption that international market introductions are initiated and managed by a central unit we examine the impact of cooperation between the central unit and local product management on success. Our survey of 51 international market introductions reveals that the quality of the cooperation with local...

  16. Riesz Isomorphisms of Tensor Products of Order Unit Banach Spaces

    T S S R K Rao

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we formulate and prove an order unit Banach space version of a Banach–Stone theorem type theorem for Riesz isomorphisms of the space of vector-valued continuous functions. Similar results were obtained recently for the case of lattice-valued continuous functions in [5] and [6].

  17. The Case of the Missing Productivity Growth: Or, Does Information technology explain why productivity accelerated in the United States but not the United Kingdom?

    Susanto Basu; Fernald, John G.; Nicholas Oulton; Sylaja Srinivasan

    2003-01-01

    Solow's paradox has disappeared in the United States but remains alive and well in the United Kingdom. In particular, the U.K. experienced an information and communications technology (ICT) investment boom in the 1990s in parallel with the U.S., but measured total factor productivity has decelerated rather than accelerated in recent years. We ask whether ICT can explain the divergent TFP performance in the two countries. Stories of ICT as a 'general purpose technology' suggest that measured T...

  18. Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

  19. Production of short straight sections hits 100 units

    2005-01-01

    The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

  20. Production of zinc and copper borates in united process cycle

    Ecological technology permitting production of Zn3·B10O18·14H2O, 2ZnO·3B2O3·7H2O, 3CuO·2B2O3·nH2O·mNa2SO4 at a time in the single technological cycle was developed. Products was obtained during reaction of proper sulfates with borax in the presence of boric acid and sodium hydroxide. Mother liquor comprising saturated boric acid solution was used for the following preparation of zinc and copper borates

  1. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  2. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Hast Aira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0–5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  3. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  4. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.

    Kaplan, Bryan S; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J; Lowe, James F

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  5. Product representation for the harmonic series of a unit vector

    A representation is found for the finite Fourier series of a vector whereby any constant constraint on its magnitude is completely solved and automatically satisfied. The representation is a product of rotations, one set for each harmonic, such that the independent degrees of freedom are identified as rotational angles. Examples for the first few harmonics are presented. A recursive procedure is found whereby one can relate the standard Fourier coefficients to the angles

  6. Product representation for the harmonic series of a unit vector

    Brown, R.W.; Convery, M.E. (Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (USA)); DeLaney, D.B. (T-8, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A representation is found for the finite Fourier series of a vector whereby any constant constraint on its magnitude is completely solved and automatically satisfied. The representation is a product of rotations, one set for each harmonic, such that the independent degrees of freedom are identified as rotational angles. Examples for the first few harmonics are presented. A recursive procedure is found whereby one can relate the standard Fourier coefficients to the angles.

  7. Sheep Production Unit for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 430/10.

    Brzozowski, Richard J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This instructor's guide for a sheep production unit contains six lessons that are designed to be taught in the Agricultural Science I core curriculum. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references…

  8. The Role of Supralexical Prosodic Units in Speech Production: Evidence from the Distribution of Speech Errors

    Choe, Wook Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The current dissertation represents one of the first systematic studies of the distribution of speech errors within supralexical prosodic units. Four experiments were conducted to gain insight into the specific role of these units in speech planning and production. The first experiment focused on errors in adult English. These were found to be…

  9. Relative Multifactor Productivity Levels in Canada and the United States: A Sectoral Analysis

    Gu, Wulong; Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling

    2008-01-01

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it examines the level of multifactor productivity (MFP) in Canada relative to that of the United States for the 1994-to-2003 period. Second, it examines the relative importance of differences in capital intensity and MFP in accounting for the labour productivity differences between the two countries. Third, it traces the overall MFP difference between Canada and the United States to its industry origins and estimates the contributions of the goods,...

  10. Study for implementing a unit for production of powdered olive oil

    Guiné, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to make a study for the implementation of an industrial unit for production of olive oil powder. For obtaining this product, which is designed for the gourmet kitchen market, is used the maltodextrin, which allows obtaining the small spheres (micro-droplets) of olive oil. To fulfil the proposed objective, were evaluated all steps that constitute the production process, including the olive oil production and then the t...

  11. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING CONSUMERS' FRESH BEEF CUT PURCHASING DECISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, AND AUSTRALIA

    Erikson, Glade R.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; SHI, HONGQI

    1998-01-01

    The effects of product and economic characteristics on consumers who purchase six cuts of fresh beef (blocks/parts, steak, thinly sliced, diced, chopped, and ground) in urban areas of the United States, Japan, and Australia will be examined in this paper. Certain product characteristics (such as product freshness and display case cleanliness) were important to consumers of beef in all three countries while other product characteristics (such as price considerations for ground beef consumers) ...

  12. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  13. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  14. 21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.

    2010-04-01

    ... Government use. 1010.5 Section 1010.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 1010.5 Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use....

  15. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  16. Innovation and Productivity in Services:Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom

    Peters, Bettina; RILEY, Rebecca; Siedschlag, Iulia; Vahter, Priit; McQuinn, John

    2014-01-01

    We examine the links between innovation investment, innovation output and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Surveys 2006-2008 in Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom and estimate an augmented structural model which links innovation inputs, innovation outputs and productivity. Our estimates suggest that innovation in service enterprises was linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, amongst the innova...

  17. Extracting product unit attributes from product offers by using an ontology

    Horch, Andrea; Kett, Holger; Weisbecker, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Comparing products and prices of on-line offers is important to e-shoppers and on-line retailers. The e-shoppers compare products and prices for finding the best product or price whereas the retailers need to compare their own products and prices to those of their competitors in order to remain competitive. As there is a wide range of product offers available on the Web the product and price comparison need to be done by an automated approach. One challenging task of such an approach is the a...

  18. Productivity and international competitiveness of agriculture in the European Union and the United States

    Ball, V. Eldon; Butault, J. P.; San Juan Mesonada, Carlos; Mora, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at international competitiveness of agriculture in the European Union and the United States. The most intuitive concept is that of price competitiveness.We calculate relative prices for 11 member states of the European Union and the United States for the period 1973–2002. We assume that markets are perfectly competitive and in long-run equilibrium, so that the observed price always equals average total cost, as measured by the cost dual to the production function. This assump...

  19. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  20. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  1. Supply and Demand for Fresh Locally Produced Poultry Products in United Arab Emirates

    Fathelrahman, Eihab; Hussein, Ahmed; Muhammad, Safdar; Sherif, Sherin

    2015-01-01

    Domestically produced poultry products in United Arab Emirates (UAE) are mostly marketed fresh. The objective of this research was to analyze the economic performance of the production supply chain and estimate consumers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) higher prices for fresh/chilled and locally-produced products such as fresh/chilled whole chicken and eggs. The authors conclude that increases in productivity are possible by adapting “best practices.†Applying “best practices†is expected t...

  2. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 6 Units: Food Production, Ecology, Mind and Body, and Food Services].

