WorldWideScience
 
 
1

SCR (Steel Catenary Risers) installation from a production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A deep water installation method has been developed to self-install Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs) from Floating Production Units (FPUs). Multiple risers can be deployed from an FPU using modular J-lay equipment while the pipe is joined by welding or mechanical connectors. A DP (Dynamically Positioned) work boat pulls the pipeline outward from the FPU as the pipe string is lowered from the J-lay tower. The work boat moves incrementally and maintains an acceptable catenary configuration while sliding the pipeline along the seabed. A pipeline may be pulled to long distances (10 kilometers or more) for sub sea tie-ins to a wellhead or another pipeline. When the pipeline is extended to its final length, the SCR is pulled into its final topside angle and supported in a receptacle on the FPU. This method can be applied to any deep water floating system. Having J-lay equipment onboard an FPU enables riser installation to proceed according to field development schedules, thus avoiding pipeline vessel mobilizations. This results in substantial savings over typical deep water pipeline vessel mobilization, stand-by and day-rate charges, which in turn leads to more economical deep water field developments. The paper will describe the equipment and lay operation of multiple SCRs from a typical FPU. (author)

Pollack, Jack; Riggs, David C.; Guo, Feng [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

2004-07-01

2

Low-dimensional q-tori in FPU lattices: Dynamics and localization properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies on the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) paradox, like the theory of q-breathers and the metastability scenario, dealing mostly with the energy localization properties in the FPU space of normal modes (q-space), motivated our first work on q-tori in the FPU problem (Christodoulidi et al., 2010) [19]. The q-tori are low-dimensional invariant tori hosting trajectories that present features relevant to the interpretation of FPU recurrences as well as the energy localization in q-space. The present paper is a continuation of our work in Christodoulidi et al. (2010) [19]. Our new results are: we extend a method of analytical computation of q-tori, using Poincaré-Lindstedt series, from the ? to the ?-FPU and we reach significantly higher expansion orders using an improved computer-algebraic program. We probe numerically the convergence properties as well as the level of precision of our computed series. We develop an additional algorithm in order to systematically locate values of the incommensurable frequencies used as an input in the PL series construction of q-tori corresponding to progressively higher values of the energy. We generalize a proposition proved in Christodoulidi et al. (2010) [19] regarding the so-called ‘sequence of propagation’ of an initial excitation in the PL series. We show by concrete examples how the latter interprets the localization patterns found in numerical simulations. We focus, in particular, on various types of extensive initial excitations that lead to q-tori solutions with exponentially localized profiles. Finally, we discuss the relation between q-tori, q-breathers (viewed as one-dimensional q-tori), and the so-called ‘FPU-trajectories’ invoked in the original study of the FPU problem.

Christodoulidi, H.; Efthymiopoulos, C.

2013-10-01

3

Execution and Result Integration Scheme in FPU Farms for Co-ordinated Performance  

CERN Document Server

- The main goal of this research is to develop the concept of an innovative processor system called Functional Processor System. The particular work carried out in this paper focuses on the execution of functions in the heterogeneous functional processor units(FPU) and integration of functions to bring net results. As the functional programs are super-level programs, the requirements of execution are only at functional level. The Execution and integration of results of functions in FPUs are a challenge. The methodology of executing the functions in the functional processor farm and the integration of results of functions according to the assigned addresses are investigated here. The concept of feeding the functions into the processor is promoted rather than the processor fetching the instructions/functions and executing in this paradigm. This work is carried out at conceptual levels and it takes a long way to go into the realization of this model in hardware, possibly only with a large industry team and with ...

Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Saraf, Vighnaraju

2010-01-01

4

Low-dimensional q-Tori in FPU Lattices: Dynamics and Localization Properties  

CERN Document Server

This is a continuation of our study concerning q-tori, i.e. tori of low dimensionality in the phase space of nonlinear lattice models like the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model. In our previous work we focused on the beta FPU system, and we showed that the dynamical features of the q-tori serve as an interpretational tool to understand phenomena of energy localization in the FPU space of linear normal modes. In the present paper i) we employ the method of Poincare - Lindstedt series, for a fixed set of frequencies, in order to compute an explicit quasi-periodic representation of the trajectories lying on q-tori in the alpha model, and ii) we consider more general types of initial excitations in both the alpha and beta models. Furthermore we turn into questions of physical interest related to the dynamical features of the q-tori. We focus on particular q-tori solutions describing low-frequency `packets' of modes, and excitations of a small set of modes with an arbitrary distribution in q-space. In the former case, ...

Christodoulidi, Helen

2012-01-01

5

Lyapunov exponents from unstable periodic orbits in the FPU-beta model  

CERN Document Server

In the framework of a recently developed theory for Hamiltonian chaos, which makes use of the formulation of Newtonian dynamics in terms of Riemannian differential geometry, we obtained analytic values of the largest Lyapunov exponent for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-beta model (FPU-beta) by computing the time averages of the metric tensor curvature and of its fluctuations along analytically known unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The agreement between our results and the Lyapunov exponents obtained by means of standard numerical simulations supports the fact that UPOs are reliable probes of a general dynamical property as chaotic instability.

Franzosi, R; Cerruti-Sola, M; Franzosi, Roberto; Poggi, Pietro; Cerruti-Sola, Monica

2004-01-01

6

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior; Cruz, Fla?vio E.

2008-01-01

7

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

2008-12-01

8

Platelet production methods in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Platelets had traditionally been produced in the United Kingdom (U.K.) either from random donor blood by centrifugation of the platelet rich plasma or by plateletpheresis using various apheresis machines. The proportions of apheresis versus non-apheresis derived platelets varying from centre to centre depending on local policy. The production of platelets from random donor blood is labour intensive and in the late 1980s and early 1990s, biotechnology manufacturers developed newer automated techniques to derive platelets from buffy coats aiming to produce a more standard product and reduce the labour intensity of platelet production. At the same time, apheresis technology has continued to develop with the aim of maximising platelet yields from single donors by yielding 4-6 single unit equivalent of platelets per donor while eliminating the need for further laboratory processing. The trend in some European countries and in North America has been to move away from platelets recovered from whole blood either by buffy coat method or by centrifugation of platelet-rich plasma to plateletpheresis. Intense pressure is being put on blood centres to introduce newer technologies which are inevitably more expensive methods of platelet production. Since 1992, centres in the U.K. have gradually changed their method of platelet production and a survey was conducted to examine the status of platelet production within the U.K. This has shown that many centres are moving away from the production of random donor unit platelets derived by secondary centrifugation of platelet rich plasma (25%) towards buffy-coat derived platelets (45.3%) while plateletpheresis remains fairly static (29.7). PMID:10174283

Gesinde, M O; Pamphilon, D H; Robinson, E A

1997-03-01

9

Novel Method for Determining the Maximally Productive Units using DEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new method for determine maximally productive units based on input-output orientation data envelopment analysis. In this method, we find that reduce inputs and improve outputs units without regard to any factor weights is possible. The new method is a linear mathematical programming technique that determines the intensities of units. No assumptions are required on the internal transformation processes of the units. Decision making depends critically on the way excellent units are frequently described. Present findings have implications for the monitoring and financing of units. Some units with the maximal productivity should be considered as a guide for the other units to reduce inputs and improve outputs units. Numerical illustrations are provided for 15 hospitals dataset of Sherman and 12 hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

A.H. Taher

2009-01-01

10

Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases. PMID:19997787

Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

2010-05-01

11

The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

Yaple, Charles; And Others

12

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

13

Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS) Production in Distillery Unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS) is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a pro...

Srinivasan, K.; Madheswaran Prem, B.; Sathish Kumar, M.; Thirupathi, A.

2013-01-01

14

Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS Production in Distillery Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

SRINIVASAN K

2013-02-01

15

An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

1995-01-01

16

Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær

2012-01-01

17

Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical efficiency of various “mergers” relative to a common reference technology. The approach is radically different from the usual one based on super-efficiency indexes in DEA. We illustrate the mechanics of our method by a series of numerical examples and further demonstrate that our new index inherits all relevant and desirable properties of the Farrell efficiency index upon which it is constructed.

Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

2014-01-01

18

Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1996-12-31

19

Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

1991-10-14

20

Production Unit on the Highlands of Mexico. An Informative Note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the objective of studying milk production in Mexican ewes (Suffolk X Hamsphire X Rambouillet, in an intensive production unit, 20 ewes were selected at random, 12 h after lambing the new born was withdrawn and thereafter ewes were hand milked twice a day at 6:00 am and at 6:00 pm. End of milk production was considered when ewes produced less than 200 mL. Total milk produced was 1,242.88 L. Average production per day/ewe was. 547 L. Milking days of the selected ewes was 106. It was observed that the amount of milk produced and the number of milking days was similar to production reported for some milking breeds.

V.O. Fuentes

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

Rinehart, G.H.

1996-06-01

22

Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

2009-12-31

23

Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

2012-04-01

24

A Novel FPGA based Leading One Anticipation Algorithm for Floating Point Arithmetic Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In multimedia Systems-on-Chips, the design of specialized IEEE-754-compliant floating point arithmetic units (FPU is critical with respect to both operating speed and silicon area demand. Leading one anticipation is a well-known issue in the implementation of high speed FPUs. We investigated a novel leading one anticipation algorithm allowing us to significantly reduce the anticipation failure rate with respect to the state-of the art. We embedded our technique into a complete FPU and compared its performance against existing solutions, definitely showing both area savings and total latency reduction.

Ashwini Suresh Deshmukh

2012-03-01

25

Functorial structure of units in a tensor product  

CERN Document Server

We study the units in a tensor product of rings. For example, let k be an algebraically closed field. Let A and B be reduced rings containing k, having connected spectra. Let u \\in A tensor_k B be a unit. Then u = a tensor_k b for some units a \\in A and b \\in B. Here is a deeper result, stated for simplicity in the affine case only. Let k be a field, and let f: R --> S be a homomorphism of f.g. k-algebras such that Spec(f) is dominant. Assume that every irreducible component of Spec(R_red) or Spec(S_red) is geometrically integral and has a rational point. Let B --> C be a faithfully flat homomorphism of reduced k-algebras. For A a k-algebra, define Q(A) to be (S tensor_k A)^*/(R tensor_k A)^*. Then Q satisfies the following sheaf property: the sequence 0 --> Q(B) --> Q(C) --> Q(C tensor_B C) is exact. This and another result are used in the proof of the following statement from "The kernel of the map on Picard groups induced by a faithfully flat homomorphism" by R. Guralnick, D. Jaffe, W. Raskind, R. Wiegand:...

Jaffe, D B

1994-01-01

26

Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 1: Comparison of Cost and Production Between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report compares the costs and productivity relationships between the traditional bundle system method of apparel production with the new production method referred to as the Unit Production System (UPS). In the former system large bundles (quantities...

J. Korngruen

1992-01-01

27

16 CFR 300.12 - Labeling of pairs or products containing two or more units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ultimate consumer as a single product or ensemble, the required...apparel, or other wool products are marketed or handled...delivered to the ultimate consumer. (c) Where parts or units of wool products of the types referred to in...

2010-01-01

28

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

29

An FPGA Implementation Of Ieee - 754 Double Precision Floating Point Unit Using Verilog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract- Arithmetic circuits form an important class of circuits in digital systems. With the remarkable progress in the very large scale integration (VLSI circuit technology, many complex circuits, unthinkable yesterday have become easily realizable today. Algorithms that seemed impossible to implement now have attractive implementation possibilities for the future. In this paper an arithmetic unit based on IEEE standard for floating point numbers has been implemented on FPGA Board. Here FPU follows IEEE double precision format. The arithmetic unit implemented has a 64-bit processing unit which allows various arithmetic operations such as, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division on floating point numbers. Each operation can be selected by a particular operation code. We see that the overhead for double precision is less than that for single precision. The unit comprises of rounding and exception unit as specified in format. The FPU design achieved the operating frequency of 107MHz.

