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1

Normal form for odd periodic FPU chains  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we prove that near the equilibirum position any periodic FPU chain with an odd number of particles admits a Birkhoff normal form up to order 4, and we obtain an explicit formula of the Hessian of its Hamiltonian at the fixed point.

Henrici, A; Henrici, Andreas; Kappeler, Thomas

2006-01-01

2

Asymptotic stability of N-solitons of the FPU lattices  

CERN Multimedia

We study stability of N-soliton solutions of the FPU lattice equation. Solitary wave solutions of FPU cannot be characterized as a critical point of conservation laws due to the lack of infinitesimal invariance in the spatial variable. In place of standard variational arguments for Hamiltonian systems, we use an exponential stability property of the linearized FPU equation in a weighted space which is biased in the direction of motion. The dispersion of the linearized FPU equation balances the potential term for low frequencies, whereas the dispersion is superior for high frequencies. We approximate the low frequency part of a solution of the linearized FPU equation by a solution to the linearized KdV equation around an N-soliton. We prove an exponential stability property of the linearized KdV equation around N-solitons by using the linearized Backlund transformation and use the result to analyze the linearized FPU equation.

Mizumachi, Tetsu

2009-01-01

3

Asymmetric fluctuation-relaxation paths in FPU models  

CERN Multimedia

A recent theory by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim predicts a temporal asymmetry in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of certain observables of nonequilibrium systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium. We find temporal asymmetries in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of a form of local heat flow, in the nonequilibrium FPU-$\\zb$ model of Lepri, Livi and Politi.

Giberti, C; Vernia, C

2005-01-01

4

Execution and Result Integration Scheme in FPU Farms for Co-ordinated Performance  

CERN Document Server

- The main goal of this research is to develop the concept of an innovative processor system called Functional Processor System. The particular work carried out in this paper focuses on the execution of functions in the heterogeneous functional processor units(FPU) and integration of functions to bring net results. As the functional programs are super-level programs, the requirements of execution are only at functional level. The Execution and integration of results of functions in FPUs are a challenge. The methodology of executing the functions in the functional processor farm and the integration of results of functions according to the assigned addresses are investigated here. The concept of feeding the functions into the processor is promoted rather than the processor fetching the instructions/functions and executing in this paradigm. This work is carried out at conceptual levels and it takes a long way to go into the realization of this model in hardware, possibly only with a large industry team and with ...

Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Saraf, Vighnaraju

2010-01-01

5

Hydrogen production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unit for hydrogen production consists of a reactor, tank for fuel, tank for water, connected to the injector, and motor. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce energy outlays by purifying the hydrogen and separating it from the gas mixture, it is equipped with a hydrogen separator arranged between the reactor and the motor. The separator is made in the form of a cylindrical shell separated by semipermeable partition into a chamber for pure hydrogen connected to the motor, and a chamber of ballast gas whose outlet is connected to the pressure nozzle of the injector. The use of the semipermeable partition for water vapor and permeable for hydrogen in combination with the injector makes it possible to exclude from the equipment a water pump and outlets of electricity associated with it. In addition, it is not necessary to install a current generator to power the electric motor of this pump. The heat exchanger for heating the water is also excluded.

Podgornyy, A.N.; Droshenkin, B.A.; Khmelnitskaya, I.A.; Varshavskiy, I.L.

1981-01-01

6

Localization and Equipartition of Energy in the $\\beta$-FPU Chain Chaotic Breathers  

CERN Multimedia

The evolution towards equipartition in the $\\beta$-FPU chain is studied considering as initial condition the highest frequency mode. Above an analytically derived energy threshold, this zone-boundary mode is shown to be modulationally unstable and to give rise to a striking localization process. The spontaneously created excitations have strong similarity with moving exact breathers solutions. But they have a finite life-time and their dynamics is chaotic. These chaotic breathers are able to collect very efficiently the energy in the chain. Therefore their size grow in time and they can transport a very large quantity of energy. These features can be explained analyzing the dynamics of perturbed exact breathers of the FPU chain. In particular, a close connection between the Lyapunov spectrum of the chaotic breathers and the Floquet spectrum of the exact ones has been found. The emergence of chaotic breathers is convincingly explained by the absorption of high frequency phonons whereas a breather's metastabili...

Dauxois, T; Torcini, A; Cretegny, T; Dauxois, Thierry; Ruffo, Stefano; Torcini, Alessandro; Cretegny, Thierry

1998-01-01

7

Two-Dimensional Breather Lattice Solutions and Compact-Like Discrete Breathers and Their Stability in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic ?-FPU Lattice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We restrict our attention to the discrete two-dimensional monatomic ?-FPU lattice. We look for two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers by using trying method and analyze their stability by using Aubry's linearly stable theory. We obtain the conditions of existence and stability of two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in the discrete two-dimensional monatomic ?-FPU lattice.

2009-01-15

8

Smedvig Production Unit 380 -- A new concept  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of the Smedvig Production Unit (SPU) 380, a new FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) concept. The paper outlines how a market analysis was combined with a business strategy to arrive at a certain set of design parameters and capacities. With this as input the project team prepared an Outline Specification for a fully integrated production vessel. The Outline Specification further formed the input for the Basic Engineering work. Within a time frame of 13 months the project was brought from an idea to the actual ordering of the first SPU 380.

Nergaard, A.; Lenning, K.; Levett, C.

1996-12-31

9

Optimal Solution for a Textile Production Unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A scheduling problem can be described as a set of constraints within which anoptimal schedule solution must be found. Using a Constraint Logic Programming(CLP) approach a difficult real-life example problem of job scheduling was successfullysolved. The job scheduling task was aimed at optimizing production unit scheduleswith respect to energy consumption. The optimal problem solution was obtained byexhaustive search in a substantially constrainted space of admissible solutions.

Darko Zupanic; Jozef Stefan

10

Oil Production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary version of Replacement Cost Integration Program (RCIP) provides historical data on drilling footage. The model is less successful at backcasting oil discoveries, finding rate, and oil production. The oil price collapse in 1986 led to a colla...

D. B. Reister

1987-01-01

11

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

12

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenat...

G. R. Hadder

1998-01-01

13

Comprehensive unit for flame processing of toxic liquid production wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and technological solutions, results of ajustment and industrial tests of a comprehensive unit for combustion of production wastes of caprolactam are presented. Methods are offered for improving the operating efficiency of the unit. Recommendations are made for maintaining the optimal regime parameters. Ways are examined for further improvement in this method of neutralization.

Bernadiner, M.N.; Novosel' tsev, V.N.; Pravkin, V.I.; Yesilevich, B.S.

1980-01-01

14

Qualification of the GMP compliant FDG production and distribution unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently we installed in our laboratory a GMP-compliant compact combined FDG production and dose distribution unit. This unit, constructed by HWM, Rossendorf, consists of the mini-cell, housing the FDG synthesis module from GE, standing side-by-side with the class A shielded isolator containing remotelly controlled dose distribution module. Use of the isolator technology combined with laminar flow HEPA filtered air inside the dose distribution hot-cell allows to achieve class A environment for the aseptic filing of FDG into the opened sterile vials. Synthesis of FDG and preparation of the mother batch solution is achieved inside the hot-cells providing class C clean room environement. The whole production unit is standing in the class D laboratory. The complete set of IQ-OQ-PQ tests was performed to assure that the FDG production and distribution unit is performing accordingly to GMP requirements and is providing the product of consistent quality. The majour component in the qualification tests are the aseptic procedure validations, which consisted of the procedures recommended by GMP guidelines and adapted for the specificity of the FDG production. As a minimum for the aseptic validation we considered the Mediafil Test, Bioburden Test and test productions. All the test results assure that the FDG production unit allows to produce FDG for central distribution in accordance with the requirements of European pharmacopoeia and GMP guidelines. (author)

2005-01-01

15

Oil production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary version of Replacement Cost Integration Program (RCIP) provides historical data on drilling footage. The model is less successful at backcasting oil discoveries, finding rate, and oil production. The oil price collapse in 1986 led to a collapse of drilling and concern about oil imports. Representatives of the oil producing states have suggested that the federal government should establish an oil import fee and provide domestic exploration incentives. The analysis reported in this paper suggests that large incentives would be required before drilling footage would return to the 1981 level. In 1981, the domestic price was $40.72 per barrel and at a 3% growth rate, the price would reach $74 in 20 years. In 1987, the prices are $20 per barrel and at a 1% growth rate, the price would reach $24 in 20 years. In 1987, both the current price and the expected price are too low to encourage a high level of drilling.

Reister, D.B.

1987-01-01

16

Continuous semi-solid cultivation for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei mutants using a polyurethane foam carrier and a liquid medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of cellulase was investigated in semi-solid state culture using the immobilized mycelium of Trichoderma reesei mutants on polyurethane foam impregnated with lactose medium. An extremely high value of about 2.6 FPU/ml was reached after the cultivation of T. reesei D-78085 on a 0.5% lactose medium in continuous culture at a pH medium of 4.0 when a bioreactor with vertical polyurethane foam plates was used. The enzyme yield on lactose was 520 FPU/g of lactose metabolized in comparison with 160 FPU/g using a stirred tank bioreactor. (orig.)

Targonski, Z. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology; Pielecki, J. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology

1995-12-31

17

Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS) Production in Distillery Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS) is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

SRINIVASAN K; MADHESWARAN PREM B; SATHISH KUMAR M; THIRUPATHI A.

2013-01-01

18

Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær

2012-01-01

19

Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

1991-10-14

20

Using relative value units to measure faculty clinical productivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this project was to compare faculty productivity in teaching and nonteaching clinical settings. We hypothesized that teaching activity would have no impact on productivity. A mixed model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze average relative value units (RVUs) billed and to test for differences between clinics. Data were drawn from 4,956 clinical encounters made within a student, resident, and faculty clinic. Average RVUs per visit were similar in the three settings. Resident supervision increased faculty productivity, while student supervision had no impact on billed RVUs. Thus, RVUs can be used as a measure of faculty clinical productivity in different settings in an academic medical center. Precepting students does not appear to affect clinical productivity.

Albritton TA; Miller MD; Johnson MH; Rahn DW

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O'Seaghdha et al., 2010). The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target). Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous) or did not share (heterogeneous) the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Experiment 1: 687 vs. 684 ms, Experiment 2: 717 vs. 716). In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 3: 685 vs. 704, Experiment 4: 594 vs. 650). In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ± in , , , ; called a logographeme). Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 5: 576 vs. 625, Experiment 6: 586 vs. 620). These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

Chen JY; Cherng RJ

2013-01-01

22

SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

Lowell Deckert

2000-08-25

23

Development of community-sized fuel alcohol production units in the southeastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A community-sized fuel alcohol plant producing from 150,000 to 2 million gallons per year is described in this paper. Improvement of economics, environmental aspects, and energy conservation in the production of ethanol from grain is discussed. Corn and sorghum are the materials of choice in the southeast. A fuel alcohol prototype production unit was designed and its operation is described. Base-line data is being collected in order to have complete energy and material balances for all options of operation on the prototype. The Alcohol Fuels Program in the southeastern United States is still in the developmental stage. While over 1000 licenses have been issued for operating alcohol distillation units, we could find no operating units other than our prototype at Dixie Steel. Major road-blocks mentioned in our state-by-state survey were lack of competent engineering and construction capacity at a reasonable cost, financing, and the slow response of government programs aimed at supporting the alcohol fuels program. To this list add raw material cost. Plant sites in the Southeast cannot draw heavily on local corn and milo supplies. This adds a large burden in the form of added cost per unit of raw material and higher working capital due to larger inventory requirements.

Herz, W.J. (Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville); Brett, C.E.; Snyder, C.A.

1980-01-01

24

Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

2009-12-31

25

A Novel FPGA based Leading One Anticipation Algorithm for Floating Point Arithmetic Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In multimedia Systems-on-Chips, the design of specialized IEEE-754-compliant floating point arithmetic units (FPU) is critical with respect to both operating speed and silicon area demand. Leading one anticipation is a well-known issue in the implementation of high speed FPUs. We investigated a novel leading one anticipation algorithm allowing us to significantly reduce the anticipation failure rate with respect to the state-of the art. We embedded our technique into a complete FPU and compared its performance against existing solutions, definitely showing both area savings and total latency reduction.

Ashwini Suresh Deshmukh

2012-01-01

26

High-resolution {gamma} spectroscopy of the odd-N fission isomer {sup 237f}Pu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While so far spectroscopic studies of fission isomers concentrated on even-even nuclei, high-resolution {gamma} spectroscopy of odd-N fission isomers may allow to identify Nilsson orbitals in heavy actinide nuclei. As the first case ever studied for odd-N nuclei, the fission isomer in {sup 237}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 100ns/1.1 {mu}s) was investigated using the {sup 235}({alpha},2n) reaction with a pulsed {alpha} beam (E{sub {alpha}} =24 MeV, pulse distance 400 ns) from the Cologne Tandem accelerator. A self-supporting thick metallic {sup 235}U target (3.7 mg/cm{sup 2}) was used, where the {sup 237}Pu reaction products were stopped and fission products were emitted in opposite directions. The rare {gamma}-rays from the second potential well in delayed coincidence with fission products were measured with the MINIBALL spectrometer. Due to the small population cross section of about 2 {mu}b a large solid angle coverage both for the {gamma}-rays as well as for the fission fragments was required. A very compact 4{pi} parallel plate detector array (diameter ca. 15 cm) was used for the fission fragment detection, allowing for a discrimination between the dominant prompt fission products and the rare isomeric fission events. Results, such as the identification of rotational bands, isomeric lifetimes and angular distributions etc., will be presented. (orig.)

Morgan, T.; Csige, L.; Habs, D.; Maier, H.J.; Schuermann, C.; Schwerdtfeger, W.; Thirolf, P.G.; Wimmer, K. [LMU und Maier-Leibnitz Lab., Muenchen (Germany); Blazhev, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N. [IKP Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

2007-07-01

27

An Analogue of cyclotomic units for products of elliptic curves  

CERN Document Server

We construct certain elements in the integral motivic cohomology group $H^3_{E \\times E'}(\\X,\\Q(2))_{\\ZZ}$, where $E$ and $E'$ are elliptic curves over $\\Q$. When $E$ is not isogenous to $E'$ these elements are analogous to `cyclotomic units' in real quadratic fields as they come from modular parametrisations of the elliptic curves. We then find an analogue of the class number formula for real quadratic fields. Finally we use the Beilinson conjectures for $E \\times E'$ to deduce them for products of $n$ elliptic curves. A certain amount of this paper is expository in nature.

Baba, S; Baba, Srinath; Sreekantan, Ramesh

2001-01-01

28

Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

Roesjorde, Audun

2004-08-01

29

Screening unit for radio-isotope production generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The screening unit for a radio-isotope production generator, comprises a leaden base plate and a vertical leaden mantle placed thereon and provided with a leaden stop which is closable over the place of exit of the isotopes and can be moved in position in the generator, characterised in that the mantle consists of two parts, one part of which is motionless with respect to the baseplate and is provided with an opening of adequate size to pass over the generator, and the other part of which the other part is likewise provided with a through opening to permit the generator to be rotatable about an axis vertical w.r.t. the baseplate so that the opening in the stationary part may be closed. (G.C.)

1980-01-01

30

Needs of ergonomic design at control units in production industries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decades, an increasing use of innovative technologies in manufacturing areas was monitored. A huge amount of physical workload was replaced by the change from conventional machine tools to computer-controlled units. CNC systems spread in current production processes. Because of this, machine operators today mostly have an observational function. This caused increasing of static work (e.g., standing, sitting) and cognitive demands (e.g., process observation). Machine operators have a high responsibility, because mistakes may lead to human injuries as well as to product losses - and in consequence may lead to high monetary losses (for the company) as well. Being usable often means for a CNC machine being efficient. An intuitive usability and an ergonomic organization of CNC workplaces can be an essential basis to reduce the risk of failures in operation as well as physical complaints (e.g. pain or diseases because of bad body posture during work). In contrast to conventional machines, CNC machines are equipped both with hardware and software. An intuitive and clear-sighted operating of CNC systems is a requirement for quick learning of new systems. Within this study, a survey was carried out among trainees learning the operation of CNC machines.

Levchuk I; Schäfer A; Lang KH; Gebhardt H; Klussmann A

2012-01-01

31

75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...USTR-2010-0013] WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-- Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for...

2010-08-16

32

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

33

The widespread failure of production unitization in US oil fields: A strategic explanation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The failure of unitization of oil production in common pool oil fields is examined. Unitization refers to a condition in which a single firm, the unit operator, is selected to produce in a part or in the entire reservoir, with the net rent shared by all leases participating in the unitization. Under this arrangement, the unit operator becomes the sole residue profit claimant who maximizes the field-wide rent, thus completely eliminating the common pool losses associated with non-unitized production. Results of the analysis show that despite the large gains in field-wide rent, unitization may cause losses to the participating leases unless the scale of unitization is very large. In addition, irrespective of other firms' decision to unitize or not, a firm is always better off staying out, since a lease that is outside of a unitized unit enjoys a bigger share of output and rent than one that is inside. Based on this consideration, it is argued that the persistent and widespread failure of production unitization is due to strategic considerations such as the rewarding nature of staying out, and the inability of the unitized unit to capture the gain that it generates. Other possible reasons for the failure of unitization are also discussed, among them hold-out strategies, employed by firms to enhance their shares of unitized rents, or the effects of asymmetric information that can block consensus on the value of output shares of leases. 24 refs., 1 fig.

Yuan, L. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Economics, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-09-30

34

Laboratory unit for distillation of crude oils and products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ARN-2 apparatus currently used to distill crude oil in order to determine its fractional composition requires too much time and labor. A distillation unit with stripping columns (RUST) has been developed with which a crude oil can be subjected to continuous distillation while taking several cuts simultaneously. The basic characteristics of the unit are outlined, and the unit subjected to comprehensive evaluations. The tests demonstrate the feasibility of using the RUST-1 and RUST-2 units for an extremely diverse group of laboratory operations.

Manovyan, A.K.; Khachaturova, D.A.; Lozin, V.V.

1983-11-01

35

[Occupational exposure to lead in production units in Maracaibo, Venezuela  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A medical occupational study was performed in 40 workers belonging to productive units in telecommunication works, 22 to car radiator mechanics and 11 to battery repairs. A practical medical and occupational study was applied to the group and also were determined their blood lead and air lead exposure levels. Seventy-three individuals, without risk of laboral exposure to lead, without familiar, pathological and occupational antecedents, and healthy at the time of the test, to whom the blood lead levels were determined served as control group. The mean values of plumbemia in exposure workers to inorganic lead exceed the level threshold of the COVENIN 2277-85 norm (30 micrograms/dl) (Telecommunication work, 40.10 micrograms/dl, radiators mechanics, 37.40 micrograms/dl and battery repairs, 45.77 micrograms/dl), values that were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) compared with the ones obtained in the non-exposed population. The factors that can influence the variability of the results were analyzed and it was established a correlation between the plumbemia of the radiator mechanics and battery repairmen and the length of occupational period and air lead levels (p < 0.0001). The inherent factors to the climatic, occupational and personal conditions of technicians in telecommunications, are presented as elements able to explain the lack of correlation between blood lead levels and length of occupational period and air lead. The clinical findings in exposed workers were unspecific. The workers do not practice or follow the basic sanitary regulations, personal protection and industrial security. This work will contribute to establish a basic description, to further and more complex observational prospective studies in order to determine the occurrence of alterations that are derived from occupational lead exposure.

Corzo G; Naveda R

1998-09-01

36

[Occupational exposure to lead in production units in Maracaibo, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

A medical occupational study was performed in 40 workers belonging to productive units in telecommunication works, 22 to car radiator mechanics and 11 to battery repairs. A practical medical and occupational study was applied to the group and also were determined their blood lead and air lead exposure levels. Seventy-three individuals, without risk of laboral exposure to lead, without familiar, pathological and occupational antecedents, and healthy at the time of the test, to whom the blood lead levels were determined served as control group. The mean values of plumbemia in exposure workers to inorganic lead exceed the level threshold of the COVENIN 2277-85 norm (30 micrograms/dl) (Telecommunication work, 40.10 micrograms/dl, radiators mechanics, 37.40 micrograms/dl and battery repairs, 45.77 micrograms/dl), values that were significantly higher (p plumbemia of the radiator mechanics and battery repairmen and the length of occupational period and air lead levels (p < 0.0001). The inherent factors to the climatic, occupational and personal conditions of technicians in telecommunications, are presented as elements able to explain the lack of correlation between blood lead levels and length of occupational period and air lead. The clinical findings in exposed workers were unspecific. The workers do not practice or follow the basic sanitary regulations, personal protection and industrial security. This work will contribute to establish a basic description, to further and more complex observational prospective studies in order to determine the occurrence of alterations that are derived from occupational lead exposure. PMID:9780551

Corzo, G; Naveda, R

1998-09-01

37

Use of organic waste for the production of added value holocellulases with Cellulomonas flavigena and Trichoderma reesei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the production of holocellulases from the cellulolytic microorganisms Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 using as substrates the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and digestates from a hydrogenogenic-methanogenic bioenergy production process. The first set of experiments (E1) used the mutant actinobacteria C. flavigena PR-22 whereas another set (E2) used the mutant filamentous fungi T. reesei MCG 80. In E1 with OFMSW as substrate, xylanolytic activities ranged from 1800 to 3900 international units gholocellulose(-1) (IU ghol(-1)), whereas the cellulolytic activities ranged from 220 to 420 IU ghol(-1). The variation of agitation speed did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, whereas the increase of substrate concentration had a significant negative effect on both xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities on a holocellulose feed basis. Regarding E2, the OFMSW was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3% volatile solids (VS). At 2 % VS the best filter paper activities were 1200 filter paper units (FPU) l(-1); however, in a holocellulase basis the best result was 67 FPU ghol(-1), corresponding to 1 % VS. Next, OFMSW was compared with OFMSW supplemented with lactose, digested solids from hydrogenogenic fermentation (D1) and digested solids from a two-stage process (D2). Against expectations, no positive effect was found in OFMSW due to lactose. The best enzymatic titres were in the order D1 > OFMSW ? OFMSW + lactose > D2. The use of digestates from hydrogenogenic fermentation for enzyme production holds promise for waste management. It promotes energy and added-value bioproduct generation-a green alternative to common practice of management and disposal of organic wastes.

Escamilla-Alvarado C; Poggi Varaldo HM; Ponce-Noyola MT

2013-06-01

38

Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

39

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler; Yifan Zhao; Soong N. Sohng; Chin W. Yang; Paul Kim; Ken Hung

2012-01-01

40

Use of organic waste for the production of added-value holocellulases with Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the production of holocellulases from the cellulolytic microorganisms Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 using as substrates the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and digestates from a hydrogenogenic-methanogenic bioenergy production process. The first set of experiments (E1) used the mutant actinobacteria C. flavigena PR-22 whereas another set (E2) used the mutant filamentous fungi T. reesei MCG 80. In E1 with OFMSW as substrate, xylanolytic activities ranged from 1800 to 3900 international units gholocellulose (-1) (IU ghol (-1)), whereas the cellulolytic activities ranged from 220 to 420 IU ghol (-1). The variation of agitation speed did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, whereas the increase of substrate concentration had a significant negative effect on both xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities on a holocellulose feed basis. Regarding E2, the OFMSW was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 % volatile solids (VS). At 2 % VS the best filter paper activities were 1200 filter paper units (FPU) l(-1); however, in a holocellulase basis the best result was 67 FPU ghol (-1), corresponding to 1 % VS. Next, OFMSW was compared with OFMSW supplemented with lactose, digested solids from hydrogenogenic fermentation (D1) and digested solids from a two-stage process (D2). Against expectations, no positive effect was found in OFMSW due to lactose. The best enzymatic titres were in the order D1 > OFMSW ? OFMSW + lactose > D2. The use of digestates from hydrogenogenic fermentation for enzyme production holds promise for waste management. It promotes energy and added-value bioproduct generation-a green alternative to common practice of management and disposal of organic wastes. PMID:23877254

Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

2013-06-23

 
 
 
 
41

Use of organic waste for the production of added-value holocellulases with Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the production of holocellulases from the cellulolytic microorganisms Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 using as substrates the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and digestates from a hydrogenogenic-methanogenic bioenergy production process. The first set of experiments (E1) used the mutant actinobacteria C. flavigena PR-22 whereas another set (E2) used the mutant filamentous fungi T. reesei MCG 80. In E1 with OFMSW as substrate, xylanolytic activities ranged from 1800 to 3900 international units gholocellulose (-1) (IU ghol (-1)), whereas the cellulolytic activities ranged from 220 to 420 IU ghol (-1). The variation of agitation speed did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, whereas the increase of substrate concentration had a significant negative effect on both xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities on a holocellulose feed basis. Regarding E2, the OFMSW was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 % volatile solids (VS). At 2 % VS the best filter paper activities were 1200 filter paper units (FPU) l(-1); however, in a holocellulase basis the best result was 67 FPU ghol (-1), corresponding to 1 % VS. Next, OFMSW was compared with OFMSW supplemented with lactose, digested solids from hydrogenogenic fermentation (D1) and digested solids from a two-stage process (D2). Against expectations, no positive effect was found in OFMSW due to lactose. The best enzymatic titres were in the order D1 > OFMSW ? OFMSW + lactose > D2. The use of digestates from hydrogenogenic fermentation for enzyme production holds promise for waste management. It promotes energy and added-value bioproduct generation-a green alternative to common practice of management and disposal of organic wastes.

Escamilla-Alvarado C; Poggi-Varaldo HM; Ponce-Noyola MT

2013-08-01

42

The economics of biomass production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lichtenberg, E. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roningen, V.O. [ERS-USDA, Washington, DC (United States); Shapouri, H. [OENU-ERS-USDA, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

43

Temporary sweetening unit aids early oil, gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Early in 1992, Amerada Hess recognized that the Scott platform would be ready to export oil and gas in late 1993, several months before gas processing would become available at St. Fergus. ICI Katalco's Puraspec 100 Process was selected to purify the associated gas to pipeline quality. The unit was installed in April 1993 and began treating gas in October. St. Fergus processing became available April 1, 1994, on schedule. Operation of the platform unit has continued since then, controlling H[sub 2]S content as well as providing the flexibility of exporting on-specification gas for any feed rate and H[sub 2]S content. The paper describes the design and operation of the Scott platform and is facilities.

1995-02-13

44

DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

Field, K.V.

1996-02-01

45

Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

1990-04-01

46

Cascade units for neon isotope production by rectification  

Science.gov (United States)

The basics of neon isotope separation by the distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units at the top and bottom column sections are calculated for different loads. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade are discussed. A configuration for a cryogenic circuit based on a high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity for and the technical feasibility of creating a driver pressure difference between the columns for different stages are demonstrated.

Bondarenko, V. L.; Simonenko, Yu. M.; Diachenko, O. V.; Matveyev, E. V.

2013-05-01

47

Production of short straight sections hits 100 units  

CERN Multimedia

The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

2005-01-01

48

Sheep Production Unit for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 430/10.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructor's guide for a sheep production unit contains six lessons that are designed to be taught in the Agricultural Science I core curriculum. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references…

Brzozowski, Richard J.; Stewart, Bob R.

49

Reaction engineering analysis of cellulase production with Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 with intermittent substrate supply.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of varying initial concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose on cellulase production with Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 as well as the effects of varying lactose and ammonium sulfate concentrations in the feed medium were studied simultaneously in parallel-operated shake flasks and, alternatively, in parallel-operated stirred-tank bioreactors on a 10-mL scale. Fifteen experiments were performed as triplicates in shake flasks as well as in stirred-tank bioreactors in parallel to identify the parameters of second-order polynomials for the estimation of the final filter paper activity of T. reesei RUT-C30 after a process time of 96 h. Even though parameter estimation was not possible based on the results of the shake flasks due to final enzyme activities at or below the detection limit (with the exception of one shake flask), the identification of the second-order polynomial was successful with the results of the parallel-operated stirred-tank bioreactors on a 10-mL scale. Reaction conditions with 53.3 g L?¹ microcrystalline cellulose in the initial medium, no lactose feeding and 3.3 g L?¹ day?¹ intermittent ammonium sulfate addition were estimated to be optimal. The final experimental validation of the optimum substrate supply on a L-scale resulted in the production of 4.88 filter paper units (FPU) mL?¹ with T. reesei RUT-C30 after 96 h. This is an improvement by a factor of 3.6 compared to the reference batch process (1.35 FPU mL?¹).