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for the sixth grade level focus on: (1) food production and nutrition, (2) food services, (3) physical and mental health, and (4) environmental conservation. Each unit's behavioral unit objectives emphasize career possibilities in the industries related to the unit's topic. A chart format is used to list suggested content…

  3. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  4. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  5. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  6. The Management of National Forests of Eastern United States for Non-Timber Forest Products

    Chamberlain, James Luther

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested from the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors. Social science and market research methods were used to examine the extent that NTFPs are addressed in national forest ma...

  7. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2 FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300 h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1 FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production. PMID:26672443

  8. Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory

    The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

  9. Two performance indicators for the characterization of the entropy production in a process unit

    Two indicators are presented to compare the Second law performances of different design-variants of the same process unit. The first indicator relates the entropy production to quantities like the total transferred thermal energy and the total chemical conversion. This allows a useful comparison, even in the case of different inlets and outlets. An important aspect of the entropy production in a process unit is its distribution. An even distribution, also known as equipartition of entropy production (EoEP), is related to an optimal design. The second indicator is based on the coefficient of variation of a local entropy production profile and allows one to calculate and compare degrees of equipartition of different designs. Both indicators have been used in a study on the entropy production minimization of a plug-flow reactor. A comparison using the first indicator showed that the optimized reactors perform slightly better than a comparison based on the total entropy production alone would suggest. This shows that the total entropy production is not always a good indicator. The second indicator was found to provide an excellent numerical basis for comparing the degrees of EoEP of the different designs. -- Highlights: → Tools have been developed to compare in a fair manner the energy efficiency of different process units. → Such comparisons can be difficult when boundary conditions vary, but this study presents one performance indicator that can handle such a situation, using the specific entropy production. → The other indicator measures the deviation from an ideal state of uniform entropy production (equipartition of entropy production), which in certain cases is the state of minimum energy dissipation.

  10. Symmetry and resonance in periodic FPU chains

    Rink, B.

    2001-01-01

    The symmetry and resonance properties of the Fermi Pasta Ulam chain with periodic boundary conditions are exploited to construct a nearidentity transformation bring ing this Hamiltonian system into a particularly simple form This BirkhoGustavson normal form retains the symmetries of the original sy

  11. Quasi-symmetric Conjugacy of Blaschke Products on the unit Circle

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2007-01-01

    Let B be a Blaschke product for which the restriction to the unit circle 1 is a degree d > 1 covering. We prove that B is quasi-symmetrically conjugate to z zd on 1, if all its periodic points in 1 are repelling and if 1 does not intersect the -limit set of any recurrent critical point for B....

  12. Reasons for changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting external treatment

    Kowalski, K.; Ilska, A.; Kłonowska, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the basics of modelling compression products with intended values of unit pressure for body circumferences with fixed and variable radius of curvature. The derived relationships referring to the dimensions of the fabric's circumferences in a relaxed state of the product were based on Laplace law, local values of the radius of curvature, and the characteristics of stretching and relaxing (deformation) of the knitted fabric, described by experimental relation for the stress and relaxation phase for the 6th hysteresis loop, taking into account confidence intervals. The article indicates the possibilities of using 3D scanning techniques of the human body to identify the radius of curvature of various circumference of the human silhouette, for which the intended value of the unit pressure is designed, and quantitative changes in the body deformation due to compression. Classic method of modelling and design of compression products, based on a cylindrical model of the human body does not provide in each case the intended value of unit pressure, according to specific normative requirements, because it neglects the effect of different values of the radius of curvature of the body circumference and the properties of the viscoelastic knitted fabrics. The model and experimental research allowed for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the reasons for the changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting the process of external treatment.

  13. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  14. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; W. B. Cohen; Yang, Z.; T. Hudiburg; Campbell, J L; Duane, M

    2007-01-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record...

  15. Glassmaking Units and Glass Feeders Production——a New Production Development Stage at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    MALTSEV E. V.; MAMONOV S. N.; DMITRIEV V. A.; KHORIKOV P. A.

    2012-01-01

    JSC "Krastsvetmet" has launched the production of glass melting units (GU) and glass feeders (GF),with the number of bushings being from 200 to 4000,made from platinum-rhodium alloys doped with oxide-forming and reinforcing elements.The proprietary technology for dispersion-stabilized material of PtRh10DS composition having high strength and performance properties has been developed and applied.Combined products production was launched where bushings made of PtRh-20 alloy are welded to the plate of the dispersion-stabilized PtRh10DS material.The manufacture of seamless spinning assemblies has been organized.

  16. Systemic approach in rural administration: Study of the family production unit

    Adilson R. Paz Stamberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.

  17. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. PMID:24803646

  18. A versatile floating production unit: the DP FPSO for Brazilian waters

    Cann, Bram Van; Poldervaart, Leen [SBM Inc., Marly (Switzerland); Beenen, Marco [Gusto Engineering B.V. (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Recent advances in drilling and completion techniques have resulted in improved well system design and completion reliability. Extended reach wells, multi-laterals, smart wells producing from multiple pay-zones and a range of completion methods provide high well production rates and significant recoverable reserves per well. During the initial phase of a field development, limited or no data may be available concerning the hydrocarbon reservoir. An extended well test facility or early production facility can provide additional high-quality production data related to properties of the recovered hydrocarbons, reservoir drive mechanism, reservoir pressure and temperature, etc. By obtaining critical reservoir and production data during the initial project phase, technical and commercial risks can be further quantified and a possible field development plan optimized. With exploration and production operations in deeper water, the cost for traditional (passive) station keeping systems of floating offshore structures has increased accordingly. Hardware and offshore installation costs associated with a passive mooring system of a floating offshore facilities can be significant, especially in case of operations in remote deep water areas and with frequent relocations. A DP system provides a cost-effective and proven means of station keeping and has been extensively applied to deep water drilling units. Operating as a first-stage field development unit, the DP-FPSO will enable a cost-effective means to gain valuable reservoir and production data, while generating early sales revenues. (author)

  19. Microfouling assessment and its control in a heavy water production unit

    The water treatment plant (WTP) of a heavy water production unit was extensively fouled by microorganisms. On-site investigations showed severe algal and bacterial growth in the various units of WTP and very dense microbial fouling in the vacuum degasser (VD) unit. Digital and microscopic images showed that the microfouling problem was primarily due to a slime bacterium and a fungus. Microbiological analysis showed a bacterial count of ∼105 cfu ml-1 in the various sections of WTP. The slime/biofilm scrapings had very high bacterial population (>109 cfu cm-2). High organic carbon values in the system (5.0 to 19.5 ppm) had supported microbial growth in WTP and augmented resin fouling. Chlorination was inadequate in controlling microfouling, consequently chlorine dioxide was tested and found to be a better biocide. A 2.0% sodium omadine solution had completely inhibited the fouling fungus. (author)

  20. Starter unit flexibility for engineered product synthesis by the nonreducing polyketide synthase PksA.

    Huitt-Roehl, Callie R; Hill, Eric A; Adams, Martina M; Vagstad, Anna L; Li, Jesse W; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-06-19

    Nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are unique among PKSs in their domain structure, notably including a starter unit:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (SAT) domain that selects an acyl group as the primer for biosynthesis, most commonly acetyl-CoA from central metabolism. This clan of mega-enzymes resembles fatty acid synthases (FASs) by sharing both their central chain elongation steps and their capacity for iterative catalysis. In this mode of synthesis, catalytic domains involved in chain extension exhibit substrate plasticity to accommodate growing chains as small as two carbons to 20 or more. PksA is the NR-PKS central to the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 whose SAT domain accepts an unusual hexanoyl starter from a dedicated yeast-like FAS. Explored in this paper is the ability of PksA to utilize a selection of potential starter units as substrates to initiate and sustain extension and cyclization to on-target, programmed polyketide synthesis. Most of these starter units were successfully accepted and properly processed by PksA to achieve biosynthesis of the predicted naphthopyrone product. Analysis of the on-target and derailment products revealed trends of tolerance by individual PksA domains to alternative starter units. In addition, natural and un-natural variants of the active site cysteine were examined and found to be capable of biosynthesis, suggesting possible direct loading of starter units onto the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain. In light of the data assembled here, the predictable synthesis of unnatural products by NR-PKSs is more fully defined. PMID:25714897

  1. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  2. Technology Regimes and Productivity Growth in Europe and the United States: A Comparative and Historical Perspective

    Ark, Bart van; Smits, Jan Pieter

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been published on the contribution of information and communication technology (ICT) to economic growth. In an attempt to find parallel historical evidence, several scholars have attempted to review the contribution of other general purpose technologies (notably steam and electricity) to output and productivity growth. Most of these contributions have had a national focus on the United States and for a limited number of European countries (for example, Finland, S...

  3. Quaternionic Hardy spaces in the open unit ball and half space and Blaschke products

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Hardy spaces H2(B) and H2(H+), where B and H+ denote, respectively, the open unit ball of the quaternions and the half space of quaternions with positive real part, as well as Blaschke products, have been intensively studied in a series of papers where they are used as a tool to prove other results in Schur analysis. This paper gives an overview on the topic, collecting the various results available.

  4. The Effect of Water Injection on the Fission Product Aerosol Behavior in Fukushima Unit 1

    The most important factor affects human health is fission product that is released from the plant. Fission products usually released with types of aerosol and vapor. The amount of released aerosols out of the plant is crucial, because it can be breathed by people. In this study, the best estimated scenario of Fukushima unit 1 accident was modeled with MELCOR. The amount of released fission product aerosols was estimated according to the amount of added water into reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The analysis of Fukushima unit 1 accident was conducted in view of fission product aerosol release using MELCOR. First of all, thermodynamic results of the plant were compared to the measured data, and then fission product aerosol (CsOH) behavior was calculated with changing the amount of water injection. Water injection affects the amount of aerosol which released into reactor building, because it decreases the temperature of deposition surface. In this study, only aerosol behavior was considered, further study will be conducted including hygroscopic model

  5. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  6. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  7. Predicting tree diversity across the United States as a function of modeled gross primary production.

    Nightingale, Joanne M; Fan, Weihong; Coops, Nicholas C; Waring, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    At the regional and continental scale, ecologists have theorized that spatial variation in biodiversity can be interpreted as a response to differences in climate. To test this theory we assumed that ecological constraints associated with current climatic conditions (2000-2004) might best be correlated with tree richness if expressed through satellite-derived measures of gross primary production (GPP), rather than the more commonly used, but less consistently derived, net primary production. To evaluate current patterns in tree diversity across the contiguous United States we acquired information on tree composition from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program that represented more than 17,4000 survey plots. We selected 2693 cells of 1000 km2 within which a sufficient number of plots were available to estimate tree richness per hectare. Our estimates of forest productivity varied from simple vegetation indices indicative of the fraction of light intercepted by canopies at 16-d intervals, a product from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer), to 8- and 10-d GPP products derived with minimal climatic data (MODIS) and SPOT-Vegetation (Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre), to 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth with Satellites), which requires both climate and soil data. Across the contiguous United States, modeled predictions of gross productivity accounted for between 51% and 77% of the recorded spatial variation in tree diversity, which ranged from 2 to 67 species per hectare. When the analyses were concentrated within nine broadly defined ecoregions, predictive relations largely disappeared. Only 3-PGS predictions fit a theorized unimodal function by being able to distinguish highly productive forests in the Pacific Northwest that support lower than expected tree diversity. Other models predicted a continuous steep rise in tree diversity with increasing productivity, and did so with generally better or

  8. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  9. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

  10. Commercial testing of a unit for high-temperature removal of corrosion products from water coolant

    Recently interest has been shown in the Soviet and foreign nuclear power industries in the removal of corrosion products from hot (150-300C) flows of water coolant. This interest is explained by the need to increase the efficiency of removal of corrosion products from the loops of an atomic power plant in order to lower the rate of formation of deposits of such corrosion products on the in-loop surfaces, especially the heat-transfer surfaces. Filter materials - heat-resistant titanium-based inorganic sorbents - have been developed and investigated for removal of corrosion products from hot flows of water coolant at atomic power plants. The basic regularities underlying the process of filtration on sorbent beds have been studied. The efficiency of removal from water of corrosion products and radionuclides produced by corrosion is 50-95% for total iron, 80-85% for 51Cr, 90% for 54Mn, 99% for 56Mn, 90% for 59Fe, 50-70% for 60Co, 95% for 95Nb, and 95% for 95Zr. Technologies for sorbent regeneration and hydraulic reloading, a design for a high-temperature filter, and the layout of a treatment system have been developed. The information amassed to date served as the basis for the creation of the high-temperature treatment unit at the Beloyarsk Atomic Power Plant. This paper presents the results of the testing of a commercial unit for high-temperature treatment of water coolant. Such units have been included in the plans for a number of atomic power plants and heat-and-electric generating plants. The testing therefore was conducted to gain experience in their operation

  11. Aggregate Measures of Income and Output in Canada and the United States: Implications for Productivity and Living Standards

    Chris Ross; Alexander Murray

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to clarify definitions and to produce estimates of the eight aggregate measures of income and product (gross domestic product, gross domestic income, gross national product, gross national income, net domestic product, net domestic income, net national product and net national income) for Canada and the United States over the 1980-2008 period. The article also discusses the implications of the eight measures for productivity and living standards analysis. It...

  12. Extraction of water-soluble salts from used cathodic and board units of electrolytic cells of aluminium production

    Present article is devoted to study of the process of extraction of water-soluble salts from used cathodic and board units of electrolytic cells of aluminium production. Therefore the composition of water-soluble salts from used cathodic and board units of electrolytic cells of aluminium production was defined. The optimal parameters of extraction of water-soluble salts from used cathodic and board units of electrolytic cells of aluminium production were determined. The possibility of obtaining the soda ash and sodium fluoride from aqueous extracts of carbon graphite wastes of aluminium production was defined as well.

  13. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  14. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production.