Chaitanya A. Kshirsagar

2014-06-01

30

Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

Lange, Linda L.

1989-01-01

31

Performance of first-line management functions on productivity of hospital unit personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight management functions influence the productivity of unit personnel differently. Although leadership of the first-line manager is the primary driving force, time and effort expended in operations detract from this unit output. Better use of second-line managers is a choice strategy to enhance productivity. Benner's model of professional development, in combination with the creation of a first-second line shared leadership operational framework, is recommended, with follow-up evaluations on unit productivity effect. PMID:10491664

Fox, R T; Fox, D H; Wells, P J

1999-09-01

32

Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

33

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

34

Use of organic waste for the production of added-value holocellulases with Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the production of holocellulases from the cellulolytic microorganisms Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 using as substrates the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and digestates from a hydrogenogenic-methanogenic bioenergy production process. The first set of experiments (E1) used the mutant actinobacteria C. flavigena PR-22 whereas another set (E2) used the mutant filamentous fungi T. reesei MCG 80. In E1 with OFMSW as substrate, xylanolytic activities ranged from 1800 to 3900 international units g(holocellulose)(-1) (IU g(hol)(-1)), whereas the cellulolytic activities ranged from 220 to 420 IU g(hol)(-1). The variation of agitation speed did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, whereas the increase of substrate concentration had a significant negative effect on both xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities on a holocellulose feed basis. Regarding E2, the OFMSW was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 % volatile solids (VS). At 2 % VS the best filter paper activities were 1200 filter paper units (FPU) l(-1); however, in a holocellulase basis the best result was 67 FPU g(hol)(-1), corresponding to 1 % VS. Next, OFMSW was compared with OFMSW supplemented with lactose, digested solids from hydrogenogenic fermentation (D1) and digested solids from a two-stage process (D2). Against expectations, no positive effect was found in OFMSW due to lactose. The best enzymatic titres were in the order D1 > OFMSW ? OFMSW + lactose > D2. The use of digestates from hydrogenogenic fermentation for enzyme production holds promise for waste management. It promotes energy and added-value bioproduct generation-a green alternative to common practice of management and disposal of organic wastes. PMID:23877254

Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

2013-08-01

35

Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

2010-01-01

36

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

Toly Chen

2012-10-01

37

Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

1990-04-01

38

Production of short straight sections hits 100 units  

CERN Multimedia

The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

2005-01-01

39

Cascade units for neon isotope production by rectification  

Science.gov (United States)

The basics of neon isotope separation by the distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units at the top and bottom column sections are calculated for different loads. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade are discussed. A configuration for a cryogenic circuit based on a high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity for and the technical feasibility of creating a driver pressure difference between the columns for different stages are demonstrated.

Bondarenko, V. L.; Simonenko, Yu. M.; Diachenko, O. V.; Matveyev, E. V.

2013-05-01

40

Seasonal Unit Root: An Application to Turkish Industrial Production Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal patterns of five Turkish manufacturing industry series which have the main characteristics of Turkish economy during the1977:1-2008:4 periods. Many economic time series are often subject to systematic fluctuations within the year such as seasonal movements. All the studies concerning time series methods are useful only when the series do not show seasonal patterns or the methods that care of seasonal patterns used. For this reason, it is important to investigate the seasonal patterns of the series when working with economic time series data. The analysis is conducted using the HEGY approach developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990. It is important to determine what kind of seasonality is present in the data. For this reason, we search for the seasonal unit root with five different models that concern, trends, constant and seasonal dummies. We provide evidence on the presence of seasonal unit roots in the Turkish manufacturing industry series. The main finding is that there are both deterministic and non-stationary stochastic seasonality in the series.

Sinem Pinar Gürel,

 
 
 
 
41

STUDY OF THE CORROSION FACTORS IN OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION UNITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil production in offshore fields is very important because of its operating conditions. The study of corrosion reasons in these facilities are different from onshore fields because of sea water utilization in desalters, compact equipments use and also high costs and risk in replacement of equipment parts.This paper is going to specify important elements, which cause corrosion of process equipments in offshore oil fields, and also shows different ways for prevention of corrosion by reviewing a case study.

Amir Alizadeh Moghadam

2006-07-01

42

Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance of the unit during the SLS-2 mission.

Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

1994-01-01

43

Innovation and productivity in services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the links between innovation investment, innovation output and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Surveys 2006-2008 in Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom and estimate an augmented structural model which links innovation inputs, innovation outputs and productivity. Our estimates suggest that innovation in service enterprises was linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, amongst the innova...

Peters, Bettina; Riley, Rebecca; Siedschlag, Iulia; Vahter, Priit; Mcquinn, John

2014-01-01

44

Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. PMID:21376555

Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

2011-07-01

45

Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research.

Carl, Michael

46

Comparison of Cost and Production between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation: Installation of a Modular Sewing Station Carousel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to study the impact of a 3 to 4 sewing-station carousel unit on apparel productivity, with special emphasis on the impact in a flexible (Unit Production System) environment. Upon installation the unit's operation was obse...

J. Korngruen

1992-01-01

47

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

48

Production units as new section 38 property for investment tax credit purposes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Production Unit on a new oil and gas well appears to clearly qualify as new Section 38 property for purposes of computing investment tax credit, whether constructed with new or used materials, elements, or parts. Any Internal Revenue Service attempts to recategorize some of the parts of a new Production Unit as used Section 38 property should be resisted. Further, any attempts by the Internal Revenue Service to confuse the issue - by citing the numerous Revenue Rulings involving reconditionings or rebuildings because used materials, elements, or parts have been used - should likewise be resisted.

Weimer, J.H.

1982-03-01

49

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

50

78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint...hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.''...

2013-04-24

51

Two performance indicators for the characterization of the entropy production in a process unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two indicators are presented to compare the Second law performances of different design-variants of the same process unit. The first indicator relates the entropy production to quantities like the total transferred thermal energy and the total chemical conversion. This allows a useful comparison, even in the case of different inlets and outlets. An important aspect of the entropy production in a process unit is its distribution. An even distribution, also known as equipartition of entropy production (EoEP), is related to an optimal design. The second indicator is based on the coefficient of variation of a local entropy production profile and allows one to calculate and compare degrees of equipartition of different designs. Both indicators have been used in a study on the entropy production minimization of a plug-flow reactor. A comparison using the first indicator showed that the optimized reactors perform slightly better than a comparison based on the total entropy production alone would suggest. This shows that the total entropy production is not always a good indicator. The second indicator was found to provide an excellent numerical basis for comparing the degrees of EoEP of the different designs. -- Highlights: ? Tools have been developed to compare in a fair manner the energy efficiency of different process units. ? Such comparisons can be difficult when boundary conditions vary, but this study presents one performance indicator that can handle such a situation, using the specific entropy production. ? The other indicator measures the deviation from an ideal state of uniform entropy production (equipartition of entropy production), which in certain cases is the state of minimum energy dissipation.

52

Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

53

Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

54

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

55

Productivity, Efficiency, and Managerial Performance Regress and Gains in United States Universities: A Data Envelopment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis to investigate the extent to which universities in the United States have undergone productivity and efficiency changes, partly due to managerial performance, during the 2005-09 academic years. Using panel data for 133 research and doctoral universities, the focus is on the primary drivers of U.S. publicly controlled higher education. DEA efficiency and returns to scale estimates are provided. In addition, university total factor productivity changes via the Malmquist index are decomposed into component parts. Results suggest that U.S. universities experienced average productivity regress. On an annual basis such was present prior to the global financial crisis. However, productivity gains appeared in concert with the crisis. Managerial efficiency tended to hamper productivity gains but, on the positive side, showed slight improvements over time. Decreasing returns to scale prevailed but from a policy perspective a return to economy wide growth may automatically correct some over production.

G. Thomas Sav

2012-08-01

56

Potential by-product uranium production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating uranium resources, one must not overlook the possibilities of recovering uranium as a by-product of other industries. The technology for recovering by-product uranium from phosphoric acid has been known for many years, but only recently have market conditions encouraged production. Even with recent improvements in process technology, many problems are still encountered in scale-up from laboratory and pilot plant operation to commercial production. Some of these problems are discussed in this review of the process technology. A recent USDOE study shows a total capital cost of US $12 million for a by-product uranium plant designed to recover 40 to 60 t U/a from 30% P2O5 acid provided by a phosphoric acid plant with a capacity of 155,000 t P2O5/a. Operating costs were estimated at US $50 to 65/kg U ($20-25/lb U3O8), assuming the phosphoric acid contains 120 to 160 mg U/l and a raffinate of 13 mg U/l. The quantity of uranium recovered and the operating costs are highly sensitive to the uranium content of the acid. Constraints to by-product uranium production, besides low uranium content of the acid are small-size phosphoric acid plants and high strength (>40% P2O5) acid. Similarly the technology for recovery of uranium from copper waste dump leach liquors has been known for several years. It was developed in the mid-1960s by the US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with K US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with Kennecott Copper Corporation at its Bingham Canyon mine near Salt Lake City, Utah. Commercial application was first realized when an ion-exchange plant to recover about 55 t U/a commenced operation in 1978. (author)

57

A versatile floating production unit: the DP FPSO for Brazilian waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in drilling and completion techniques have resulted in improved well system design and completion reliability. Extended reach wells, multi-laterals, smart wells producing from multiple pay-zones and a range of completion methods provide high well production rates and significant recoverable reserves per well. During the initial phase of a field development, limited or no data may be available concerning the hydrocarbon reservoir. An extended well test facility or early production facility can provide additional high-quality production data related to properties of the recovered hydrocarbons, reservoir drive mechanism, reservoir pressure and temperature, etc. By obtaining critical reservoir and production data during the initial project phase, technical and commercial risks can be further quantified and a possible field development plan optimized. With exploration and production operations in deeper water, the cost for traditional (passive) station keeping systems of floating offshore structures has increased accordingly. Hardware and offshore installation costs associated with a passive mooring system of a floating offshore facilities can be significant, especially in case of operations in remote deep water areas and with frequent relocations. A DP system provides a cost-effective and proven means of station keeping and has been extensively applied to deep water drilling units. Operating as a first-stage field development unit, the DP-FPSO will enable a cost-effective means to gain valuable reservoir and production data, while generating early sales revenues. (author)

Cann, Bram Van; Poldervaart, Leen [SBM Inc., Marly (Switzerland); Beenen, Marco [Gusto Engineering B.V. (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

58

Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

59

The intensity of organisation of production and the European Size Unit and the agricultural type of farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of intensity of organisation of production of 39 family farms in this study was performed. The intensity of organisation production, European Unit Size and the agricultural type of farm was qualified for these farms. The studied farms were classified to according to level of intensity of production’s organisation C1 – high smaller.