Bendig C; Weuster-Botz D

2013-07-01

50

Cultural assumptions and productivity: the United States and China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the premise that the study of another culture is a useful tool for learning about one's own environment, the author compares and contrasts major cultural characteristics of the U.S. and China. Although he guards against the idea of blindly adopting major Chinese cultural assumptions, the author feels that the U.S. may benefit economically by looking toward China to find new insights and fresh approaches to help the U.S. better cope with prevalent economic ills--low productivity and lack of innovation in the work force.

Nevis EC

1983-01-01

51

Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.  

Science.gov (United States)

These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production; types of…

Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

52

The Petrobras XVIII project: The deepest 100,000 BOPD floating production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the PETROBRAS experience in the management of a ``turn key`` contract covering the design, procurement, construction, commissioning, testing, pre-operation and start-up of the PETROBRAS 18 Floating Production Unit. It provides specifications and capacities of this production platform and how each phase of the planning and installation of the facility was accomplished.

Maselli, A.S.S.; Arcadier, A.S.; Lima, J.A.S.; Alencar, M.F. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-31

53

Evaluation and characterization of forage Sorghum as feedstock for fermentable sugar production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and drier parts of the world, especially areas too dry for corn. Sorghum production also leaves about 58 million tons of by-products composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The low lignin content of some forage sorghums such as brown midrib makes them more digestible for ethanol production. Successful use of biomass for biofuel production depends on not only pretreatment methods and efficient processing conditions but also physical and chemical properties of the biomass. In this study, four varieties of forage sorghum (stems and leaves) were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Forage sorghums with a low syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in their lignin structure were easy to hydrolyze after pretreatment despite the initial lignin content. Enzymatic hydrolysis was also more effective for forage sorghums with a low crystallinity index and easily transformed crystalline cellulose to amorphous cellulose, despite initial cellulose content. Up to 72% hexose yield and 94% pentose yield were obtained using modified steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140 degrees C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase (15 filter per unit (FPU)/g cellulose) and beta-glucosidase (50 cellobiose units (CBU)/g cellulose).

Corredor DY; Salazar JM; Hohn KL; Bean S; Bean B; Wang D

2009-07-01

54

Wreath Products in the Unit Group of Modular Group Algebras of 2-groups of Maximal Class  

CERN Document Server

We study the unit group of the modular group algebra $KG$, where $G$ is 2-group of maximal class. For the dihedral and semidihedral group we prove that the wreath product of a group of order 2 and the commutator subgroup of $G$ is involved in the unit group of $KG$. We also confirm this fact for the generalized quaternion group of order not greater than 32.

Konovalov, A

2001-01-01

55

Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

None

1989-04-01

56

STUDY ON ESTABLISHING THE OPTIMUM PRODUCTION CAPACITY FOR A UNIT PROCESSING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishing the optimum production capacity represents a fundamental issue for the economic activity. Building of oversized objectives is equal to fund wasting, immobilizing capital in fixed assets which remain unused. Or, building of undersized objectives creates bottlenecks in economic processes(4). This is why prior to designing the investment objectives thorough calculations are necessary in order to establish the optimum production capacity. The study was made on a company which will process agricultural products(2). Therefore, several alternatives are prepared which different as regard the production capacity volume and the technology used in obtaining the finished product, so the method of variants will be used.Optimal capacity was establshed by studies-4,560 tons of finished product annually.

Ioana NICULAE; Livia VIDU; Reta CONDEI

2012-01-01

57

Production and productivity in the 1980's. [United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenge for the industry in the 1980's is to produce coal at a cheaper cost per therm. The traditional measures of production and productivity - DOF and OMS - are by themselves no longer a sufficient measure of efficiency. While the coal industry faces a continued threat from other fuels and competition from imported coal, every aspect of mining must be re-examined from a total cost point of view. The paper examines current and future efforts to increase production and productivity in this light.

Mills, L.J.

1983-01-01

58

Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

2009-01-01

59

A visual interactive decision support system to assist the design of a new production unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many management problems, including the design of a new production unit, start off being complex and ill-defined. In some cases, such problems may be critical to the survival of the firm but, since these are often unique problems, the firm may lack the experience or the people to adequately address ...

Chau, PYK; Bell, PC

60

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
61

PV-Tec: Photovoltaic technology evaluation center: Design and implementation of a production research unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor safety (BMU) Fraunhofer ISE has designed and implemented a new kind of research unit for applied R&D for silicon solar cell production. The Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center (PV-TEC) featu...

Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Glunz, S.W.; Rein, S.; Rentsch, J.; Emanuel, G.; Brucker, I.; Faasch, T.; Faller, C.; Willeke, G.; Luther, J.

62

An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

63

Integrated Pest Management for Melon Production in the Desert Southwest United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B (SPWF-B) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) are serious threats to sustainable melon (Cucumis melo L.) production in the desert Southwest United States, particularly during the Fall season. PI 313970 (var. acidulus) exhibi...

64

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

1997-06-01

65

Productivity, Efficiency, and Managerial Performance Regress and Gains in United States Universities: A Data Envelopment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis to investigate the extent to which universities in the United States have undergone productivity and efficiency changes, partly due to managerial performance, during the 2005-09 academic years. Using panel data for 133 research and doctoral universities, the focus is on the primary drivers of U.S. publicly controlled higher education. DEA efficiency and returns to scale estimates are provided. In addition, university total factor productivity changes via the Malmquist index are decomposed into component parts. Results suggest that U.S. universities experienced average productivity regress. On an annual basis such was present prior to the global financial crisis. However, productivity gains appeared in concert with the crisis. Managerial efficiency tended to hamper productivity gains but, on the positive side, showed slight improvements over time. Decreasing returns to scale prevailed but from a policy perspective a return to economy wide growth may automatically correct some over production.

G. Thomas Sav

2012-01-01

66

Technical considerations in converting jack-up drilling rigs to mobile offshore production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a growing need for converting jack-up drilling rigs to Mobile Offshore Production Units for early production, long-term testing and as a low cost reusable alternative to platforms for short life marginal fields. Installing process equipment on drilling rigs offers a unique set of challenges. These include new loads imposed upon the rig, storage of hydrocarbon liquids, gas venting and flaring, location of and installation of equipment, safety considerations and installation of pipeline risers. The specific technical challenge of converting jack-up rigs for Mobile Offshore Production Units (MOPU) is discussed with example solutions from two projects, one installed in Venezuela and one off the West Coast of Africa.

Duhon, R.D.; Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.

1995-12-31

67

Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for ?oating-point computations, and for this reason, ?oating-point operators consume a signi?cant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

2013-01-01

68

A versatile floating production unit: the DP FPSO for Brazilian waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in drilling and completion techniques have resulted in improved well system design and completion reliability. Extended reach wells, multi-laterals, smart wells producing from multiple pay-zones and a range of completion methods provide high well production rates and significant recoverable reserves per well. During the initial phase of a field development, limited or no data may be available concerning the hydrocarbon reservoir. An extended well test facility or early production facility can provide additional high-quality production data related to properties of the recovered hydrocarbons, reservoir drive mechanism, reservoir pressure and temperature, etc. By obtaining critical reservoir and production data during the initial project phase, technical and commercial risks can be further quantified and a possible field development plan optimized. With exploration and production operations in deeper water, the cost for traditional (passive) station keeping systems of floating offshore structures has increased accordingly. Hardware and offshore installation costs associated with a passive mooring system of a floating offshore facilities can be significant, especially in case of operations in remote deep water areas and with frequent relocations. A DP system provides a cost-effective and proven means of station keeping and has been extensively applied to deep water drilling units. Operating as a first-stage field development unit, the DP-FPSO will enable a cost-effective means to gain valuable reservoir and production data, while generating early sales revenues. (author)

Cann, Bram Van; Poldervaart, Leen [SBM Inc., Marly (Switzerland); Beenen, Marco [Gusto Engineering B.V. (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

69

The evolution of sunscreen products in the United States--a 12-year cross sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Excessive exposure from ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to the development of skin cancers and photoaging. Topical sunscreen products remain one of the most widely used forms of protection for the majority of the public. The objective of this analysis was to examine photoprotection trends (e.g., SPF value) and the degree of UVA I protection from 1997 to 2009 in the United States. Sunscreen products purchased and evaluated in 1997 (N = 59), 2003 (N = 188) and again in 2009 (N = 330), totaling 577, were included in this analysis. Information regarding (1) the SPF value, (2) name and concentration of the active ingredients, (3) type of products (i.e., daily vs. recreational/beach), and (4) claims of UVA protection was recorded and analyzed. In addition, the critical wavelength (CW) of 330 products from 2009 was determined. The results showed an increase in the SPF values of products from 1997 to 2009. The percentage of low SPF products (SPF 4-14) decreased from 27% in 1997 to 6% in 2009. The number of products containing a known UVA-I filter (i.e., avobenzone or zinc oxide) increased from 5% in 1997 to 70% in 2009. Lastly, approximately, 225 (68%) of the products tested in 2009 attained CW > 370 nm. In the past decade, sunscreen products have undergone fundamental improvements, the most significant of which is the breadth of protection against UVA I.

Wang SQ; Tanner PR; Lim HW; Nash JF

2013-01-01

70

Device for production of gaseous phase, particularly oxygen or air, has additives, where gaseous phase flows by unit filled with bee honeycombs or bee products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The device has additives, where the gaseous phase flows by a unit (1) filled with bee honeycombs (4) or bee products. The gaseous phase is sucked in or is pressed by the unit, particularly by a ventilator (2). An independent claim is also included for a method for production of gaseous phase, particularly oxygen or air.

GIEGERICH HEINZ

71

Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co., SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

72

Production of fumagillin by Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from traditional trituration units, ?Maasra?, in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive oil production in Morocco is carried out at traditional trituration units called ?maasras?. The thermophilic mycobiota present in these places was studied, from which strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were identifi ed by classical and molecular methods (ITS region from the rDNA). Selected strains of A. fumigatus were tested for fumagillin production using a quantitative analysis by HPLC. More than 700 thermophilic strains were obtained from ?maasras? studied. The predominant species was A. fumigatus (31%). Eleven strains (50%), out of 22, of A. fumigatus were capable of producing fumagillin ranging from 4.55-46.48 ng/g of wheat dry weight.

K. Lamrani; H. Lakhtar; M. Ismaili Alaoui; M. Ettalibi; P. Boiron; C. Augur; I. Gaime Perraud; S. Roussos

2008-01-01

73

Operation simulation analysis boosts styrene unit's productivity and operating flexibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article shows how operations simulation analysis (OSA) has helped operators of a 90,000 ton/year ethylbenzene/styrene complex achieve better utilization of capital, energy, raw material, and human resources in a one-year productivity improvement program. In addition to energy and raw material utilization, OSA has also been implemented to review the economic impact of ethylbenzene/styrene unit investments, as well as supply, demand and price forecasting.

Huang, W.

1983-03-28

74

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

2008-01-01

75

Aqueous ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking for ethanol production. Pretreated EFB, which were pretreated at the optimal conditions of 60 °C, 12 h, and 21% (w/w) aqueous ammonia, showed 19.5% and 41.4% glucose yields during an enzymatic digestibility test for 96 h when using 15 and 60 FPU of cellulase, respectively. Using the pretreated EFB, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 168 h with 5% (w/v) glucan loading and 60 FPU of cellulase and 30 CBU of ?-glucosidase per gram glucan resulted in ethanol production of 18.6 g/L titer, 65.6% of theoretical maximum yield, and 0.11 g/L/h of productivity. PMID:21852123

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-07-22

76

Aqueous ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for ethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking for ethanol production. Pretreated EFB, which were pretreated at the optimal conditions of 60 °C, 12 h, and 21% (w/w) aqueous ammonia, showed 19.5% and 41.4% glucose yields during an enzymatic digestibility test for 96 h when using 15 and 60 FPU of cellulase, respectively. Using the pretreated EFB, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 168 h with 5% (w/v) glucan loading and 60 FPU of cellulase and 30 CBU of ?-glucosidase per gram glucan resulted in ethanol production of 18.6 g/L titer, 65.6% of theoretical maximum yield, and 0.11 g/L/h of productivity.

Jung YH; Kim IJ; Han JI; Choi IG; Kim KH

2011-10-01

77

Productivity, Technology And Skills In Banking: Commercial Lending In Britain, The United States And Germany  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on a detailed comparison of labour productivity in bank lending to`middle market' or `mid-corporate' business customers in Britain, the United Statesand Germany. It is based on data collected from matched samples of bank lendingoffices in the three countries. After standardising for average loan size, average lendingoutput per employee-hour in the German sample is found to be some 23% higher thanin the US and almost two thirds higher than in Britain. This productivity ranking is leftundisturbed by consideration of various indicators of service quality as experienced byborrowers (for example, banks' speed of response to customers' credit requests andthe extent to which banks seek to gain a detailed understanding of clients' businessesand their associated credit needs).In the US sample of lending offices, relatively high productivity in the volume-orientedlow end of the market is offset by a very labour-intensive approach to servicing creditrequests from l...

Geoff Mason; Brent Keltner; Karin Wagner

78

Comprehensive review of the limitations of relative value unit measurements of productivity in academic departments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measuring radiologist, especially sonologist, productivity has never been of greater interest than now, as radiology has moved from its historical status as a cost center to the largest revenue generator in most institutions. With more local institutional and federal oversight and regulation into the reimbursement and valuation of imaging procedures, including emphasis on outsourcing, overvalued procedures, and bundling, the ability to measure productivity and to draw meaningful conclusions from the data becomes increasingly imperative if we as radiologists and sonologists expect to contribute meaningfully to the process. This article presents a history of the "relative value unit" and discusses the valuation of radiologist/sonologist productivity in this era of ubiquitous high-technology implementation.

Dubinsky TJ

2013-06-01

79

Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

1996-12-31

80

DEVICE FOR TREATING AND PURIFYING A LIQUID PRODUCT AND THE UNITS OF SAID DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inventions relate to the food industry. Any liquid, vodka included, is treated and purified by forcing it through a mixture of sorbing components installed between filtering materials. Each portion of liquid poured out of the bottle into a drinking vessel within the period of time preceding its consumption by the user is treated and purified. Treatment is carried out by forcing the liquid from the container at an optimum rate through coarse filtering material, sorbents and fine filtering material installed in the cartridge under required air excess pressure in the container interior produced as needed by a motor driven air pump installed outside the bottle. By placing flavor and (or) other additives in the cartridge interior a new product different from the bottled one can be obtained at the device outlet. Besides, the device can be equipped with a sound effect unit and a light effect unit for advertising purposes.

KISTEREV VALERIY EVGENYEVICH; ZHERDEV PAVEL DMITRIEVICH

 
 
 
 
81

Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Galileo Mission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2)minus/ fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spcaecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has fabricated 134 heater units which will be used on the Galileo Mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at LANL. 4 figs., 15 tabs

Rinehart, G.H.

1988-04-01

82

Potential climate change effects on Loblolly pine forest productivity and drainage across the Southern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PnET-IIS, a well validated, physiologically based, forest ecosystem model combined soil and vegetation data with six climate change scenarios. The model predicted annual net primary productivity and drainage on Loblolly pine sites in the southern US states of Texas, Mississippi, Florida and Virginia. Climate scenario air temperature changes were +2 deg C to +7 deg C >historic (1951 to 1984) values and climate scenario precipitation changes were -10% to +20% > historic values. Across the sites, increasing air temperature would have much greater impact on pine forest hydrology and productivity than would changes in precipitation. These changes could seriously impact the structure and function of southern United States forests by decreasing net primary productivity and total leaf area. Water use per unit area would increase, but total plant water demand would decrease because of reduced total leaf area, thus increasing regional pine forest drainage. An average annual air temperature increase of 7 deg C, caused a considerable reduction in the Loblolly pine range. 24 refs

McNulty, S.G. [USDA Forest Service, Raleigh, NC (United States). Integrated Impacts Program; Vose, J.M.; Swank, W.T. [USDA Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrologic Lab.

1996-11-01

83

Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

2010-07-01

84

Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

Fix Brian V; O'Connor Richard J; Fong Geoffrey T; Borland Ron; Cummings K M; Hyland Andrew

2011-01-01

85

Productivity-based relative value units for radiology procedures. A Delphi approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a methodology to develop relative value units (RVUs) for radiology procedures. The RVUs were developed to measure and to monitor the productivity of radiologists and technologists in a large HMO. In all, 13 radiologists and 33 technologists participated in a Delphi process to develop relative weights for 595 procedures in eight different radiology modalities, including CAT scanner and ultrasound. The RVUs generated were readily accepted by the users and are currently being implemented in the computerized information system at the HMO.

Birdsall ML; Trivedi VM

1983-12-01

86

Electric vehicle production and associated component developments in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lucas Chloride EV Systems Limited is supplying complete productionised electric vehicle drive lines to four major motor vehicle manufacturers in the UK. Approximately 350 electric vehicles are scheduled to be built in the first 4 months of 1984. Necessary conditions for customer satisfaction are vehicle reliability and acceptable operating cost, both of which must be at least as good as those for the gasoline engined equivalent vehicle. A system design approach has been adopted as the only possible means by which the required targets of reliability and cost can be met with production electric vehicles in service. The paper describes the components and highlights the design philosophy which allows these targets to be achieved with production units in service.

Edwards, B.D.

1984-02-01

87

Electric vehicle production and associated component developments in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lucas Chloride EV Systems Limited is supplying complete productionised electric vehicle drive lines to four major motor vehicle manufacturers in the UK. Approximately 350 electric vehicles are scheduled to be built in the first 4 months of 1984. Necessary conditions for customer satisfaction are vehicle reliability and acceptable operating cost, both of which must be at least as good as those for the gasoline engined equivalent vehicle. A system design approach has been adopted as the only possible means by which the required targets of reliability and cost can be met with production of electric vehicles in service. The paper describes the components and highlights the design philosophy which allows these targets to be achieved with production units in service.

Edwards, B.D.

1984-01-01

88

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 10): United Chrome Products, Corvallis, Oregon, September 1986. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United Chrome Products (UCP) site is a former industrial hard chrome plating facility located in Corvallis, Oregon. UCP began electroplating operations in 1956. Between 1956 and 1975 an onsite dry well was used to dispose of floor drippings, washings, and product rinsate collected in a sump within the building. The liquids were reportedly neutralized with sodium hydroxide and/or soda ash prior to disposal. However, there is considerable chromium contamination in the soil beneath and around the building and in the upper and lower aquifers as a result of leaching from the dry well and plating tanks. Estimated capital cost for the selected remedial alternative is $1,580,000 and the annual OandM costs are approximately $261,000.

1986-09-01

89

Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA)

1986-01-21

90

Preliminary evaluation of tear production in dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the tear production in dogs admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Prospective observational study from November 2010-September 2011. SETTING: Private emergency and referral hospital. ANIMALS: Thirty healthy control dogs and 30 dogs hospitalized in an ICU for treatment of systemic illness without previously diagnosed ophthalmic disorders and no recent history of anesthesia. Enrollment was based on availability of the ophthalmologist within 24 hours of admission to the ICU. INTERVENTIONS: Tear production was measured utilizing Schirmer tear test strips (STT) in healthy control animals as well as in hospitalized canine patients. All patients received an ophthalmic examination by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist within 24 hours of admission to the ICU. Lubrication with artificial tear gel every 2-4 hours as needed was implemented after STT was measured. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Average tear productions in the control and canine ICU populations were 24.5 mm/min and 13.2 mm/min, respectively. This was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a trend toward a decrease in tear production in patients with kidney disease and a trend toward normal tear production in patients with cardiac disease but the sample size was likely too small to enable detection of a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a decrease in tear production in canine ICU patients. While further study is warranted to determine how different diseases impact tear production, these finding support the implementation of frequent ocular lubrication in all ICU patients.

Chandler JA; van der Woerdt A; Prittie JE; Chang L

2013-05-01

91

Productivity Assessment and Improvement Measurement of Decision Making Units--An Application for Ranking Cities in Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we will demonstrate how productivity and improvement rate of urban organizational units (called also Decision Making Units--DMUs) may be assessed when measured along several time periods. The assessment and subsequent ranking of cities is achieved by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to determine DMU's…

Hadad, Yossi; Keren, Baruch; Ben-Yair, Avner

2010-01-01

92

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

Liguori Giorgio; Bagattini Maria; Gallè Francesca; Negrone Mario; Di Onofrio Valeria; Triassi Maria

2010-01-01

93

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

2010-01-01

94

Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units). For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC) and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

K. Roosta; M. Abadikhah; M. R. Bakhshi

2011-01-01

95

Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180 degrees Celsius for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor-to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium sulfite (w/w of wood). The recoveries of total saccharides (hexoses and pentoses) were 87.9% (SPORL) and 56.7% (DA), while those of cellulose were 92.5% (SPORL) and 77.7% (DA). The total of known inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and formic, acetic and levulinic acids) formed in SPORL were only 35% of those formed in DA pretreatment. SPORL pretreatment dissolved approximately 32% of the lignin as lignosulfonate, which is a potential high-value co-product. With an enzyme loading of 15 FPU (filter paper units) per gram of cellulose, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields were 91% at 24h for the SPORL substrate and 55% at 48 h for the DA substrate, respectively. PMID:20061141

Shuai, L; Yang, Q; Zhu, J Y; Lu, F C; Weimer, P J; Ralph, J; Pan, X J

2010-01-12

96

Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180 degrees Celsius for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor-to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium sulfite (w/w of wood). The recoveries of total saccharides (hexoses and pentoses) were 87.9% (SPORL) and 56.7% (DA), while those of cellulose were 92.5% (SPORL) and 77.7% (DA). The total of known inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and formic, acetic and levulinic acids) formed in SPORL were only 35% of those formed in DA pretreatment. SPORL pretreatment dissolved approximately 32% of the lignin as lignosulfonate, which is a potential high-value co-product. With an enzyme loading of 15 FPU (filter paper units) per gram of cellulose, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields were 91% at 24h for the SPORL substrate and 55% at 48 h for the DA substrate, respectively.

Shuai L; Yang Q; Zhu JY; Lu FC; Weimer PJ; Ralph J; Pan XJ

2010-05-01

97

Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confidence bounds of 0.67-3.3 Mg), compared with an average of 81 Mg per event in the 2011 EPA national emission inventory from April 2013. Emission factors for pneumatic pumps and controllers as well as equipment leaks were both comparable to and higher than estimates in the national inventory. Overall, if emission factors from this work for completion flowbacks, equipment leaks, and pneumatic pumps and controllers are assumed to be representative of national populations and are used to estimate national emissions, total annual emissions from these source categories are calculated to be 957 Gg of methane (with sampling and measurement uncertainties estimated at ±200 Gg). The estimate for comparable source categories in the EPA national inventory is ?1,200 Gg. Additional measurements of unloadings and workovers are needed to produce national emission estimates for these source categories. The 957 Gg in emissions for completion flowbacks, pneumatics, and equipment leaks, coupled with EPA national inventory estimates for other categories, leads to an estimated 2,300 Gg of methane emissions from natural gas production (0.42% of gross gas production).

Allen DT; Torres VM; Thomas J; Sullivan DW; Harrison M; Hendler A; Herndon SC; Kolb CE; Fraser MP; Hill AD; Lamb BK; Miskimins J; Sawyer RF; Seinfeld JH

2013-09-01

98

Continuous natural gas hydrate pellet production (NGHP) by process development unit (PDU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Artificially formed natural gas hydrate (NGH) is considered to be an unconventional medium for storage and transport of natural gas. NGH contains large amount of natural gas and it is able to be stored or transported safely under the atmospheric pressure at slightly below freezing point of water using so-called self preservation effect. Especially, we propose a NGH pellet transport chain since the pellet form has a number of merits such as high fill-up efficiency, easy handling and so on. In order to develop the NGH pellet transport chain, we have built and operated a process development unit (PDU) which is a bench scale plant (NGH production and gasification capacity of 0.6tpd) for verification of process conditions and for demonstration of the continuous plant operation. PDU consists of six processes, such as hydrate production, hydrate cooling , pressure reduction, pelletizing and regasification of NGH pellet including storage and conveyor apparatus. Operating data of PDU indicated that approximately 25kg of NGH particles in bulk was formed in an hour during steady state and NGH in bulk was pelletized into spherical pellets at the same production rate as NGH formation. Measured gas concentration in sampled NGH (methane gas hydrate) was almost 90% of theoretically containable. Regasification process was also verified by dissociating 25kg of NGH pellet per hour using water as a heat source. This paper reports the outlines of the processes, hardware of components and operating data of PDU using methane gas as a raw material. (Author)

Iwasaki, Toru; Katoh, Yuuich; Nagamori, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shinji; Oya, Nobutaka

2005-07-01

99

Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vanadium penta oxide (V2O5), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH4OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

2009-01-01

100

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent results due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y recientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

Peter Danchev

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

European legislation in the United Kingdom: a threat to coal-fired power station product utilization?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author considers that the European Union has not taken the approach adopted in the USA where environmental regulators are keen to promote the use of coal-fired power station ash by-product and recycled materials. The United Kingdom has seen, with some dismay, the effects EU legislation is having on the ash industry. This article outlines only some of the problems being tackled. The Waste Framework Directive is difficult to interpret and fails to define critical aspects of the problem. This directive is discussed at some length in the article. A total of nine directives effect the operation of coal-fired power plant. Many are imprecise and open to interpretation and cause a deal of frustration, delays and confusion to the ash supplier and contractor. This is causing markets to suffer.

Sear, K.A. [Quality Ash Association (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

102

Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification  

CERN Document Server

This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

2012-01-01

103

Isotope production at Department of Energy sites in the United States of America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) provides both stable and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many domestic and foreign research, development, and/or Commercial applications. The materials and services are available through the Isotope Distribution Program established by the USDOE at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The materials and services are provided on a full-cost recovery basis and are limited to those materials and services that are not commercially available. The stable and radioisotope production and/or processing capabilities at various USDOE sites and the availability of the materials and services through the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program are described in detail.

Ratledge, J.E.

1988-01-01

104

Productivity, employment and industrial relations in coal mines: three case studies from Australia, United Kingdom, United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examines productivity, employment and industrial relations using three case studies: the Gunnedah coal company, Australia (by B. Pragnell); the UK coal mining industry (by J. Winterton and R. Winterton); and the Meigs Division of the Southern Ohio Coal Company (by E. Smith and T. Humphrey). The studies illustrate the different driving forces and methods used to obtain sustainable increases in productivity and the results that have been achieved. 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Jennings, N.S. [ed.

1994-12-31

105

Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described

1997-01-01

106

The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

2013-05-01

107

Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described.

Cada, G. F.

1997-09-08

108

Enzymatic hydrolysis optimization to ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43 degrees C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47 degrees C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47 degrees C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L x h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L x h) in Brazil.