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-10-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking for ethanol production. Pretreated EFB, which were pretreated at the optimal conditions of 60 °C, 12 h, and 21% (w/w) aqueous ammonia, showed 19.5% and 41.4% glucose yields during an enzymatic digestibility test for 96 h when using 15 and 60 FPU of cellulase, respectively. Using the pretreated EFB, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 168 h with 5% (w/v) glucan loading and 60 FPU of cellulase and 30 CBU of β-glucosidase per gram glucan resulted in ethanol production of 18.6 g/L titer, 65.6% of theoretical maximum yield, and 0.11 g/L/h of productivity. PMID:21852123

  15. How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?

    Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

  16. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  17. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  18. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  19. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; I. C. Faloona; A. J. Weinheimer; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  20. Impact of United States Corn-Based Ethanol Production on Land Use

    Sobowale, Flakkeh; Dicks, Michael R.; Adam, Brian D.; Campiche, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the impact of corn-based ethanol production in the United States on land use in other countries, or indirect land use. Indirect land use is a change from non-cropland to cropland (e.g. deforestation) that may occur in response to increasing scarcity of cropland. As farmers worldwide respond to higher crop prices in order to maintain the global food supply and demand balance, pristine lands are cleared and converted to new cropland to replace the crops for feed and food tha...

  1. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  2. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA)

  3. THE NECESSITY OF LOWERING PRODUCTION COST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL MINING UNITS

    IONELA-CLAUDIA DINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions, cost is a key instrument in decisionson resource allocation, which are often limited, on the volume and structure of production,increase or withdraw supply of goods or services market, etc. In these circumstances the bestchoice is to choose a minimum cost. In its universal acceptance, the cost of production is aneconomic category that provides information about the work done by an operator and is a keyfactor of economic and financial analysis of the efficiency of the unit. Calculating the cost ofproduction is achieved only at a general level, but are taken into account and: distribution cost,labour cost, cost of education, health, information, administration, time, debt (credit, inflation,unemployment, economic reform, ecological cost.

  4. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    King, C W, E-mail: careyking@mail.utexas.edu [Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1100, Austin, TX 78712-0254 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  5. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  6. Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township

    M. R. Bakhshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

  7. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  8. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  9. The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates

    Jabado, Rima W.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the demand for shark products, particularly fins, has led to the worldwide overexploitation of many elasmobranch species. Although there are growing concerns about this largely unregulated and unmonitored trade, little information still exists about its dynamics, the species involved and the impact of this pressure on stocks in various regions. Our study provides the first attempt at characterizing the trade in shark products from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fourth largest exporter in the world of raw dried shark fins to Hong Kong. A review of trade records and informal interviews with local traders confirmed that the UAE is being used as hub in the broader North Indian Ocean region for the trade in shark products with the Emirati fishery minimally contributing to this trade. Results based on morphological identification of sharks (n= 12,069) and DNA barcoding of tissue samples (n= 655) indicated that the trade was made up of at least 37 species. The most abundant families represented at the Dubai study site were the Sphyrnidae (9.3%), Lamnidae (9%) and Alopiidae (5.9%). While information was mostly limited to shark products originating from the UAE and Oman, results indicated that 45.3% of species traded were considered to be at high risk of global extinction based on the IUCN Red List Global Assessments. Since many of the species found during this survey are likely part of stocks shared with other countries, regional cooperation and management will be crucial to ensure their long term survival.

  10. "Losing ground" : Japanese labour productivity and unit laboour cost manufacturing in comparison to the U.S.

    Inklaar, Robert; Wu, Harry; Ark, Bart van

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at several measures of competitiveness for the Japanese manufacturing sector relative to the United States over the period 1980-2000. Using industry-specific unit-value ratios (UVRs) we show that labour productivity in Japanese manufacturing lags considerably behind the U.S. and tha

  11. Efficient production of cellulase in the culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge.

    Prasetyo, Joni; Zhu, Jing; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulase was produced by Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge (PS) as the carbon source. The clay present in PS did not show any inhibitory effect on cellulase production but did alter the pH during fermentation. On the flask scale, the maleate buffer concentration and pH were key factors that affected the efficiency of cellulase production from PS cellulose. Optimum cellulase production in a 3-L fermentor of working volume 1.5 L was achieved by controlling the pH value at 6.0 using 2 M NaOH and 2 M maleic acid, and the productivity reached 8.18 FPU/mL. When 40.89 g/L PS cellulose, 2.2 g/L (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) , and 4.4 g/L urea were added to a 48-h culture, the cellulase activity was 9.31 FPU/mL at the flask scale and 10.96 FPU/mL in the 3-L fermentor. These values are ∼80% of those obtained when pure cellulose is used as the carbon source. The method developed here presents a new route for the utilization of PS. PMID:21312360

  12. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    G. Sarwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 μg m−3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

  13. Comparison of three pharmaceutical products obtained from Mexico and the United States: a case study.

    Karlage, Kelly L; Myrdal, Paul B

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate concerning the relative pros and cons of purchasing medications from foreign markets such as Mexico and Canada. The following study compares the content uniformity and weight variation for three medicinal products, acquired from pharmacies in both Mexico and the United States: amoxicillin capsules (500 mg), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid suspension (400 mg and 57 mg/5 mL, respectively), and furosemide tablets (40 mg). Twenty capsules/tablets were individually weighed and a designated aliquot was taken. Following dissolution in an appropriate solvent and sonication, a sample was taken and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The suspensions were prepared according to directions on the label. Five samples of the suspensions were then taken and analyzed via an appropriate HPLC method. The content uniformity for the amoxicillin capsules was found to be 15.4 +/- 2.4% and 99.4 +/- 9.3%, for Mexican and U.S. capsules, respectively. The percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) for weight variation was found to be 8.7% and 1.5% for capsules obtained from Mexico and the United States, respectively. Content uniformity analysis for the Mexican suspension product resulted in an average of 85.5 +/- 1.2% for amoxicillin and 98.6 +/- 1.9% for the clavulanic acid content, while the results for the U.S. suspension product were 104.4 +/- 3.1% and 117.8 +/- 3.6% for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. Content uniformity for the furosemide tablets was found to be 90.3 +/- 4.8% and 95.6 +/- 2.1% for Mexican and U.S. tablets, respectively. The % RSD of weight variation for the Mexican tablets was 2.1%, while the % RSD for the U.S. tablets was found to be 1.0%. From the three products tested, content analysis revealed that the amount of active ingredients for two of the products acquired in Mexico were appreciably less than the concentrations for their U.S. counterparts. PMID:16316855

  14. Observed aerosol-induced radiative effect on plant productivity in the eastern United States

    Strada, S.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    We apply satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in conjunction with flux tower-derived estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) to probe the relationship between atmospheric aerosol loading and carbon uptake rate at 10 select sites (4 deciduous broadleaf, 3 cropland, 1 evergreen needle leaf, 1 mixed forest and 1 grassland) on hourly time scales in the growing season in the eastern United States. For deciduous and mixed forests, the aerosol light scattering increases GPP with a maximum effect observed under polluted conditions (AOD >0.6), when diffuse radiation is 40-60%. During midday hours, high AOD conditions (>0.4) enhance plant productivity by ∼13% in deciduous forests. In contrast, we find that high diffuse light fraction does not increase the carbon uptake rate in croplands and grasslands; for these ecosystems, we estimate that high AOD conditions reduce GPP by ∼17% during midday hours. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have attributed these contrasting response sensitivities to the complex and closed canopy architecture of forests versus crops and grasslands. C4 but not C3 crops may benefit from pollution-induced changes in diffuse and direct light. Further research is needed to investigate the role of local meteorology as a possible confounder in the connection between atmospheric aerosols and plant productivity.