S?awomir Kocira

2009-01-01

60

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

 
 
 
 
61

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

62

Evaluation of dose area product vs. patient dose in diagnostic X-ray units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dose Area Product (DAP) meters which measure in units of [Gy*m(2)], are widely used in radiology, fluoroscopy and interventional cardiology X-ray units. However, assessment of the radiological hazard to the patient undergoing a given diagnostic procedure cannot be readily obtained from the measured value of DAP. We also developed simple relationships between Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and the DAP value measured in air, for different collimator field sizes and patient thickness. To establish these relationships, measurements were performed in a water phantom using high-sensitive thermoluminescent detectors (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) calibrated in terms of Kerma in water. Using these relationships developed for a given X-ray unit, calculations of ESD (in mGy) could be performed on the basis of DAP by the X-Ray unit software itself, if the X-ray unit could also evaluate the Focus-to-Skin Distance (FID), e.g. by ultra-sound techniques. PMID:20674429

Kisielewicz, K; Truszkiewicz, A; Wach, S; Wasilewska-Radwa?ska, M

2011-04-01

63

Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as how those initiatives might affect various aspects of the sustainability of egg production. PMID:21177465

Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

2011-01-01

64

Aflatoxin M1 in manufactured dairy products produced in the United States in 1979.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 1979 survey of manufactured dairy products (992 samples of nonfat dry milk, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Cheddar cheese, and cottage cheese) for aflatoxin M1 contamination, one sample, a cottage cheese, had detectable aflatoxin equivalent to .08 ng/ml in the milk from which the product was made. Samples were taken by Food and Drug District inspectors from randomly selected establishments at three times throughout the year. The distribution of sample quotas to each District was weighted to double the representation of establishments in the southern tier of states. The conclusion from this survey is that in a "normal" year aflatoxin M1 should not be in a manufactured dairy product in the United States at a level in excess of that from milk with .1 ng aflatoxin M1/ml. PMID:6804551

Stoloff, L; Wood, G; Carter, L

1981-12-01

65

Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Galileo Mission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2)minus/ fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spcaecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has fabricated 134 heater units which will be used on the Galileo Mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at LANL. 4 figs., 15 tabs

Rinehart, G.H.

1988-04-01

66

Economic growth, labor and productivity in Brazil and the United States: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between economic growth and labor market dynamics in Brazil between 1981 and 2009, making a comparison with the United States. Among the findings, one can mention that economic growth in Brazil has been related to a massive incorporation of labor forc [...] e in labor intensive activities, whereas, in the United States, to a substantial improvement of labor productivity in high-technology activities. Despite the favorable economic context in the 2000s, huge inequalities between these countries have widened since the structure of the Brazilian labor market remained with few or no changes.

Alexandre Gori, Maia; Esther, Menezes.

2014-06-01

67

Economic growth, labor and productivity in Brazil and the United States: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between economic growth and labor market dynamics in Brazil between 1981 and 2009, making a comparison with the United States. Among the findings, one can mention that economic growth in Brazil has been related to a massive incorporation of labor forc [...] e in labor intensive activities, whereas, in the United States, to a substantial improvement of labor productivity in high-technology activities. Despite the favorable economic context in the 2000s, huge inequalities between these countries have widened since the structure of the Brazilian labor market remained with few or no changes.

Alexandre Gori, Maia; Esther, Menezes.

68

Ecological populations of bacteria act as socially cohesive units of antibiotic production and resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

In animals and plants, social structure can reduce conflict within populations and bias aggression toward competing populations; however, for bacteria in the wild it remains unknown whether such population-level organization exists. Here, we show that environmental bacteria are organized into socially cohesive units in which antagonism occurs between rather than within ecologically defined populations. By screening approximately 35,000 possible mutual interactions among Vibrionaceae isolates from the ocean, we show that genotypic clusters known to have cohesive habitat association also act as units in terms of antibiotic production and resistance. Genetic analyses show that within populations, broad-range antibiotics are produced by few genotypes, whereas all others are resistant, suggesting cooperation between conspecifics. Natural antibiotics may thus mediate competition between populations rather than solely increase the success of individuals. PMID:22955834

Cordero, Otto X; Wildschutte, Hans; Kirkup, Benjamin; Proehl, Sarah; Ngo, Lynn; Hussain, Fatima; Le Roux, Frederique; Mincer, Tracy; Polz, Martin F

2012-09-01

69

How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

70

Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

2010-07-01

71

Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production  

Science.gov (United States)

This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits. I describe how biofuel governance focuses on scientific practices that legitimize biofuel production for their capacity to marginally reduce greenhouse gas emissions, despite biofuels' agroecological consequences outside this regulatory purview. These consequences include pressure on conservation and agrienvironmental practice, which could be better supported through existing, highly effective, place-based, democratic institutions dedicated to stewarding the resources upon which agricultural livelihoods depend.

Gillon, Sean Thomas

72

Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

Fix Brian V

2011-12-01

73

Vitrification of HLW generated by a production unit for radiopharmaceuticals using simulated waste solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Durable borosilicate glasses for the immobilizing of radioisotopes from nuclear waste streams generated by a radiopharmaceutical production unit are studied. Different boron frits (glasses) and waste-loaded glasses were prepared under various experimental conditions. The effects of some parameters such as melting temperature, cooling procedure and various raw materials were investigated. The best composition of the frits as well as the best glass/waste ratio was determined to optimize the immobilization process. All experiments were performed in non-active bench scale. (author)

74

Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

Jamar, L. G.

1986-01-01

75

Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by alternative hen housing systems raise complex issues about linking public policy costs to policy beneficiaries. PMID:21177466

Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

2011-01-01

76

Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

M. R. Bakhshi

2011-12-01

77

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

Di Onofrio Valeria

2010-10-01

78

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

79

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C. W.

2010-10-01

80

Productivity Assessment and Improvement Measurement of Decision Making Units--An Application for Ranking Cities in Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we will demonstrate how productivity and improvement rate of urban organizational units (called also Decision Making Units--DMUs) may be assessed when measured along several time periods. The assessment and subsequent ranking of cities is achieved by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to determine DMU's…

Hadad, Yossi; Keren, Baruch; Ben-Yair, Avner

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. PMID:25220600

Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

2014-10-01

82

MHD-units of a magnetodynamic type, used in technological processes for metallurgy and casting production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many technological processes for casting production and in metallurgy, a forced action on liquid metal must be combined with its pre-heating. Under these conditions MHD-pumps and units of a magneto-dynamic type (MDN), which is a separate class of a pulsing type field of induction MHD-machines of a pulsing field, have essential advantages in comparison with other MHD-machines and known mechanical units, as they possess a high hydrothermal efficiency and the opportunity to change the correlation between hydraulic and heat parameters within wide limits. Since 1961 year there have been developed more than 30 types of MDN. Using the units MDN-3, MDN-6 and MDN-17, the analysis of main peculiarities of this type of MHD-machines has been carried out. A Working Zone (WZ) of MDN is a hydraulic manifold, created by a circular channel and branching-off it or crossing it by the conduit. Here, the current, induced in the liquid metal, by the closed electromagnetic system- an inductor, - interacts with a transverse magnetic field, created by the electromagnet, in the gap of which is WZ. The peculiarities of a metal flow and distribution of pressure in WZ of MDN, which have a T-joined and a cross-shaped form, are being considered here: generation of vortices in the regions of a drop of a magnetic field along the sides of WZ, appearance of reduced pressure regions. In this report there are being considered the different schemes of MDN application in casting and metallurgical production: for melting, preparing and refining treatment of metal, conveying and batchering, forced feeding of moulds and crystallization under electromagnetic pressure, given are the characteristics of industrial, including serially produced, MDN for non-ferrous alloys and iron

83

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. This chemistry also substantially reduces the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 6% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that heterogeneous production of ClNO2 can further increase O3 and reduce TNO3 if elevated particulate-chloride levels are present in the atmosphere.

G. Sarwar

2012-07-01

84

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

G. Sarwar

2012-02-01

85

76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit Including...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit, including...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit,...

2011-07-14

86

Salad Machine - A vegetable production unit for long duration space missions  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of NASA CELSS development specific to vegetable cultivation during space missions is presented in terms of enhancing the quality of life for space crews. A cultivation unit is being developed to permit the production of 600 grams of edible salad vegetables per week, thereby allowing one salad per crew member three times weekly. Plant-growth requirements are set forth for the specific vegetables, and environmental subsystems are listed. Several preprototype systems are discussed, and one particular integrated-systems design concept is presented in detail with views of the proposed rack configuration. The Salad Machine is developed exclusively from CELSS-derived technology, and the major challenge is the mitigation of the effects of plant-growth requirements on other space-mission facility operations.

Kliss, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

1990-01-01

87

Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification  

CERN Document Server

This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

2012-01-01

88

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

Peter, Danchev.

89

An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

90

Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described

91

Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

2008-01-01

92

Occurrence of Isospora suis in larger piglet production units and on specialized piglet rearing farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed fecal samples of 264 litters from five piglet production farms (155-238 sows/farm) were investigated three times during the suckling period for the occurrence of Isospora suis over the period of 1 year. On all five farms Isopora suis was found to be a common endoparasite with infection rates being highest in litters of 3-4 weeks of age. By the end of the third investigation period the cumulative infection rate was 53.8% of the litters ranging from 20.0% to 81.5% for the single farms. During the suckling period the infection rate increased from 18.6% to 32.6% and then to 37.7%. Diarrhea was present in 66.3% of the sampled litters with the highest rates at the end of the suckling period. 63.4% of the litters which showed diarrhea and 34.8% of those without diarrhea excreted I. suis within the study period. Diarrhea was recorded for 78.2% of the I. suis-positive litters and for 52.5% of the Isospora-negative litters. In summer and fall the occurrence of I. suis was higher (66.3% and 61.0%, respectively) than in spring and winter (47.7% and 37.9%, respectively). In litters with diarrhea and pathogenic E. coli I. suis often occurred simultaneously. Above-average hygiene measures and mainly perforated pen floors seemed to lower the risk of isosporosis. With the exception of Strongyloides ransomi other parasites were not found in the fecal samples of suckling piglets. Two specialized piglet rearing farms, a conventional large-scale rearing unit and a farm managed according to the segregated early weaning (SEW) system were examined three times during the 6-7 week rearing period. In both units I. suis was common, but was not correlated with diarrhea. In the SEW unit the infection rates decreased from 37.5% to 20.2% and to 4.1%, while the infection rate in the conventional unit slightly increased from the first (17.2%) to the second (21.9%) investigation and stayed at this level at the third sampling. PMID:10384903

Meyer, C; Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

1999-05-01

93

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

94

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

95

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

1993-12-31

96

Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

2012-01-01

97

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

98

New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

99

Assessment of atmospheric tritium concentration levels due to the normal operation of a radiopharmaceutical production unit (UPPR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals (UPPR) Unit started to operate in 2008. This Unit consists of a laboratory for 18F production, one for F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glycose (FDG) synthesis and a room for packing and preparing the final product. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Nuclear Technology Developing Center - (CNEN/ CDTN) aims to assess the radiological environmental impact as a result of the activities undertaken by the Center. Among various measurements and analyses established in this program, sampling and analysis of atmospheric tritium is one facet that is regularly carried out. The main objective of this paper is to present an assessment of the increments of tritium concentration in the atmosphere due to the release of gaseous effluents by the UPPR Unit, as well as to determine the dose received by public individuals due to eventual inhalation of this material. (author)

100

Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

102

Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

2014-06-01

103

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHWEST OREGON PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

104

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION OREGON DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a study in the western United States (EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10) that will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-...