Vásquez MP; da Silva JN; de Souza MB Jr; Pereira N Jr

2007-04-01

109

Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

D. P. Turner; W. D. Ritts; B. E. Law; W. B. Cohen; Z. Yang; T. Hudiburg; J. L. Campbell; M. Duane

2007-01-01

110

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

1993-01-01

111

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

1993-12-31

112

Assessment of atmospheric tritium concentration levels due to the normal operation of a radiopharmaceutical production unit (UPPR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals (UPPR) Unit started to operate in 2008. This Unit consists of a laboratory for 18F production, one for F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glycose (FDG) synthesis and a room for packing and preparing the final product. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Nuclear Technology Developing Center - (CNEN/ CDTN) aims to assess the radiological environmental impact as a result of the activities undertaken by the Center. Among various measurements and analyses established in this program, sampling and analysis of atmospheric tritium is one facet that is regularly carried out. The main objective of this paper is to present an assessment of the increments of tritium concentration in the atmosphere due to the release of gaseous effluents by the UPPR Unit, as well as to determine the dose received by public individuals due to eventual inhalation of this material. (author)

2011-01-01

113

Biomass Production in Switchgrass across the United States: Database Description and Determinants of Yield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental to deriving a sustainable supply of cellulosic feedstock for an emerging biofuels industry is understanding how biomass yield varies as a function of crop management, climate, and soils. Here we focus on the perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and compile a database that contains 1190 observations of yield from 39 field trials conducted across the United States. Data include site location, stand age, plot size, cultivar, crop management, biomass yield, temperature, precipitation, and information on land quality. Statistical analysis revealed the major sources of variation in yield. Frequency distributions of yield for upland and lowland ecotypes were unimodal, with mean ({+-}SD) biomass yields of 8.7 {+-} 4.2 and 12.9 {+-} 5.9 Mg ha-1 for the two ecotypes, respectively. We looked for, but did not find, bias toward higher yields associated with small plots or preferential establishment of stands on high quality lands. A parametric yield model was fit to the data and accounted for one-third of the total observed variation in biomass yields, with an equal contribution of growing season precipitation, annual temperature, N fertilization, and ecotype. The model was used to predict yield across the continental United States. Mapped output was consistent with the natural range of switchgrass and, as expected, yields were shown to be limited by precipitation west of the Great Plains. Future studies should extend the geographic distribution of field trials and thus improve our understanding of biomass production as a function of soil, climate, and crop management for promising biofuels such as switchgrass.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Davis, Ethan B. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Borsuk, Mark E. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

2010-01-01

114

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION OREGON DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a study in the western United States (EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10) that will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-...

115

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHWEST OREGON PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

116

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

117

Savings Estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Voluntary Product Labeling Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading ...

C. Webber M. C. Sanchez O. Homan R. Brown

2008-01-01

118

Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-07-01

119

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa) and temperature (about 100C). The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

Abutaleb Kusha; M. Reza Mogadam; Seyed M. Meysam Abutorabi F.

2011-01-01

120

A comparative waste management performance assessment of two uranium production units in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pocos de Caldas uranium production facility was closed in 1997, and a decommissioning programme started in 1998. The project was intended to produce 500 t U3O8/year and 275 t/year of calcium molybdate as a by-product. The key environmental aspect related to these entities deals with acid drainage. There is only one tailings dam at the site. It accumulates circa 2,05 x 106 tons of tailings, 85% being milled ore. The waste-rock/milled ore ratio is 60. Liquid effluents from the tailings dam are treated with lime and BaCl2. Acidification of the infiltrating waters is still of concern as a result of residual pyrite oxidation. It has been estimated that unrestricted use of the mill tailings area shall not be allowed because exposure to radon may imply in doses up to 40 mSv/year. The Caetite Unit started operation in 2000. The production has been raising, from 100 ton in 2001, up to 340 ton in 2003. It is expected that after 16 years of production 12,2 x 106 ton (6,8 x 106 m+3) of waste-rock material will be generated. This figure is approximately 10 times less than that reported for the Pocos de Caldas project. Differently from the Pocos de Caldas project, pyrite is not present in those rocks. Solid wastes from the industrial plant are composed by the leached ore piles. It is expected that 6 piles of 25.000 a 36.000 ton of ore are formed each year. The uranium liquor and washing waters present precipitated material composed by silica, sulfate, phosphate, titanium, iron and calcium besides uranium. These solids are separated from the uranium solution through filtration in activate coal filters. It can be seen that the uranium content in the leached ore represents 15% of the original ore and that the content of 226Ra is virtually the same. As result the leached ore piles may be a relevant source of 226Ra in the long term. It is expected that this scheme will reduce the fluxes of radionuclides from the piles to marginal levels without major environmental concerns After the solvent extraction uranium content in the liquor drops from 12 to 0,003 g/L. The most important aspect in the operation of the Caetite Unit is that liquid effluent emissions into the environment do not take place. One of the determining factors regarding the environmental performance of both units is the prevailing climatological condition at these sites. Rainfall rates of about 1,700 mm/year are observed at the Pocos de Caldas site. On the other hand this value drops to 800 mm/year at the Caetite site. Due to the highest rainfall rates observed at Pocos de Caldas site, an amount equivalent to US$ 3,35 million has been spent with acid drainage abatement (77% only with water treatment). Remediation plans for the Pocos de Caldas site include the, among other issues, stabilization of the uranium mill tailings dam, and abatement of acid mine drainage. In both cases it has been assessed that the application of dry covers will be the most adequate solution. Remediation costs associated with these measures are estimated to be in the range of US$ 3 to 10 million. In the case of Caetite unit ongoing closure of waste-rock piles and tailings ponds is taking place. Costs involved on these activities are not available. Although, it can be assumed that they will be much lower than those to be practiced at Pocos de Caldas site. The vulnerable aspect of the Caetite site has also to do with rainfall rates, but in an opposite direction. Since perennial water bodies are not available at the mine location, groundwater is of key relevance. Salinity of these waters poses significant difficulties for the uranium recovery operation. In addition, underground water bodies are very sensitive to pollution as they serve as water resource for local communities

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Stored-product insects associated with eight feed mills in the midwestern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commercial food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps and pheromone-baited sticky traps were used during 2003 to survey stored-product insect adults in eight participating feed mills in the midwestern United States. Across the eight feed mills, 27 species of beetles (Coleoptera) and three species of moths (Lepidoptera) were captured in commercial traps. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was the most abundant insect species captured inside the eight mills. The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), was the most abundant insect species outside the mill and in the mill load-out area. The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was the most abundant moth species inside the mill and in the mill receiving area. The Simpson's index of species diversity among mills ranged from 0.39 (low diversity) to 0.81 (high diversity). The types of species found among mills were different, as indicated by a Morisita's index of <0.7, for the majority of mills. The differences in the types and numbers of insect species captured inside, outside, in receiving, and in load-out areas could be related to differences in the types of animal feeds produced and the degree of sanitation and pest management practiced.

Larson Z; Subramanyam B; Herrman T

2008-06-01

122

Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

1991-01-01

123

Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S, of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (? = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting.

2006-01-01

124

Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added, 58-67% and 80-83% of the cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the waste were converted into monomeric sugars. The cellulose conversion efficiency during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) assay at 10% DM was 79% for the highest enzyme loading (25 FPU g(-1) DM) while 69% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids mainly (total carboxylic acids = 3.1-7.4% on DM basis).

Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.

2004-01-01

125

Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

1999-01-01

126

Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

Xiang Li; Nobuhiro Suzuki

2013-01-01

127

METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SCAFFOLDS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING, COMPRISING THE USE OF AN ANCHORING UNIT, AND SCAFFOLD PRODUCED THEREWITH  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method for the production of scaffold materials and/or scaffolds for tissue and/or organ engineering, said method comprising the addition of at least one anchoring unit for a labelling agent, to at least one scaffold material and/or to at least one scaffold.

HALTER DAVID; KURT RALPH; PEETERS EMIEL; PENTERMAN ROEL; BROER DIRK J; LAMERICHS RUDOLF M J N

128

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

2012-01-01

129

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

2012-06-01

130

78 FR 28633 - TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business...Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business...Connectivity, a subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products...

2013-05-15

131

Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 420/00.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructor's guide for an advanced beef unit contains 15 lessons that build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references and materials for the…

Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

132

Integrated production and utility system approach for optimizing industrial unit operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet utility demands some industrial units use onsite utility system. Traditionally, the management of such type of industrial units is carried out in three sequential steps: scheduling of the manufacturing unit by minimizing inventory, estimating the utility needs of manufacturing unit and finally operation planning of the utility system. This article demonstrates the value of an integrated approach which couples the scheduling of manufacturing unit with operational planning of the utility system. A discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed to compare traditional and integrated approaches. Results indicate that the integrated approach leads to significant reduction in energy costs and at the same time decreases the emissions of harmful gases. (author)

Agha, Mujtaba H.; Thery, Raphaele; Hetreux, Gilles; Le Lann, Jean Marc [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (ENSIACET-INPT), 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 44362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Hait, Alain [Universite de Toulouse, Institut Superieur de l' Aeronautique et de l' Espace, 10 av. E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2010-02-15

133

Comparison of rates of reported adverse events associated with i.v. iron products in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: An analysis of reported adverse events (AEs) among patients using i.v. iron products, including the newer agent ferumoxytol, is presented. METHODS: All AE reports to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) citing iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, high- and low-molecular-weight iron dextran products, or ferumoxytol from October 2009 through June 2010 were evaluated. The rates of various classifications of reported AEs were calculated on a per-unit-sold basis and, for comparison of products supplied in different unit sizes, also in terms of 100-mg dose equivalents (DEq) of iron. RESULTS: A total of 197 reported AEs were identified (a cumulative rate of 14.1 AEs per million units sold). The rates of all AE classifications combined ranged from 5.25 to 746 per million units sold for iron sucrose and ferumoxytol, respectively; using the other method of calculation, the rates ranged from 5.24 per million DEq (iron sucrose) to 147 per million DEq (ferumoxytol). Relative to iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate, ferumoxytol was associated with significantly elevated risks of death (odds ratio [OR], 475 and 156, respectively; p < 0.0001), serious nonfatal AEs (OR, 263 and 121, respectively; p < 0.0001), and all evaluated AE classifications combined (OR, 142 and 109, respectively; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Analysis of reports submitted to FDA revealed large differences among i.v. iron products in reported deaths, serious AEs, other major AEs, and other AEs. Iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate were associated with much lower rates of AEs per million units sold than iron dextran or ferumoxytol, which were associated with the highest rates of all reported AE classifications.

Bailie GR

2012-02-01

134

Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities, in contrast to the other fungi where lower activities were found. The culture filtrates were concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. After enzyme concentration, the highest enzyme activities (1.34 FPU/ml) were found in the culture broth originating from P. brasilianum. Enzymatic hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass) using either enzyme mixtures the glucose yield from cellulose was in the range of 77-79% (w/w).

Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.

2003-01-01

135

Total Factor Productivity Growth in the Sawmill and Wood Preservation Industry in the United States and Canada: A Comparative Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using the To?rnqvist-Theil index approach, we analyze trends in total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the United States and Canadian sawmill and wood preservation industries (NAICS 3211) between 1958 and 2003. The results indicate that the TFP grew at an average annual compound rate of 1.11% due to higher growth in aggregate outputs by 1.42% and a smaller growth in aggregate inputs by 0.31% in the United States. In Canada, TFP grew at a smaller average annual compound rate of 0.61% as a result of growth in aggregate outputs and inputs by 3.57% and 2.94%, respectively. Although productivity growth for production worker input was similar in both countries, large gaps in productivity growth existed for nonproduction workers, material, capital, and energy inputs. The gap in TFP growth between the two countries appears to have widened since 1987, primarily due to the differences in capital stock growth. Volatility in lumber prices after 1991 might have also played a role, as the Canadian industry could not adequately respond to changing market situations in the face of uncertainty and trade barriers on softwood lumber exports to the United States.

Zhang D; Nagubadi RV

2006-10-01

136

Analysis and toxicity testing of combustion gases; Part 1: A new sampling unit for collection of combustion products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sampling unit for a combustion reaction apparatus is described. With this unit it is possible to collect the entire product gases from the combustion experiment in fractions of different volatilities. The sampling unit consists of two Tenax cartridges and a molecular sieve cartridge connected in series. The ethanol eluate of Tenax is analysed qualitatively and quantitatively with GC/MSD and GC/IRD. This solution is also used for microbiological toxicity testing after appropriate dilution. The fraction of highest volatility is desorbed from the molecular sieve and analysed directly via headspace-GC/MSD. The efficiency of this sampling procedure is demonstrated with a styrene polymer and a sample of beech wood

Hauk, A.; Sklorz, M.; Bergmann, G.; Hutzinger, O. [Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, University of Bayreuth (Germany)

1994-02-01

137

The Way of Establishing a Relative Position for Some Production Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The CRAFT Method was at the basis of the development of the heuris-tic commuting models, in which one starts from an initial emplacement of units that is successively improved, through the successive commuting of units among them on the basis of some criteria. In the present paper we have resolved to the Facility Location and Layout module of the WinQSB program that uses the CRAFT Method in solving problems of the Functional Layout type.

Olga Ioana Amariei; Denis Fourmaux; Constantin Dan Dumitrescu

2010-01-01

138

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

2008-06-03

139

Vitrification of fission product wastes: industrial experience and construction of the new vitrification units at La Hague  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first industrial-scale unit for vitrification of fission product wastes was commissioned at Marcoule in France in 1978. Operating experience has been applied in design and construction of the R7 and T7 units at La Hague for vitrification of fission product solutions from the new UP2-800 and UP3 reprocessing plants, (annual capacity of 1,600 tonnes of LWR spent fuel). After outlining the vitrification process, this paper presents the sustained throughput performances achieved during 9 years operation of the continuous vitrification line at Marcoule, plus information concerning technologies, maintenance, process effluents and safety. It then describes the new R7 and T7 units with their six 25 kg/hour glass production lines. Emphasis is placed on the process-related and technological changes, layout optimizations and main innovations decided to improve operation and achieve economies of scale in extrapolating from the 15 kg/hour line at Marcoule. Storage facility design for vitrified waste containers is briefly presented

1987-01-01

140

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015). (author)

Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-4000, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Webber, Carrie [KEMA Consulting, 492 9th Street, Suite 220, Oakland, CA 94607 (United States)

2008-06-15

 
 
 
 
141

Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción.The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

Edgar Chacón; Isabel Besembel; Dulce M Rivero; Juan Cardillo

2009-01-01

142

Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production/ Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la (more) necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total model (more) s that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

Chacón, Edgar; Besembel, Isabel; Rivero, Dulce M; Cardillo, Juan

2009-04-01

143

“Controlling” as a Unit of Production Planning and Control. Romanian Case Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a new managerial tool applied in Romania after 1990: controlling.Controlling is understood to be a unit of planning and control like inGerman speaking world. Even though this is a typical German approach, our conclusions will show that the same view of controlling exists in post-1990 Romania. This paper’s objective is to argument the acceptance of controlling as a management tool—referring to a company’s planning and control unit—by presenting a concreteplanning and control situation at an international company in RomaniaAlexander&Son Timisoara.

Valentina Oarga

2009-01-01

144

In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur through addition of a carbon source such as acetate or molasses to augment the natural bacterial population which can induce simultaneous reduction and precipitation of uranium in solution. Bioremediation experiments are presently being conducted at U.S. Department of Energy sites in western states. Monitored natural attenuation suggest that groundwater flow that created the deposit moved from an oxidized zone through the orebody to a reduced zone. Re-establishment of ground-water flow after mining should move contaminants from the mined orebody into the reduced zone where natural processes can reduce the contaminants and remove them from the ground water. Questions: 1) Is current ground-water hydrology suitable? 2) What is the reducing capacity of the reduced zone? 3) Do kinetics of reduction reactions in the reducing zone vs. speed of ground water flow? 4) Effects of heterogeneity in mining zone and reducing zone? 5) Can all analytes of concern be attenuated? 6) Monitored attenuation- can the limited time frame preferred by operators be achieved? (author)

2009-01-01

145

Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy-wide impacts of the current ethanol production with a government subsidy and the LCF-to-ethanol production using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process. The model is innovative in three ways. First, a production subsidy is explicitly included in the model. Second, co-products are explicitly accounted for in ethanol production. Third, ethanol and gasoline are treated as perfect demand substitutes, as are the co-products and the manufacturing sector's output. The CGE model shows that current ethanol production expands grain crop production by creating an additional demand. In contrast, LCF-to-ethanol production has adverse impacts on grain crop production because Biomass feedstocks substitute for grain in the production of ethanol. The LCF-to-ethanol production also discourages the manufacturing industry because co-products displace a part of intermediate input demand for manufacturing outputs. It is also found that, even though ethanol production using TVA's conversion technology with MSW is economically viable, it is not favorable to the economy. Finally, the results suggest that ethanol production from Biomass feedstocks using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process is beneficial to the U.S. economy.

Choi, Youn-Sang

146

Experimental study of device reduction of toxic combustion products gas burner units boilers / ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory experiments to determine the geometric parameters and the effectiveness of the neu-tralizer of toxic combustion products are conducted. / ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????.

Kusch L.R. / ??? ??????? ?????????

2010-01-01

147

Energetic and exergetic performance evaluation of the quadruple-effect evaporator unit in tomato paste production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quadruple-effect evaporator units are commonly used in food focus area in sector is evaporative unit. It consumes about 60% of total energy input. The present study evaluates the performance of quadruple-effect evaporator unit (QEEU) by using exergy analysis based on actual operational data. A tomato paste factory is chosen for the analysis. The highest exergy destruction/loss occurs in the first effect with 158.2 kW, 52.7% of exergy input in first effect. Steam temperature should be decreased in order to decrease exergy destruction in first effect. Also, third effect achieves the highest exergy efficiency with 93.3%. Exergetic improvement potential of each effect varies between 0.3 kW and 83.6 kW. The highest and lowest exergetic improvement potential occurs in first and third effect of QEEU system, respectively. Exergetic improvement potential is equals to 52.80%, 11.10%, 6.73% and 69.8% of exergy loss/destruction from the first effect to the last effect, respectively. Total exergetic improvement potential is achieved as 128 kW (55% of total exergy loss/destruction) in QEEU system. It is expected that analyses result provide important information for designer and/or resources of multiple effect evaporator unit. (author)

Sogut, Z. [Technical Sciences Department, Army Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Ilten, N.; Oktay, Z. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, 10110 Balikesir (Turkey)

2010-09-15

148

78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this notice, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year 2013 pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2 heating oil, propane, and...

2013-03-22

149

77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers  

Science.gov (United States)

...California, and its LS34 Model 6100 unit; (6) Scott Specialty Gases, Inc., Plumsteadville, Pennsylvania, and its Model EBS TM Gaseous Ethanol Breath Standard, Scotty 28 0.040 BAC/28L, Scotty 28 0.045 BAC/28L, Scotty 28 0.080...

2012-10-22

150

Communication between United States-Based Firms and Mexican Production Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study examined the types of communication technologies being used by United States-based corporations with operations in Mexico to determine the challenges these companies face when communicating across the border. A total of 703 U.S. corporations doing business with Mexico (culled from lists in two professional directories) were chosen for the…

Waldman, Lila

151

Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory) and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-o...

Mirko C.P.; Bilkei G.

152

A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

2009-01-01

153

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs) to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency). We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year) while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years). Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management). For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

2013-06-01

154

Multiple treatment meta-analysis of products evaluated for control of fire blight in the eastern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this analysis was to estimate the effect sizes and consistency of products evaluated for fire blight control in the eastern United States over the last decade. Because only 3% of the 69 studies published from 2000 to 2008 explicitly presented a measure of within-study variability, a method for estimating the least significant difference (LSD) and, hence the sampling variance, for studies with at least two significant mean separations in the presented mean multiple comparisons was developed. Lin's concordance analysis indicated that the estimated LSD was an accurate predictor of the actual LSD based on 35 studies in a calibration evaluation (?(c) = 0.997). Separate multi-treatment random-effects meta-analyses were performed for three control categories: antibiotics, biological control, and plant defense-activating products and mean log response ratios relative to the nontreated controls ([Formula: see text]) were computed for each treatment and then back-transformed to obtain the mean percent disease control. None of the products evaluated performed as well as streptomycin, the standard product for fire blight control, for which the mean disease control was 68.6%. As a group, experimental antibiotics provided the best fire blight control with mean effect sizes ranging from 59.7 to 61.7%. Among the biological controls, the best control was noted for treatments combining the antibiotic streptomycin with a product based on Pantoea agglomerans (55.0% mean disease reduction) or Bacillus subtilis (53.9%). Mean disease control was 31.9, 25.7, and 22.6%, respectively, for products based on B. subtilis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens without an antibiotic, suggesting that the higher efficacy of the combination treatments was due to the antibiotic. Among the plant defense-activating products, prohexadione calcium had the highest and most consistent effect size (50.7% control), while other products provided modest mean disease control of between 6.1 and 25.8%. Percent control values were significantly moderated by study location and cultivar used in the study, and were smaller, but more variable, when products were tested under high disease intensity compared with low disease intensity. Results indicate that wide-scale use of biological control and plant defense-activating products in the eastern United States is likely to remain low.

Ngugi HK; Lehman BL; Madden LV

2011-05-01

155

Multiple treatment meta-analysis of products evaluated for control of fire blight in the eastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this analysis was to estimate the effect sizes and consistency of products evaluated for fire blight control in the eastern United States over the last decade. Because only 3% of the 69 studies published from 2000 to 2008 explicitly presented a measure of within-study variability, a method for estimating the least significant difference (LSD) and, hence the sampling variance, for studies with at least two significant mean separations in the presented mean multiple comparisons was developed. Lin's concordance analysis indicated that the estimated LSD was an accurate predictor of the actual LSD based on 35 studies in a calibration evaluation (?(c) = 0.997). Separate multi-treatment random-effects meta-analyses were performed for three control categories: antibiotics, biological control, and plant defense-activating products and mean log response ratios relative to the nontreated controls ([Formula: see text]) were computed for each treatment and then back-transformed to obtain the mean percent disease control. None of the products evaluated performed as well as streptomycin, the standard product for fire blight control, for which the mean disease control was 68.6%. As a group, experimental antibiotics provided the best fire blight control with mean effect sizes ranging from 59.7 to 61.7%. Among the biological controls, the best control was noted for treatments combining the antibiotic streptomycin with a product based on Pantoea agglomerans (55.0% mean disease reduction) or Bacillus subtilis (53.9%). Mean disease control was 31.9, 25.7, and 22.6%, respectively, for products based on B. subtilis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens without an antibiotic, suggesting that the higher efficacy of the combination treatments was due to the antibiotic. Among the plant defense-activating products, prohexadione calcium had the highest and most consistent effect size (50.7% control), while other products provided modest mean disease control of between 6.1 and 25.8%. Percent control values were significantly moderated by study location and cultivar used in the study, and were smaller, but more variable, when products were tested under high disease intensity compared with low disease intensity. Results indicate that wide-scale use of biological control and plant defense-activating products in the eastern United States is likely to remain low. PMID:21244224

Ngugi, H K; Lehman, B L; Madden, L V

2011-05-01

156

Exploring the olfactory environment of premature newborns: a French survey of health care and cleaning products used in neonatal units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To assess the main determinants of the newborn's nosocomial olfactory environment. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent to 99 neonatal units in France. Senior nurses and/or physicians described the nature and use of skin care products (e.g. umbilical cord and skin disinfectants, adhesive removers), lubrications used for tubes positioning, disinfectants used to clean materials, hand hygiene products (e.g. alcohol-based hand rubs, soaps) and newborns' bath. RESULTS: Nine groups of products and 76 distinct commercial preparations were identified. Depending on their level of respiratory support, preterm newborns were estimated to be exposed to nosocomial odours (NO) an average of 1320-1800 times during their first month of life. During their whole hospital stay, newborns of 28 and 32 weeks of gestational age could be exposed to NOs products an average of 3448 and 2024 times, respectively. The use of these products varied among medical centres. Newborns were most frequently exposed to the odour of aqueous alcoholic solutions. CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerable preterm infants are daily exposed to multiple NOs most of them be considered as irritant for the nose. Minimizing infants' exposure to them would be beneficial. Future studies should describe the exact olfactory properties of the products considered essential for infant care and should assess their effects on the infant's well-being and development.

Kuhn P; Astruc D; Messer J; Marlier L

2011-03-01

157

Linking crime guns: the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ballistics imaging technology has received national attention as a potent tool for moving the law enforcement response to violent gun criminals forward by linking multiple crime scenes to one firearm. This study examines the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Using negative binomial regression models to analyze times series data on ballistics matches, we find that ballistics imaging technology was associated with a more than sixfold increase in the monthly number of ballistics matches made by the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Cost-effectiveness estimates and qualitative evidence also suggest that ballistics imaging technology allows law enforcement agencies to make hits that would not have been possible using traditional ballistics methods.

Braga AA; Pierce GL

2004-07-01

158

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: an economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1. Discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) mg -1 (OD). (author)

1990-01-01

159

Management factors associated with swine breeding-herd productivity in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A database containing 24 key production measurements was created by abstracting data files of 673 U.S. farms which participated in the PigCHAMP data-share program in 1995. Summary statistics for breeding-herd performance data were presented for the Cornbelt and the South or Eastern regions. Eight models were built to assess the association between production system, operation management factors and productivity outcomes. Lactation length, percentage of multiple matings, parity of culled sows, percent gilts in the breeding-female inventory, and female culling rate were the management factors identified as having important associations with productivity outcomes. For example, shorter lactation length, higher percentage of multiple matings, and lower culling rate were associated with more pigs weaned per mated female per year. In addition, a lower percentage of gilts in the breeding-female inventory and a higher percentage of multiple matings were associated with fewer average non-productive female days. We recommend that producers change their management systems to decrease lactation length, the percentage of gilts in the breeding-female inventory, and female culling rate, and increase percentage of multiple matings in order to improve breeding-herd productivity on swine farms.

King VL; Koketsu Y; Reeves D; Xue J; Dial GD

1998-06-01

160

Management factors associated with swine breeding-herd productivity in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

A database containing 24 key production measurements was created by abstracting data files of 673 U.S. farms which participated in the PigCHAMP data-share program in 1995. Summary statistics for breeding-herd performance data were presented for the Cornbelt and the South or Eastern regions. Eight models were built to assess the association between production system, operation management factors and productivity outcomes. Lactation length, percentage of multiple matings, parity of culled sows, percent gilts in the breeding-female inventory, and female culling rate were the management factors identified as having important associations with productivity outcomes. For example, shorter lactation length, higher percentage of multiple matings, and lower culling rate were associated with more pigs weaned per mated female per year. In addition, a lower percentage of gilts in the breeding-female inventory and a higher percentage of multiple matings were associated with fewer average non-productive female days. We recommend that producers change their management systems to decrease lactation length, the percentage of gilts in the breeding-female inventory, and female culling rate, and increase percentage of multiple matings in order to improve breeding-herd productivity on swine farms. PMID:9689658

King, V L; Koketsu, Y; Reeves, D; Xue, J; Dial, G D

1998-06-30

 
 
 
 
161

Maintaining Soil Productivity during Forest or Biomass-to-Energy Thinning Harvests in the Western United States  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forest biomass thinnings, to promote forest health or for energy production, can potentially impact the soil resource by altering soil physical, chemical, and/or biological properties. The extent and degree of impacts within a harvest unit or across a watershed will subsequently determine if site or soil productivity is affected. Although the impacts of stand removal on soil properties in the western United States have been documented, much less is known on periodic removals of biomass by thinnings or other partial cutting practices. However, basic recommendations and findings derived from stand-removal studies are also applicable to guide biomass thinnings for forest health, fuel reduction, or energy production. These are summarized as follows: (1) thinning operations are less likely to cause significant soil compaction than a stand-removal harvest, (2) risk-rating systems that evaluate soil susceptibility to compaction or nutrient losses from organic or mineral topsoil removal can help guide management practices, (3) using designated or existing harvesting traffic lanes and leaving some thinning residue in high traffic areas can reduce soil compaction on a stand basis, and (4) coarse-textured low fertility soils have greater risk of nutrient limitations resulting from whole-tree thinning removals than finer textured soils with higher fertility levels.

Page-Dumroese DeborahS; Jurgensen Martin; Terry Thomas

2010-01-01

162

Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc. PMID:23525887

Song, Eunjung; Rajesh, Thangamani; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-jung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

2013-03-23

163

Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc.