  15. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power. PMID:27060827

  16. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  17. Salad Machine - A vegetable production unit for long duration space missions

    Kliss, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    A review of NASA CELSS development specific to vegetable cultivation during space missions is presented in terms of enhancing the quality of life for space crews. A cultivation unit is being developed to permit the production of 600 grams of edible salad vegetables per week, thereby allowing one salad per crew member three times weekly. Plant-growth requirements are set forth for the specific vegetables, and environmental subsystems are listed. Several preprototype systems are discussed, and one particular integrated-systems design concept is presented in detail with views of the proposed rack configuration. The Salad Machine is developed exclusively from CELSS-derived technology, and the major challenge is the mitigation of the effects of plant-growth requirements on other space-mission facility operations.

  18. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  19. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Germán H. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  20. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  1. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  2. An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production

    Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

  3. Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States

    Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments. PMID:26613916

  5. Chill unit accumulation and necessity of rest breaking agents in South African table grape production regions

    Avenant Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of table grapes in warm regions of South Africa is complicated by problems associated with delayed and uneven bud break. Rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied to overcome these problems. The chill unit accumulation of the five major table grape production regions in South Africa was compared with the minimum chilling required to obtain a high bud break percentage (>80% and even bud break, defined as 200 hours between 0 and 10 ∘C, or 400 hours at 3 ∘C. The effect of chilling accumulation (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C on bud break of dormant cuttings of three table grape cultivars was investigated in controlled studies in a glass house over a three year period. Cuttings used in the study were collected from commercial vineyards in Saron in the Berg River Valley (representing a warm region and the Hex River Valley (representing a cool region. Sultanina and Sugraone cuttings from Saron required at least 200 hours at 3 ∘C to obtain a final bud break % of 80%+. A final bud break % of 80%+ was obtained with all Sultanina cuttings from Hex River Valley. Treatments receiving 400 and 800 hours at 3 ∘C, showed the most rapid rate of bud break. Prime cuttings collected from Saron, receiving 0, 50, 100 and 400 hours at 3 ∘C, showed a more rapid bud break process, as well as a higher final bud break % compared to Sugraone and Sultanina. It seems as if Prime has a lower chilling requirement than the other two cultivars. The model of Dokoozlian for quantifying chilling status is applicable to Saron and the Hex River Valley. The necessity of using rest breaking chemicals in the Saron area, for obtaining a high bud break % and even bud break, was confirmed. The Hex River Valley receives sufficient chilling temperatures to obtain a high bud break %, but rest breaking chemicals can be used to obtain more even bud break. The use of hydrogen cyanamide for improved and even bud break is a general

  6. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  7. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  8. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    D. P. Turner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  9. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. ...

  10. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings. PMID:25488307

  11. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

  12. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  13. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  14. Integrated production and utility system approach for optimizing industrial unit operations

    AGHA, Mujtaba; Thery, Raphaële; Hétreux, Gilles; Haït, Alain; Le Lann, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    To meet utility demands some industrial units use onsite utility system. Traditionally, the management of such type of industrial units is carried out in three sequential steps: scheduling of the manufacturing unit by minimizing inventory, estimating the utility needs of manufacturing unit and finally operation planning of the utility system. This article demonstrates the value of an integrated approach which couples the scheduling of manufacturing unit with operational planning of the utilit...

  15. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and tricllosan in sewage sludge across the United States

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Roll, Isaac B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Kinney, Chad A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (α = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (α = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge.

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  17. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

    Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

    There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

  19. New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

  20. Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America

    Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

  1. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer. PMID:27295252

  2. Application and usage of the production unit effort method (UEP for management analysis and as competitiveness supporting tool

    Peterson Diego kunh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present studydemonstrates like the use of the method pay for unity of effort of production, for calculation of the unit costs of several products produced by the same industry, can be used like tool for taking decision and like differential competitively for the manager of production, it tends in mind that the produced informations detail all the costs what it composes the product and his respective bottlenecks that can be raising the price of the product. The study of the method was carried out in an enterprise that acts in it slaughter and processing of meat of chicken, located in the Paraná. To carry out this study, was developed a descriptive concluding research, making use of primary and secondary data. The methodology presents still many forms of being analysed the process of industrialization and the potential products that produce more profitability inside the existent portfolio in the enterprise, maximizing in this form the results. Through the example that will be presented, will be able to be visualized the unit costs of each product and to understand the itinerary of this product with his respective posts of work and the efforts employed in each stage of the manufacture. In power of the informations produced by the methodology of funding for UEP the manager will be able to carry out an analysis comparing the products, his efforts and identifying opportunities of reduction of costs making possible in this way a bigger competitiveness of his final product.

  3. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  4. Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity

    This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

  5. The main WWER 1000 MW production unit of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    The main production unit consists of the reactor building, the engine room, the heat exchange plant, diesel generator stations and of the related infrastructures. The foundation slab under the reactor building is of a size of 68.2x68.2x2.4 m. The controlled areas are provided with washable epoxy paints. The floors of the technological boxes are covered with carbon steel for stainless steel sheets. The main entrance to the reactor building consists of a hermetic transport corridor that will be used for fuel charging. A boron tank, some technological boxes and the computer and control room are built below the hermetic ceiling. The actual hermetic containment consists of a prestressed reinforced concrete structure with an inner steel lining. The inner diameter is 45 m, the height 38 m and wall thickness 1.2 m. The walls consist of cells of reinforced concrete and of steel. The process of assembly is briefly described. The engine room is a steel hall 42x128 m in size and 42.3 m in height, housing a turbine generator. The poor quality of the Soviet project design documentation is criticised. (M.D.)

  6. Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien

    Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

    2012-10-15

    Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

  7. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  8. Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania

    The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in

  9. PRODUCCIÓN Y MERCADEO DE CARNE CAPRINA EN UNA REGIÓN SILVOPASTORIL DE LA MIXTECA POBLANA, MÉXICO

    Hernández Hernández, Jorge Ezequiel; Carreón Luna, Lorenzo; Camacho Ronquillo, Julio César; Franco Guerra, Francisco Javier; Hernández Riande, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The present work assumed as main objective: knowing the production and the marketing of goat meat in a silvopastoral region of the Mixteca Poblana in Mexico. Fifteen Familiar Production Units (FPU) Goat in the study, two spaces known as markets (tianguis) and 12 sale points were used to commercialize goat meat; a structured poll was applied with 75 questions under four productive indicators. The first one concentrated goat FPU general data, the second one concentrated the goat identification ...