105

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

106

Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

2012-10-15

107

Medical costs and productivity losses of cancer survivors--United States, 2008-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of treatments, monitoring for recurrence, and an increased risk for additional cancers. These survivors also face economic challenges, including limitations in work and daily activities, obtaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care, and increasing medical care costs. To estimate annual medical costs and productivity losses among male and female cancer survivors and persons without a cancer history, CDC, along with other organizations, analyzed data from the 2008-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The results indicate that the economic burden of cancer survivorship is substantial among all survivors. For male cancer survivors, during 2008-2011, average annual medical costs and productivity losses resulting from health problems per person and adjusted to 2011 dollars were significantly higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, by $4,187 and $1,459, respectively; for females, the estimated annual costs per person were $3,293 and $1,330 higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, respectively. These findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate health and employment intervention programs aimed at improving outcomes for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:24918485

Ekwueme, Donatus U; Yabroff, K Robin; Guy, Gery P; Banegas, Matthew P; de Moor, Janet S; Li, Chunyu; Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Soni, Anita; Davidoff, Amy; Rechis, Ruth; Virgo, Katherine S

2014-06-13

108

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

R. Dinkov

2007-12-01

109

Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S, of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (? = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

110

Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

2011-11-01

111

Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu2O, CuO, Cu(OH)2)-water (H2O)-gas (H2, O2)-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu2O and Cu(OH)2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10-2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

112

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa and temperature (about 100C. The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

M. Reza Mogadam

2011-01-01

113

Ozone vegetation damage effects on gross primary productivity in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

We apply an off-line process-based vegetation model (the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere model) to assess the impacts of ozone (O3) vegetation damage on gross primary productivity (GPP) in the United States during the past decade (1998-2007). The model's GPP simulation is evaluated at 40 sites of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) synthesis. The ecosystem-scale model version reproduces interannual variability and seasonality of GPP at most sites, especially in croplands. Inclusion of the O3 damage impact decreases biases of simulated GPP at most of the NACP sites. The simulation with the O3 damage effect reproduces 64% of the observed variance in summer GPP and 42% on the annual average. Based on a regional gridded simulation over the US, summertime average O3-free GPP is 6.1 g C m-2 day-1 (9.5 g C m-2 day-1 in the east of 95° W and 3.9 g C m-2 day-1 in the west). O3 damage decreases GPP by 4-8% on average in the eastern US and leads to significant decreases of 11-17% in east coast hot spots. Sensitivity simulations show that a 25% decrease in surface O3 concentration halves the average GPP damage to only 2-4%, suggesting the substantial co-benefits to ecosystem health that may be achieved via O3 air pollution control.

Yue, X.; Unger, N.

2014-09-01

114

Stored-product insects associated with eight feed mills in the midwestern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps and pheromone-baited sticky traps were used during 2003 to survey stored-product insect adults in eight participating feed mills in the midwestern United States. Across the eight feed mills, 27 species of beetles (Coleoptera) and three species of moths (Lepidoptera) were captured in commercial traps. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was the most abundant insect species captured inside the eight mills. The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), was the most abundant insect species outside the mill and in the mill load-out area. The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was the most abundant moth species inside the mill and in the mill receiving area. The Simpson's index of species diversity among mills ranged from 0.39 (low diversity) to 0.81 (high diversity). The types of species found among mills were different, as indicated by a Morisita's index of <0.7, for the majority of mills. The differences in the types and numbers of insect species captured inside, outside, in receiving, and in load-out areas could be related to differences in the types of animal feeds produced and the degree of sanitation and pest management practiced. PMID:18613605

Larson, Zeb; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Herrman, Tim

2008-06-01

115

Validation of Narccap climate products for forest resource applications in the southeast United States  

Science.gov (United States)

A validation study of North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climate simulations is conducted for selected United States Forest Service (USFS) sites in the southeastern USA. Preliminary results focus on qualitative comparisons of seasonal and monthly data from NARCCAP simulations to the regional surface air temperature and precipitation data sets developed at the University of Delaware. Additional analyses extend current validation efforts to more quantitative methods incorporating seasonal and monthly time-series plots of both temperature and precipitation for the selected forest sites. The spatial and time-series display of the GFDL-RCM3 simulations from the NARCCAP products exhibited a cold bias during winter (DJF) in the southeast US in comparison to observations. All of the other models combinations considered here indicated small biases in summer but much better accuracy in winter. These validation studies are precursors to current research to assess the vulnerability of southeastern forest cover and fire loads to climate change. Anticipated outcomes from this research will be useful for decision support and policy development by national, state, and local stakeholders.

Shem, W.; Mote, T. L.; Shepherd, J. M.

2010-12-01

116

Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added, 58-67% and 80-83% of the cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the waste were converted into monomeric sugars. The cellulose conversion efficiency during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) assay at 10% DM was 79% for the highest enzyme loading (25 FPU g(-1) DM) while 69% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids mainly (total carboxylic acids = 3.1-7.4% on DM basis).

Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

2004-01-01

117

Expert system for maintenance/troubleshooting of final product unit (unit-18) Heavy Water Plant - Tuticorin (Paper No. 3.8)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An EXPERT system has been developed at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin to allow quick operator detection and diagnose incipient failures. The EXPERT system can monitor the input data and try to diagnose the root cause of the failure and suggest the maintenance personnel correct mode of approach to solve the problem. Initial development steps include writing the program fault tree and failure modes and its effect on the operation of the process. Fault tree models display the logical relationship between critical events and possible ways in which the events can occur. As a developmental effort, unit 18 (final product unit) process loop instrumentation of heavy water plant is taken as prototype for trying the EXPERT system. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

118

Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

Xiang Li

2013-10-01

119

Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

1981-01-01

120

75 FR 52453 - Entry Requirements for Certain Softwood Lumber Products Exported From Any Country Into the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...international agreement between a country that exports softwood...Bureau Certificate of Origin, as prescribed in CBP...Bureau Certificate of Origin. Conclusion After review...2008), which went into effect August 18, 2008. The...products exported from any country into the United...

2010-08-26

 
 
 
 
121

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

2012-06-01

122

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

123

76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement  

Science.gov (United States)

...An example of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate...Current USWA licenses for agricultural products include grain...disabilities who require alternative means for communication...warehouse operators who store agricultural products; FSA...

2011-03-15

124

75 FR 27614 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is providing notice that on April 8, 2010, the United States received from Indonesia a letter requesting consultations under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Pub. L. 111-31) that prohibits the......

2010-05-17

125

75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is providing notice that on June 10, 2010, the United States received a request from the Republic of Indonesia (``Indonesia'') for the establishment of a dispute settlement panel under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and......

2010-08-16

126

A study on the probabilistic production simulation with energy-limited units using mixture of cumulants approximation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new method which can effectively simulate the production simulation with energy-limited units using Mixture of Cumulants Approximation (MOCA). In this method, the deconvolution procedure of not needed in hydro unit simulation by using Energy Invariance Property. Therefore, we can reduce computational burden. The method is applied to the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) system. The test results are compared with those of Booth-Baleriaux (B-B) method. We conclude that the proposed method is characterized by a combination of high accuracy and considerably reduced computing time.(Author)

127

12 CFR 7.4005 - Combination of loan production office, deposit production office, and remote service unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination of loan production office, deposit...OPERATIONS Preemption § 7.4005 Combination of loan production office, deposit...S.C. 36(j) by virtue of that combination. Since an LPO, DPO, or RSU is...

2010-01-01

128

Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities, in contrast to the other fungi where lower activities were found. The culture filtrates were concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. After enzyme concentration, the highest enzyme activities (1.34 FPU/ml) were found in the culture broth originating from P. brasilianum. Enzymatic hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass) using either enzyme mixtures the glucose yield from cellulose was in the range of 77-79% (w/w).

Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.

2003-01-01

129

Investigation of environmental and exergetic performance for coal-preparation units in cement production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of the present study are to perform energy and exergy analyses of a coal-preparation unit in a cement plant and investigate the effect of varying dead state (ambient) temperatures on exergy efficiency. This is the first study conducted on a coal-preparation unit located in a cement plant with respect to the perspective of exergy. The consumption of exergy, the potential improvement of the unit and the effects of CO2 emission by the unit are also examined in terms of the chosen type of fuel. Based on the results of the analyses, the mean values of energy and exergy efficiencies of the unit are found to be 74.03% and 21.36%, respectively while the average potential improvement of the unit is calculated as 78.24%. The analyses demonstrate that the exergy destruction ratio affects the CO2 emission rate of the unit. Consequently, the present technique is proposed as a useful tool for purposes of developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures, especially concerning similar types of industrial processes.

130

Shutdown behaviour of corrosion product in primary coolant of Slovak and Czech WWER-440 units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, several shutdowns from last operational period of NPP Bohunice (EBO) and NPP Dukovany (EDU) have been analysed and compared with respect of shutdown chemistry and some other factors. Following shutdown chemistry applied at different units have been investigated: Standard chemistry with injection of hydrazine during primary coolant boration - Units EBO 1 and EBO-2 Standard chemistry without injection of hydrazine during primary coolant boration - Units EBO-3, EBO-4 and all EDU Reduced pH(t), ammonia and hydrogen pre-shutdown chemistry for early oxygenation of primary coolant - Units EDU since 1998 Sources of data for comparison were grab samples, on-line gamma spectrometry as well as integrated samples from capillary sampling installed at EBO-3. Drawback of grab sampling method is that in certain phase of shutting down period samples are not available due to special tests being performed. (author)

Smiesko, I. [NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia); Petrecky, I. [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic); Szalo, A. [NPPRI Trnava (Slovakia)

2002-07-01

131

76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased...

2011-06-13

132

Pharmacists’ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists’ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula.Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a struc...

Sa, Fahmy; Abdu S; Abuelkhair M

2010-01-01

133

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

2014-02-01

134

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

2008-06-03

135

Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción / Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de [...] vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from [...] the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

Edgar, Chacón; Isabel, Besembel; Dulce M, Rivero; Juan, Cardillo.

136

Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

2013-01-01

137

Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

138

Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy-wide impacts of the current ethanol production with a government subsidy and the LCF-to-ethanol production using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process. The model is innovative in three ways. First, a production subsidy is explicitly included in the model. Second, co-products are explicitly accounted for in ethanol production. Third, ethanol and gasoline are treated as perfect demand substitutes, as are the co-products and the manufacturing sector's output. The CGE model shows that current ethanol production expands grain crop production by creating an additional demand. In contrast, LCF-to-ethanol production has adverse impacts on grain crop production because Biomass feedstocks substitute for grain in the production of ethanol. The LCF-to-ethanol production also discourages the manufacturing industry because co-products displace a part of intermediate input demand for manufacturing outputs. It is also found that, even though ethanol production using TVA's conversion technology with MSW is economically viable, it is not favorable to the economy. Finally, the results suggest that ethanol production from Biomass feedstocks using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process is beneficial to the U.S. economy.

Choi, Youn-Sang

139

Communication between United States-Based Firms and Mexican Production Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the types of communication technologies being used by United States-based corporations with operations in Mexico to determine the challenges these companies face when communicating across the border. A total of 703 U.S. corporations doing business with Mexico (culled from lists in two professional directories) were chosen for the…

Waldman, Lila

140

Air quality and land productivity in the northeastern United States, 1980-85  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study estimates the impact of ozone pollution and acid rain on agricultural land productivity. Sulfate depositions and ozone reduce productivity, while nitrate depositions increase it. The countervailing effects of sulfate and nitrate depositions cancel each other out. The net effect of acid depositions is negligible over the sample region.

Westenbarger, D.; Frisvold, F.

1992-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

142

Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

2014-11-01

143

PRODUCTION PLANING OF TRANSPORTATION UNITS AT THE COMPANY HTZ I.P.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma work presents the production planing for trucks K1 which are, for the needs of the mine of Velenje, produced by its subsidiary company HTZ I.P. d.o.o. Diploma contains drawings of new plans, evaluation of needed materials, calaculations of parameters for individual operations, estimated time of production, estimated selling price of the product and the construction of jig needed for the welding of the truck. At the end, the estimation of the benefit, brought to the company by ...

Prislan, Blaz?

2011-01-01

144

Child death in the United States: productivity and the economic burden of parental grief.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the economic consequences associated with the death of a child. The economic costs (funeral and medical expenses and productivity losses) of child death 6 months following the death were estimated based on 213 parents who had experienced the death of a child (usually unexpectedly and predominantly mothers). Findings suggest that productivity losses associated with child death comprise most of the costs and that the economic effects are substantial. Costs associated with on-the-job productivity losses ("presenteeism") outweigh the costs associated with absenteeism. To date, no research has empirically measured both absenteeism and presenteeism following bereavement. PMID:24588841

Fox, Melanie; Cacciatore, Joanne; Lacasse, Jeffrey R

2014-10-01

145

Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut-downs and periods of high power demand resulted in 3375 hours of separate operation over the year, giving an average bioethanol energy cost of 0.56 Euro/L. The results suggest that the polygeneration system cannot produce lignocellulosic bioethanol competitively under the given conditions, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity.

Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

146

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

Science.gov (United States)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

147

The United States Atomic Energy Commission programme on marine products irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The USAEC programme organization on radiation treatment of marine products is described. Various elements of the programme including microbiology, facility design, construction and economics are reviewed and analyzed. The importance of the Cl. botulinum, type E, question is discussed as well as the design, capabilities and proposed use of the soon-completed marine products pilot plant, located at Gloucester, Massachusetts. An evaluation is made of present status and future outlook. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

148

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: an economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1. Discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) mg -1 (OD). (author)

149

Primary productivity and the prospects for biofuels in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of land use and plant productivity are combined to predict total annual primary production in the UK as 252 million tonnes dry matter (10.5 t ha-1yr-1). Annual above ground production is predicted to be 165 Mt (6.9 t ha-1yr-1). Within these totals, intensive agriculture contributes 60%, productive woodland 8%, natural vegetation 26% and urban vegetation 5%. However, only 25% of total plant production is cropped by man and animals, and most of this is subsequently discarded as wastes and residues. 2112 PJ of organic material is available for fuel without reducing food or fibre production, but since much of this could not be economically collected, 859 PJ is calculated as a more realistic biofuel contribution by the year 2000. After deducting 50% conversion losses, this could save P1 billion (1979 prices) in oil imports. Short rotation energy plantations, forest residues, coppice woodlands, animal and crop wastes, industrial and domestic wastes, catch crops, natural vegetation and urban vegetation all have immediate or short term potential as biofuel sources. Sensitive planning is required to reduce environmental impact, but in some cases more diverse wildlife habitats may be created.

Lawson, G. J.; Callaghan, T. V.

1983-09-01

150

Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under

Paul Liu

2012-05-01

151

The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

152

Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ? Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ? SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ? Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ? Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ? Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

153

Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission.

Rinehart, G.H.

1997-01-01

154

Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

155

The Haverstraw experience: the first tobacco product display ban in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2012, the village of Haverstraw, New York, passed the first tobacco retail display ban in the United States. Community groups funded by the New York State Department of Health Tobacco Control Program mobilized community members to support an initiative to protect youths in their area from tobacco marketing via methods consistent with a community transformation framework. The law was soon rescinded after 7 tobacco companies and the New York Association of Convenience Stores filed a federal lawsuit against the village that challenged the law's constitutionality. We discuss lessons learned and next steps for adoption of local point-of-sale policies. PMID:24825238

Curry, Laurel E; Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan

2014-06-01

156

Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses, considering both average values and standard deviations.

Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

157

Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

2007-09-15

158

Exploring the potential of Eucalyptus for energy production in the Southern United States: Financial analysis of delivered biomass. Part I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern United States offer a viable feedstock for renewable bioenergy. Delivered cost of eucalypt biomass to a bioenergy facility was simulated in order to understand how key variables affect biomass delivered cost. Three production rates (16.8, 22.4 and 28.0 Mg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, dry weight basis) in two investment scenarios were compared in terms of financial analysis, to evaluate the effect of productivity and land investment on the financial indicators of the project. Delivered cost of biomass was simulated to range from 55.1 to 66.1 per delivered Mg (with freight distance of 48.3 km from plantation to biorefinery) depending on site productivity (without considering land investment) at 6% IRR. When land investment was included in the analysis, delivered biomass cost increased to range from 65.0 to 79.4 per delivered Mg depending on site productivity at 6% IRR. Conversion into cellulosic ethanol might be promising with biomass delivered cost lower than 66 Mg{sup -1}. These delivered costs and investment analysis show that Eucalyptus plantations are a potential biomass source for bioenergy production for Southern U.S. (author)

Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Wright, J.; Saloni, D.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H. [Wood and Paper Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Abt, R. [Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

2011-02-15

159

Climate change impacts on crop productivity in the United States: an uncertainty analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

As the recent drought direly affected crop yields in the U.S., food production declined. Uncertainty about climate change raises further concerns over food security. This study estimates the impact of climate change on rainfed and irrigated crop yields by the end of the century, ...

160

United-atom K X-ray production in nuclear reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The probability for compound-nucleus X-ray production Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) in atomic collisions where long-lived compound nuclei are formed is calculated using the second-order distorted wave Born Approximation. The results are compared with a semi-classical formula which relates Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) to the product of the K-vacancy decay rate GAMMAsub(K), the compound-nucleus lifetime tau, the probability of creating a K vacancy on the incoming part of the collision, and the fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) that have formed a compound nucleus. For an isolated resonance, we find that tau is just the inverse of the resonance with GAMMA, and for the compound-nucleus reactions involving many unresolved resonances, tau is the inverse of the Erison correlation with GAMMAsub(C). For isobaric analog resonances GAMMAsub(C) is expected to be larger on resonance than off resonance. The fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) is given in terms of squares of complex reaction amplitudes.

Anholt, R.

 
 
 
 
161

Radon decay product removal unit as adpated for use with a lamp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radon decay product remover is described for use in a walled living enclosure having an airspace with radon decay products therein, comprising: (a) a threaded male adapter for insertion into a light bulb socket so as to connect the radon decay product remover to an A.C. electrical power supply; (b) an ion generator in the remover and coupled through the adapter to the A.C. power supply, the ion generator having an A.C. to D.C. converter, including a rectifier for rectifying the A.C. power to produce high voltage D.C. power which is coupled to an electrode for creating ions that are distributed in the airspace, resulting in an electric field gradient such that the electrical potential decreases from its maximum voltage at the electrode to essentially zero voltage at the room surfaces causing migration of ions and charged airborne radon decay products toward the boundaries of the airspace of the living enclosure where they deposit on surfaces and are thereby removed from the airspace, (c) a female socket for insertion of a light bulb, the female socket being electrically coupled to the A.C. power supply through the adapator

162

Pharmacists’ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists’ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE. The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula.Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire.Results: Pharmacists’ use of herbal products is high in the UAE, as they have a high belief on the effectiveness of herbal products, and only age was found to be the most predominant variable that was influencing pharmacists’ personal use of herbal products (p-value=0.0171. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on the uses/indications of herbal products (47% rather than on other areas. Knowledge of the dispensing mode (prescription only or over the counter medicines mandated by the Ministry of Health was quite good, however, it is to be noted that the source of information on the dispensing mode was provided by medical representatives (48%. Knowledge of dispensing mode of herbal products was found to be significantly influenced by the place of work with more knowledge of the dispensing mode by pharmacists working in the private sector (p-value 0.0007. The results from the study also underscores the need for including herbal medicine as a separate topic in pharmacy college curriculum and to provide for more seminars and continuing pharmacy education programs targeting pharmacists in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.Conclusions: Pharmacists need to be informed on indications, drug interactions, adverse events and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their efforts to incorporate relevant topics on herbal medicine in the pharmacy students’ curriculum.

Fahmy SA

2010-06-01

163

United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

164

THE EFFECT OF REDUCTION CONCENTRATIONS OF THE BROILER CHICKENS PER UNIT AREA ON THE FINAL LIVE WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION ECONOMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the present study was a mathematical and statistical assessment for the effect of concentration of broiler chickens per unit area to the final live weight and production economics. Cobb 500 chickens were fattening for 42 days in a hall on deep litter. During the two experiments the chickens were divided to two groups according to concentration per unit area and it was about 30 and 25 kg/m2. The experiments had been complied with recommended  nutritional  requirements  for  breeding  and  final fattening type of chickens Cobb500. The average final weight of broiler chickens in the first experiment were 2.14 and 2.17 kg for concentrations of 29.41 and 25.76 kg/m2 respectively, and for the second experiment  were 2.01 and 2.02 kg for concentrations of 29.33 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively. According to statistical analysis (P?0.05, the average final live weight of broiler chickens was not affected by concentrations.  The calculated production total live weight of broiler chickens across the halls were 48526.5, 48 394.5, 42504.0 and 39435.0 kg at a concentrations of 29.41, 29.33, 25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively.  By reducing the concentration of birds in the hall from 29.41 to  29.33 kg/m2 and from 25.76 to 23.9 kg/m2   the total production of broiler chickens was decreased by 6022.5 and  8959.5 kg live weight respectively. The concentration of birds per unit area of ??25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 lead to lower the  price of the product of broiler chickens by 4745.73 and 7060.09 € respectively, compared with  the price for the product of the concentrations of 29.41and  29.33 kg/m2 respectively.doi:10.5219/198

Martin Kliment

2012-04-01

165

A comparative waste management performance assessment of two uranium production units in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ecipitated material composed by silica, sulfate, phosphate, titanium, iron and calcium besides uranium. These solids are separated from the uranium solution through filtration in activate coal filters. It can be seen that the uranium content in the leached ore represents 15% of the original ore and that the content of 226Ra is virtually the same. As result the leached ore piles may be a relevant source of 226Ra in the long term. It is expected that this scheme will reduce the fluxes of radionuclides from the piles to marginal levels without major environmental concerns After the solvent extraction uranium content in the liquor drops from 12 to 0,003 g/L. The most important aspect in the operation of the Caetite Unit is that liquid effluent emissions into the environment do not take place. One of the determining factors regarding the environmental performance of both units is the prevailing climatological condition at these sites. Rainfall rates of about 1,700 mm/year are observed at the Pocos de Caldas site. On the other hand this value drops to 800 mm/year at the Caetite site. Due to the highest rainfall rates observed at Pocos de Caldas site, an amount equivalent to US$ 3,35 million has been spent with acid drainage abatement (77% only with water treatment). Remediation plans for the Pocos de Caldas site include the, among other issues, stabilization of the uranium mill tailings dam, and abatement of acid mine drainage. In both cases it has been assessed that the application of dry covers will be the most adequate solution. Remediation costs associated with these measures are estimated to be in the range of US$ 3 to 10 million. In the case of Caetite unit ongoing closure of waste-rock piles and tailings ponds is taking place. Costs involved on these activities are not available. Although, it can be assumed that they will be much lower than those to be practiced at Pocos de Caldas site. The vulnerable aspect of the Caetite site has also to do with rainfall rates, but in an opposite direction. Since perennial water bodies are not available at the mine location, groundwater is of key relevance. Salinity of these waters poses significant difficulties for the uranium recovery operation. In addition, underground water bodies are very sensitive to pollution as they serve as water resource for local communities

166

Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and alternative models of higher education.

Gustavo Gregorutti

2010-12-01

167

Integrated target-ion source unit for on-line production of radioactive short-lived isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new version of integrated target-ion source unit (ionising target) has been developed for the on-line production of radioactive single-charged ions. The target is able to withstand temperatures up to 2500 C and acts also as an ion source of the surface and laser ionisation. Off-line and on-line experiments with the ionising target, housing tantalum foils as a target material, have been carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility. The off-line surface ionisation efficiency measured for stable atoms of Li, Rb and Cs was correspondingly 6%, 40% and 55% at the target temperature of 2000 C and 3-10% for atoms of rare-earth elements Sm, Eu, Tm and Yb at a temperature of 2200 C. The off-line measured values of the ionisation efficiency for stable Gd and Eu atoms by the laser beam ionisation inside the target were 1% and 7%, respectively. The radioactive beam intensities of neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclides from Eu to Lu produced by the integrated target-ion source unit have been measured at a temperature of 2500 C. The results of the integrated target-ion source unit use for on-line laser resonance ionisation spectroscopy study of neutron-deficient Gd isotopes have been also presented. (orig.)