Song E; Rajesh T; Lee BR; Kim EJ; Jeon JM; Park SH; Park HY; Choi KY; Kim YG; Yang YH; Kim BG

2013-08-01

164

Equal efficacy of glucoprotamin and an aldehyde product for environmental disinfection in a hematologic transplant unit: a prospective crossover trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The inanimate hospital environment has emerged as an important reservoir of nosocomial pathogens. In particular, multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter species, and Clostridium difficile, play a major role in the transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In Europe, aldehydes, chlorine, and quaternary ammonium compounds have been commonly used for environmental disinfection. Glucoprotamin, a newer active compound for disinfectants, has been clinically tested for disinfection of instruments but not for environmental disinfection. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of a glucoprotamin-containing product (Incidin) compared with that of an aldehyde-containing product (Deconex), the current standard at our institution. METHODS: This prospective crossover study was conducted in our access-restricted hematologic transplant unit. A total of 3,086 samples from the environment were processed and examined for overall bacterial burden as well as selectively for S. aureus, C. difficile, and gram-negative bacteria. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in residual bacteria after disinfection between the 2 products in terms of overall burden and selected pathogens. Enterococci were the predominant pathogens recovered from surfaces, but no vancomycin-resistant enterococci were recovered. Similarly, C. difficile could not be found in the patients' environment, even in rooms, despite the use of selective media. CONCLUSION: The aldehyde-containing product (Deconex) and the glucoprotamin-containing product (Incidin) demonstrated similar efficacy against environmental contamination in a hematologic transplant unit with the application of selective media for C. difficile, S. aureus, and gram-negative bacteria in addition to standard medium.

Meinke R; Meyer B; Frei R; Passweg J; Widmer AF

2012-11-01

165

Epidemiology of infant ocular and periocular injuries from consumer products in the United States, 2001-2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To quantify and characterize eye injuries related to consumer products in the infant population (0-12 months) treated in United States hospital emergency departments during the period from 2001 to 2008. METHODS: This study is a descriptive analysis of consumer-product related eye injury data derived from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a probability sample of 100 hospitals nationwide with 24-hour emergency departments. Narrative data were used to assign each case with the consumer products (CPs) causing the eye injury. The proportions of eye injury visits were calculated by age, sex, diagnosis, disposition, locale of incident, and CP categories. We examined the US Consumer Product Safety Commission National Electronic Injury Surveillance System data for all nonfatal eye injuries (853 cases) in the infant population (0-12 months) treated in US emergency departments from 2001 to 2008. These data can be used to project national, annual, weighted estimates of nonfatal injury treated in US emergency departments. RESULTS: There were an estimated 21,271 visits to US emergency departments by patients aged 0-12 months for CP-related eye injuries during the study period. Of these, 63% involved infants aged 9-12 months and 54% involved male patients; 78% of all injuries occurred at home. The CPs causing the most eye injuries belonged to the categories of chemical (46%) and household items (24%). Contusions and abrasions were the leading eye injuries diagnoses (37%). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that most CP-related infant eye injuries in the United States occur at home and are predominantly caused by chemicals and household products.

Chen AJ; Linakis JG; Mello MJ; Greenberg PB

2013-06-01

166

Drivers Impacting the Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Management Practices and Production Systems of the Northeast and Southeast United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agricultural production responds to social, political, economic, environmental, and technological drivers that influence producers' decisions and shape the individual systems through modification of management practices, crop and livestock mix, and marketing strategy. We use an interview and discussion approach with producer panels to examine production systems in the eastern United States and explore key drivers impacting their unique characteristics and development. The internal social driver that values the farming lifestyle is a principle factor that leads people to choose farming. Irrespective of location, farming is first and foremost a lifestyle choice. The choice of type of production system is partly a lifestyle preference and partly influenced by other external factors, including economic and environmental elements. A second principle driver is economic, arising from a need to make a living, and tempers the internal social driver. Economic return is partially a function of the marketability of products. Marketing channels are dependent on social drivers, including education of producers and consumers, community support and community values. Farmers in the Northeast are able to take a more active role in determining contract terms than those in the Southeast, and are also more aggressive in developing new markets. Development of local markets and community support strengthens the link between farmers and consumers, and reinforces the economic sustainability of Northeastern production systems. With decreased reliance on external risk reduction approaches, Northeastern producers bear greater risk, but also have greater flexibility in altering the crop and livestock mix and are better able to respond to consumer demand.

Sassenrath GF; Halloran JM; Archer D; Raper RL; Hendrickson J; Vadas P; Hanson J

2010-06-01

167

The release and transport of fission product cesium in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island-Unit 2) accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 55% of the fission product cesium was released from the overheated UO2 fuel in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island-Unit 2) accident and was transported mainly to a water pool that formed in the basement of the containment structure. Steam that boiled away from a pool in the bottom of the reactor vessel transported the released fission products throughout the Reactor Coolant System (RCS). Some fission products passed directly through a leaking valve, but most deposited on dry surfaces before being dissolved or resuspended when the RCS was refilled with water. Laboratory test with non-TMI deposits of fission product cesium gave leach rates that were in good agreement with the TMI scenario. It was necessary to develop a TMI fission product transport model since the measurements at TMI occurred after most of the deposition, resolution, and liquid purging had taken place. The transport model confirms results being obtained with complex models used in studies of severe light water reactor accidents

1986-01-01

168

Development of production of corrosion-resistant steel with its processing in unit of argon-oxygen refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Technology of producing low-carbon stainless steels 03Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10T, including electrical furnace smelt of semifinished article with 1.5-2.0% content of carbon and alloying elements content close to the ready-made metal composition is described. The semifinished products are processed in argon-oxygen refining unit. Casting is accomplished at continuous melting slab machine of curvilineal type special attention is paid to increase in degree of chrome utilization and phosphor removal. 2 figs., 2 tabs

1995-01-01

169

Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critical examination of the potential and the technical constraint that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States has been initiated and is expected to continue. The examination is based on the results of extensive laboratory and field applications now underway under various forms of Department of Energy support. This interim report will be amplified as data become available and as progress is made toward resolving technical constraints. Comments on the approach and substance of the information contained herein are welcome.

1980-05-01

170

Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission.

Rinehart, G.H.

1997-01-01

171

The Department of Energy perspective on energy perspective on isotope production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy will continue to deliver isotope goods and services that contribute to health, well-being, and quality of life. In cooperation with its customers, stakeholders, and the public, the department has established an isotope policy that addresses the two distinct parallel needs associated with isotope availability: the need to support the research and development community with isotopes for which there are no other reliable supplies; and the need to assure a reliable and competitive supply of isotopes for which a infrastructure and market have been developed. In the face of many challenges the department`s isotope program is actively pursing a course which will provide isotope customers a reliable supply at the least cost. Operating efficiency is being improved though process improvement initiatives, upgrading facilities, dual site production, and seeking to remove the uncertainty from production costs. These factors may cause some upward impact on isotope costs, but will provide better products and services to the customers.

Carty, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-11-01

172

The Department of Energy perspective on energy perspective on isotope production in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy will continue to deliver isotope goods and services that contribute to health, well-being, and quality of life. In cooperation with its customers, stakeholders, and the public, the department has established an isotope policy that addresses the two distinct parallel needs associated with isotope availability: the need to support the research and development community with isotopes for which there are no other reliable supplies; and the need to assure a reliable and competitive supply of isotopes for which a infrastructure and market have been developed. In the face of many challenges the department's isotope program is actively pursing a course which will provide isotope customers a reliable supply at the least cost. Operating efficiency is being improved though process improvement initiatives, upgrading facilities, dual site production, and seeking to remove the uncertainty from production costs. These factors may cause some upward impact on isotope costs, but will provide better products and services to the customers

1995-01-01

173

Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

2010-01-01

174

Impact of systemic lupus erythematosus on burden of illness and work productivity in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by clinical manifestations that can cause diminished activity and productivity. The objectives of this study were to: (a) longitudinally evaluate patient-reported SLE disease activity, and (b) measure work productivity, missed work hours, and associated lost income among employed patients with SLE. Three cohorts (employed subjects with SLE (n?=?281), nonemployed subjects with SLE (n?=?265), and a control group of employed individuals without SLE (n?=?300)) completed a baseline survey. Employed subjects with SLE completed follow-up surveys every two weeks during a six-month period. Measured outcomes included perceived health, disease manifestations and severity, the Lupus Impact Tracker, the Modified Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Higher self-reported SLE disease severity was directly associated with experiencing more frequent and more severe symptoms as well as higher levels of lost work time and lost work productivity. Though patient self-assessment may differ from physician's clinical assessment, it is important to incorporate the patient perspective in clinical decision-making to optimally manage SLE patients. Given the evidence associating SLE with work disability and job loss, it may be beneficial for professionals addressing worksite modifications or compensatory strategies to be included as members of SLE medical teams.

Garris C; Oglesby A; Sulcs E; Lee M

2013-01-01

175

THE EFFECT OF REDUCTION CONCENTRATIONS OF THE BROILER CHICKENS PER UNIT AREA ON THE FINAL LIVE WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION ECONOMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the present study was a mathematical and statistical assessment for the effect of concentration of broiler chickens per unit area to the final live weight and production economics. Cobb 500 chickens were fattening for 42 days in a hall on deep litter. During the two experiments the chickens were divided to two groups according to concentration per unit area and it was about 30 and 25 kg/m2. The experiments had been complied with recommended  nutritional  requirements  for  breeding  and  final fattening type of chickens Cobb500. The average final weight of broiler chickens in the first experiment were 2.14 and 2.17 kg for concentrations of 29.41 and 25.76 kg/m2 respectively, and for the second experiment  were 2.01 and 2.02 kg for concentrations of 29.33 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively. According to statistical analysis (P?0.05), the average final live weight of broiler chickens was not affected by concentrations.  The calculated production total live weight of broiler chickens across the halls were 48526.5, 48 394.5, 42504.0 and 39435.0 kg at a concentrations of 29.41, 29.33, 25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively.  By reducing the concentration of birds in the hall from 29.41 to  29.33 kg/m2 and from 25.76 to 23.9 kg/m2   the total production of broiler chickens was decreased by 6022.5 and  8959.5 kg live weight respectively. The concentration of birds per unit area of ??25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 lead to lower the  price of the product of broiler chickens by 4745.73 and 7060.09 € respectively, compared with  the price for the product of the concentrations of 29.41and  29.33 kg/m2 respectively.doi:10.5219/198

Mária Angelovi?ová; Martin Kliment; ?ubica Mrázová; Jana Tká?ová; Martin Krá?; Ebrahim Alfaig; ?ubomír Lopašovský

2012-01-01

176

Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Biosimilars are defined as biologic products that are highly similar to reference products, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, with no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of safety profile, purity, and potency. Due to the high cost of innovator biologics, as well as an increase in the number of these products reaching patent expiry, the development of a process for approving biosimilar products has become a crucial regulatory issue in the United States. OBJECTIVE: This commentary explores the relationship between structural/biophysical variation and the risk/benefit profile of biosimilars and reference biologics that have undergone process changes in the context of the most recent biophysical, nonclinical, and clinical data available. METHODS: The search strategy used PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for the retrieval of documents pertaining to biologic manufacturing, comparative analysis of biosimilars and originator biologics, and relevant review articles on biosimilars. For regulatory documents pertaining to the processes of the approval of biosimilars, biologics, and generics, a search for legislative decisions, briefing summaries, concept papers, guidance, and evaluations of approved and rejected applications for biosimilars published by the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national regulatory authorities was conducted. Selected articles from key opinion leaders and manufacturers were also reviewed. These searches were conducted to provide a review of historical and contemporary issues in the consideration of the current status of worldwide biosimilar use and regulation. RESULTS: A total of 18 marketing applications covering 9 development programs were surveyed. Of these, 14 applications were approved and 4 were rejected by the EMA. None of the biosimilars were reported to have evidence of significant clinical variation relative to reference compounds in the absence of corresponding differences in biophysical properties. A single biosimilar (Omnitrope(®) [somatropin]) was reported to have evidence of significant variation in both biophysical and clinical parameters in premarketing studies. Biophysical variation in the absence of relevant differences in the efficacy and safety profiles compared with the reference brands was noted for 2 biosimilar epoetin products. CONCLUSIONS: This commentary provides evidence that current EU guidelines have resulted in the approval of biosimilar therapeutics with comparable efficacy and safety profiles for the recommended indications of their respective reference originator biologics. It is anticipated that these precedents will serve as a starting point in the development of a process for approving biosimilars in the United States and worldwide to provide efficacious and tolerable biotherapeutics with a significant cost advantage for national health care programs and consumers.

Ahmed I; Kaspar B; Sharma U

2012-02-01

177

Ethanol production from alkali- and ozone-treated cotton stalks using thermotolerant Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, milled cotton stalks were subjected to alkali pretreatment with NaOH at 1–4% (w/v) concentrations at 121°C for time ranging from 30 to 90min. Ozone pretreatment was performed by passing 45mg/L of ozone gas over 2mm cotton stalks for 150min at a flow rate of 0.37L/min. The residual biomass from 4% alkali pretreatment for 60min showed 46.6% lignin degradation accompanied by 83.2% increase in glucan content, compared with the untreated biomass. Hydrolysis of 4% alkali-treated and ozone-treated cotton stalks was conducted using enzyme combination of 20 filter paper cellulase units/gram dried substrate (FPU/g-ds), 45IU/g-ds ?-glucosidase and 15IU/g-ds pectinase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-treated and ozone-treated biomass after 48h resulted in 42.29g/L glucose, 6.82g/L xylose and 24.13g/L glucose, 8.3g/L xylose, respectively. About 99% of glucose was consumed in 24h by Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 cells resulting in 19.82g/L of ethanol from alkali-treated cotton stalks and 10.96g/L of ethanol from ozone-treated cotton stalks. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the alkali-treated cotton stalks after 12-h pre-hydrolysis resulted in ethanol concentration, ethanol yield on dry biomass basis and ethanol productivity of 19.48g/L, 0.21g/g and 0.41g/L/h, respectively which holds promise for further scale-up studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing SSF for ethanol production from cotton stalks.

Kaur Ujjal; Oberoi HarinderSingh; Bhargav VinodKumar; Sharma-Shivappa Ratna; Dhaliwal SandeepSingh

2012-05-01

178

Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory) and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age) were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo) in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7%) were positive, 49 (35,3%) were negative, and 39 (28.1%) were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2) for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

Mirko C.P.; Bilkei G.

2005-01-01

179

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

1990-02-02

180

Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Review of upwelling off the southeastern United States and its effect on continental-shelf nutrient concentrations and primary productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gulf Stream induced upwelling occurs along the length of the southeastern United States continental shelf break. Upwelling events are produced by northward propagating Gulf Stream frontal meanders and eddies and travel northwards with these features. Meanders and eddies occur throughout the year in a period band of 2-14 days; however, resultant upwellings can affect the shelf quite differently. During fall, winter, and spring, upwelling is restricted to the outer shelf by cross-shelf density distributions, but in the summer upwelled water may penetrate across as a subsurface intrusion if aided by upwelling-favorable winds. If water does penetrate across the shelf, it may become stranded, detached from its deep-water Gulf Stream source, and may reside on the shelf for many weeks. The mass of nitrate within stranded water masses has been observed to be over 2500 metric tons nitrate-nitrogen covering an area of 2500 km/sup 2/. Gulf Stream upwelling-induced nutrient inputs dominate all other sources to the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and have a profound effect on phytoplankton production. During the fall, winter, and spring, high phytoplankton coincides with outer shelf upwelling, while in the summer production also occurs in the lower layer over the inner and middle shelf. Over one-half the phytoplankton production is considered new production. 15 references, 7 figures.

Atkinson, L.P.; Yoder, J.A.; Lee, T.N.

1984-01-01

182

Changes in value-added wood product manufacturer perceptions about certification in the United States from 2002 to 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certification is a voluntary mechanism which involves assessing either forest management practices or chain-of-custody tracking through supply chains against a set of standards. Certification is becoming an important market requirement particularly in value-added wood product sectors such as furniture, flooring and millwork. In 2002 and 2008 we conducted national studies in the United States to identify value-added wood industry perspectives and participation in certification and to see what has changed in the industry in the past 6 years. Results show that certification continues to be an important issue for the value-added wood products sector in the U.S. Certification awareness and participation have increased significantly from 2002-2008. The percent of respondents receiving premiums for certified products has increased significantly from 2002-2008 and the percent of respondents incurring (non-raw material) costs for certified wood raw materials declined. Finally, 97% of respondents in 2008 said that they will continue to sell certified wood products in the future.

Richard Vlosky; Rado Gazo; Daniel Cassens; Priyan Perera

2009-01-01

183

Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K2 99Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using ?-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

1986-10-22

184

Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1) The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2) The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1) El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2) el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

Kenneth M. Casebeer

2012-01-01

185

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

Haas, Kevin

2013-09-15

186

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01

187

Labelling genetically modified food products: consumers' concern in the United Kingdom  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An online survey method was used to collect data regarding the concern and attitude of UK consumers towards genetically modified (GM) food labelling. Questionnaires were sent to 9000 participants of the online panel via emails, and 2568 consumers completed the online survey. The response rate was 29%. This study found that more than 75% of the consumers questioned were concerned about the labelling of food products with GM ingredients. Eight perceived risks and benefits of agro-biotechnology were identified to be associated with consumers' attitude towards GM food labelling. Among them, three were perceived benefits, such as reduced use of chemicals in crop production, improved nutritional content, and increased yields. The five perceived risks were health risks, environmental risks, moral considerations, image of multinational corporations as the primary beneficiaries of biotechnology, and growing control of multinational corporations over farming. While all five perceived risks from GM food played a statistically significant role in shaping the overall attitude towards GM labelling, improved nutritional content due to application of biotechnology was the only benefit that was statistically significant. Age of the respondents was the only demographic variable playing a statistically significant role in shaping the attitude of respondents towards GM food labelling. Older respondents were more likely to be concerned about the existing GM labelling practices than younger respondents.

Rimal Arbindra; Moon Wanki; Balasubramanian Siva

2007-07-01

188

Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse.

Wanderley MC; Martín C; Rocha GJ; Gouveia ER

2013-01-01

189

Producing gasoline and/or co-production of aromatic bases, useful for petrochemicals, comprises e.g. producing cut extract and raffinate, sending raffinate in catalytic reforming unit and sending extract in aromatic complex unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing gasoline, and/or co-production of aromatic bases from one or more naphtha cuts, in which a charge (1) is sent to aromatic separation unit, comprises: producing cut extract (3), and a cut raffinate (2) sending the raffinate in catalytic reforming unit producing gasoline cut having high octane index (4), where the gasoline is recycled towards the aromatic separation unit, or sent to aromatic complex unit by flow (6) sending all or part of the extract in aromatic complex unit to produce aromatic bases (7) and (8) and sending other part of the extract to gasoline pool. Process for producing gasoline having octane index of greater than 95, and/or co-production of aromatic bases from one or more naphtha cuts obtained from atmospheric distillation, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), coking, steam cracking, hydrocracking, natural gas condensate fractionation, in which a charge (1) is sent to an aromatic separation unit, comprises: producing a cut extract (3) containing the majority of the aromatics, and a cut raffinate (2) containing the majority non-aromatic compounds sending at least partly the raffinate in a catalytic reforming unit producing a gasoline cut having high octane index (4) constituting a part of the gasoline pool, where the gasoline is wholly/partially recycled towards the aromatic separation unit, or wholly/partly sent to the aromatic complex unit by flow (6) sending all or part of the extract in an aromatic complex unit allowing to produce aromatic bases (7) and (8) and sending the other part of the extract to the gasoline pool.

MATHIEU SOUHIR; RAULT JACQUES

190

Cellulase production based on hemicellulose hydrolysate from steam-pretreated willow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production cost of cellulolytic enzymes is a major contributor to the high cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosics using enzymatic hydrolysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellulolytic enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C 30, which is known as a good cellulose secreting micro-organism, using willow as the carbon source. The willow, which is a fast-growing energy crop in Sweden, was impregnated with 1-4% SO{sub 2} and steam-pretreated for 5 min at 206{degrees}C. The pretreated willow was washed and the wash water, which contains several soluble sugars from the hemicellulose, was supplemented with fibrous pretreated willow and used for enzyme production. In addition to sugars, the liquid contains degradation products such as acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural, which are inhibitory for microorganisms. The results showed that 50% of the cellulose can be replaced with sugars from the wash water. The highest enzyme activity, 1.79 FPU/mL and yield, 133 FPU/g carbohydrate, was obtained at pH 6.0 using 20 g/L carbon source concentration. At lower pHs, a total lack of growth and enzyme production was observed, which probably could be explained by furfural inhibition. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Szengyel, Z.; Zacchi, G. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Reczey, K. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1997-12-31

191

Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012.

Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.

2012-01-01

192

Autonomous decentralized scheduling system for multi-stage parallel-unit production processes; Heiretsu sochi wo yusuru takotei process no jiritsu bunsangata scheduling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an autonomous decentralized scheduling system for the processes consisting of a sequence of production stages, each of which has parallel units. In the proposed system, an individual scheduling system belonging to each production stage gradually generates a plausible schedule by repeating the schedule generation and the data exchange among the production stages. In the process of schedule generation at each stage, the jobs processed at each unit are also decided by exchanging the scheduling data among the units in the stage. The results of example problems show that the schedule generated by the proposed system has almost the same level of performance as the one obtained by the conventional method, despite the fact that in the proposed system only the local information was used to derive the schedule at each unit. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Kitajima, T.; Nishitani, H. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan); Saito, A.; Hasebe, S.; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1996-09-10

193

Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01

194

Soil organic carbon sequestration in cotton production systems of the southeastern United States: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past agricultural management practices have contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and emission of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide). Fortunately, however, conservation-oriented agricultural management systems can be, and have been, developed to sequester SOC, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Our objectives were to (i) review literature related to SOC sequestration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, (ii) recommend best management practices to sequester SOC, and (iii) outline the current political scenario and future probabilities for cotton producers to benefit from SOC sequestration. From a review of 20 studies in the region, SOC increased with no tillage compared with conventional tillage by 0.48 +/- 0.56 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (H(0): no change, p < 0.001). More diverse rotations of cotton with high-residue-producing crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and small grains would sequester greater quantities of SOC than continuous cotton. No-tillage cropping with a cover crop sequestered 0.67 +/- 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), while that of no-tillage cropping without a cover crop sequestered 0.34 +/- 47 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (mean comparison, p = 0.04). Current government incentive programs recommend agricultural practices that would contribute to SOC sequestration. Participation in the Conservation Security Program could lead to government payments of up to Dollars 20 ha(-1). Current open-market trading of C credits would appear to yield less than Dollars 3 ha(-1), although prices would greatly increase should a government policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions be mandated.

Causarano HJ; Franzluebbers AJ; Reeves DW; Shaw JN

2006-07-01

195

Microarray kit analysis of cytokines in blood product units and segments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cytokine concentrations in transfused blood components are of interest for some clinical trials. It is not always possible to process samples of transfused components quickly after their administration. Additionally, it is not practical to sample material in an acceptable manner from many bags of components before transfusion, and after transfusion, the only representative remaining fluid of the component may be that in the "segment," because the bag may have been completely transfused. Multiplex array technology allows rapid simultaneous testing of multiple analytes in small-volume samples. This technology was used to measure white blood cell (WBC) cytokine levels in blood products to determine 1) whether concentrations in segments correlate with those in the main bag and, thus, whether segments could be used for estimation of the concentrations in the transfused component and 2) whether concentrations after sample storage at 4 degrees C for 24 hours do not differ from concentrations before storage, thus allowing for processing within 24 hours, rather than immediately after transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: WBC cytokines were measured in the supernatant from bags and segments of leukoreduced red blood cells (RBCs), nonleukoreduced whole blood, and leukoreduced plateletphereses using a human cytokine array kit (ProteoPlex, Novagen). RESULTS: Cytokine concentrations in RBCs and whole blood or plateletphereses stored at 4 degrees C did not differ between bag and segment samples (all p > 0.05). There was no evidence of systematic differences between segment and bag concentrations. Cytokine concentrations in samples from plateletphereses did not change within 24 hours storage at 4 degrees C. CONCLUSION: Samples from either bag or segment can be used to study cytokine concentrations in groups of blood products. Cytokine concentrations in plateletphereses appear to be stable for at least 24 hours of storage at 4 degrees C and, thus, samples stored with those conditions may be used to estimate the cytokine concentrations of the component at the time of transfusion.

Weiskopf RB; Yau R; Sanchez R; Lowell C; Toy P

2009-11-01

196

First production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon was the location of the first production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the U.S. Soil from munitions washout lagoons contained high concentrations of TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) and RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine) as well as HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). In addition to these primary contaminants, laboratory tests were performed for Tetryl (Methyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenylnitramine), 4-Am-DNT (4-Amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2-Am-DNT (2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4 DNT (2,4-Dinitrotoluene), 2,6 DNT (2,6-Dinitrotoluene), 1,3,5-TNB (1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene), 1,3,-DNB (1,3-Dinitrobenzene) and NB (Nitrobenzene) during the pilot-scale treatability tests. The clean-up goal established by the Record of Decision (ROD) was 30 mg/kg each for TNT and RDX. Degradation progress was monitored using immunoassay field screening Methods SW 846,4050 and 4051. Confirmational analysis consisted of EPA Method 8330. Treatment time on a 2,700 cubic yard batch (810 cubic yards of soil) was 10-12 days. A composting technique developed by the Army Environmental Center and implemented by Bioremediation Service, Inc., Portland, Oregon was used at the site. Agricultural waste products (or amendments including cow manure, chicken manure, potato waste, sawdust and alfalfa) were blended with the contaminated soil during treatment. Specialized soil turning equipment mixed the compost for optimum biological action and homogeneity. Homogeneity of the compost mix ensured rapid degradation of all contaminants. Physical and chemical properties were closely monitored to ensure that thermophilic bacteria played a dominant role in the degradation process. Nearly 5,000 cubic yards of soil have been successfully treated, and more than 70% of all analyses indicate non-detectable levels of both TNT and RDX. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that over $2.6 million is being saved using bioremediation at Umatilla. PMID:9472327

Emery, D D; Faessler, P C

1997-11-21

197

First production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon was the location of the first production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the U.S. Soil from munitions washout lagoons contained high concentrations of TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) and RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine) as well as HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). In addition to these primary contaminants, laboratory tests were performed for Tetryl (Methyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenylnitramine), 4-Am-DNT (4-Amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2-Am-DNT (2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4 DNT (2,4-Dinitrotoluene), 2,6 DNT (2,6-Dinitrotoluene), 1,3,5-TNB (1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene), 1,3,-DNB (1,3-Dinitrobenzene) and NB (Nitrobenzene) during the pilot-scale treatability tests. The clean-up goal established by the Record of Decision (ROD) was 30 mg/kg each for TNT and RDX. Degradation progress was monitored using immunoassay field screening Methods SW 846,4050 and 4051. Confirmational analysis consisted of EPA Method 8330. Treatment time on a 2,700 cubic yard batch (810 cubic yards of soil) was 10-12 days. A composting technique developed by the Army Environmental Center and implemented by Bioremediation Service, Inc., Portland, Oregon was used at the site. Agricultural waste products (or amendments including cow manure, chicken manure, potato waste, sawdust and alfalfa) were blended with the contaminated soil during treatment. Specialized soil turning equipment mixed the compost for optimum biological action and homogeneity. Homogeneity of the compost mix ensured rapid degradation of all contaminants. Physical and chemical properties were closely monitored to ensure that thermophilic bacteria played a dominant role in the degradation process. Nearly 5,000 cubic yards of soil have been successfully treated, and more than 70% of all analyses indicate non-detectable levels of both TNT and RDX. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that over $2.6 million is being saved using bioremediation at Umatilla.