  10. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as "ka" or "ki"). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production. PMID:26941669

  11. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese–English Bilinguals

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as “ka” or “ki”). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese–English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production. PMID:26941669

  12. 77 FR 70724 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 381 RIN 0583-AD49 Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To... Korea (Korea) to the list of countries eligible to export poultry products to the United States....

  13. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Estrella Alonso; Juan A. Tejada

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  14. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...... bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...... the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut...

  15. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  16. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  17. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  18. Occupational exposure monitoring during the decommissioning of a phosphoric acid production unit

    Full text: The enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides in the raw material of fertilizer plants, leads to increased levels of natural radioactivity in the by-products, wastes, equipment and residuals, as well as to the phosphoric acid production unit and its surroundings. The radiological survey and the implementation of the radiation protection system, during the site remediation and decommissioning of an old and abandoned phosphate fertilizer Greek industry, was one of GAEC's projects during last year. For the preliminary radiological characterization of the area, in situ and laboratory measurements were performed. During the in situ measurements, enhanced levels of natural radioactivity were detected; the measured gamma dose rate was up to 60μSv/h. The specific activity of the collected scale samples varied from 1 Bq/g up to 50Bq/g for Ra-226, and from 0.1 Bq/g up to 5Bq/g U-238 for U-238. Based on gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements of collected samples from raw materials such sludge, dust and air filters, and taking into account parameters proposed at the EC publication: Radiation Protection 107 'Establishment of reference levels for regulatory control of workplaces where materials are processed which contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides', the initial estimation of the total effective dose to workers involved in the decommissioning and decontamination process, following the worst case scenario was estimated up to 9mSv. Consequently, radiation protection measures had to be applied to the workers involved in the decommissioning and decontamination process, since there was a risk for external exposure as well as a risk for internal exposure resulting from the inhalation during mechanical operations such as sawing, cutting, grinding and polishing on scale contaminated components. Protective actions were taken, in order to minimize the radiological hazard. The six workers involved were submitted in a radiation protection

  19. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  20. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes....... Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by...

  1. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  2. Investigation of environmental and exergetic performance for coal-preparation units in cement production processes

    The main objectives of the present study are to perform energy and exergy analyses of a coal-preparation unit in a cement plant and investigate the effect of varying dead state (ambient) temperatures on exergy efficiency. This is the first study conducted on a coal-preparation unit located in a cement plant with respect to the perspective of exergy. The consumption of exergy, the potential improvement of the unit and the effects of CO2 emission by the unit are also examined in terms of the chosen type of fuel. Based on the results of the analyses, the mean values of energy and exergy efficiencies of the unit are found to be 74.03% and 21.36%, respectively while the average potential improvement of the unit is calculated as 78.24%. The analyses demonstrate that the exergy destruction ratio affects the CO2 emission rate of the unit. Consequently, the present technique is proposed as a useful tool for purposes of developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures, especially concerning similar types of industrial processes.

  3. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    2013-09-20

    ..., Shandong, China 262719 Doublestar Dong Feng Tyre Co., Ltd., No. 21 Hanjiang North Road, Shiyan, Hubei... Warehouse, Inc., 125 W La Palma Ave., Unit P, Anaheim, CA 92801 Shandong Linglong Tyre Co., Ltd.,...

  4. Research and design of a production system for a Tuberculosis (TB) sub-unit vaccine

    Hunter, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate research project into a new Tuberculosis vaccine for those living in endemic parts of sub-Saharan Africa through the design, process development and commercial manufacture of sub-unit vaccine process engineering and manufacturing systems.

  5. History of the development and industrial production of low thermal emissivity coatings for high heat insulating glass units.

    Gläser, Hans J

    2008-05-01

    Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings play a dominate role in high heat insulating multiple glass units with which an essential part of heat energy can be saved in buildings. With such coatings as the main part, and to a lesser part with low thermal conductive filling gases of the units' interspaces, their heat transmittance can be reduced from 6.0 W/m(2)? K for a single glazing--still glazed to a high degree--to 0.4 W/m(2) K for a triple insulating glass unit. This astonishing development is regarded as one of the most important innovations of the flat glass industry in the past century. The roots of low-E coatings in the 1960s, their startup for production in the 1970s, and, most important, further development steps accompanied by, and partly also codesigned actively by the author, are depicted. PMID:18449246

  6. Applying unit process life cycle inventory (UPLCI) methodology in product/packaging combinations

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeuw, Marten E.; Overcash, Michael; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the UPLCI approach can be used for determining the inventory of the manufacturing phases of product/packaging combinations. The UPLCI approach can make the inventory of the manufacturing process of the product that is investigated more accurate. The life cycle of product/pac

  7. Designing in an Interplay with a Product Model - Explained by Design Units

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    If we expand the concept of product models from a bill of material and representations of parts to a genetic model (a chromosome), which is able to capture decisions on functions and design concepts during the design activity, a new design situation is created. This paper treats designing...... in an interplay with a product model in a so-called Designer's Workbench, based on the clarification of the structuring of the product model, the design operationswhich succesively build up the product model, and the role of the product model in the design work as basis for synthesis and modelling of properties...

  8. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  9. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. PMID:27236477

  10. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes....... Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by...... building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was...

  11. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  12. 31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations (22 CFR 123.9); (4) The foreign-made end product is not intended for use in the Iranian petroleum... insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or technology. 560.511 Section 560.511... Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.511 Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for...

  13. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  14. Vitrification of fission product wastes: industrial experience and construction of the new vitrification units at La Hague

    The first industrial-scale unit for vitrification of fission product wastes was commissioned at Marcoule in France in 1978. Operating experience has been applied in design and construction of the R7 and T7 units at La Hague for vitrification of fission product solutions from the new UP2-800 and UP3 reprocessing plants, (annual capacity of 1,600 tonnes of LWR spent fuel). After outlining the vitrification process, this paper presents the sustained throughput performances achieved during 9 years operation of the continuous vitrification line at Marcoule, plus information concerning technologies, maintenance, process effluents and safety. It then describes the new R7 and T7 units with their six 25 kg/hour glass production lines. Emphasis is placed on the process-related and technological changes, layout optimizations and main innovations decided to improve operation and achieve economies of scale in extrapolating from the 15 kg/hour line at Marcoule. Storage facility design for vitrified waste containers is briefly presented

  15. Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit

    McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

  16. Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films

    This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

  17. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  18. In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues

    Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur

  19. Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks

    Choi, Youn-Sang

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy

  20. Problems in the Measurement and Performance of Service-Sector Productivity in the United States

    Robert J. Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Not only has U.S. productivity been poor by international standards but it is highly heterogeneous at the disaggregated industry level. Manufacturing has continued to do well while nonmanufacturing has done poorly, especially the services. Within services, apparel retailing has done well while food retailing has done badly; railroad productivity has accelerated while airline productivity has decelerated. This dispersion of performance argues against a single over-arching explanation of the sl...

  1. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-01-01

    The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1) The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2) The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supp...