168

Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

169

Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using ?-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

170

Comparison of Mechanized Units in Rural Cooperatives, Production Cooperatives and Mechanized Companies in Fars Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooperative have always been considered institutions capable of solving major problems in the process of development in different countries. These institutions has evolved along with theories of development from government dependent organization to independent, people centered with the objective of being equal-opportunity systems for all members in order to be responsive to current goals of development. The aim of the present research was to determine the level of success in mechanized companies in Fars Province (12 Mechanized Companies, 24 Rural Cooperatives and 8 Production Cooperatives in achieving development goals through a survey research. The findings indicated that production cooperatives were more successful in promoting farmers' income and participation of members in community activities, increasing equity and farmers' work related welfare while mechanized companies had more achievements in flexibility and participation of members in making decisions regarding farming activities and in terms of payment to farmers. In other words, production cooperatives have been more successful in achieving development goals (increasing income, participation, and work related welfare and decreasing inequity. Mechanized companies rank a position in the middle of the success scale, but rural cooperatives had the lowest success level in achieving development goals.

E. Karami

2001-10-01

171

Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity

172

Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Products into the Decision Support Systems of the United Nations World Food Programme  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will describe our collaborative work with the World Food Programme of the United Nations, including web-based information services and tools to address global and regional water related issues, such as, floods and droughts. Set-up in 1963, the World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. WFP depends on donors worldwide. The United States of America has been the largest donor. Natural disasters, such as, floods and droughts, occur every year in third world countries and often require emergency food aid. Moving large quantities of foods is not an easy task. Time and planning are required. Accurate and timely environmental information will facilitate decision-making and food distribution and maximize the use of contributions. Few observational data are available for disaster monitoring in remote and poor countries. Satellite observations provide a unique way in providing such data from space. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and Dr. Lenard Milich of WFP have been collaborating for the past three years on ways to integrate Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data into forward planning exercises for establishing geographic areas (e.g., sub-equatorial Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea) in need of food assistance. To monitor and assess current conditions, the GES DISC has developed a number of rainfall products derived from TRMM and online based tools to facilitate data and information access. These tools will not only benefit the WFP decision-making activities, but also other local agencies and the general public. All data and services are web-based to minimize the cost for data accessing and maximize the use of global rainfall data products.

Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Kempler, S.

2005-12-01

173

Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

Kenneth M. Casebeer

2012-05-01

174

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

Haas, Kevin

2013-09-15

175

Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

2014-04-01

176

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01

177

Contact diagnostics of combustion products of rocket engines, their units, and systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is devoted to a new block-module device used in the diagnostics of condensed combustion products of rocket engines during research and development with liquid-propellant rocket engines (Glushko NPO Energomash; engines RD-171, RD-180, and RD-191) and solid-propellant rocket motors. Soot samplings from the supersonic high-temperature jet of a high-power liquid-propellant rocket engine were taken by the given device for the first time in practice for closed-exhaust lines. A large quantity of significant results was also obtained during a combustion investigation of solid propellants within solid-propellant rocket motors.

Ivanov, N. N.; Ivanov, A. N.

2013-12-01

178

Behavior of copper corrosion products in water contours of power units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Copper corrosion products (CP) solubility under state parameters of actual aqueous chemical regimes (ACR) whose sedimentations in the steam-generating sections (up to 85 % of the total amount) stimulate local corrosion types, is considered. The consideration from the viewpoint of equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical equilibria in multicomponent water-salt systems in their refraction for intracontour corrosion processes and mass transfer permits to obtain the missing information in the quiding materials on ACR and explains technical consequences of variations in the normalized parameters

179

The segment as the minimal planning unit in speech production: Evidence based on absolute response latencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A minimal amount of information about a word must be phonologically and phonetically encoded before a person can begin to utter that word. Most researchers assume that the minimum is the complete word or possibly the initial syllable. However, there is some evidence that the initial segment is sufficient based on longer durations when the initial segment is primed. In two experiments in which the initial segment of a monosyllabic word is primed or not primed, we present additional evidence based on very short absolute response times determined on the basis of acoustic and articulatory onset relative to presentation of the complete target. We argue that the previous failures to find very short absolute response times when the initial segment is primed are due in part to the exclusive use of acoustic onset as a measure of response latency, the exclusion of responses with very short acoustic latencies, the manner of articulation of the initial segment (i.e., plosive vs. nonplosive), and individual differences. Theoretical implications of the segment as the minimal planning unit are considered. PMID:24863574

Kawamoto, Alan H; Liu, Qiang; Lee, Ria J; Grebe, Patricia R

2014-12-01

180

Geothermal development and production of electricity in the Southwestern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer simulation model (GIRORA-Electric) is developed to study the economics of power generation from high temperature geothermal resources. GIRORA-Electric is a discounted cash flow investment model which evaluates the rate of return on producers' capital investment. This model consists of two major submodels: the exploration and development of a geothermal anomaly by a producer; and the purchase of geothermal fluid by a utility developer. The primary output of the model is a calculated rate of return on the capital investment earned by the geothermal producer. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the model subject to changes in physical and economic parameters are given. Using the results of the economic analysis, the high temperature geothermal sites (temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C) in the Southwestern United States are examined for economic viability for power generation. The total amount of power that can be brought on line in the Southwest Region is estimated under three different scenario assumptions. An econometric model is developed to estimate the total demand for electricity in the Southwest Region. From this demand and supply estimates, the amount of geothermal energy that can be utilized is also estimated.

Nowotny, K.R.; Rao, C.R.

1978-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

182

Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The current political, environmental, and economic climates mandate greater efficiency in the production and use of coal. Coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities must establish the actual cost of the CWSF production for the technology to move forward. Coal-fired utilities that own fine coal impoundments and/or operate fine coal cleaning circuits need to determine how these coal fines can be used to reduce operating cost.

Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

183

A comparison of four methods for integrating 14C-primary productivity measurements per unit area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four methods were compared for the integration of 14C-primary productivity per m2; (1) the in situ method at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5m (standard depths 1); (2) the in situ method at 0, 5, 10 and 12.5m (standard depths 2); (3) the in situ method at 2.5, 7.5 and 11.5m for each sample pumped over depth intervals 0 to 5m, 5 to 10m, and 10 to 12.5m, respectively (integrated depths); and (4) the simulated in situ method for samples collected from light standard depths. The method which appeared to give the most reliable results was that (3) in which samples were averaged by pumping water over the euphotic depth followed by incubation of integrated samples at the middle of each depth interval. (author)

184

Assessment of radiological problems due to natural radionuclides, in units of exploration and production of petroleum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the study of the occurrence of technologically enhanced natural radioactive material in petroleum offshore platforms of Campos Basin. The material found in drums that came from the platforms and scales from production tubes were analyzed for characterization and determination of its specific activity. There were made measurement of the dose rate in several platforms and radon concentration in onshore and offshore facilities. The results were compared with limits of the Brazilian legislation and international recommendations and actions were proposed to be implemented to assure the workers and environment protection. The results show that with the adequate actions the workers will not receive exposures above the public limits according international recommendations. (author)

185

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10 ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42 ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the US. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Y. Choi

2008-09-01

186

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Y. Choi

2008-03-01

187

Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01

188

Soil organic carbon sequestration in cotton production systems of the southeastern United States: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past agricultural management practices have contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and emission of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide). Fortunately, however, conservation-oriented agricultural management systems can be, and have been, developed to sequester SOC, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Our objectives were to (i) review literature related to SOC sequestration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, (ii) recommend best management practices to sequester SOC, and (iii) outline the current political scenario and future probabilities for cotton producers to benefit from SOC sequestration. From a review of 20 studies in the region, SOC increased with no tillage compared with conventional tillage by 0.48 +/- 0.56 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (H(0): no change, p cotton with high-residue-producing crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and small grains would sequester greater quantities of SOC than continuous cotton. No-tillage cropping with a cover crop sequestered 0.67 +/- 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), while that of no-tillage cropping without a cover crop sequestered 0.34 +/- 47 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (mean comparison, p = 0.04). Current government incentive programs recommend agricultural practices that would contribute to SOC sequestration. Participation in the Conservation Security Program could lead to government payments of up to Dollars 20 ha(-1). Current open-market trading of C credits would appear to yield less than Dollars 3 ha(-1), although prices would greatly increase should a government policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions be mandated. PMID:16825457

Causarano, H J; Franzluebbers, A J; Reeves, D W; Shaw, J N

2006-01-01

189

Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

2014-05-01

190

United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

Sean, Gillon.

191

Production and Adaptation Assessments of Agricultural Crops under Climate Change in Southeastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

We use multiple Global Climate Models (GCMs) data from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) in a point based crop simulation model, Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT), to investigate the impact of climate variability and change on crop yields in the southeastern United States. The input data consists of maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation at daily time-scale, covering 30 years (1975-2004) in the baseline period, and 90 years (2010-2100) in the future period under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. The DSSAT model is run for 1009 counties of 10 southeastern states, representing the study area. Default DSSAT crop and biophysical process parameter values are used with some minor adjustments based on suggestions from scientific literature. For the analyses of projected changes, we divide the 21st century into the near-term (2010-2039), mid-term (2040-2069) and long-term (2070-2100) periods and investigate the effect of changes in mean and extreme hydro-meteorological characteristics on crop yields by using future temperature, precipitation and CO2 data. We conduct two sets of experiments; the first set of experiments isolates the effect of temperature and precipitation on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation data from each of the three future periods while keeping CO2 at the baseline level (380ppm). The second set of experiments isolates the effect of CO2 on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation from the baseline period and using CO2 level as an average of the last 10 years in each of the three future periods (467ppm, 636ppm and 886ppm). Given the projected changes in the crop yields in the future, we focus on the adaptation strategies at the local level based on the optimal management practices such as irrigation, fertilization and planting date that will be needed to adapt to regional climate variability and change.

Absar, M.; Touma, D. E.; Mei, R.; Rastogi, D.; Surendran Nair, S.; Ahmed, K. F.; Wu, W.; Preston, B. L.; Ashfaq, M.

2013-12-01

192

Structure of capital equipment distribution among production units in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes trends in mechanization and automation of operations in underground black coal mining in the Karaganda basin from 1965 to 1979. In the analyzed period number of operating coal mines in the basin decreased by 30% and coal output increased by 50.5%, number of longwall faces decreased by 29% and coal output from a face increased by 20.5%. The average labor efficiency for a miner in a month increased by 1.5 times. In the same time value of capital invested in black coal mining in the basin increased by 2.3 times. Efficiency of capital productivity in coal mining is unsatisfactory. It is associated with: machine failures, excessively long period of assembling and disassembling face systems, extensive downtime due to operational reasons, low quality of repair and maintenance. Working time losses caused by machine failures and other reasons in the longwall faces mined by face systems exceed 25%. Major operations such as mining, mine haulage, hoisting, ventilation, mine drainage, repair and maintenance, as well as coal preparation, coal transport on the surface of coal mines and coal storage are characterized. Proportion of machines and equipment taking part in individual operations is given in a table. It is stated that a low degree of mechanization is characteristic of auxiliary operations and repair.

Karenov, R.S.