Emery DD; Faessler PC

1997-11-01

198

The value of atorvastatin over the product life cycle in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: US health care reform mandates the reduction of wasteful health care spending while maintaining quality of care. Introducing new drugs into crowded therapeutic classes may be viewed as offering "me-too" (new drugs with a similar mechanism of action compared to existing drugs) drugs without incremental benefit. This article presents an analysis of the incremental costs and benefits of atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent. OBJECTIVE: This analysis models the cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin over the product life cycle. METHODS: The yearly cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin was modeled from 1997 to 2030 from the point of view of a US third-party payer. Estimates for incremental costs (in US $) and effects (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events were taken from previously published literature and adjusted for changes in drug prices over time. Estimates of total statin use were derived using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine variations in study parameters, including drug prices, indications, and discount rates. RESULTS: Assuming increasing statin use over time (with a mean of 1.07 million new users per year) and a 3% discount rate, the cumulative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atorvastatin versus simvastatin ranged from cost-savings at release to a maximum of $45,066/QALY after 6 years of generic simvastatin use in 2012. Over the full modeled life cycle (1997-2030), the cumulative ICER of atorvastatin was $20,331/QALY. The incremental value of atorvastatin to US payers (after subtracting costs) was estimated at $44.57 to $194.78 billion, depending on willingness to pay. Findings from the sensitivity analyses were similar. A hypothetical situation in which atorvastatin did not exist was associated with a reduction in total expenditures but also a loss of QALYs gained. CONCLUSION: The cumulative ICER of atorvastatin varied across the product life cycle, increasing during the period between generic simvastatin entry and generic atorvastatin entry, and decreasing thereafter.

Grabner M; Johnson W; Abdulhalim AM; Kuznik A; Mullins CD

2011-10-01

199

Model for United States arms development and production in the nuclear - space age era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Government and industry interorganizational policy implementation in US high technology defense projects is examined using case studies and comparative analysis as a basis for theory development. Four contemporary US defense-system engineering development and production projects are studied in order to ascertain the major contributors to their successes or failures and to determine whether differences exist in the public and private role relationships. Defense policies and procedures related to the planning, structure, and implementation of these four projects are analyzed. All the other ostensive procedures and attributes of the four projects were found to be nearly identical. The administrative project management, legal, and contractual approaches were superficially the same. Two identical government industry organizational teams were used for each closely allied pair of projects. Two the projects were direct successors of earlier successful projects. Therefore, it was expected that these projects would be as successful as their predecessors in view of project paradigm parallels. However, the results among the projects in terms of performance, user acceptance, cost, and schedule were decidedly different.

Cohen, A.R.

1986-01-01

200

Test of an anaerobic prototype reactor coupled with a filtration unit for production of VFAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The artificial ecosystem MELiSSA, supported by the European Space Agency is a closed loop system consisting of 5 compartments in which food, water and oxygen are produced out of organic waste. The first compartment is conceived as a thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor liquefying organic waste into VFAs, ammonium and CO2 without methane. A 20 L reactor was assembled to demonstrate the selected design and process at prototype scale. We characterized system performance from start-up to steady state and evaluated process efficiencies with special attention drawn to the mass balances. An overall efficiency for organic matter biodegradation of 50% was achieved. The dry matter content was stabilized around 40-50gL(-1) and VFA production around 5-6gL(-1). The results were consistent for the considered substrate mixture and can also be considered relevant in a broader context, as a first processing step to produce building blocks for synthesis of primary energy vectors. PMID:23333084

Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Farges, Bérangère; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Schiettecatte, Wim; Jovetic, Srdjan; De Wever, Heleen

2012-12-19

 
 
 
 
201

Test of an anaerobic prototype reactor coupled with a filtration unit for production of VFAs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The artificial ecosystem MELiSSA, supported by the European Space Agency is a closed loop system consisting of 5 compartments in which food, water and oxygen are produced out of organic waste. The first compartment is conceived as a thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor liquefying organic waste into VFAs, ammonium and CO2 without methane. A 20 L reactor was assembled to demonstrate the selected design and process at prototype scale. We characterized system performance from start-up to steady state and evaluated process efficiencies with special attention drawn to the mass balances. An overall efficiency for organic matter biodegradation of 50% was achieved. The dry matter content was stabilized around 40-50gL(-1) and VFA production around 5-6gL(-1). The results were consistent for the considered substrate mixture and can also be considered relevant in a broader context, as a first processing step to produce building blocks for synthesis of primary energy vectors.

Poughon L; Creuly C; Farges B; Dussap CG; Schiettecatte W; Jovetic S; De Wever H

2013-10-01

202

Butt-welded constructional unit of austenitic steel pipes and method for its production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the ends of the pipes of stainless austenitic steel 304 spool pieces of steel 316 are butt-welded. This welding is done on the production site where the subsequent solution heat-treatment can be performed. The welding of two pipes is done at the construction place, for example at the reactor-place. To avoid stress crack corrosion, the ends of the spool pieces are collar-shaped reinforced and at the front ends they are flattened in the form of a cone frustum. Between two pipes a hollow is formed, in which a welding bead of 308L welding metal is butt-welded. The spool pieces may consist of different steels like 316L, 316LN, 304L, 304LN, 347L or 321L. (RW)[de] An die Rohre aus korrosionsbestaendigem austenitischem Stahl 304 werden endseitig Uebergangsstuecke (spool pieces) aus Stahl 316 stumpf angeschweisst. Diese Verschweissung erfolgt am Herstellungsort, so dass eine anschliessende Loesungsgluehung vorgenommen werden kann. Die Verschweissung zweier Rohre miteinander wird vor Ort, z.B. im KKW, vorgenommen. Um Spannungsrisskorrosionen ausschliessen zu koennen, sind die Uebergangsstuecke endseitig wulstartig verstaerkt und zur Stirnseite hin kegelstumpffoermig abgeflacht. Beim Zusammenfuegen zweier Rohre entsteht somit eine Mulde, in die eine Schweissschichtraupe aus 308L-Schweissmetall (Stumpfschweissung) eingebracht wird. Die Uebergangsstuecke koennen auch aus 316L-, 316LN-, 304L-, 304LN-, 347L- oder 321L-Stahl bestehen. (RW)

1979-01-01

203

Mild coal gasification: Product separation, pilot-unit support, twin screw heat transfer, and H sub 2 S evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. Our efforts this year have been in four main areas. A new thrust has been to identify and develop efficient processes to separate the vapor product stream into particulate-free liquid and mist-free gas. We continued work aimed at predicting heat transfer rates (hence throughput) in externally-heated twin-screw pyrolyzers. We sought to provide technical support for the design, installation, startup, and operation of the DOE-sponsored 500 kg/hr twin-screw mild gasification unit at Coal Technology Corporation (CTC). A smaller laboratory effort had the objective of identifying and testing the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species during coal pyrolysis. Detailed subproject objectives are given in their respective sections. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.; Wallman, P.H.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-08-09

204

Transcription Unit Mapping in Bacteriophage T7 II. Proportionality of Number of Gene Copies, mRNA, and Gene Product  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of UV irradiation of bacteriophage T7 on in vivo early RNA synthesis has been studied by direct quantitation of the gene-specific RNA transcripts. The results show that the early region of phage T7 is transcribed from left to right as a single unit. Furthermore, gene inactivation, the UV sensitivity of synthesis of gene-specific RNA, and the UV sensitivity of synthesis of the corresponding proteins all follow pseudo first-order kinetics in multiply infected cells, demonstrating a random statistical correlation between both transcriptional sampling of gene copies and translational sampling of the resultant RNA transcripts. In addition, these simple kinetics imply an absence of positive feedback mechanisms compensating for the differential decline of individual early gene products in cells multiply infected with phage T7.

Brautigam, Alan R.; Sauerbier, Walter

1974-01-01

205

Solid electrolyte cylindrical fuel cell unit and method of production. Kotai denkaishitsu gata tsutsujo nenryo denchi tantai oyobi sono seiho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention provides a solid electrolyte cylindrical fuel cell single unit with good production workability without causing the danger of cracking. Furthermore, this invention provides a method of producing such a cell. For this purpose, in this invention, a cylindrical body is formed with an electroconductive porous material which has a convex groove along the outward axial direction, also having an air passage in the center. An interconnector is fixed on the front surface of the convex groove without coating of solid electrolyte at the part excluding the chip surface of the convex groove; a fuel electrode material is placed on the outer surface of the solid electrolyte. The electroconductive porous ceramic material uses a provskite type La-based complex oxide. According to the method of this invention, a masking of the small interconnector can be eliminated, thus improving the workability and reducing both time and cost. 5 figs.

Tan, M.; Ochiayu, R.; Yoshida, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Yamanouchi, H.: Nagata, M. (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-09-10

206

PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS, COMPOSITIONS, SURFACTANTS, MONOMER UNITS, METAL COMPLEXES, PHOSPHATE ESTERS, GLYCOLS, AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAMS, AND FOAM STABILIZERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Production processes and systems are provided that include reacting halogenated compounds, dehalogenating compounds, reacting alcohol's, reacting olefins and a saturated compounds, reacting reactants having at least two -CF3 groups with reactants having cyclic groups, RF-compositions such as RF-intermediates, RF-surfactants, RF-monomers, RF-monomer units, RF-metal complexes, RF-phosphate esters, RF-glycols, RF-urethanes, and or RF-foam stabilizers. The RF portion can include at least two groups -CF3 groups, at least three -CF3 groups, and/or at least two -CF3 groups and at least two -CH2 groups. Detergents, emulsifiers, paints, adhesives, inks, wetting agents, foamers, and defoamers including the RF-surfactant composition are provided. Acrylics, resins, and polymers are provided that include a RF-monomer unit. Compositions are provided that include a substrate having a RF-composition thereover. Aqueous Film Forming Foam ("AFFF") formulations are provided that can include RF-surfactants and/or RF-foam stabilizers are provided.

BOGGS JANET; BRANDSTADTER STEPHAN; CHIEN JOHN; SHARMA VIMAL; EDWARDS E BRADLEY; HEDRICK VICKI; JACKSON ANDREW; LEMAN GREGORY; NORMAN EDWARD; KAUFMAN ROBERT

207

Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP) to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. RESULTS: Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC) per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. CONCLUSIONS: The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

Stockmann KD; Anderson NM; Skog KE; Healey SP; Loeffler DR; Jones G; Morrison JF

2012-01-01

208

Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP) to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC) per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

Stockmann Keith D; Anderson Nathaniel M; Skog Kenneth E; Healey Sean P; Loeffler Dan R; Jones Greg; Morrison James F

2012-01-01

209

Identification of Bioaerosols Released from an Egg Production Facility in the Southeast United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This field study investigated biological characteristics of aerosols emitted from a commercial egg production farm (layer operation). Bioaerosol samples were taken on this farm at five sampling locations covering emission source (inside a layer barn) and four ambient surrounding stations at four wind directions. All-glass impingers (AGI) were used for the field sampling. AGI fluid samples were plated in duplicate on Trypticase Soy Agar for growth of bacteria and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for growth of fungi. The most prominent bacterial colony types were identified using a combination of methods that include recording characteristics of colony morphology; performing a Gram staining method and metabolic analyses using the Biolog system. Results from thirty-five AGI samples taken at the five stations through seven sampling events over four seasons indicate that there were significantly lower total bacterial concentrations in the samples collected from ambient stations as compared with the samples collected in the layer house; the mean bacterial concentration at the in-house sampling station was 3.86×10(5)±1.74×10(5) cfu/m(3), whereas the mean bacterial concentrations at four ambient stations in the vicinity of the farm ranged from 1.3×10(3) to 6.2×10(3) cfu/m(3) with no significant differences in mean among ambient stations. There were also no significant differences in fungi concentrations among all sampling stations. Mean fungi concentrations at the in-house station was 3.0×10(3)±4.45×10(3) cfu/m(3), whereas the mean concentrations at the ambient stations ranged from 7.4×10(3) to 1.7×10(4) cfu/m(3). The most prominent bacterial species differed among all five stations. Three of the most prominent bacteria from samples taken at all five stations were gram positive. Fungal type also differed from station to station.

Wang-Li L; Li Q; Byfield GE

2013-01-01

210

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

211

Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

2003-01-01

212

Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

213

Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

Vesela Veleva

2009-01-01

214

Respiratory health surveillance in a toluene di-isocyanate production unit, 1967-97: clinical observations and lung function analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To characterise irritant and allergic airway responses and assess changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) relative to exposure to toluene di-isocyanate (TDI). METHODS: Employees (n = 313) ever assigned to a TDI production unit for > or = 3 months (1967-92) were identified from personnel records along with 158 frequency matched referents without known exposure to TDI. Reports made during visits to the occupational clinic of incidents related to exposure to TDI and annual periodic examination results (questionnaire, physical findings, and spirometry) were abstracted and assessed relative to industrial hygiene estimates of exposure to TDI. RESULTS: Mean 8 hour time weighted average estimates of TDI concentrations ranged from 9.9 ppb in jobs with potentially high exposure during the early years of plant operations to 0.5 ppb in jobs with potentially low exposure in more recent years. The corresponding rates of visits to the clinic due to incidents of exposure to TDI (including both irritant and allergic airway responses) declined from 20.5 to 1.0 visits per 100 years of employment at the unit. The annual incidence of asthma induced by TDI declined from 1.8% before 1980 to 0.7% afterwards. Neither cross sectional nor longitudinal analyses of FVC and FEV1 showed significant dose-response findings relative to exposure to TDI across the total exposed population. Among cases of occupational asthma there was an apparent initial decline in FEV1 within 2 years of first reporting symptoms, but not an accelerated rate of decline in follow up tests from 4-30 years after induction of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrences of both asthma induced by TDI and irritant airway responses due to exposure to TDI were found in this cohort, but there was no relation between cumulative exposure to TDI and irreversible airflow obstruction as assessed by spirometry.

Ott MG; Klees JE; Poche SL

2000-01-01

215

Extension Education Symposium: The future of biosecurity and antimicrobial use in livestock production in the United States and the role of extension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the global population continues to grow, food needs will increase as well. The amount of land and other resources devoted to agriculture production is not expected to grow significantly, leading most to agree that the substantial increases in food production to meet food security needs will come through the development of technologies that improve production efficiency. Diseases are constant threats to efficiency in all segments of agriculture. In livestock production, many of the bacterial pathogens that infect food animals are controlled through the use of antimicrobials. Antimicrobials are currently used in the United States not only to treat specific diseases, but also as feed additives to prevent bacterial disease in general or to improve growth performance. In recent years, there have been several proposals in the United States, both at state and federal levels, aimed at curtailing or dramatically reducing the use antimicrobials as feed additives, creating a policy similar to that of the European Union. Here we review the current policies on antimicrobial use in the European Union and their impact on food animal production. In addition, we discuss the future of antimicrobial use in food animal production in the United States and the increasing role of biosecurity programs. Finally, we discuss the role of Cooperative Extension Service in creating improved biosecurity programs and extension programs that provide policy makers and voters information on modern food animal production practices and technologies so that policies and regulations are effective and appropriate.

Clark S; Daly R; Jordan E; Lee J; Mathew A; Ebner P

2012-08-01

216

METHOD FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A UNIT (THERMAL SALT MARSH &THERMAL SALT PAN) DESTINED FOR THE SYNCHRONICAL PRODUCTION OF SALT AND DESALINATED WATER UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Novelty: A new environmentally-friendly method for the construction of a unit destined for the synchronical production of extremely pure salt and desalinated water under controlled conditions - potential daily salt collection. Technical features: Sea water is pumped up from a selected point in the sea or from a subground basin via drilling in combination with the controlled operational conditions of the unit, a top-quality final product exempt from further treatment is resulted so that operation expenses, pollutants and waste can be significantly reduced. The controlled conditions, which are created in the thermal salt evaporation ponds, assist the evaporation of the sea water even after sunset. The coordinated mechanical salt gathering mode multiplies by far the production of floatingfirstborn salt crystals. Furthermore, the confined suspended water molecules in the space of the thermal salt marsh are absorbed and conveyed to the desalination system for the synchronical production of desalinated water.

217

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions of each of three previous non-US incentives volumes and the conclusions of the comparisons volume which looks at incentives in four countries including the United States are summarized. Summaries of the patterns of incentive actions in France, West Germany, and Japan are presented first, followed by a summary of the four-country comparisons volume itself. Suggestions for solar policy which are based on the comparison of incentive actions in the four countries are presented. The definitions and methods used in each of the single-country studies are explained in detail in those volumes. A brief explanation of the procedures is offered. Each volume was divided into three parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; a view of the energy incentive landscape for one particular year; and an analysis of the major energy forms (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along the path from exploration to waste management, including the costs of incentives at each step in constant national currency. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: taxation, disbursements, requirements traditional services, nontraditional services, and market activities.

Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-06-01

218

Saccharification of Kans grass using enzyme mixture from Trichoderma reesei for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol is one of the alternatives of the conventional fossil fuel. In present study, effect of different carbon sources on the production of cellulolytic enzyme (CMCase) from Trichoderma reesei at different temperatures, duration and pH were investigated and conditions were optimized. Acid treated Kans grass (Saccharum sponteneum) was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars which was then fermented to bioethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The maximum CMCase production was found to be 1.46 U mL(-1) at optimum condition (28°C, pH 5 and cellulose as carbon source). The cellulases and xylanase activity were found to be 1.12 FPU g(-1) and 6.63 U mL(-1), respectively. Maximum total sugar was found to be 69.08 mg/g dry biomass with 20 FPU g(-1) dry biomass of enzyme dosage under optimum condition. Similar results were obtained when it was treated with pure enzyme. Upon fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate, the yield of ethanol was calculated to be 0.46 g g(-1). PMID:21907576

Kataria, Rashmi; Ghosh, Sanjoy

2011-08-10

219

High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschmiter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-12-01

220

High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-08-15

 
 
 
 
221

High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event

1991-01-01

222

The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

Valenchon, C.; Rossig, J.H. [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G. [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1998-05-01

223

PROCESS FOR DECREASING OR ELIMINATING UNWANTED HYDROCARBON AND OXYGENATE PRODUCTS CAUSED BY FISHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS REACTIONS IN A SYNGAS TREATMENT UNIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a process for decreasing or eliminating unwanted hydrocarbon and oxygenate products caused by FTS reactions in a syngas treatment unit by utilizing heat exchangers and optionally associated pipes that are substantially fabricated of a metal material selected from the group consisting of iron, nickel, cobalt, carbon steel or stainless steel and having deposited on the metal surfaces that will come in contact with the coldbox overhead gas stream an inert coating selected from the group consisting of silicon based materials, zinc based materials, tin based materials, chromium based materials, polymers, ceramics and mixtures thereof for heating up gas streams having a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and obtained from a front end purification unit/cold box unit.

CHEN YUDONG; MONEREAU CHRISTIAN; CHAUBEY TRAPTI; RODRIGUES GUILLAUME

224

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml(-1)) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3-6 g l(-1)) and glutamate (3.6 g l(-1)). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml(-1)) were also much greater (8-150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

Rodriguez-Gomez D; Hobley TJ

2013-05-01

225

Considerations for tissue-engineered and regenerative medicine product development prior to clinical trials in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue-engineered and regenerative medicine products are promising innovative therapies that can address unmet clinical needs. These products are often combinations of cells, scaffolds, and other factors and are complex in both structure and function. Their complexity introduces challenges for product developers to establish novel manufacturing and characterization techniques to ensure that these products are safe and effective prior to clinical trials in humans. Although there are only a few commercial products that are currently in the market, many more tissue-engineered and regenerative medicine products are under development. Therefore, it is the purpose of this article to help product developers in the early stages of product development by providing insight into the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) process and by highlighting some of the key scientific considerations that may be applicable to their products. We provide resources that are publically available from the FDA and others that are of potential interest. As the provided information is general in content, product developers should contact the FDA for feedback regarding their specific products. Also described are ways through which product developers can informally and formally interact with the FDA early in the development process to help in the efficient progression of products toward clinical trials.

Lee MH; Arcidiacono JA; Bilek AM; Wille JJ; Hamill CA; Wonnacott KM; Wells MA; Oh SS

2010-02-01

226

Beef Cow/Calf Herd Management Practices in the United States. Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit. Part 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a National study of beef production designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and man...

1993-01-01

227

The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting.

Borgerding MF; Bodnar JA; Curtin GM; Swauger JE

2012-12-01

228

Aligning clinical compensation with clinical productivity: design and implementation of the financial value unit (FVU) system in an academic department of internal medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new metric was developed and implemented at the University of Kansas School of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, the financial value unit (FVU). This metric analyzes faculty clinical compensation compared with clinical work productivity as a transparent means to decrease the physician compensation variability and compensate faculty equitably for clinical work.The FVU is the ratio of individual faculty clinical compensation compared with their total work relative value units (wRVUs) generated divided by Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) salary to wRVUs of a similar MGMA physician.The closer the FVU ratio is to 1.0, the closer clinical compensation is to that of an MGMA physician with similar clinical productivity. Using FVU metrics to calculate a faculty salary gap compared with MGMA median salary and wRVU productivity, a divisional production payment was established annually.From FY 2006 to FY 2011, both total faculty numbers and overall clinical activity increased. With the implementation of the FVU, both clinical productivity and compensation increased while, at the same time, physician retention rates remained high. Variability in physician compensation decreased. Dramatic clinical growth was associated with the alignment of clinical work and clinical compensation in a transparent and equable process.

Stites S; Steffen P; Turner S; Pingleton S

2013-07-01

229

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of ?-glucosidase). Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of ?-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

Minhee Han Mail; Yule Kim; Bon-cheol Koo Mail; Gi-Wook Choi

2011-01-01

230

Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

1982-03-01

231

The ROCA project. Heat, power and CO{sub 2} production in one unit - combustion technology plays a key role  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ROCA 3 unit in the Netherlands is a heat and power unit combining the generation of power with the supply of heat for district heating and, what`s new, the supply of CO{sub 2} containing gases to greenhouses. Stringent demands are placed on the purity of CO{sub 2} containing gases. Thanks to its innovative combustion technology, however, Stork succeeded in supplying an istallation meeting these demands. This article starts with a brief description of the Roca power station, followed by particulars on the design of and results achieved with the combustion system developed by Stork. (orig.)

Verhoeff, F.; Kissing, J.; Bergmanns, S.

1997-12-31

232

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m?2 bar?1. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ? Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ? Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ? Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ? Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ? The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

2012-05-01

233

Evaluation of the Productive Skills in the Second Language: The Work of the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU).  

Science.gov (United States)

The work in second language education of the Assessment of Performance Unit, established by the Department of Education and Science of England and Wales to monitor certain areas of the public education curriculum is described. The focus is on the development of a rationale for testing, the elicitation procedures used in the assessment of speaking…

Dickson, Peter

234

A table appliance for the home production of milk based products has a controllable heating unit, a container and a cover with a control panel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The control panel (3) enables selection of the product, the amount of milk, the temperature and the time required. Miulk is added to the vessel (2) having a lid (4) and heat insulated cover while heating (5) is precisely controlled to produce the product to the requred taste.

SHAMIR NIR

235

Kinetic studies on the product inhibition of enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to understand the product inhibition of enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis, the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw was carried out over an enzyme loading range of 2 to 30 FPU/g substrate, and the inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis was analyzed kinetically based on the reducing sugars produced. It was shown that glucose, xylose, and arabinose were the main reducing sugar components contained in the hydrolysate. The mass ratio of glucose, xylose, and arabinose to the total reducing sugars was almost constant at 52.0%, 29.7% and 18.8%, respectively, in the enzyme loading range. The reducing sugars exerted competitive inhibitory interferences to the enzymatic hydrolysis. Glucose, xylose, and arabinose had a dissociation constant of 1.24, 0.54 and 0.33 g/l, respectively. The inhibitory interferences by reducing sugars were superimposed on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis could be improved by the removal of the produced reducing sugars from hydrolysate.

Miao Y; Chen JY; Jiang X; Huang Z

2012-05-01

236

Photochemical ozone production in the rural southeastern United States during the 1990 Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment (ROSE) program  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive measurements of ozone and its photochemical precursors and coproducts were made in the 1990 Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment (ROSE) program. Peroxy radical production, loss, and partitioning are described at a rural site in Alabama, showing the important role that biogenic organic compounds play in ozone production. Estimates of the peroxy radical concentration obtained by four methods along with the measured nitric oxide level are used to predict the instantaneous rate of photochemical ozone production at the site. The four methods agree on the diurnal behavior of peroxy radicals and ozone production rates, while consistent discrepancies between the methods generally are within their combined uncertainties. Selected aircraft measurements are used to derive ozone production rates above the ground site, with the highest rates occurring in the boundary layer and in industrial plumes. The dependences of peroxy radical concentration and ozone production rate on the level of nitrogen oxides exhibit good agreement between the various methods and are consistent throughout the lower troposphere. Surface deposition and entrainment are shown to be as important as photochemical production in determining the diurnal evolution of ozone at this site.

Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.; Allwine, G.; Buhr, M. P.; Calvert, J. G.; Cantrell, C. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Herwehe, J.; Hübler, G.; Kuster, W. C.; Martin, R.; McMillen, R. T.; Montzka, S. A.; Norton, R. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ridley, B. A.; Shetter, R. E.; Walega, J. G.; Watkins, B. A.; Westberg, H. H.; Williams, E. J.

1998-09-01

237

Analysis of production losses during a major outage, Pickering G.S. Units 1/2 retube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the time of writing, Ontario Hydro had recently completed the removal and subsequent replacement of fuel channel components in Pickering Units 1 and 2. To assist in future retubing, an analysis was made of lost man-hours incurred. The lost time was associated with radiological concerns (particularly carbon-14), equipment failures, scheduling shift changes and lunch breaks, and higher-priority work (not having a team completely dedicated to retubing)

1987-01-01

238

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wastepaper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the development of high sugar production by optimization of an enzymatic hydrolysis process using both conventional and statistical methods, as well as the production of ethanol by the selected wastepaper source. Among four sources of pretreated wastepaper including office paper, newspaper, handbills and cardboard, office paper gave the highest values of cellulose (87.12%) and holocelluloses (89.07%). The effects of the amount of wastepaper, the pretreatment method and the type of enzyme on reducing sugar production from office paper were studied using conventional methods. The highest reducing sugar production (1851.28?µg?L(-1); 37.03% conversion of glucose) was obtained from the optimal condition containing 40?mg of office paper, pretreated with stream explosion and hydrolysed with the combination of cellulase from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride at the fixed loading rate of 20?FPU?g(-1) sample. The effects of interaction of wastepaper amount and enzyme concentration as well as incubation time were studied by a statistical method using central composite design. The optimal medium composition consisted of 43.97?µg?L(-1), 28.14?FPU?g(-1) sample and 53.73?h of wastepaper, enzyme concentration and incubation time, respectively, and gave the highest amount of sugar production (2184.22?µg?L(-1)) and percentage conversion of glucose (43.68%). The ethanol production from pretreated office paper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was 21.02?g?L(-1) after 36?h of cultivation, corresponding to an ethanol volumetric production rate of 0.58?g?ethanol?L(-1)?h(-1).