  2. Characterization of precipitation product errors across the United States using multiplicative triple collocation

    S. H. Alemohammad; K. A. McColl; Konings, A. G.; Entekhabi, D.; Stoffelen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Validation of precipitation estimates from various products is a challenging problem, since the true precipitation is unknown. However, with the increased availability of precipitation estimates from a wide range of instruments (satellite, ground-based radar, and gauge), it is now possible to apply the triple collocation (TC) technique to characterize the uncertainties in each of the products. Classical TC takes advantage of three collocated data products of the same variable and estimates th...

  3. Sources of aggregate labour productivity growth in Canada and the United States

    Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a decomposition technique to examine the sources of industrial contribution to aggregate labour productivity growth. We show that in terms of pure labour productivity growth, the manufacturing and service sectors contributed equally to the aggregate Canada-U.S. labour productivity growth gap during the 1987-98 period. But, in terms of total industrial contributions, which also take into account the contributions from a change in relative size, the service sector was t...

  4. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  5. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for floating-point computations, and for this reason, floating-point operators consume a significant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

  6. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    2012-05-24

    ... to be discussed are FDA regulations with respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which applies to brokers and forwarders. Date and Time: The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Requirements for Importing Food and Drug...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  8. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to

  9. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths. PMID:26421418

  10. Civilian Uses and Production of Plutonium in the United States Of America

    Large quantities of plutonium will be produced in thermal reactors according to present projections of die growth of nuclear power. Part of this plutonium will be recycled in such reactors and part will be used in the development of fast reactors. Estimates are given of the quantity and isotopic content of plutonium to be produced in the United States in nuclear power plants at present in operation, under construction, definitely planned, or projected for operation through 1980. Estimates are also given of the quantity and isotopic content of plutonium to be utilized in the United States in the development and application of plutonium recycle for thermal reactors and in the development of fast reactors during the next ten years. Existing facilities for recovery of plutonium from irradiated fuel and for fabrication of fuel containing plutonium are summarized. The effects on natural uranium feed and separative work requirements for enriched uranium fuel for light-water reactors using plutonium recycle are discussed. (author)

  11. Has Education in the United Kingdom Become a Marketable Product Like Other Value-Added Services?

    Dalingwater, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of industry, with the shift from a manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, has been particularly pronounced in the United Kingdom, with a rapid decline of the former and rise of the latter, notably from the 1960s onwards. However, the structural changes that have taken place are a little more complex than a disinvestment in one sector in favour of another. The two sectors are inextricably linked. In the same way, the...

  12. Devolution, state personnel, and the production of new territories of governance in the United Kingdom

    Rhys Jones; Mark Goodwin; Martin Jones; Glenn Simpson

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the creation of a Scottish Parliament, Welsh and Northern Irish Assemblies, and the devolution of power to various regional bodies in England, there has been a substantial territorial refocusing of governance within the United Kingdom. Much has been written in the social and political sciences concerning this change, especially with regard to the formation of new institutions of governance. Less is known concerning the connections between state personnel and this institutional ...

  13. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  14. Supply Chain Design for High Quality Products: Economic Concepts and Examples form the United States

    King, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    The food system is undergoing significant structural change at local, national, and international levels. As the food system evolves, some segments along the chain between producers and consumers are disappearing. Others are being transformed. Supply chain concepts are useful for identifying and assessing alternative designs for the reconfiguration of food product production systems. Changes in the food system will require farm managers to adopt new ways of thinking and new perspectives on co...

  15. Sustainability of smallholder tea production in the United Republic of Tanzania

    Simbua, Emmanuel F.; Loconto, Allison Marie

    2010-01-01

    This document examines the performance of smallholder tea productivity in Tanzania using an asset-based model to assess stocks and flow of assets. The results of this study can be generalized only to the areas examined, but may prove useful for assessing smallholder tea development in other countries. In addition, possible alternatives for the sustainability of smallholder tea production, including a discussion on the costs and benefits of third-party voluntary standards, is ex...

  16. The United States (U.S.) Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Popescu, Gh. H.; E. Nica; R.-O. Ștefănescu-Mihăilă; G. Lăzăroiu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, mo...

  17. Ecosystem Functional Units characterized by satellite observed phenology and productivity gradients: a case study for Europe

    IVITS-WASSER Eva; Cherlet, Michael; MEHL Wolfgang; Sommer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates remote sensing derived phenological and productivity indicators of ecosystem functional dynamism. The indices were derived from SPOT VEGETATION NDVI data on 1 km spatial resolution across the pan-European continent using the Phenolo approach. The phenological and productivity indices explained 78% of the variance in the European ecosystem gradient measured by bio-climatic zones. Along this gradient climatic predictors could only explain 57% of the variance in th...

  18. Wage and Productivity Dispersion in United States Manufacturing: The Role of Computer Investment

    Timothy Dunne; Lucia Foster; John Haltiwanger; Troske, Kenneth R

    2004-01-01

    Using establishment-level data, we shed light on the sources of the changes in the structure of production, wages, and employment that have occurred over recent decades. Our findings are: (1) the between-plant component of wage dispersion is an important and growing part of total wage dispersion; (2) much of the between-plant increase in wage dispersion is within industries; (3) the between-plant measures of wage and productivity dispersion have increased substantially over recent decades; an...

  19. Product representation for the harmonic series of a unit vector: A string application

    Brown, R. W.; DeLaney, D. B.

    1989-07-31

    We find a representation for the finite Fourier series of a vector whereby any constant constraint on its magnitude is completely solved and automatically satisfied. The representation is a product of rotations, one set for each harmonic, such that the independent degrees of freedom are identified as rotational angles and an infinite series is replaced by an infinite product. This can be applied to the study of relativistic strings, and other applications and generalizations are anticipated.

  20. New linear codes from matrix-product codes with polynomial units

    Hernando, Fernando; Ruano Benito, Diego

    2010-01-01

    A new construction of codes from old ones is considered, it is an extension of the matrix-product construction. Several linear codes that improve the parameters of the known ones are presented.......A new construction of codes from old ones is considered, it is an extension of the matrix-product construction. Several linear codes that improve the parameters of the known ones are presented....

  1. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Liu, Paul

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  2. Primary productivity and the prospects for biofuels in the United Kingdom

    Lawson, G. J.; Callaghan, T. V.

    1983-09-01

    Estimates of land use and plant productivity are combined to predict total annual primary production in the UK as 252 million tonnes dry matter (10.5 t ha-1yr-1). Annual above ground production is predicted to be 165 Mt (6.9 t ha-1yr-1). Within these totals, intensive agriculture contributes 60%, productive woodland 8%, natural vegetation 26% and urban vegetation 5%. However, only 25% of total plant production is cropped by man and animals, and most of this is subsequently discarded as wastes and residues. 2112 PJ of organic material is available for fuel without reducing food or fibre production, but since much of this could not be economically collected, 859 PJ is calculated as a more realistic biofuel contribution by the year 2000. After deducting 50% conversion losses, this could save P1 billion (1979 prices) in oil imports. Short rotation energy plantations, forest residues, coppice woodlands, animal and crop wastes, industrial and domestic wastes, catch crops, natural vegetation and urban vegetation all have immediate or short term potential as biofuel sources. Sensitive planning is required to reduce environmental impact, but in some cases more diverse wildlife habitats may be created.