Sangkharak K

2011-11-01

239

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wastepaper.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the development of high sugar production by optimization of an enzymatic hydrolysis process using both conventional and statistical methods, as well as the production of ethanol by the selected wastepaper source. Among four sources of pretreated wastepaper including office paper, newspaper, handbills and cardboard, office paper gave the highest values of cellulose (87.12%) and holocelluloses (89.07%). The effects of the amount of wastepaper, the pretreatment method and the type of enzyme on reducing sugar production from office paper were studied using conventional methods. The highest reducing sugar production (1851.28?µg?L(-1); 37.03% conversion of glucose) was obtained from the optimal condition containing 40?mg of office paper, pretreated with stream explosion and hydrolysed with the combination of cellulase from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride at the fixed loading rate of 20?FPU?g(-1) sample. The effects of interaction of wastepaper amount and enzyme concentration as well as incubation time were studied by a statistical method using central composite design. The optimal medium composition consisted of 43.97?µg?L(-1), 28.14?FPU?g(-1) sample and 53.73?h of wastepaper, enzyme concentration and incubation time, respectively, and gave the highest amount of sugar production (2184.22?µg?L(-1)) and percentage conversion of glucose (43.68%). The ethanol production from pretreated office paper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was 21.02?g?L(-1) after 36?h of cultivation, corresponding to an ethanol volumetric production rate of 0.58?g?ethanol?L(-1)?h(-1). PMID:21242181

Sangkharak, Kanokphorn

2011-01-17

240

Performance Analysis of Bit-Width Reduced Floating-Point Arithmetic Units in FPGAs: A Case Study of Neural Network-Based Face Detector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper implements a field programmable gate array- (FPGA-) based face detector using a neural network (NN) and the bit-width reduced floating-point arithmetic unit (FPU). The analytical error model, using the maximum relative representation error (MRRE) and the average relative representation error (ARRE), is developed to obtain the maximum and average output errors for the bit-width reduced FPUs. After the development of the analytical error model, the bit-width reduced FPUs and an NN are designed using MATLAB and VHDL. Finally, the analytical (MATLAB) results, along with the experimental (VHDL) results, are compared. The analytical results and the experimental results show conformity of shape. We demonstrate that incremented reductions in the number of bits used can produce significant cost reductions including area, speed, and power.

Yongsoon Lee; Younhee Choi; Seok-Bum Ko; Moon Ho Lee

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-01

242

A large scale manual production of [18F]FDG using a synthetic unit made of sterile disposable components and operated by a master slave manipulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A self contained, Master Slave Manipulator operated and largely disposable apparatus for the large scale production of [18F]FDG using nucleophilic fluorination methodology has been developed. The synthetic unit consists of readily available sterile disposable components and is easy to assemble. Operation of the synthetic unit is carried out in a hot cell under a closed system to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Recovery of [18O]water by direct distillation from the reaction vial makes the system even more attractive. Normal production runs yield 25-150 mCi of [18F]FDG. Since no manual handling of radioactivity is involved, a scaled up production is feasible by this procedure. We have avoided the use of any permanent electrical liquid transfer devices in our system, thereby eliminating the possibility of pyrogen build up. An in-house radiopharmaceutical program to check the sterility and apyrogenicity of the short-lived radiopharmaceuticals is an added convenience at our institution. (author)

1990-01-01

243

A large scale manual production of ( sup 18 F)FDG using a synthetic unit made of sterile disposable components and operated by a master slave manipulator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A self contained, Master Slave Manipulator operated and largely disposable apparatus for the large scale production of ({sup 18}F)FDG using nucleophilic fluorination methodology has been developed. The synthetic unit consists of readily available sterile disposable components and is easy to assemble. Operation of the synthetic unit is carried out in a hot cell under a closed system to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Recovery of ({sup 18}O)water by direct distillation from the reaction vial makes the system even more attractive. Normal production runs yield 25-150 mCi of ({sup 18}F)FDG. Since no manual handling of radioactivity is involved, a scaled up production is feasible by this procedure. We have avoided the use of any permanent electrical liquid transfer devices in our system, thereby eliminating the possibility of pyrogen build up. An in-house radiopharmaceutical program to check the sterility and apyrogenicity of the short-lived radiopharmaceuticals is an added convenience at our institution. (author).

Chaly, Thomas; Mattacchieri, Ralph; Velez, J.W.; Dahl, J.R.; Margouleff, Donald (North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (USA). Dept. of Medicine Cornell Univ., New York, NY (USA). Medical Coll. Cyclotron/PET Research Dept., Manhasset, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

244

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN-PROCESS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS QUALITY CONTROL TESTS OF INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA, BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA & UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA FOR CAPSULES AND LIQUID ORALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study deals with a brief overview of the comparative study of quality requirements for in-process and finished products quality control Tests of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP), British Pharmacopeia (BP) & United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for some conventional dosage forms. The concept of total quality control test refers to the process of striving to produce a quality product by a series of measures, requiring an organized effort in order to eliminate errors at every stage in the production. In process product testing is done in order to check the conformance of the final product with the compendial standards as specified in the pharmacopoeias. As the final sample taken for the finished product testing is only a representative of a large batch, a significant difference still remains. The pharmacopoeias have laid down the specified limits within which the value should fall in order to be compliant as per the standards. The official pharmacopoeias in different parts of the world specify the quality requirements for pharmaceutical products. However the parameters and standards differ to some extent from each other. Hence an attempt is being made to compare and bring out the harmonized limits within which a product should fall in order to meet the pharmacopoeial specifications that satisfy quality requirements for many regions. The main aim is to study the quality control tests for capsules and liquid orals and to list down the similarities and differences as per various Pharmacopoeias. The parameters examined for capsules and liquid orals dosage forms as per the Pharmacopoeias were compared and certain similarities and differences were observed. It was noted that except for a few parameters, the quality control tests were broadly similar.

Teja CH; Balamuralidhara V; Vinay S; Sudeendra Bhat R; Pramod Kumar T M

2011-01-01

245

Environmental regulations: Impact on the United States petroleum exploration and production industry. Master's thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past 20 years environmental regulations have progressed from being nearly nonexistent to a main concern in an oil company's activities. This thesis reviews the more significant environmental regulations, focusing on how these regulations have impacted the U.S. oil and gas exploration and production industry. A brief history of each environmental Act is given. Then the current regulations, stemming from these Acts and their amendments, are reviewed. Also, a brief overview of the common wastes generated in the oil and gas exploration and production industry and the waste management practices used to deal with these wastes are discussed. Finally, the economic impacts of these regulations are reviewed.

Hardin, J.L.

1993-12-01

246

Forest productivity and commercial value of pre-law reclaimed mined land in the eastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated the effects of mining practices used prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) on forest productivity and commercial value of reclaimed forest sites. Forest productivity and value of 14 mined and 8 nonmined sites throughout the eastern and midwestern coalfield regions were compared. Forest productivity of pre-SMCRA mined sites was equal to or greater than that of nonmined forests, ranging between 3.3 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1} and 12.1 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1}. Management activities such as planting pine and valuable hardwood species increased the stumpage value of forests on reclaimed mine sites. Rotation-age stumpage values on mined study sites ranged between 3,064 ha{sup -1} US dollars and 19,528 ha{sup -1} US dollars and were commonly greater than stumpage values on nonmined reference sites. Current law requires that mined land be restored to capability levels found prior to mining. These results should provide a benchmark for reforestation success, potential forest productivity, and timber value for current reclamation activities.

Rodrigue, J.A.; Burger, J.A.; Oderwald, R.G.

2002-07-01

247

Australian energy statistics - Australian production of primary fuels by state - physical units 1960-61 to 2003-04  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. Table H Historical dataset contains both Australia's tables and state statistics on production of primary fuels. The file is in Excel.

Donaldson, K.

2005-06-15

248

Effect of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the USSR on the export of milk products from the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper exposes the problems experienced by exporters of milk products resulting essentially from the confusion of acceptable levels of radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident, the development of limits in the ensuing six months and the recommended action which should be taken internationally for the future.

Lester, T.F.

1987-08-01

249

Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2013-01-01

250

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

2012-05-01

251

Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque/ Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó la condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de (more) los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit i (more) n Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

Morales-Hernández, Lucía; Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Cháidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Rendón-Sánchez, Gilberto; V. Suslow, Trevor

2009-06-01

252

Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

2010-01-01

253

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of fungal pretreated cornstalk for hydrogen production using Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research, environmentally friendly fungal pretreatment was first adopted for deconstruction of cornstalk. Then the fungal-pretreated cornstalk was employed to produce hydrogen in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using crude enzyme from Trichoderma viride and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16. The influence of various factors including substrate concentration, initial pH, and enzyme loading on hydrogen production were evaluated. The highest hydrogen yield of 89.3ml/g-cornstalk was obtained with an initial pH 6.5, 0.75% substrate concentration, and 34FPU/g cellulose. Compared the result with SSF of physical or chemical pretreated lignocellulosic materials, this research suggested an economic and efficient way for hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:23489570

Zhao, Lei; Cao, Guang-Li; Wang, Ai-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Hong-Yu; Ren, Nan-Qi

2013-02-05

254

Influence of delignification efficiency with alkaline peroxide on the digestibility of furfural residues for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furfural residues (FR), the abundant lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production, were delignified with alkaline peroxide process and then taken as substrates for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). It was apparent that the delignification efficiency was increased with higher chemical addition and temperature, reaching the maximum removal (73.5%) of lignin. The widespread accessible-cellulose in FR favored the enzymatic hydrolysis and achieved the considerable bioconversion (75.7% with 5 FPU+10 IU/g substrate). The delignification process increased the relative glucose content and then the bioconversion efficiency, closely relating to the increased specific surface area. As the cellulose contents were higher than 60%, the final conversions conversely fell to around 75%, probably due to the insufficient utilization of all active cellulose with low enzyme cocktails addition. Although the SSF bioconversion slightly decreased as the elevated amount of fermentable cellulose, the maximum of ethanol concentration (16.9 g/L) was expectedly obtained. PMID:23934337

Wang, Kun; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Qian; Sun, Run-cang

2013-07-10

255

Influence of delignification efficiency with alkaline peroxide on the digestibility of furfural residues for bioethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Furfural residues (FR), the abundant lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production, were delignified with alkaline peroxide process and then taken as substrates for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). It was apparent that the delignification efficiency was increased with higher chemical addition and temperature, reaching the maximum removal (73.5%) of lignin. The widespread accessible-cellulose in FR favored the enzymatic hydrolysis and achieved the considerable bioconversion (75.7% with 5 FPU+10 IU/g substrate). The delignification process increased the relative glucose content and then the bioconversion efficiency, closely relating to the increased specific surface area. As the cellulose contents were higher than 60%, the final conversions conversely fell to around 75%, probably due to the insufficient utilization of all active cellulose with low enzyme cocktails addition. Although the SSF bioconversion slightly decreased as the elevated amount of fermentable cellulose, the maximum of ethanol concentration (16.9 g/L) was expectedly obtained.

Wang K; Yang H; Chen Q; Sun RC

2013-10-01

256

Competitividad internacional, productividad y costos laborales unitarios en la industria manufacturera/ International Competitiveness, Productivity and Unit Labor Costs in the Manufacturing Industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se investigan los efectos de la productividad laboral, el tipo de cambio real y otras variables, sobre la competitividad internacional (CI) manufacturera durante el período 1996-2008. Para ello, se construye un índice de competitividad internacional y se estiman dos modelos VAR generalizados. La evidencia sugiere que la productividad laboral influye más sobre la competitividad internacional que el tipo de cambio real. Así mismo, la competitividad inter (more) nacional aumenta cuando los costos laborales unitarios descienden; es decir, cuando la productividad de los trabajadores crece por encima de los salarios. En este contexto, un paquete de políticas sectoriales de estímulo a la productividad laboral fortalecería más la competitividad internacional que una depreciación cambiaria. Abstract in english This paper explores the effects of labor productivity, the actual exchange rate and other variables on the manufacturing industry's international competitiveness (IC) during a twelve-year period: 1996-2008. To this end, we construct an ic index and estimate two generalized VAR models. The empirical evidence suggests that labor productivity influences ic to a greater extent than actual exchange rate depreciation. Furthermore, manufacturing ic increases when unit labor cost (more) s decrease; that is, when labor productivity grows faster than wages. In this way, an integral package of policy measures designed to stimulate productivity of workers may be more effective in increasing manufacturing ic than actual currency depreciation.

Cuevas Ahumada, Víctor Manuel

2010-12-01

257

PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos. Abstract in english This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective. Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.

González Castillo, Joel

2012-08-01

258

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

1995-12-31

259

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

1995-01-01

260

The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good; Les Etats-Unis et la securite petroliere mondiale. Politique petroliere americaine et production d'un bien collectif global  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

Noel, P

2004-07-15

 
 
 
 
261

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC) and the units of production (UP) method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin; Aloísio Grunow; Francisco Carlos Fernandes

2007-01-01

262

The impact of COPD on quality of life, productivity loss, and resource use among the elderly United States workforce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract To address the gap in knowledge about the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on older working adults, this study examined quality of life, worker productivity, and healthcare resource utilization among employed adults aged 65 and older with and without COPD. Among 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (a cross-sectional, internet-based survey representative of the US adult population) respondents, employed adults aged 65 years and older, with COPD (n = 297) and without COPD (n = 3061), were included in analyses. Impact of self-reported COPD diagnosis on mean quality of life (using health utilities and mental, MCS, and physical, PCS, component summary scores from SF-12v2), work productivity and activity impairment (using the WPAI questionnaire), and resource use were examined. Adjusting for demographic and health characteristics such as co-morbidities (weighted to project to the US population) in regression models (linear, negative binomial, or logistic, as appropriate given the outcome measure), older workers with COPD reported significantly lower MCS (52.1 vs. 53.4, p < .05), PCS (40.3 vs. 47.2, p < .05), and health utilities (0.72 vs. 0.79, p < .05) than those without COPD, and significantly greater percentages of impairment while at work (presenteeism) (12.6% vs. 8.7%, p < .0001), overall work impairment (absenteeism and presenteeism combined) (19.3% vs. 10.0%, p < .05), and impairment in daily activities (23.9% vs. 13.7%, p < .05). There were no significant differences in absenteeism or healthcare use. Quality of life and work productivity suffered among employed adults aged 65 years and older with COPD, emphasizing the need for disease management in this population.

DiBonaventura Md; Paulose-Ram R; Su J; McDonald M; Zou KH; Wagner JS; Shah H

2012-02-01

263

Survey of methods used to detect bacterial contamination of platelet products in the United States in 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Testing of platelets (PLTs) for bacterial contamination is required by the AABB Standards but is not fully standardized. On January 31, 2011, a new AABB Standard, 5.1.5.1.1, specified that bacterial detection methods for PLT components shall use assays either approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated to provide sensitivity equivalent to these FDA-approved methods. METHODS: An Internet-based survey of AABB member institutions was conducted from May to June 2012, to document current practices used in 2011 for bacterial detection in different PLT products and to assess the impact of the new standard. RESULTS: Of 1053 AABB member institutions surveyed, 40 of 99 blood centers (40.4%) and 184 of 954 hospital blood banks or transfusion services (19.3%) responded. Sixty-four respondents manufactured PLTs. Apheresis PLTs (APs) were predominantly screened with the BacT/ALERT system (89.5%); the majority (95.2%) were cultured with at least 8?mL of product. There was substantial variation in the minimum incubation time of cultures before release of PLTs (range, 0 to >24?hr). Recalls of released AP for possible bacterial contamination were largely successful (67.3%); successful interdiction before transfusion was associated with incubation for more than 12 hours before release (p?production of whole blood-derived PLT concentrates (WBPCs). Point-of-issue ("rapid") immunoassays were used to screen a substantial proportion of WBPC PLTs, but were rarely used as secondary tests for previously cultured APs. CONCLUSION: The survey identified variability in culture methods and release times with AP, while use of WBPC decreased after AABB Standard 5.1.5.1.1 became effective.

Brecher ME; Jacobs MR; Katz LM; Jacobson J; Riposo J; Carr-Greer A; Kleinman S

2013-04-01

264

Analysis of amount, expenditures and indications of drug and blood product prescriptions at surgical intensive care units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of indication-related drug prescription patterns is of particular interest with regard to rising costs of the health service being also reflected in higher expenditures for drugs at the University Hospital of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. This is especially important at ICU's, since treatments in patients with acute or chronic multiorgan failure are very expensive. Over a period of 4 months in 1994 the indication-related drug consumption of 2 surgical ICU's of the University of Jena has been recorded and analyzed using a notebook-PC. The total costs of these drugs and blood products, which caused 80% of total costs in the last year, came up to 1,144,773 DM for 465 patients. Nearly two thirds of the recorded expenditures were caused in patients with severe trauma or with acute bleeding. The 10 leading substances (antithrombin III, human albumin 20%, prothrombine complex, etc.) represent 67% of total costs including blood products, antibiotics/antimycotics and IgM enriched intravenous immunoglobulines. Therefore, the indications of these drugs in particular have been further investigated. During and after the study the results have been discussed with the treating medical staff leading to new therapy recommendations. Until the end of 1994 a remarkable cost saving could already be achieved for some drugs by more critical and purposeful use providing same high standard of medical treatment. Blood products have to be included into analyses of indication-related drug administration on the meaning of high costs, difficulties of accurate indication, and possibly undesired side-effects. However, medical and ethical aspects, e.g. minimizing of side-effects, have to take priority over pharmacoeconomical considerations especially in intensive care medicine.

Tepper J; Schäfer R; Hoffmann A

1995-12-01

265

Energy balance of on-farm production and extraction of vegetable oil for fuel in the United States inland northwest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper (1) presents a comprehensive method for calculating the energy required to produce vegetable oil fuels on the farm and (2) determines the balance between energy inputs and outputs per area for vegetable oil produced from sunflower, safflower, and winter rape. The energy required for on-farm extraction of vegetable oils was estimated and the energy inputs apportioned between the oil and meal co-products, based on University of Idaho analysis of expeller-extracted materials. All three oilseeds yielded positive energy balances. (Refs. 16).

McIntosh, C.; Smith, S.M.; Withers, R.V.

1984-10-01

266

Research into the development of prototype units for the production of biogas methane from farm wastes and energy crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initial proposals for the research contract ETSU-B1118 included the investigation of the digestion of pig waste and crop materials, by establishing a research station and installing four different types of reactor. The anaerobic digesters selected for study were to include a Plugflow Digester, a Contact Digester, an Anaerobic Filter and a novel design, an Hydraulic Digester. It was hoped to determine the technical feasibility of digesting crop materials and pig waste for the production of energy. Using the data generated, a preliminary economic study was proposed.

Etheridge, S.P.; Stafford, D.A.

1986-01-01

267

Comparison of process configurations for ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with and without ?-glucosidase expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

?-Glucosidase was shown to have synergistic effects with commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, especially at the dose of 5 U/g biomass and 5 or 10 FPU/g biomass. An integrating yeast strain 45# expressing ?-glucosidase was constructed that utilized cellobiose quickly and efficiently. Process configurations were compared under conditions of 10% solid content, 10 FPU cellulase/g biomass, 5 U ?-glucosidase/g biomass (only used for parental strain W303-1A), 1g/kg yeast loading and 3.3g/kg urea supplementation. While separate hydrolysis and fermentation was optimal for W303-1A and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.22 g/100g and 75.6% (expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield), respectively, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was optimal for strain 45# and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.31 g/100g and 77.7%, respectively. These results are valuable in optimization of the process configuration and improving the yeast strain selected for cellulosic ethanol production.

Wang G; Liu C; Hong J; Ma Y; Zhang K; Huang X; Zou S; Zhang M

2013-08-01

268

Study of cracking FCC naphtha in a secondary riser of the FCC unit for maximum propylene production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To satisfy the increasing propylene demand, reprocessing FCC naphtha in a secondary riser of the FCC unit was investigated. To this aim, a full range FCC naphtha was cracked over a mixture of two kinds of commercial equilibrium FCC catalysts, which contained 95 t.% Y zeolite-based catalyst and 5 wt.% ZSM-5 zeolite-based additive. The effects of operating parameters such as reaction temperature (temperature of the riser outlet), catalyst-to-oil ratio and residence time on FCC naphtha cracking were studied in a continuous pilot plant. This work demonstrates that FCC naphtha requires high operating severities to crack, and approximately 12-19 wt.% FCC naphtha can be transformed into propylene. The conversion and yield of propylene showed a rapid increase with increasing reaction temperature, and the increase of catalyst-to-oil ratio also enhanced FCC naphtha cracking, even at high reaction temperature. However, at high catalyst-to-oil reactions, hydrogen-transfer reactions constrain further increases in light olefin yields. At these high operating severities, shortening residence time is an appropriate way to obtain high yields of propylene combined with (i) lower yields of dry gas and (ii) a lower apparent hydrogen-transfer coefficient. (author)

Wang, Gang; Xu, Chunming; Gao, Jinsen [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China)

2008-09-15

269

Unit cell of solid electrolyte fuel cell and its production method; Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchiyo seru oyobi sono seizo hoho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flat type solid electrolyte fuel cell has such shortcoming that making thin the solid electrolyte plate for reducing the inner resistivity of the solid electrolyte made of stabilized zirconia sintered body brings about a poor mechanical strength and the difficulty in sealing for separating it from the fuel gas passage. This invention solves the problem. A laminate is made by laminating several kinds of porous ceramics which is different each other in thermal property to be fixed monolithically as the reinforcement to both side of the solid electrolyte plate to enable the air or fuel gas to be supplied to the fuel cell to pass through. The ceramic layer is made by mixing alumina component and stabilized zirconia component. They are laminated to form a ceramic layer in which the thermal property and porosity are different from part to part. Resultingly, making thin the solid electrolyte plate does not cause the decrease in mechanical strength. The unit cell of solid electrolyte fuel cell with an excellent sealing property of fuel passage can be produced. 4 figs.

Kobayashi, S.; Saito, M

1994-08-12

270

Unit cell production method of solid electrolyte fuel cell; Kotai denkaishitsugata nenryo denchi no tan denchi seizoho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the invention, the unit cell of solid electrolyte fuel cell is produced in the following way: The slurry of solid electrolyte membrane material is mixed with the porous material particles on which the electrode material and current collector material are coated. The mixture is formed into sheet, and then the green sheet is dried and sintered. In this way, two parts are produced at the same time, i.e., dense part of solid electrolyte membrane, and a porous part of electrode membrane having a current collection function laminated on the above-said dense part. And then, the electrode membrane is formed on the other side of the dense part. In this way, the porosity-producing materials coated with electrode material and the current collector material appear to the surface because of their smaller specific gravity to give a porous surface on the green body, while forming a slurry layer consisting of solid electrolyte membrane material underneath the porous surface. Burning the green body gives a porous and electro-conductive electrode membrane containing both electrode material and current collector material. In addition, its backside is a dense solid electrolyte membrane consisting solely of the solid electrolyte membrane material. 3 figs.

Nishimura, N.; Makino, T.

1995-08-04

271

Molecular identification and mycotoxin production of Lilium longiflorum-associated fusaria isolated from two geographic locations in the United States  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fusarium diseases of Liliaceae crops cause significant losses worldwide. Yet some Fusarium species are found in planta without causing disease or even in a symbiotic relationship with its host. In this study we identified and characterized the Fusarium species isolated from soil, and from healthy and diseased bulbs of Lilium longiflorum grown in New Jersey and Oregon in the United States. The predominant Fusarium species from the Oregon location were F. solani (74%) and F. oxysporum (20%), whereas F. concentricum (43%) and F. proliferatum (26%), both belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC), were the most commonly isolated species from New Jersey. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. concentricum associated with Liliaceae. All of the isolates were characterized with sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The 24 GFSC isolates were further characterized with mating type, mating population, and mycotoxin analysis. Results showed that all GFSC isolates were MAT-2, suggesting that the populations may be asexually reproducing in the region examined. The majority of the GFSC isolates produced beauvericin. Enniatin A, B, B1 and fusaproliferin were produced by a few isolates. Enniatin A1 and fumonisins were not detected in any of the isolates. Although F. oxysporum and F. solani are well-known bulb pathogens, many isolates of F. oxysporum and F. solani, and all of the F. concentricum and F. proliferatum were isolated from asymptomatic bulbs, suggesting their endophytic association with lilies.

Rajmohan N; Gianfagna TJ; Meca G; Moretti A; Zhang N

2011-12-01

272

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to gain access to this market it is important to understand the distribution system used for fresh produce in the United States.Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cad

Francis X Mangan; Raquel U de Mendonça; Maria Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio Nunes; Fernando L Finger; Zoraia de Jesus Barros; Hilton Galvão; Gustavo C Almeida; Rachel AN Silva; Molly D Anderson

2008-01-01

273

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

Laura Del Coco; Francesco Paolo Schena; Francesco Paolo Fanizzi

2012-01-01

274

Trends in the use of topical over the counter products in the management of dermatologic disease in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Over the counter (OTC) products play an important role in treating and preventing disease in the U.S. Topical OTCs are widely used but use in dermatology is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To characterize topical OTC use in the U.S. METHODS: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was queried for physician visits in which topical OTCs were recorded. Physician specialty, patient demographics, and diagnoses were examined and linear regressions were performed to determine trends over time. RESULTS: From 1989 to 2008, there were an estimated 320 million visits documenting topical OTC recommendations; the majority of which were visits to a dermatologist (33.5%). Dermatologists most commonly recommended hydrocortisone (16.9%), benzoyl peroxide (13.3%), and sunscreen (7.4%). Dermatologists were more likely than other providers to use moisturizers in the treatment of dermatologic disease. Overall, topical OTC recommendations by all physicians has decreased over time (p < 0.0001). However, dermatologists' recommendations for moisturizers and sunscreens has increased significantly. CONCLUSION: Topical OTC products have an important role in the prevention and treatment of dermatologic disease. Topical OTC recommendations are decreasing over time whereas their use as complementary components (sunscreen/moisturizers) appears to be increasing. Increased awareness of the utility of these agents may help to improve patient outcomes.

Nolan BV; Levender MM; Davis SA; Feneran AN; Fleischer AB Jr; Feldman SR

2012-02-01

275

Economic and environmental transportation effects of large-scale ethanol production and distribution in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combination of current and planned 2007 U.S. ethanol production capacity is 50 billion L/yr, one-third of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) target of 136 billion L of biofuels by 2022. In this study, we evaluate transportation impacts and infrastructure requirements for the use of E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) in light-duty vehicles using a combination of corn and cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol distribution is modeled using a linear optimization model. Estimated average delivered ethanol costs, in 2005 dollars, range from $0.29 to $0.62 per liter ($1.3-2.8 per gallon), depending on transportation distance and mode. Emissions from ethanol transport estimated in this work are up to 2 times those in previous ethanol LCA studies and thus lead to larger total life cycle effects. Long-distance transport of ethanol to the end user can negate ethanol's potential economic and environmental benefits relative to gasoline. To reduce costs, we recommend regional concentration of E85 blends for future ethanol production and use.

Wakeley HL; Hendrickson CT; Griffin WM; Matthews HS

2009-04-01

276

Disinfection aboard cruise liners and naval units: formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine dioxide in different qualities of drinking water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The world-wide deployment of cruise liners and naval units has caused an increased need for the disinfection of drinking water. The main cause for this is the unknown quality of drinking water in foreign harbours--besides the formation of bio-films due to the climatically disadvantageous conditions in the operational area. Water conduits on board are currently disinfected with calcium hypochlorite in case of microbiological contamination. Chemical and physical analyses after disinfection with calcium hypochlorite have shown that organic by-products consisting of trihalomethanes develop in considerable amounts during disinfection. Furthermore, the method is susceptible to handling errors and thus often leads to insufficient disinfection results. Hitherto, the use of other disinfection methods allowed by government regulations, especially chlorine dioxide, is not widely spread. Unlike disinfection with calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes. Typical disinfection by-products (DBP) are the anions chlorite and chlorate, which are formed in oxidative processes. The formation conditions of these anions have not yet been elucidated. For this reason, the probability of the generation of inorganic by-products after disinfection with chlorine dioxide has been determined, and their occurrence in drinking water on board has been examined with respect to a possible correlation between water quality and the formation of chlorate and chlorite. Therefore, a chromatographic method was developed and validated in order to determine the periodical development of chlorate and chlorite from chorine dioxide in purified water at different pH-values as well as in actual drinking water samples from water conduits on board. The formation of the by-products chlorite and chlorate after disinfection with chlorine dioxide is influenced neither by pH-value nor by chemical properties of the disinfected water. Considering the examined conditions, chlorine dioxide is suitable for usage on board due to its simple handling and the low potential of producing by-products.

Ufermann P; Petersen H; Exner M

2011-12-01

277

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Using survey data from the US consumers this study finds that mandatory labeling for hormone (bST) induced milk would increase the economic benefit to the society raising the consumer and producer surpluses and provides the right to choose in the hands of the consumers. 

Kalyan (Kal) Chakraborty

2011-01-01

278

The ASTER Data System: An Overview of the Data Products in Japan and in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data system is a cooperative system, which is operated jointly by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) through its Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC), and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) primarily through its Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). ASTER is a moderate-resolution land remote sensing system onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft. ASTER-acquired data are received at the White Sands, New Mexico, ground receiving station, and then transmitted via land network to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) within the Goddard DAAC, located at the GSFC. EDOS pre-processes raw ASTER data to Level-0 (L0) data, and sends them via the high-speed Asia-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN) to the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) in Japan. ASTER GDS processes the L0 data to level-1 (L1) datasets; they distribute these data to users, and also use them to generate higher-level products for their user community. ASTER GDS sends a copy of all L1A data they produce to NASA's LP DAAC, located at the U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. All L1 data received from Japan are ingested, archived, and available for users at LP DAAC. The LP DAAC also generates and distributes higher-level products from L1 data based on requests from users. To meet time-critical needs related to sensor health and performance, natural disasters, national emergencies, and certain field campaigns, the ASTER Expedited Data System (EDS) was developed, and is operated jointly by U.S. and Japanese partners.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Bailey, Bryan; Duda, Kenneth; Kannari, Yoshiaki; Miura, Akira; Ramachandran, Bhaskar

279

Guideline on the selection and use of therapeutic products to treat haemophilia and other hereditary bleeding disorders. A United Kingdom Haemophilia Center Doctors' Organisation (UKHCDO) guideline approved by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence-based guidelines are presented on the selection and use of therapeutic products to treat haemophilia and other hereditary bleeding disorders. They include details of therapeutic products available in the UK and they update and replace previous United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors' Organisation guidelines. PMID:18422612

Keeling, D; Tait, C; Makris, M

2008-04-04

280

Guideline on the selection and use of therapeutic products to treat haemophilia and other hereditary bleeding disorders. A United Kingdom Haemophilia Center Doctors' Organisation (UKHCDO) guideline approved by the British Committee for Standards in Haematology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence-based guidelines are presented on the selection and use of therapeutic products to treat haemophilia and other hereditary bleeding disorders. They include details of therapeutic products available in the UK and they update and replace previous United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors' Organisation guidelines.

Keeling D; Tait C; Makris M

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

The use of a gas producing unit for electricity production; Fonctionnement d'un gazogene en Brabant wallon pour la production d'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the need to develop various renewable energy sources facing the challenge of the global change, and to promote agricultural alternatives facing the critical situation of the classical food productions, the Walloon Region and Electrabel decided in 1995 to implement a 4-year pilot project to generate decentralized peak electricity from cultivated ligneous biomass. Short rotation coppice is presently cultivated, harvested and prepared by a farmer to feed the pilot plant, now installed and operated in situ after set up and performances analysis in lab facilities. The chosen technology combines a down-draft fixed bed gasifier with an turbo diesel-gas internal combustion engine. The gas has a typical LHV of 5200 kJ /m{sup 3} and a tar and dust particles content kept under 1 mg/m{sup 3} after hot cyclone de-dusting, wet scrubbing and final packed bed filtration. The plant is completely remote controlled and starts/stops on demand, without any human intervention. After 10 to 12 minutes from starting signal in cold conditions, 150 kW is delivered on the grid. The steady state consumption is about 9 kg fuel-oil/h and 90 kg/h oven-dry wood, corresponding to 25 % overall efficiency. (authors)

Bourgois, F.; Martin, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2003-06-01

282

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

1994-01-01

283

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

NONE

1995-05-01

284

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

1994-09-01

285

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

1995-01-01

286

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States/ Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos s (more) eis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to eval (more) uate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States i

Mangan, Francis X; Mendonça, Raquel U de; Moreira, Maria; Nunes, Samanta del Vecchio; Finger, Fernando L; Barros, Zoraia de Jesus; Galvão, Hilton; Almeida, Gustavo C; Silva, Rachel AN; Anderson, Molly D

2008-03-01

287

A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

2010-03-01

288

Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

2008-01-01

289

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01

290

Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

2006-01-01

291

Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz/ International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo medi (more) ante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information wa (more) s obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

Hernández-Solabac, José A. Melquíades; Nava-Tablada, Martha E.; Díaz-Cárdenas, Salvador; Pérez-Portilla, Emiliano; Escamilla-Prado, Esteban

2011-12-01

292

Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

2009-12-15

293

Antibiotic resistance and production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases amongst Klebsiella spp. from intensive care units in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consecutive klebsiellae were collected from ICU patients at 35 centres in Western and Southern Europe. Of 966 isolates obtained, 716 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 248 were Klebsiella oxytoca and two were Klebsiella ozaenae. Most were from Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey and a few from Greece and the UK. Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was inferred in 220 isolates on the basis of synergy between ceftazidime and clavulanate. Putative ESBL producers were received from 23 centres, including 20 of the 27 that contributed more than 10 klebsiellae. Over 88% of putative ESBL producers were resistant to ceftazidime 2 mg/L, ceftriaxone 1 mg/L and aztreonam 1 mg/L, whereas, amongst ESBL-negative isolates, more than 98% of K. pneumoniae and 87% of K. oxytoca were susceptible to these concentrations. Putative ESBL producers wre also more resistant to cefuroxime and cefoxitin than non-producers, but not to biapenem. MIC distributions of ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and aminoglycosides were bimodal for ESBL producers, with some isolates highly sensitive and others very resistant. For example, 70% of putative ESBL producers were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam 16 + 4 mg/L, but 30% were resistant, some highly so. Resistance to this combination, and to ciprofloxacin, was clustered in certain centres. Two other groups of cephalosporin-resistant isolates were identified besides ESBL producers, viz. (i) nine isolates, from three centres, with AmpC beta-lactamases and (ii) 20 K. oxytoca, from 15 centres, that hyperproduced K1 enzyme. Examination of the hospitals' own susceptibility data indicated that up to 33% of putative ESBL producers had been reported susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins or monobactams. This is disturbing, since ESBLs have been associated with clinical failure even when only low-level resistance was apparent in vitro. PMID:8889716

Livermore, D M; Yuan, M

1996-09-01

294

A GIS cost model to assess the availability of freshwater, seawater, and saline groundwater for algal biofuel production in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a partial techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply (constrained to less than 5% of mean annual flow per watershed) and costs, and cost-distance models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that, combined, these resources can support 9.46 × 10(7) m(3) yr(-1) (25 billion gallons yr(-1)) of renewable biodiesel production in the coterminous United States. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Despite the addition of freshwater supply constraints and saline water resources, the geographic conclusions are similar to our previous results. Freshwater availability and saline water delivery costs are most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate. As a whole, the barren and scrub lands of the southwestern U.S. have limited freshwater supplies, and large net evaporation rates greatly increase the cost of saline alternatives due to the added makeup water required to maintain pond salinity. However, this and similar analyses are particularly sensitive to knowledge gaps in algae growth/lipid production performance and the proportion of freshwater resources available, key topics for future investigation.

Venteris ER; Skaggs RL; Coleman AM; Wigmosta MS

2013-05-01

295

Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge). Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg). Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red).The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg).

Dahhou M.; El Moussaouiti M.; Khachani N.; Assafi M.; Ait Hsain L.; Mostahsine S.; Bouqallaba K.

2012-01-01

296

Injury to apical meristem of cranberry by Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) reduces production of floral-units in the next growing season.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (a gall-making fly), disrupts normal growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) by injuring the apical meristem of shoots or uprights. The impact of larval feeding injury on reproductive parameters of cranberry was determined, from one growing season to next, at upright (Maine and Massachusetts, 2008-2009) and plot levels (Massachusetts, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011). We also estimated the proportions of uprights injured because of tipworm feeding at several cranberry production sites (Massachusetts and Maine) and the proportions of uprights that produced flowers and fruits in the next growing season. Tipworm-injured uprights tagged at the end of the growing season did not produce floral-units (following year) across sites in both Massachusetts and Maine. There was significant variation among the sampled sites in the proportions of tipworm-injured uprights and also in the proportions of uprights with flowers in the next growing season (Massachusetts and Maine). A trend was apparent wherein sites with higher tipworm injury levels had relatively lower flowering proportions in the next growing season. However, sites in Massachusetts did not differ in the proportions of uprights that set fruit and in a replicated study, significant reduction in tipworm injury at plot level (using insecticide) did not impact flower and fruit production in the next growing season. PMID:22928318

Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

2012-08-01

297

Injury to apical meristem of cranberry by Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) reduces production of floral-units in the next growing season.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (a gall-making fly), disrupts normal growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) by injuring the apical meristem of shoots or uprights. The impact of larval feeding injury on reproductive parameters of cranberry was determined, from one growing season to next, at upright (Maine and Massachusetts, 2008-2009) and plot levels (Massachusetts, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011). We also estimated the proportions of uprights injured because of tipworm feeding at several cranberry production sites (Massachusetts and Maine) and the proportions of uprights that produced flowers and fruits in the next growing season. Tipworm-injured uprights tagged at the end of the growing season did not produce floral-units (following year) across sites in both Massachusetts and Maine. There was significant variation among the sampled sites in the proportions of tipworm-injured uprights and also in the proportions of uprights with flowers in the next growing season (Massachusetts and Maine). A trend was apparent wherein sites with higher tipworm injury levels had relatively lower flowering proportions in the next growing season. However, sites in Massachusetts did not differ in the proportions of uprights that set fruit and in a replicated study, significant reduction in tipworm injury at plot level (using insecticide) did not impact flower and fruit production in the next growing season.

Tewari S; Buonaccorsi JP; Averill AL

2012-08-01

298

Trends in the structure, productivity, effectiveness and unit costs of the Hospital and Community Health Services workforce in England: 1979-1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper it is shown that there have been significant structural changes in the composition of the Hospital and Community Health Services (HCHS) workforce over the 1980s. The number of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals has grown at the expense of support staff such as ancillaries and maintenance workers. The number of agency and contract staff has risen rapidly, partly offsetting the loss of directly-employed support staff. Changes in the workforce have been compared with changes in activity, as measured by the cost-weighted activity index. According to this measure labour productivity has grown by a compound rate of 1.9% annually. Adjusting the labour force index for the wage bill of each group reveals productivity growth of 1.5%. The effectiveness of treatment, as proxied by the decline in avoidable perinatal mortality, has grown by 3.4% annually. Unit labour costs have fallen over the period at an average annual rate of 0.3%. The trend conceals wide fluctuations, with labour costs falling slowly during the first half of the decade, and rising strongly during the second half. Medical professionals benefited disproportionately from wage increases in comparison with other HCHS groups during the mid to late 1980s. PMID:8269049

Cutler, P

1993-04-01

299

Trends in the structure, productivity, effectiveness and unit costs of the Hospital and Community Health Services workforce in England: 1979-1991.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper it is shown that there have been significant structural changes in the composition of the Hospital and Community Health Services (HCHS) workforce over the 1980s. The number of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals has grown at the expense of support staff such as ancillaries and maintenance workers. The number of agency and contract staff has risen rapidly, partly offsetting the loss of directly-employed support staff. Changes in the workforce have been compared with changes in activity, as measured by the cost-weighted activity index. According to this measure labour productivity has grown by a compound rate of 1.9% annually. Adjusting the labour force index for the wage bill of each group reveals productivity growth of 1.5%. The effectiveness of treatment, as proxied by the decline in avoidable perinatal mortality, has grown by 3.4% annually. Unit labour costs have fallen over the period at an average annual rate of 0.3%. The trend conceals wide fluctuations, with labour costs falling slowly during the first half of the decade, and rising strongly during the second half. Medical professionals benefited disproportionately from wage increases in comparison with other HCHS groups during the mid to late 1980s.

Cutler P

1993-04-01

300

National surveillance for radiological exposures and intentional potassium iodide and iodine product ingestions in the United States associated with the 2011 Japan radiological incident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In March of 2011, an earthquake struck Japan causing a tsunami that resulted in a radiological release from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Surveillance for potential radiological and any iodine/iodide product exposures was initiated on the National Poison Data System (NPDS) to target public health messaging needs within the United States (US). Our objectives are to describe self-reported exposures to radiation, potassium iodide (KI) and other iodine/iodide products which occurred during the US federal response and discuss its public health impact. METHODS: All calls to poison centers associated with the Japan incident were identified from March 11, 2011 to April 18, 2011 in NPDS. Exposure, demographic and health outcome information were collected. Calls about reported radiation exposures and KI or other iodine/iodide product ingestions were then categorized with regard to exposure likelihood based on follow-up information obtained from the PC where each call originated. Reported exposures were subsequently classified as probable exposures (high likelihood of exposure), probable non-exposures (low likelihood of exposure), and suspect exposure (unknown likelihood of exposure). RESULTS: We identified 400 calls to PCs associated with the incident, with 340 information requests (no exposure reported) and 60 reported exposures. The majority (n = 194; 57%) of the information requests mentioned one or more substances. Radiation was inquired about most frequently (n = 88; 45%), followed by KI (n = 86; 44%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 47; 24%). Of the 60 reported exposures, KI was reported most frequently (n = 25; 42%), followed by radiation (n = 22; 37%) and other iodine/iodide products (n = 13; 22%). Among reported KI exposures, most were classified as probable exposures (n = 24; 96%); one was a probable non-exposure. Among reported other iodine/iodide product exposures, most were probable exposures (n = 10, 77%) and the rest were suspect exposures (n = 3; 23%). The reported radiation exposures were classified as suspect exposures (n = 16, 73%) or probable non-exposures (n = 6; 27%). No radiation exposures were classified as probable exposures. A small number of the probable exposures to KI and other iodide/iodine products reported adverse signs or symptoms (n = 9; 26%). The majority of probable exposures had no adverse outcomes (n = 28; 82%). These data identified a potential public health information gap regarding KI and other iodine/iodide products which was then addressed through public health messaging activities. CONCLUSION: During the Japan incident response, surveillance activities using NPDS identified KI and other iodine/iodide products as potential public health concerns within the US, which guided CDC's public health messaging and communication activities. Regional PCs can provide timely and additional information during a public health emergency to enhance data collected from surveillance activities, which in turn can be used to inform public health decision-making.

Law RK; Schier JG; Martin CA; Olivares DE; Thomas RG; Bronstein AC; Chang AS

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

2009-01-01

302

Scholarly productivity of united states academic cardiothoracic anesthesiologists: influence of fellowship accreditation and transesophageal echocardiographic credentials on h-index and other citation bibliometrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The h-index allows the evaluation of scholarly output in academics, but this bibliometric statistic has not been applied extensively to measure productivity in anesthesiology. The authors tested the hypothesis that the h-index is dependent on academic rank, American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation of the training program, and National Board of Echocardiography credentials in perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in United States academic cardiothoracic anesthesiologists. DESIGN: Observational. SETTING: Internet analysis. PARTICIPANTS: United States academic cardiothoracic anesthesiologists. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Faculty members from 30 randomly selected fellowship programs with or without accreditation were identified using the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists web site. The status of each faculty member's credentials in perioperative TEE was defined using the "verify certification" function on the National Board of Echocardiography web site. Publications, citations, citations/publication, and the h-index for each faculty member were obtained using Scopus. Two hundred fifty-nine cardiothoracic anesthesiologists (204 men and 55 women) were identified (8 instructors [3%], 123 assistant professors [48%], 56 associate professors [22%], 63 professors [24%], and 9 chairpersons [3%]). The average cardiothoracic anesthesiologist had an h-index of 6 ± 7 with 28 ± 46 publications, 499 ± 988 total citations, and 13 ± 18 citations per publication. The h-index increased significantly (p < 0.05) among ranks (instructors [1 ± 1], assistant professors [3 ± 3], associate professors [7 ± 5], professors [12 ± 8], and chairpersons [18 ± 13]). Significant differences in the number of publications and total citations also were observed among ranks. Differences in the h-index among ranks were observed regardless of program accreditation status or transesophageal echocardiographic credentials. Faculty members working in American College of Graduate Medical Education-accredited programs had more publications and citations and higher h-indices than their counterparts in programs that were not accredited. Except for program directors, the scholarly output of academic cardiothoracic anesthesiologists with or without transesophageal echocardiographic credentials was similar within each academic rank. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the h-index increases progressively with academic rank and is dependent on fellowship program accreditation status but not transesophageal echocardiographic credentials in United States academic cardiothoracic anesthesiologists.

Pagel PS; Hudetz JA

2011-10-01

303

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part I: Composition and hydration of the clinkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, low SO3 and P2m', high SO3). The chemical composition of the clinkers was determined by X-ray fluorescence, ICP analysis, titration (free lime) and ion selective electrode measurements (F). Observed clinker parameters (LSF, SR, AR, R, wt.% MgO, F, SO3, free lime): P1 (0.96, 2.72, 1.27, 1.04, 0.78, 0.06, 0.64, 0.71); P1m (1.03, 2.21, 1.58, 2.18, 0.87, 0.23, 1.95, 0.69); P2 (1.00, 2.66, 1.72, 0.75, 4.06, 0.20, 1.38, 1.51); P2m (1.01, 2.91, 1.96, 0.90, 3.21, 0.39, 1.72, 2.06); P2m' (0.97, 2.70, 1.84, 1.15, 3.86, 0.42, 2.48, 0.89). The qualitative and quantitative phase compositions were characterised using X-ray powder diffraction, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping, plus optical reflection microscopy. Phases observed in all clinkers were: alite, ?-belite, cubic aluminate, ferrite and free lime. Additional phases observed were: aphthitalite (P1, P2, P2m, P2m'), calcium langbeinite (P1m) and periclase (P2, P2m, P2m'). The clinker composition and texture differ more between the two plants, than between ordinary and mineralised clinker from the same production unit. Laboratory cements were prepared by mixing ground clinker with CaSO4·2H2O. The cements were hydrated in an isothermal calorimeter at 20 deg. C (water/cement weight ratio=0.5) during 33 h. After 12 h, the laboratory cement based on P1m reached a higher level of reaction than the one based on P1. The P2m and P2m' laboratory cements had a slower reaction than the P2 cement

2003-01-01

304

Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from 'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

NONE

2005-03-15

305

Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

2006-11-01

306

Recent innovations in design of mooring systems for floating production and drilling units; Recentes inovacoes no projeto de sistemas de ancoragem para unidades de producao e perfuracao flutuantes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the recent technological innovations adopted in the design of mooring systems for floating platforms. Three points that represent new frontiers in deep water mooring will be focused: In the first point the innovative concept of taut-leg mooring will be shown. In the second point the application of poliester ropes in the mooring of floating platforms will be described, stressing the characteristics of this kind of rope that are fundamental to make feasible the concept of taut-leg mooring. In the third point the utilization of vertically loaded anhors (VLA's) for fixation of mooring lines to the marine bed will be explored. The VLA development program with two manufacturer will be detailed, including prototype and full scale tests done at Campos Basin. The characteristics of some platforms installed in Campos Basin using the above technologies will be shown, stressing the benefits of taut-leg mooring and including comparisons with conventional mooring. The installation of PETROBRAS-27 (first production unit installed with VLA's) will be detailed, to point the advantages and disadvantages of using Vertical Loaded Anhors compared to more conventional fixation points (piles). In the recent years, we have seen a movement of oil industry towards fields located in deeper and deeper waters. The utilization of the described technologies drives a big impulse to the technical and economical viabilization of deep water projects. (author)

Castro, Gustavo A.V.; Henriques, Carlos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1998-07-01

307

Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

2009-07-01

308

LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

Adams, Wade C.

2012-01-24

309

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

310

Efficient production of bioethanol from corn stover by pretreatment with a combination of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corn stover is the most abundant agricultural residue in China and a valuable reservoir for bioethanol production. In this study, we proposed a process for producing bioethanol from corn stover; the pretreatment prior to presaccharification, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by using a flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, was optimized. Pretreatment with acid-alkali combination (1% H2SO4, 150 °C, 10 min, followed by 1% NaOH, 80°C, 60 min) resulted in efficient lignin removal and excellent recovery of xylose and glucose. A glucose recovery efficiency of 92.3% was obtained by enzymatic saccharification, when the pretreated solid load was 15%. SSF was carried out at 35 °C for 36 hr after presaccharification at 50 °C for 24 hr, and an ethanol yield of 88.2% was achieved at a solid load of 15% and an enzyme dosage of 15 FPU/g pretreated corn stover.

Tan L; Tang YQ; Nishimura H; Takei S; Morimura S; Kida K

2013-01-01

311

Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from 429 litters reared in 36 batches at six Danish multi-site farms chronically infected with the agents. At the farms, weaning age was 3-4.5 weeks, after which batches of pigs were reared using all-in/all-out management by room. Blood samples were collected shortly before: weaning, transfer from weaning-site to finishing-site, and sending the first pigs in the batch for slaughter (third sampling). Few pigs seroconverted at the weaning-sites, whereas considerable variation in seroconversion was observed at the finishing-sites. Multilevel logistic models (initially including four levels: farm, batch, litter, pig) were used to decompose the variation in seroconversion at the finishing-site. However, there was essentially no clustering at the litter level-leading to the use of three-level models. In the case of Ap2, clustering within batch was so high that the data eventually were reduced to two levels (farm, batch). For seroconversion to Ap2, ICC between pigs within batches was similar to90%, whereas the ICC between pigs within batches for Mh was similar to40%. This indicates that the possibility for Mh to spread between pigs within batches is lower than for Ap2. The diversity in seroconversion between batches within the same farm was large for Ap2 (ICC similar to 10%), whereas there was a relative strongly ICC (similar to50%) between batches for Mh. This indicates that the transmission of Mh is more consistent within a farm, whereas the presence of Ap2 varies between batches within a farm.

Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.

2004-01-01

312

Integrated assessment of Hadley Center (HadCM2) climate-change impacts on agricultural productivity and irrigation water supply in the conterminous United States: Part II. Regional agricultural production in 2030 and 2095  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A national assessment (NA) evaluated the potential consequences of climate change and variability on the agriculture, water resources, as well as other economic and natural resource sectors in the United States. As part of this process, we used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate-change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from national records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-year periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Crops were simulated under both dryland and irrigated management, with irrigation water supply estimates taken from the HUMUS simulations in Paper 1. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the northeast. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. Regionally, dryland corn yields could increase, decrease or remain unchanged under the two scenarios. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward trends under scenarios of climate-change. Evapotranspiration in dryland corn is expected to increase in both future periods while water-use efficiency will decrease. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization. Irrigation requirement by irrigated crops declines under these scenarios as transpiration is suppressed.

Izaurralde RCésar; Rosenberg NormanJ; Brown RobertA; Thomson AllisonM

2003-06-01

313

Multimode FPGA with Flexible Embedded FPUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Performance of field-programmable gate arrays used for Floating-point applications are poor due to complexity of floating-point arithmetic. Implementing floating-point units on FPGAs consume a large amount of resources. This makes FPGAs less attractive for use in floating-point intensive applications. There is a need for embedded FPUs in FPGAs. We proposed a flexible multimode embedded FPU for FPGAs that can be configured to perform a wide range of operations. The floatingpoint adder and multiplier in embedded FPU can be configured to perform one double-precision operation or two single-precision operations in parallel. To increase flexibility, access to large integer multiplier, adder and shifters in the FPU is provided. Benchmark circuits were implemented on both a standard Xilinx Virtex-V FPGA and FPGA with embedded FPU blocks. We design modified to allow an unrounded product to be fed to the floating-point adder to minimize rounding error, like in a dedicated floatingpoint MAC unit

G.Murugaboopathi; S.Hariharasitaraman; G.Sankar

2012-01-01

314

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part II: Characteristics of the calcium silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated in order to determine the effects of mineralisation on alite and belite; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, P2m'). The polymorphism of alite was studied using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), wavelength 1.5227 A, and electron diffraction (ED) in a transmission electron microscope. The substitutions of minor elements in alite and belite were determined using electron microprobe analysis. Clinkers P1 and P1m both contained apparent rhombohedral alite (XRD) with an incommensurately modulated structure (ED), while clinkers P2, P2m, and P2m' all contained monoclinic alite (XRD). The addition of mineralisers in the process caused increased content of fluoride in alite and increased substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) and S(6+) in both calcium silicates. The latter effect was most pronounced in clinker P1m due to its high molar SO3 to alkali oxide ratio (R=2.18). The improved hydraulic activity of P1m compared to P1 was caused by substitutions rather than a change in symmetry. The decreased hydraulic activity of P2m and P2m' compared to P2 was explained by the high levels of fluorine, which had a retarding effect on the hydration

2003-01-01

315

Experience in the development and introduction of a full scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit at Mosenergo TETs-27 heat and electric power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a description of experience in the development and introduction of a full-scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit of station No. 3 at the TETs-27 heat and electric power station of JSC 'Mosenergo' based on the latest, fourth generation program package SPPA-T3000, which is being used for the first time in Russia for steam-gas units. The fundamental technical solutions for the structure of the process control system are described, along with the features of the algorithms for control of the main engineering equipment in electric power plants based on the PGU-450.

2009-01-01

316

Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná/ Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305) de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro d (more) e 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39) foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23) para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57). As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná. Abstract in english It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305) of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holsteins cows between dairy production units in the state of Paraná using the Bayesian inference. All animals were officially controlled by the Serviço de Controle Leiteiro M (more) ensal of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, between January/1992 and December/2003. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using one and multiple-trait analysis, where MY305 of each dairy production unit was considered as a different variable. Means and standard deviations for MY305 (kg) for dairy production units of Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte and Oeste, were 8,414 ± 1,825; 8,481 ± 2,010; 7,636 ± 1,594; 7,850 ± 1,795; 8,617 ± 2,050; 7,401 ± 1,809 and 7,336 ± 2,456, respectively. The highest heritability estimated was obtained for the Oeste unit (0.39) while Carambeí unit presented the lowest value (0.23). Genetic correlations were low (0.09 to 0.57) between dairy production units. Pearson and Spearman correlations were lower for the Oeste unit, when compared with other dairy production units, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.41, and from 0.37 to 0.49, respectively. These results show the presence of genotype × environment interaction between dairy production units in the state of Paraná.

Paula, Meiby Carneiro de; Martins, Elias Nunes; Silva, Luiz Otávio Campos da; Oliveira, Carlos Antonio Lopes de; Valotto, Altair Antônio; Ribas, Newton Pohl

2009-03-01

317

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

1992-09-01

318

Use of still residues of toluylenediisocyanate production to obtain new brand of isocyanate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental concerns and interest in closed cycle chemical processes have brought great attention to toluylenediisocyanate (TDI) production, which results in 16-20% tailings. In TDI distillation, phosgenization products are first concentrated by removing excess o-dichlorobenzene solvent, followed by periodic vacuum distilling. Various studies have dealt with utilization of residues from the process. The authors developed a procedure for obtaining a new type of isocyanate that can be used in producing foam polyurethane (FPU) and polyurethane compounds, based on analogous reactions with polyisocyanate based on 4,4'-diphenylmethanediisocyanate. Gas-liquid chromatography indicated that the only volatile compounds in TDI production were TDI and o-dichlorobenzene. Relatively slight (30-34%) changes in NCO-group content brought significant variations in the content of TDI, high-molecular products and hydrolyzed chlorine. The high-molecular products included reactive isocyanate and carbodiimide groups as well as urethaneimine structures that tended to reverse reaction. Regardless of removal conditions, the content of NCO groups in tailings declined in direct relation to the additive ratio calculated on the basis of NCO-group content in pure TDI and in high-molecular compounds separated from tailings by n-heptane. The nature of hydrolyzed chlorine yield is also discussed. Results showed that this procedure can totally eliminate wastes at the TDI separation stage, reduce pollution and provide supplementary quantities of low-cost isocyanate for polyurethane production. Codicine production can also be combined with TDI production.