  3. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  4. Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units

    A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ► Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ► SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ► Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ► Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ► Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

  5. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  6. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P forest types. That is, tree species richness first increased as productivity increased at a progressively slower rate, and, after reaching a maximum, richness started to decline. Our consistent findings suggest that forests of high productivity would sustain few species because they consist mostly of flat homogeneous areas lacking an environmental gradient along which a diversity of species with different habitats can coexist. The consistency of the productivity-biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts. PMID:26954431

  7. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Dormann, B.;

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed μ-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on μ-injection...... molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were...

  8. A Comparative analysis of oil production setors in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates

    Sarbu, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Aquest article s'aplica un enfocament comparatiu de la gestió del sector petrolier en dos països rics en petroli a l'Orient Mitjà: Aràbia Saudita i els Emirats Àrabs Units (EAU). Més explícitament, s'examinen els factors que millor expliquen la variació en les estratègies que han vingut aplicant en el sector des de l'establiment de les seves empreses petrolieres nacionals (NOC). Recorrent a la literatura sobre expropiació / privatització en el camp d'Estudis de l'Energia, en aquest treball ...

  9. Microalgae cultivation as tertiary unit operation for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater associated with lipid production.

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae based treatment was studied to polish sequential batch reactor (SBR) treated pharmaceutical wastewater under mixotrophic mode of operation with simultaneous biomass/lipid production. At the end of biomass growth phase (BGP), carbon removal efficiency was observed to be 73% along with good removal of nitrates (62%). Since microalgae assimilate nutrients from wastewater for growth, an increment in total biomass productivity (2.8g/l) was observed. Subjecting to nutrient stress phase (NSP), total lipid content of 17.2% with neutral lipids of 6.2% was observed under light condition. Contrarily, dark condition depicted total lipid content of 15.8% with neutral lipids constituting 6.5%. The nutrient stress in combination with light showed marked influence on the profile of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Integration of microalgae cultivation improves environmental sustainability and enables greener routes of biofuels and value added products synthesis in a biorefinery approach. PMID:27177715

  10. The Department of Energy perspective on energy perspective on isotope production in the United States

    The Department of Energy will continue to deliver isotope goods and services that contribute to health, well-being, and quality of life. In cooperation with its customers, stakeholders, and the public, the department has established an isotope policy that addresses the two distinct parallel needs associated with isotope availability: the need to support the research and development community with isotopes for which there are no other reliable supplies; and the need to assure a reliable and competitive supply of isotopes for which a infrastructure and market have been developed. In the face of many challenges the department's isotope program is actively pursing a course which will provide isotope customers a reliable supply at the least cost. Operating efficiency is being improved though process improvement initiatives, upgrading facilities, dual site production, and seeking to remove the uncertainty from production costs. These factors may cause some upward impact on isotope costs, but will provide better products and services to the customers

  11. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  12. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  13. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  14. Heavy water production by the ammonia rectification method with heat pump. Experience of a commercial unit start-up

    Facility for heavy water production by ammonia rectification method with heat pump with efficiency of 8 t/year is described. The negative scale effect-decrease in efficiency mass-exchange device of one and the same design by increase in diameter was reliably established for the first time by the plant start-up. It's hydrodynamic nature was determined and foundations of modern theory of scale transfer were laid down. Large-scale testing unit was created for the first time in Russia. 12 refs.; 9 figs

  15. Integrity of production wells and confining unit at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas, 1995

    Jones, Sonya A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water in the shallow alluvial aquifer is contaminated at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas. Five production wells at the site are cased through the alluvial aquifer and underlying units and are screened in either the Paluxy or Twin Mountains aquifers. Three abandoned wells, originally completed in the Twin Mountains aquifer but filled with drilling mud in 1958, also penetrate the alluvial aquifer. The Paluxy and Twin Mountains aquifers are used for drinking-water supplies in and around the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.

  16. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa

  17. Radon decay product removal unit as adpated for use with a lamp

    A radon decay product remover is described for use in a walled living enclosure having an airspace with radon decay products therein, comprising: (a) a threaded male adapter for insertion into a light bulb socket so as to connect the radon decay product remover to an A.C. electrical power supply; (b) an ion generator in the remover and coupled through the adapter to the A.C. power supply, the ion generator having an A.C. to D.C. converter, including a rectifier for rectifying the A.C. power to produce high voltage D.C. power which is coupled to an electrode for creating ions that are distributed in the airspace, resulting in an electric field gradient such that the electrical potential decreases from its maximum voltage at the electrode to essentially zero voltage at the room surfaces causing migration of ions and charged airborne radon decay products toward the boundaries of the airspace of the living enclosure where they deposit on surfaces and are thereby removed from the airspace, (c) a female socket for insertion of a light bulb, the female socket being electrically coupled to the A.C. power supply through the adapator

  18. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  19. Methyl Chloride Synthesis in a Microreactor-Development of a Small Scale Production Unit

    Schmidt, S.A.; Wärnå, J.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kumar, N.; Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Yu.; Salmi, T.

    Budapest : Budapest University of Technology and Economics , 2014, s. 57-58. ISBN 978-963-05-9518-6. [International Conference on Microreactor Technology IMRET /13./. Budapest (HU), 23.06.2014-25.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : methyl chloride * chloromethane * on-site production Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Effects of Educational Productivity on Career Aspiration among United States High School Students.

    Wang, Jianjun; Ma, Xin

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling and data on 10th-grade students from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, a model was developed to show the relationship to career aspiration of eight indicators of "educational productivity": mathematics achievement; motivation; instructional quantity and quality; home, class, and peer environment; and mass…

  1. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R;

    2014-01-01

    on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average...

  2. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  3. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). PMID:27247774

  4. Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities

    Connolly, Haru

    Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the

  5. Investigating solid waste production and associated management practices in private dental units

    In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed. In the present work, results of this survey are presented; critical parameters and factors affecting the quantity and quality of the dental waste stream are reported together with the analysis and classification of dominant conditions and needs of the dental sector in the waste management field

  6. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    Cimdina, Ginta; Timma, Lelde; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  7. The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach

    Sari, Ramazan [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Economics, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Texas Tech Univ., Rawls College of Business, Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States); Soytas, Ugur [Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    We re-examine the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output, as well as employment, in the United States using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach developed by Pesaran and Pesaran [Pesaran, M.H., Pesaran, B., 1997. Working with Microfit 4.0. Camfit Data Ltd, Cambridge] and Pesaran, Shin and Smith [Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., Smith, R.J., 2001. Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics 16; 289-326] In particular, we focus attention on the following energy consumption variables: coal, fossil fuels, conventional hydroelectric power, solar energy, wind energy, natural gas, wood, and waste. The sample period covers 2001:1-2005:6. Our results imply that real output and employment are long run forcing variables for nearly all measures of disaggregate energy consumption. (author)

  8. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. PMID:26054781

  9. Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units

    IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

  10. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and