Shoshtayeva, M.Y.; Gommen, R.A.; Bocharova, V.M.; Turetskiy, L.V.; Smirnov, S.I.; Korzhev, A.N.

1982-10-01

319

Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA), es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS), cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW), is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS), whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro; Ruiz Lang, Claudio Gustavo; Saltijeral Oaxaca, Jorge A.; Xolalpa Campos, Victor; Cortés Suárez, Saúl; Méndez Mendoza, Máximino; Huerta Crispin, Rubén; Córdova Jiménez, Mary S; Córdova Jiménez, Cristian A.; Guerra Liera, Eulogio

2009-01-01

320

Navigation Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit on Navigation begins with a brief history of navigation and maps, including building a simple compass as an introduction to the magnetic field of Earth. Division of Earth navigation units in Lat/Long and UTM are explored in detail. Topographic maps as an expression of Earth's surface are used to integrate all of the pervious topics.

Suzanne M (Suki) Smaglik

 
 
 
 
321

Solar unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar unit is described which contains paraboloid concentrators and radiation receiver. In order to expand the functional potentialities of the solar unit, it is equipped with counter reflectors, each of which is installed on a slant to the optical axis of the corresponding concentrator, while the radiation receiver is installed in the focal zone of the concentrators.

Stetsenko, V.P.; Frolov, A.A.; Meshkovskiy, V.N.; Pasichnyy, V.V.; Tishchenko, N.I.

1981-01-01

322

Improvements and simplifications of staged gasification unit for CHP production. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Forbedringer og forenklinger af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. In this subproject the Castor plant has been used to develop and test improvements to the cogeneration system at the following points: 1) Optimization of process design of the gas generator within the existing framework; 2) Establishment of a heating system to start up the gas generator; 3) Automation of switching the gas engine to operate on produced gas; 4) Simplification of the gas generator's fuel feeding system; 5) Improving the control options for the supply of gasification air. The introduced changes have led to the operation of the total gasification-cogeneration system becoming more convenient and easier to operate for non specialists. Operational testing of the plant during the project has covered approx. 2,300 hours of operation of cogeneration. It has identified the periodic maintenance tasks on the demonstration plant. Through further development of plant components that may happen in the subsequent development versions, it will be possible to eliminate some of the regular maintenance tasks and reduce the frequency of others. The optimization of the process design was completed with an experiment with the addition of extra air in the middle of the lower coke zone. Observations during the experiment gave the impression that both the amount and size of charcoal pieces are reduced. Because of the gas generator's section-wise construction, it will be relatively easy to construct and install a new subsection to it and thereby install the system permanently. It is estimated that with a proper design of any such additional process step, an almost complete conversion of the charcoal quantity to ashes will be within reach. (ln)

Houmann Jakobsen, H.

2010-08-15

323

Improvement in the water-chemical regime of boiler-recovery units in systems of steam formation of large-tonage production of ammonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is made of the water-chemical regime of boiler-recovery units with Field pipes. The boilers are supplied with a mixture of condensate and deeply desalinated water. The feed water of the boilers corresponds in quality to the standards for direct-flow boilers. Data are presented on the composition of deposits on the Field pipes consisting predominantly of ferrophosphates. The degree of contamination 170 g/m/sup 2/ in two years of operation. The conclusion is drawn that it is inexpedient to phosphatize the boiler water. The expediency is proved of using graduated plans of evaporation for increasing the reliable operation of the units.

Salashenko, I.G.

1980-01-01

324

Order of 4 august 1989 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible

325

Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave the most accurate predictions (<3%) for cellulose loss.

Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

326

Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

Orieux, A.

1990-01-19

327

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the imp...

Miguel D. Ramirez

328

Use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate–containing medical products and urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care unit infants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in medical products made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and may be toxic to humans. DEHP is lipophilic and binds non-covalently to PVC, allowing it to leach from these products. Medical devices containing DEHP are used extensi...

Green, Ronald; Calafat, Antonia M.; Schettler, Ted; Huttner, Kenneth; Hu, Howard; Hauser, Russ B.; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn

329

International differences in cost and consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink products: United Kingdom and Brazil, 2008-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper tests the hypothesis that one important factor determining household availability of ready-to-consume products is their cost relative to the rest of the diet. National food expenditure surveys in the UK (2008) and Brazil (2008-09) were used. Purchased food quantities were converted into dietary energy (calories) and classified into three groups: (1) foods that are unprocessed or minimally processed; (2) processed culinary ingredients; and (3) ready-to-consume products, either processed or ultra-processed. The contribution of these groups to diets in each country was calculated as a percentage of total energy. Relative cost of ready-to-consume products in each country was calculated by dividing their cost by the cost of the rest of the diet (foods plus culinary ingredients). Linear regression analysis was used to test the association between the UK to Brazil ratios of the caloric share of different ready-to-consume products, and of the relative cost of these products. The caloric share of ready-to-consume products in the UK (63.4%) was well over double that of Brazil (27.7%), whereas their cost relative to the rest of the diet was 43% lower. The lower the relative cost of ready-to-consume products in the UK (compared with Brazil), the higher their relative consumption (R(2)=0.38, p<0.01).

Moubarac JC; Claro RM; Baraldi LG; Levy RB; Martins AP; Cannon G; Monteiro CA

2013-08-01

330

DISPENSING CONSUMER PRODUCTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system for dispensing consumer products includes a product bin unit a product ejector a product trigger and a controller. The product bin unit includes a product bin an ejector aperture and a trigger aperture. The product ejector is coupled to the product bin unit through the ejector aperture and adapted to drive the product package from t he product bin upon receipt of a dispensing signal. The product trigger is coupled to the produc t bin unit through the trigger aperture. The controller is in communication with the product ejecto r and the product trigger and includes at least one memory and a processor. The memory stores a dispensing module. The processor is adapted to execute the dispensing module, and the dispensing module is operable when executed to receive a dispensing instruction and transmit t he dispensing signal to the product ejector based, at least in part, on the dispensing instructio n.

TEMPLER JOHN WESLEY; ALLSUP MARK

331

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevista con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios.With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structures centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E Ludovic; N Rincón; L Huerta; R Rincón

2005-01-01

332

Patient-reported depression severity measured by the PHQ-9 and impact on work productivity: results from a survey of full-time employees in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the burden of depression on work productivity. METHODS: Full-time employees with diagnosed depression were surveyed using the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, and the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire for absenteeism and presenteeism. RESULTS: Of the 1051 employees with depression, 40.3% had no depressive symptoms at the time of the survey, 30.4% had mild depression, 15.8% had moderate depression, 7.8% had moderately severe depression, and 5.8% had severe depression. All levels of depression were associated with decreased work productivity. Presenteeism was positively associated with severity of depression (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, P < 0.0001; WPAI, P < 0.0001). Absenteeism was significantly positively associated with severity of depression using the WPAI. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased overall productivity was seen at all levels of depression, and as severity increased, presenteeism and absenteeism worsened.

Jain G; Roy A; Harikrishnan V; Yu S; Dabbous O; Lawrence C

2013-03-01

333

United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

NONE

1997-04-01

334

SEEDING UNIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A seeding unit, in which a cylindrical element is made as a removable cover plate, made of a resilient material and is fixed against the longitudinal movement on one side by a flange of a hub and on another side by a holder attached to the end of the hub.

ZYRIANOV VOLODYMYR OLEKSIIOVYC; BILOTKACH MYKHAILO PETROVYCH; CHEMER YEVHEN MYKHAILOVYCH; MATUKHNO NATALIA VIKTORIVNA; FEDORENKO VOLODYMYR VALERIIOVY

335

NIPPLE UNIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a nipple unit comprising a nipple (4), a fastening device (2, 3) for fastening the nipple (4) onto a liquid container (1), and a venting valve (23, 310), wherein the fastening device has a first and a second fastening part (2, 3). The venting valve (23, 310) comprises a first valve part (23) which is arranged in the first fastening part (2), and a second valve part (310) which is arranged in the first fastening part or in the second fastening part (3). The venting valve (23, 310) opens and closes relative to the second fastening part (3). The valve is preferably a membrane valve, and the first valve part is preferably a valve membrane. Said nipple unit functions very reliably even at very low pressure differences between the bottle and the environment. Furthermore, the functional range of the different nipple units of the same type is relatively narrow so that different nipple units function very similarly and the venting valves are actuated at similar pressure differences.

PFENNIGER ERICH; RIGERT MARIO

336

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ? Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

2012-01-01

337

Feed and livestock model of the United States with an application to the possible effects on US agriculture of large-scale corn alcohol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models of the three major crops, corn ethanol production and the livestock economy are specfied and estimated. The models are simulated under various scenarios to determine the possible short-term and long-term effects on the US agriculture economy in the event the US engages in large-scale production of fermentation ethanol from corn. Such production would be the result of price incentives caused by a rapid increase in the price of crude oil. The ethanol would be used as octane booster in premium unleaded gasoline. In this analysis the author found that limiting the use of alcohol as blender to boost octane ratings of premium unleaded gasoline would have only minor effects on the crop and livestock economies of the US agricultural sector. He does feel, however, that expansion of its use into the broader gasohol market might result in a much larger impact on both the crops and livestock sectors of the US agricultural economy. He also analyzed the effects on the byproduct feed markets of the alcohol production and found that byproduct prices would probably remain sufficiently strong to make such production economically feasible.

Silver, S.J.

1983-01-01

338

Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature.

Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

339

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Updated estimates (as of year-end 1981) are presented for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also included for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth rates of energy consumption. Proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 207 trillion CF in the US and 2180-2521 TCF world-wide; the total remaining recoverable, however, could be as high as 1153 TCF in the US and 8590 TCF worldwide.

1983-01-01

340

Application of geothermal energy for heating and fresh water production in a brackish water greenhouse desalination unit. A case study from Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper was to outline a proposed a new brackish water greenhouse desalination unit powered by geothermal energy for the development of arid and relatively cold regions, using Algeria as a case study. Countries which have abundant sea/brackish water resources and good geothermal conditions are ideal candidates for producing fresh water from sea/brackish water. The establishment of human habitats in these arid areas strongly depends on availability of fresh water. The main advantage of using geothermal energy to power brackish water greenhouse desalination units is that this renewable energy source can provide power 24 h a day. This resource is generally invariant with less intermittence problems compared to other renewable resources such as solar or wind energy. Geothermal resources can both be used to heat the greenhouses and to provide fresh water needed for irrigation of the crops cultivated inside the greenhouses. A review of the geothermal potential in the case study country is also outlined. (author)

Mahmoudi, Hacene [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria); Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Spahis, Nawel [Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F. [Office of Research and Graduate Studies, Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman); Drouiche, Nadjib [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399, Algiers (Algeria); Ouagued, Abdellah [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria)

2010-01-15

 
 
 
 
341

Irrigation unit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides an irrigation unit ( 10 ) for plants ( 76 ) which can either be used alone or in combination with a separate plant container ( 190 ) which irrigation unit includes a body ( 12 ) which has an upper side ( 14 ), a lower side ( 16 ), a base ( 18 ) on the lower side, an outer wall ( 20 ) which extends upwardly from the base and an inner wall ( 22 ) which is engaged with and spaced from the outer wall, a cavity ( 26 ) formed by the body, a reservoir ( 28 ) defined between the inner and outer walls which has an inlet ( 30 ) thereto and an outlet ( 32 ) therefrom into the cavity, an open ended fluid passage ( 40 ) which has a first upper end ( 42 ) which terminates in the reservoir and a second lower end ( 44 ) which terminates in the cavity, an overflow formation ( 56 )which extends from the body and which is in communication with the cavity and a support platform ( 58 ) in the cavity.

BUITENDAG ROELOF A; SWART PHILIPPUS

342

Device for placing, activating and connecting the modules of a submerged oil producing unit. Engin de pose, d'activation et de connexion des modules d'une station de production petroliere sous-marine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns petroleum production at great depths underwater. A placement device comprises a chassis above which is mounted a central orientable mast, fitted at its end with a means for connection with a drill string and carrying a telescopic articulated arm fitted at its end with a connector. Said chassis carries underneath a connector able to bolt a fixed mandrel or a mandrel of a module to be placed, and is fitted with guide means for the descent of the placement device and for its positioning in accord with the module to be placed. The chassis also has a multiconnector for electro-hydraulic connection with a multiconnector receptacle carried by the module, umbilical electrical and hydraulic cables and conduits for transmitting command signals and energy to the multiconnector, and means for visualization. The device permits the manipulation and operation of production, control and command units of a station of modular conception.

Castel, Y.; Iato, M.

1989-04-11

343

Edible skewer for food product in e.g. fast-food industry, has gripping unit formed by ends of skewer, where one of ends receives tube for skewering foodstuff, and external covering inflated by absorbing humidity contained in foodstuff  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The skewer (3) has a gripping unit formed by ends (4, 5) e.g. round plates, of the skewer for gripping a food product (1). The end (5) receives a skewering tube (9) for skewering foodstuff (2) e.g. meat, where the tube is made of plastic material. A polymer based external covering covers a core of the skewer, and is inflated by absorbing humidity contained in the foodstuff. The tube has an end that is closed and formed of a rigid point made of hard plastic or metal. Independent claims are also included for the following: (1) a method for fabricating an edible skewer (2) a method for preparing a food product.

BENAYOUN REMY; PEYRIEUX ALAIN LUC ROGER

344

Leaching of radionuclides out of some novelly formed products extracted from the reactor zone of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Data are presented on leaching of radionuclides from two samples of glass-like products (brown and gree glass) by 0.01 mol/l solution of sodium chloride. The level and rate of radionuclide leaching are determined. It is ascertained that green glass features a higher resistance to leaching

1991-01-01

345

Frontal unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A frontal unit is proposed for the input of base and loading sections, link pull chains, and a carriage with cutters having guide blocks and beams. To reduce the consumption of energy during excavation, the guide beams and the link pull chains are kinematically connected between the hinged swing support, and the unit is completed in the shape of 2 curved and closed contours. In this case, the directing or guiding beam is completed in the form of a through channel and is situated lengthwise. The carriage itself is fitted with hinged cutters and is connected to the link chain pull, and is placed in a pit above the strata. The mine face is U-shaped and is connected by means of forks and a hinged finger. The frontal unit may or may not include a conveyor. In the latter case, the mined coal is loaded into the frontal carriers which continuously move the coal from the mine face to the base section. This process involves the use of special rakes to mix the coal into the excavation drift after the conclusion of the excavation cycle, at which time hydraulic jacks are expanded and the face section is spread apart. After this, there occurs unloading and a pulling of the carriage sections, accordingly, in staggered rows. After the completion of the process of movement and spreading of the caving section, a new excavation cycle is begun.

Bezuglov, V.M.; Belyayev, V.S.; Borodyanskiy, M.M.; Ignat' ev, A.D.; Karlenkov, A.A.; Lotar, V.N.; Miklaev, Y.T.; Rogov, A.Y.; Sviridenko, A.F.

1980-06-10

346

Societal context and the production of immigrant status-based health inequalities: a comparative study of the United States and Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We compare disparities in health status between first-generation immigrants and others in the United States (US) and Canada. METHODS: We used data from the Joint Canada-US Survey of Health. The regression models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health insurance (the US). RESULTS: In both countries, the health advantage belonged to immigrants. Fewer disparities between immigrants and those native-born were seen in Canada versus the US. Canadians of every immigrant/race group fared better than US native-born Whites. DISCUSSION: Fewer disparities in Canada and better overall health of all Canadians suggest that societal context may create differences in access to the resources, environments, and experiences that shape health and health behaviors.

Siddiqi A; Ornelas IJ; Quinn K; Zuberi D; Nguyen QC

2013-05-01

347

An exemplary refrigeration concept - Hybrid ice-storage unit guarantees constant ice-water temperature for the processing of dairy products; Ein mustergueltiges Kaeltekonzept  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a refrigeration system installed at a German dairy produce facility that has replaced several old distributed ammonia-based refrigeration systems. The innovative system, which features five centrally located, R 407C-driven brine chillers and a hybrid ice-storage unit, delivers ice-water at 1 {sup o}C. The operation of the system has been outsourced to the local electricity utility that acts as a contractor for the supply of cold. The operation of the system is described and the advantages of the ice-storage system are discussed. The article also describes the principles behind the hybrid ice-storage system used and stresses the importance of such new concepts in the dairy industry in the light of regulations on the use of ammonia that have recently become more stringent.

Schmid, W.

2002-07-01

348

[The work process in health and the production of care in a Family Health Unit: limits to the reception and reflections on the emergency service].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the work process of a Family Health Unity (USF) in a small municipality, inland the state of Rio de Janeiro. We would like to start with the question of what is causing the population registered in a family health program to look for the Emergency Service (SE) of a General Hospital. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with doctors who worked on duty and users in the Emergency Service and group interviews with users of a Family Health Unit and its staff. In addition, information was also collected by participant observation. The theoretical fields of Health Management and Psycho-sociology were the grounds of this research. It was concluded that the "modus operandi" of the USF, the geographical and organizational accessibility, and the technological apparatus of the SE ended up leading the population to seek the General Hospital emergency service of the municipality mentioned in this study in acute situations of suffering and distress.

Barros DM; Sá Mde C

2010-08-01

349

2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: improving the production, environmental, and economic efficiency of the stocker cattle industry in the southeastern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grazing forages on small-grain fields can be a profitable "second crop" for grain producers and an opportunity for cow-calf producers to retain ownership of weaned calves. The increasing costs of conventional tillage and movement of soil nutrients into surface water creates a need for more sustainable production practices to be incorporated by producers into wheat pasture production systems. Research at the Livestock and Forestry Research Station near Batesville, AR, and the Southwest Research and Extension Center near Hope, AR, has been conducted over a 9-yr span to characterize the impacts of pasture systems on forage production, animal performance, soil quality, water runoff, and the economics associated with the stocker cattle enterprises. Gains of growing cattle grazing nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and small-grain forages can be increased by 80 and 150%, respectively, compared with grazing Bermuda grass or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Producers grazing spring-calving cowherds can use these improved forages to accelerate stocker performance when retaining calves in the fall and improve net returns by 99% with winter annual or nontoxic tall fescue production systems compared with Bermuda grass or toxic tall fescue. Rainfall simulation of small grain pastures indicates that runoff volume and nutrient load does not differ between conventionally tilled fields and no-till fields in the spring before tillage when soil surface cover is similar. In the fall after tillage, however, conventionally tilled fields had 4 times greater runoff; hence, there was 1.9 times greater N runoff and 3.2 times greater P runoff in conventionally tilled fields compared with no-till. Total natural rainfall runoff from conventionally tilled wheat fields were 2 times greater than from no-till fields with 25 mm rainfall events yet were 4 times greater with 62-mm rainfall events. Soil analysis shows that soil aggregate content was greater in no-till compared with conventional till, indicating greater soil porosity, improved water infiltration rate, and reduced erositivity of soil. Carbon concentration in no-till soils was 50% greater than conventional tillage after 9 yr. These experiments show that production systems can be designed that maintain livestock production, increase soil quality, reduce nutrient discharge, and promote improved economic returns.

Beck PA; Anders M; Watkins B; Gunter SA; Hubbell D; Gadberry MS

2013-06-01

350

Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus. PMID:15820115

Losinger, Willard C

2005-05-10

351

Economic impacts of reduced pork production associated with the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An examination of the economic impacts of the diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on grower/finisher swine operations indicated that reduced pork production, associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae on the operation, diminished consumer surplus by $53+/-52 million, and resulted in a total loss of $32+/-30 million to the US economy in 1995. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by $21+/-25 million (which was not significantly different from zero). Uncertainty analysis showed that an estimate of the decline in production associated with the diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae accounted for most of the uncertainty of the change in consumer surplus and of the total loss to the economy. The estimate of the price elasticity of demand for pork also contributed towards a lot of the uncertainty in the estimated change in producer surplus.

Losinger WC

2005-05-01

352

Small sized hydraulic drilling units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes a number of small sized drilling units produced in various European countries for mining in thin seams, drilling surveying entries etc. These units have a chassis with pneumatic tires and a hydraulic drilling head. Technical specifications are given for 3 French units - the CMM 500HE Microdrill (Equipment Miner), the ATH-12-1F (Secoma) and the Minipantophore and Micropantophore (Montabert), 1 Finnish unit - the Micromatic H102F, and 3 units produced by Atlas Copco. A table gives comparative data for hydraulic drilling heads produced by Atlas Copco, Boart, Montabert, Equipment Miner, Torgue Tension, ZIG, Sullivan Machinery, Victor Products, Gardner Denver, Krupp and Tamrock. These units weigh between 3 and 7.5 t (drilling heads 25-80 kg) and are designed to mechanize the drivage of roadways 4-10 m/sup 2/ in cross section.

Tsiferblat, V.L.; Shevchenko, A.I.

1987-10-01

353

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15

354

Search for electron and gamma-ray decay of the ^238fPu fission  

Science.gov (United States)

The reaction ^9Be + ^232Th arrow ^241Pu, at beam energies of 50 and 55 MeV, was used in an attempt to populate states in the second minimum (fission isomer) of ^238Pu via the 3n evaporation channel. Prompt gamma-rays, detected using YRAST Ball and conversion electrons, detected using ICE Ball, were collected in coincidence with delayed fission events measured using elements of the Yale SCARY array of solar cell detectors. The solar cell detectors were shielded so as not to view the large prompt fission flux from the target. Instead the detectors were located so that they could detect delayed fission events, originating from the 6 ns fission isomer state in ^238Pu, which occur downstream from the target position. Data analysis is in progress and results to date will be presented. This work is partly supported by the U.S. DOE under grant numbers DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-88ER-40417.

Beausang, C. W.; Gurdal, G.; Ressler, J.; Barton, C. J.; Caprio, M. A.; Casten, R. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Hecht, A. A.; Hutter, C.; Zamfir, N. V.; Hauschild, K.; Korten, W.; Mergel, E.

2002-04-01

355

Microcontroller Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

1994-01-01

356

Bioethanol production from pretreated Melaleuca leucadendron shedding bark--simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high solid loading.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioethanol production from the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (Paper-bark Tree, PBT) was studied using subcritical water (SCW) pretreatment at various severities (So). High ethanol production was attained by implementing a factorial design on three parameters (So, solid loading and enzyme loading) in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode. Ethanol concentration of 63.2 g L(-1) corresponding to ethanol yield of 80.9% were achieved from pretreated biomass (So=2.37) at 0.25 g mL(-1) solid and 16 FPU g(-1) glucan enzyme loadings. Similarly at 0.15 g mL(-1) solid loadings both high ethanol concentration (43.7 g L(-1)) and high ethanol yield (91.25%) were achieved. Regression analysis of experimental results shows that all process parameters had significant role on maximum ethanol production, glucose solubility, ethanol yield and ethanol volumetric productivity. SSF of SCW treated PBT biomass is economically feasible for production of bioethanol.

Ahmed IN; Nguyen PL; Huynh LH; Ismadji S; Ju YH

2013-05-01

357

Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas (3He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

1994-01-01

358

Different process schemes for converting light straight run and fluid catalytic cracking naphthas in a FCC unit for maximum propylene production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light straight run (LSR) and fluid catalytic cracking (FCCN) naphthas were cracked in a transported bed reactor (MicroDowner) and in a fixed bed reactor (MAT) over a commercial Y zeolite based catalyst, over a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite based additive, and over a mixture of both at selected conditions. Based on the mechanisms through which naphtha hydrocarbons are converted, we evaluated the best alternatives for processing these streams to produce light olefins and/or to reduce olefins content in commercial gasoline. The experimental set-up allowed us to simulate the cracking behaviour of the different naphtha streams in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit by different processing schemes. Results indicate that LSR only cracks at high severity, yielding large amounts of dry gas. Despite its high olefins content, FCCN practically does not crack when it is fed together with gas oil feed. When cracking FCCN alone at typical gas oil cracking conditions, olefins are transformed preferentially into naphtha-range isoparaffins and aromatics, and when cracking FCCN at high severity, olefins are transformed preferentially into propylene and butylenes. Finally, cracking naphtha in the stripper produces some propylene and increases the aromatics in the remaining gasoline.

Corma, Avelino; Melo, FranciscoV.; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Ortega, F.J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avenida de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

2004-07-08

359

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (more) (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Pires, Regina Helena; Santos, Jaime Maia dos; Zaia, José Eduardo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

2011-09-01

360

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Regina Helena Pires; Jaime Maia dos Santos; José Eduardo Zaia; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins; Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Explorationists unite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this issue, coverage of the research meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in Santa Maria, CA, October 29-November 2, 1984, is continued. With economists predicting the light-heavy crude differential will fall to just $1.00/bbl, the incentive to seek nonconventional oil should be more at par with the incentive to look for light crude. Petroleum explorationists are seeking the geological intelligence to tell producers where to drill, and encouraging them that larger, high-quality deposits of heavy oil and tar sands are on the verge of being cost-competitive. A graph illustrates total volumes (oil in place and production to date) of heavy crudes and bitumen by individual states, the total reaching over 154-billion bbl; of this amount, 36 billion is estimated for Alaska and almost 64 billion for California. Heavy oil production, as different from tar sands production, could reach 1 million bbl/day by the year 2000; it is pointed out, however, that this level represents only 1.8% of current total world production of conventional crude oil. This issue presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of November 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Lundberg, T. (ed.)

1984-12-12

362

Analysis of loss of product specification and loss of operational continuity in the REDUC (Refinaria de Duque de Caxias) propene separation unit; Analises de perda de especificacao do produto e de continuidade operacional da unidade de separacao de propeno da REDUC - U-3100  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contains the results of two reliability analysis using fault trees for the REDUC C{sub 3} Splitter Unit. Two fault trees were made to evaluate the unit unavailability related to loss of product specification and to loss of operational continuity. The first analysis evaluated the fraction of time in which the unit produces propylene out of specification and delivers it to the consumer (product quality). The second determined the fraction of time in which the unit does not produce propylene either because it fails to produce according to specifications directing the product to LPG storage or because it is down due to operational problems (operational continuity). In each analysis the main contributors to the unavailability were identified, being evaluated some suggestions for the unavailability reduction. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Lopes, Joao Carlos Galvao; Araujo e Lima, Julio Cesar de; Silva, CArlos Alberto Bezerra da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas; Amaral Netto, Joaquim Domingues; Lima, Jaime Eduardo Pinto [Principia Engenharia de Confiabilidade e Informatica Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1992-12-31

363

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two plants that are operated by Mayak and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

1998-01-01

364

Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

2002-01-01

365

Cooperation Between the Russia Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

Cahalane, P.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; James, L.T.; Jarrett, J.H.; Lundgren, R.A.; Manatt, D.R.; Niederauer, G.F.; Olivos, J.D.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Starodubtsev, G.S.; Suda, S.C.; Tittemore, G.W.; Zatorsky, Y.M.

1999-07-19

366

Global warming can negate the expected CO2 stimulation in photosynthesis and productivity for soybean grown in the Midwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 ?mol mol(-1)) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops. PMID:23512883

Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew; Gray, Sharon B; Drag, David W; Rosenthal, David M; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

2013-03-19

367

Global Warming Can Negate the Expected CO2 Stimulation in Photosynthesis and Productivity for Soybean Grown in the Midwestern United States1[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 ?mol mol?1) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops.

Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Siebers, Matthew; Gray, Sharon B.; Drag, David W.; Rosenthal, David M.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.; Bernacchi, Carl J.

2013-01-01

368

Global warming can negate the expected CO2 stimulation in photosynthesis and productivity for soybean grown in the Midwestern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 ?mol mol(-1)) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops.

Ruiz-Vera UM; Siebers M; Gray SB; Drag DW; Rosenthal DM; Kimball BA; Ort DR; Bernacchi CJ

2013-05-01

369

Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases fo