1981-08-01

193

Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots of environmental impacts that could be subject to mitigation. PMID:22184424

Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

2012-01-01

194

Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots of environmental impacts that could be subject to mitigation. PMID:22184425

Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

2012-01-01

195

A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of 85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics. PMID:24639116

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

196

Transcription unit mapping bacteriophage T7. II. Proportionality of number of gene copies, mRNA, and gene product  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of uv-irradiation of bacteriophage T7 on in vivo early RNA synthesis has been studied by direct quantitation of the gene-specific RNA transcripts. The results show that the early region of phage T7 is transcribed from left to right as a single unit. Furthermore, gene inactivation, the uv sensitivity of synthesis of gene-specific RNA, and the uv sensitivity of synthesis of the corresponding proteins all follow pseudo first-order kinetics in multiply infected cells, demonstrating a random statistical correlation between both transcriptional sampling of gene copies and translational sampling of the resultant RNA transcripts. In addition, these simple kinetics imply an absence of positive feedback mechanisms compensating for the differential decline of individual early gene products in cells multiply infected with phage T7. (auth)

197

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

198

Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

Stockmann Keith D

2012-01-01

199

Short interspike intervals and double discharges of anconeus motor unit action potentials for the production of dynamic elbow extensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence of double discharges (DDs; >100 Hz) and short interspike intervals (ISIs; >50 to <100 Hz) is reported to vary widely among different muscles and tasks, with a higher incidence in motor unit (MU) trains of fast muscles and for the production of fast contractions in humans. However, it is unclear whether human muscles with a large composition of slower motor units exhibit DDs or short ISIs when activated with maximal synaptic drive, such as those required for maximal velocity dynamic contractions. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing peak contraction velocity on the incidence of DDs and short ISIs in the anconeus muscle. Seventeen anconeus MUs in 10 young males were recorded across dynamic elbow extensions ranging from low submaximal velocities (16% of maximal velocity) up to maximal velocities. A low incidence of DDs (4%) and short ISIs (29%) was observed among the 583 MU trains recorded. Despite the low incidence in individual MU trains, a majority (71% and 94%, respectively) of MUs exhibited at least one DD or short ISI. The number of short ISIs shared no variance with MU recruitment threshold (R(2) = 0.02), but their distribution was skewed toward higher peak velocities (G = -1.26) and a main effect of peak elbow extension velocity was observed (P < 0.05). Although a greater number of short ISIs was observed with increasing velocity, the low incidence of DDs and short ISIs in the anconeus muscle is likely related to the function of the anconeus as a stabilizer rather than voluntary elbow extensor torque and velocity production. PMID:24554783

Harwood, B; Rice, C L

2014-05-01

200

Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

 
 
 
 
201

Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

202

Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acider peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

203

A Dynamic Simulation of the Indirect Land Use Implications of Recent Biofuel Production and Use in the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global indirect land use change (ILUC) implications of biofuel use in the United States of America (USA) from 2001 to 2010 are evaluated with a dynamic general equilibrium model. The effects of biofuels production on agricultural land area vary by year; from a net expansion of 0.17 ha per 1000 gallons produced (2002) to a net contraction of 0.13 ha per 1000 gallons (2018) in Case 1 of our simulation. In accordance with the general narrative about the implications of biofuel policy, agricultural land area increased in many regions of the world. However, oil-export dependent economies experienced agricultural land contraction because of reductions in their revenues. Reducing crude oil imports is a major goal of biofuel policy, but the land use change implications have received little attention in the literature. Simulations evaluating the effects of doubling supply elasticities for land and fossil resources show that these parameters can significantly influence the land use change estimates. Therefore, research that provides empirically-based and spatially-detailed agricultural land-supply curves and capability to project future fossil energy prices is critical for improving estimates of the effects of biofuel policy on land use.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

2013-01-01

204

Novel approach for computing photosynthetically active radiation for productivity modeling using remotely sensed images in the Great Plains, United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Gross primary production (GPP) is a key indicator of ecosystem performance, and helps in many decision-making processes related to environment. We used the Eddy covariancelight use efficiency (EC-LUE) model for estimating GPP in the Great Plains, United States in order to evaluate the performance of this model. We developed a novel algorithm for computing the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) based on net radiation. A strong correlation (R2=0.94,N=24) was found between daily PAR and Landsat-based mid-day instantaneous net radiation. Though the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based instantaneous net radiation was in better agreement (R2=0.98,N=24) with the daily measured PAR, there was no statistical significant difference between Landsat based PAR and MODIS based PAR. The EC-LUE model validation also confirms the need to consider biological attributes (C3 versus C4 plants) for potential light use efficiency. A universal potential light use efficiency is unable to capture the spatial variation of GPP. It is necessary to use C3 versus C4 based land use/land cover map for using EC-LUE model for estimating spatiotemporal distribution of GPP.

Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shuguang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

2012-01-01

205

The Impact of Migraine and the Effect of Migraine Treatment on Workplace Productivity in the United States and Suggestions for Future Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence suggests that migraine is associated with decreased productivity. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications that measured the impact of migraine on workplace productivity in the United States and provides recommendations for future research. A MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2008. Articles were included if the results were from a prospective or retrospective study that reported work-specific produc...

Burton, Wayne N.; Landy, Stephen H.; Downs, Kristen E.; Runken, M. Chris

2009-01-01

206

Osmium Isotope Constraints on the Timing of Production and Destruction of Mantle Lithosphere in the Southwest United States  

Science.gov (United States)

When convecting mantle melts, the residual peridotite becomes less dense and may be become stabilized as lithosphere. The Re-Os isotope chronometer has been successfully applied to determining the timing of melt extraction in mantle peridotite. In continental regions where multiple mantle xenolith locales are present, the Re-Os chronometer can be applied to assessing the timing of mantle melting in relation to juvenile continental crust production, stabilization, and destruction of mantle lithosphere. This is evaluated here for the off-craton mantle lithosphere in the Southwest United States by examining 5 mantle xenolith suites from locales spanning a region hundreds of kilometers north to south and east to west - Dish Hill, California; Lunar Crater Nevada; Grand Canyon and San Carlos, Arizona; and Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico. Because Re is mobile in mantle peridotites at surface conditions, direct Re-Os isochrons representing mantle melting ages are typically absent. Instead melting proxies for Re such as Al2O3 can be used to obtain ';aluminachron' ages or to assess disturbances of the mantle lithosphere following partial melting. The Dish Hill, Grand Canyon, and Kilbourne Hole suites display lithophile element evidence for post-melting, multiple modal and cryptic metasomatic events in combination with positive and well correlated Os isotope versus Al2O3 trends. For example, each of these xenolith suites has samples with light rare earth element (LREE) depleted to LREE-enriched bulk rock and clinopyroxene compositions. However, no correlation exists between LREE differences and their Os isotope, bulk rock Al compositions, or other indices of melt-rock interaction. The Os-aluminachron age obtained for Dish Hill is 2.15 Ga, for Grand Canyon is 2.31 Ga, and for Kilbourne Hole is 1.96 Ga. These ages overlap TDM ages for the overlying crustal provinces confirming a link between melting that creates mantle lithosphere and production of juvenile continental crust. A second aluminacrhon is present in a distinct group of Dish Hill samples with an age of 1.4 Ga, indicating a later melting event and possible creation of mantle lithosphere. Two of the sample suites, San Carlos and Lunar Crater, show no correlations between Os isotopes and melt depletion indices. The lowest Os isotope value in the San Carlos suite is 0.1206, giving a minimum melt depletion age of 1.23 Ga, and for the Lunar Crater suite is 0.1191, giving a minimum melt depletion age of 1.4 Ga, significantly younger than their respective overlying crustal provinces, but are similar to the age obtained for the younger suite of Dish Hill samples. Both locales fall within the Basin and Range extensional province with its associated present-day mantle upwelling. These Os isotope systematics and younger ages than the ca. 2 to 2.3 Ga melt depletion ages of the 3 other locales may indicate that lithospheric mantle was removed in some portions of the Basin and Range and replaced with younger partially melted mantle. The extent and the mechanisms of mantle lithosphere production and removal within the Southwest United States can be further examined with Os isotopes from additional mantle xenolith locales spanning a wide spatial distribution within the Basin and Range province.

Brandon, A. D.

2013-12-01

207

N-soliton states of the FPU lattices  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice equation that converge to a sum of co-propagating $N$ solitary waves as $t\\to\\infty$ using linear stability property of multi-soliton like solutions in an exponentially weighted space proved by [Mizumachi, arXiv:0906.1320]. Counter-propagating two soliton states have been studied by [Hoffman and Wayne, Asymptotic two-soliton solutions in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model, J. Dynam. Differential Equations 21 (2009), 343-351].

Mizumachi, Tetsu

2010-01-01

208

The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

209

Ethanol production from sunflower meal biomass by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lignocellulosic materials are considered promising renewable resources for ethanol production, but improvements in the processes should be studied to reduce operating costs. Thus, the appropriate enzyme loading for cellulose saccharification is critical for process economics. This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of cellulase and ?-glucosidase in the production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sunflower meal biomass. The sunflower biomass was pretreated with 6 % H2SO4 (w/v), at 121 °C, for 20 min, for hemicellulose removal and delignificated with 1 % NaOH. SSF was performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907, at 38 °C, 150 rpm, for 72 h, with different enzyme concentrations (Cellulase Complex NS22086-10, 15 and 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-Glucosidase NS22118, with a cellulase to ?-glucosidase ratio of 1.5:1; 2:1 and 3:1). The best condition for ethanol production was cellulase 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-glucosidase 13.3 CBU/gsubstrate, resulting in 27.88 g/L ethanol, yield of 0.47 g/g and productivity of 0.38 g/L h. Under this condition the highest enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose was attained (87.06 %). PMID:24794173

Camargo, Danielle; Gomes, Simone D; Sene, Luciane

2014-11-01

210

Bioethanol production from wheat straw via enzymatic route employing Penicillium janthinellum cellulases.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study concerns in-house development of cellulases from a mutant Penicillium janthinellum EMS-UV-8 and its application in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes for bioethanol production from pre-treated wheat straw. In a 5L fermentor, the above strain could produce cellulases having activity of 3.1 FPU/mL and a specific activity of 0.83 FPU/mg of protein. In-house developed cellulase worked more efficiently in case of SSF as ethanol concentration of 21.6g/L and yield of 54.4% were obtained which were higher in comparison to SHF (ethanol concentration 12 g/L and 30.2% yield). This enzyme preparation when compared with commercial cellulase for hydrolysis of pre-treated wheat straw was found competitive. This study demonstrates that P. janthinellum EMS-UV-8 is a potential fungus for future large-scale production of cellulases. PMID:25086433

Singhania, Reeta Rani; Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Adsul, Mukund; Mathur, Anshu; Gupta, Ravi; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

2014-10-01

211

An empirical study to measure the relative efficiency and productivity of different units of an Iranian bank using DEA and Malmquist index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to measure the relative efficiency of different units of a publicly traded bank using data envelopment analysis. The study also measures the productivity of different banks using Malmquist index and the results are compared with relative efficiency of banks. The proposed model uses nine financial factors reported by the bank officials for both studies where five items are used for efficiency measurement and the other four items are used for productivity measurement. The results indicate that different banks perform inefficient in terms of efficiency but they have attempted to increase their productivity. We also analyze the results and give guidelines on how inefficient units could increase their efficiency by reducing their inputs or increasing their outputs.

Mohammad Hemati

2011-07-01

212

Regulatory science: a special update from the United States Food and Drug Administration: Preclinical issues and status of investigation of botanical drug products in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent survey was conducted across the therapeutic divisions within the CDER, U.S. FDA regarding the number of submissions related to botanical drug products over the past ten years. The overall number of botanical submissions as expressed in the parenthesis are as follows: 1990 (1), 1991 (4), 1992 (4), 1993 (5), 1994 (6), 1995 (5), 1996 (13), 1997 (16), 1998 (10). In the total of 64 counted, 50 of them are submitted in original IND and the rest (14) in pre-IND format. The therapeutic categories are focused on dermatological and topical (19), anti AIDS/antiviral (12), oncologic (13), neuropharmacologic (8), endocrine and metabolic (3), urologic (2), tobacco (2), and cardio-renal products (1). The regulatory actions taken on these submissions showed that 68% of them are evaluated as safe to proceed for the human trials, while the rest (32%) of submissions required agency's regulatory guidance. Among the submissions that required further guidance, 81% were deficient in preclinical pharmacology/toxicology information and the rest (19%) lacks information in other areas (chemistry, clinical protocols). Following agency's guidance, 93% of the submissions that were put on hold were allowed to proceed. In summary, a total of 94% of all the botanical INDs submitted to the agency were allowed to proceed without additional animal toxicity studies conducted. In conclusion, this survey indicates that the growing public interest in botanical supplements has prompted more formal evaluation of the efficacy/safety claims of these products. PMID:10643863

Wu, K M; DeGeorge, J G; Atrakchi, A; Barry, E; Bigger, A; Chen, C; Du, T; Freed, L; Geyer, H; Goheer, A; Jacobs, A; Jean, D; Rhee, H; Osterberg, R; Schmidt, W; Farrelly, J G

2000-01-01

213

A trial production of the image slicer unit for next generation infrared instruments and the assembly of the evaluation system of the pseudo slit image quality  

Science.gov (United States)

We have carried out the trial production of small format (n=5) image slicer aiming to obtain the technical verification of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) that can be equipped to the next generation infrared instruments such as TMT/MICHI and SPICA/SMI. Our goal is to achieve stable pseudo slit image with high efficiency. Here we report the results of the assembly of the image slicer unit and the non-cryogenic evaluation system of the pseudo slit image quality in the infrared.

Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Tokoro, Hitoshi; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kirino, Okiharu; Mitsui, Kenji; Okada, Norio

2014-08-01

214

Application of digital soil mapping in traditional soil survey - an approach used for the production of the national soil map of the United Arab  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital soil maps are essential part of the soil assessment framework which supports soil-related decisions and policy-making and therefore it is of crucial importance that they are of known quality. Digital soil mapping is perhaps the next great advancement in soil survey information. Traditional soil survey has always struggled with the collection of data. The amount of soil data and information required to justify the mapping product, how to interpolate date to similar areas, and how to incorporate older data are all challenges that need further exploration. The present study used digital soil mapping to develop a generalized national soil map of the United Arab Emirates with available recent traditional soil survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate (2006-2009) and Northern Emirates (2010-2012), together with limited data from Dubai Emirate, an important part of the country. The map was developed by joining, generalizing, and correlating the information contained in the Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate, the Soil map of Dubai with limited data, and the Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates. Because the soil surveys were completed at different times and with different standards and procedures, the original map lines and soil classifications had to be modified in order to integrate the three original maps and legends into this single national level map. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 was used to guide line placement of the map units. It was especially helpful for the Torripsamments units which are separated based on local landscape relief characteristics. A generalized soil map of the United Arab Emirates is produced, which consists of fifteen map units, twelve are named for the soil great group that dominants each unit. Three are named "Rock outcrop", "Mountains", or "Miscellaneous units". Statistical details are also presented. Soil great groups are appropriate taxa to use for soil classification at a small scale, such as this national map. The map unit descriptions provide information about the general range of important soil properties of the soil great group. The overall extent of each soil map unit in the United Arab Emirates is presented, as well as the percentage of the map unit that occurs within each emirate. The general soil map provides an overview of the kinds of soils making up the United Arab Emirates and their general location.

Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C.

2012-04-01

215

The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

Valenchon, C.; Rossig, J.H. [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G. [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1998-05-01

216

19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...seq. ) that is entered or withdrawn from warehouse for consumption, in the customs territory of the United States, the...if any, to be collected by the country (including any political subdivision of the country) from which the...

2010-04-01

217

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml?1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l?1) and glutamate (3.6 g l?1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml?1) were also much greater (8–150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

218

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 327.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...Ante-mortem inspection of animals for slaughter and inspection... Scotland, Slovakia, 2 Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay...food products derived from animals slaughtered under Federal...

2010-01-01

219

19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...softwood lumber or softwood lumber product but in similar quantities...softwood lumber or softwood lumber product sold at a different level...softwood lumber or softwood lumber product and in different quantities...those charges incurred in the placement of merchandise on board...

2010-04-01

220

Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

1982-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Study of Faculty Productivity through Confirmatory Factor Analysis: the case of Psychology in United States of America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article proposes the use of Confirmatory Factor Analysis techniques as a new approach to the measurement problem of faculty productivity. For this purpose, the author uses an analysis of scholarly productivity with data of 513 professors in the field of psychology in North America, between 1997 and 1998. Based on this analysis it is possible to identify three latent variables that describe the productivity of the sample: one factor that captures theinflation of all the observed variables, one factor that measures individual productivity and a factor that measures the joint productivity of faculty members. The findings suggest the need of novel approaches to policies for measurement and support of faculty productivity. These policies should be oriented not only to increase the productivity rates but also to decrease the probability of inflation.

MARÍA CARIDAD GARCÍA-CEPERO

2010-03-01

222

The ROCA project. Heat, power and CO{sub 2} production in one unit - combustion technology plays a key role  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ROCA 3 unit in the Netherlands is a heat and power unit combining the generation of power with the supply of heat for district heating and, what`s new, the supply of CO{sub 2} containing gases to greenhouses. Stringent demands are placed on the purity of CO{sub 2} containing gases. Thanks to its innovative combustion technology, however, Stork succeeded in supplying an istallation meeting these demands. This article starts with a brief description of the Roca power station, followed by particulars on the design of and results achieved with the combustion system developed by Stork. (orig.)

Verhoeff, F.; Kissing, J.; Bergmanns, S.

1997-12-31

223

Chemicals of emerging concern in household products: a case study on the disposal of cosmetics in the United Kingdom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Household products may contain chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) and their use and disposal can contribute to CECs being released to the environment with the potential to cause concern. Cosmetic products were used to exemplify the source-pathway-effect relationship for CECs, by investigating the use of cosmetics as a prospective pollutant source, their disposal, as a pathway for environmental contamination and, the potential need for effective management of CECs in products. Emphasis was p...

Dhaniram, Danelle

2012-01-01

224

Product Evaluation Attributes and Consumer Product Trust of Branded and Generic Drugs: A Comparative Study of the United States and Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A focus on understanding the attributes that impact product evaluation is important in developing effectivemarketing strategies of branded and generic drugs. This Quantitative cross-cultural study examines whether arelationship exists between product evaluation attributes and consumer product trust and loyalty of branded andgeneric drugs. This study examined the attributes of gender, country, product involvement, and consumerknowledge.A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data from patients and employees from twodifferent healthcare centers, one in Kenya and the other in central Florida. The outcome of the study indicatedthat there was a correlationbetween several of these attributes and consumer product trust of generic and brandeddrugs. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. Despite of its limitations, the results of this studylay down a strong foundation for further research on this subject.

Jackson Musyimi

2014-07-01

225

Production of L-lactic acid and oligomeric compounds from apple pomace by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: a response surface methodology assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of apple pomace for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was evaluated. The effects of the cellulase to solid ratio (CSR), the liquor to solid ratio (LSR), and the beta-glucosidase to cellulase ratio (BCR) on the kinetics of lactic acid generation were assessed, and a set of mathematical models was developed to reproduce and predict the lactic acid concentration of fermentation broths. Operating at low cellulase and cellobiase charges (1 FPU/g and 0.25 IU/FPU, respectively) and short reaction times (10 h), SSF media containing 27.8 g of lactic acid/L were obtained with a volumetric productivity of 2.78 g/Lh. Material balances showed that the SSF processing of 100 kg of dry apple pomace results in the production of 36.6 kg of lactic acid, 18.3 kg of oligomeric carbohydrates (which can be used as ingredients for functional foods), 8.4 kg of microbial biomass, and 8 kg uronic acids. PMID:17567032

Gullón, Beatriz; Garrote, Gil; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, J C

2007-07-11

226

Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

227

Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions. PMID:24850389

Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

2014-01-01

228

Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles substitutes at a higher rate for soybean meal, oil replacement requirements intensify and positively feedback to elevate estimates of land usage. Conclusions Accounting for anticipated technological changes in the corn ethanol system is important for understanding the associated land base ascribed, and may aid in calibrating parameters for land use models in biofuel life-cycle analyses. PMID:24725504

2014-01-01

229

Analysis of production losses during a major outage, Pickering G.S. Units 1/2 retube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the time of writing, Ontario Hydro had recently completed the removal and subsequent replacement of fuel channel components in Pickering Units 1 and 2. To assist in future retubing, an analysis was made of lost man-hours incurred. The lost time was associated with radiological concerns (particularly carbon-14), equipment failures, scheduling shift changes and lunch breaks, and higher-priority work (not having a team completely dedicated to retubing)

230

Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summariz...

Smith, James E.; Hoover, Coeli M.

2012-01-01

231

Using thermal units for crop coefficient estimation and irrigation scheduling improves yield and water productivity of corn (Zea mays L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estimates of daily crop coefficient (Kc) for corn and irrigation scheduling were performed during 2009 and 2010 by means of two approaches: treatment I, computation of Kc using the FAO method; treatment II, computation of Kc from relative fraction of thermal units. Corn crop water requirements and irrigation gross depth for treatment I were about 25 to 33 % lower than that for treatment II in 2009 and 2010 respectively. However, the performance of the treatment II was better in terms of grain...

Bautista-capetillo, Carlos F.; Zapata, Manuel; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio

2012-01-01

232

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...licensees of the system; (C) The assignment of competent, qualified inspectors...slaughtering and preparation of product, by the assignment of inspectors to establishments certified...Norway, Paraguay, Poland, Republic of China, (Taiwan), Republic of...

2010-01-01

233

9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...licensees of the system; (C) The assignment of competent, qualified inspectors...processing of poultry products, by the assignment of inspectors to establishments certified...ratites only). People's Republic of China. 2 [37 FR 9706, May 16,...

2010-01-01

234

75 FR 81650 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-United Negro...  

Science.gov (United States)

[Federal Register Volume...JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant...Cooperative Research and Production...General and the Federal Trade Commission...HBCUs and MIs in Federal research and development...Antitrust Division. [FR...

2010-12-28

235

Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments. PMID:17008083

Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

2006-10-01

236

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

237

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN-PROCESS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS QUALITY CONTROL TESTS OF INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA, BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA & UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA FOR CAPSULES AND LIQUID ORALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study deals with a brief overview of the comparative study of quality requirements for in-process and finished products quality control Tests of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP, British Pharmacopeia (BP & United States Pharmacopeia (USP for some conventional dosage forms. The concept of total quality control test refers to the process of striving to produce a quality product by a series of measures, requiring an organized effort in order to eliminate errors at every stage in the production. In process product testing is done in order to check the conformance of the final product with the compendial standards as specified in the pharmacopoeias. As the final sample taken for the finished product testing is only a representative of a large batch, a significant difference still remains. The pharmacopoeias have laid down the specified limits within which the value should fall in order to be compliant as per the standards. The official pharmacopoeias in different parts of the world specify the quality requirements for pharmaceutical products. However the parameters and standards differ to some extent from each other. Hence an attempt is being made to compare and bring out the harmonized limits within which a product should fall in order to meet the pharmacopoeial specifications that satisfy quality requirements for many regions. The main aim is to study the quality control tests for capsules and liquid orals and to list down the similarities and differences as per various Pharmacopoeias. The parameters examined for capsules and liquid orals dosage forms as per the Pharmacopoeias were compared and certain similarities and differences were observed. It was noted that except for a few parameters, the quality control tests were broadly similar.

Teja CH

2011-09-01

238

Performance Analysis of Bit-Width Reduced Floating-Point Arithmetic Units in FPGAs: A Case Study of Neural Network-Based Face Detector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper implements a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based face detector using a neural network (NN and the bit-width reduced floating-point arithmetic unit (FPU. The analytical error model, using the maximum relative representation error (MRRE and the average relative representation error (ARRE, is developed to obtain the maximum and average output errors for the bit-width reduced FPUs. After the development of the analytical error model, the bit-width reduced FPUs and an NN are designed using MATLAB and VHDL. Finally, the analytical (MATLAB results, along with the experimental (VHDL results, are compared. The analytical results and the experimental results show conformity of shape. We demonstrate that incremented reductions in the number of bits used can produce significant cost reductions including area, speed, and power.

Ho Lee Moon

2009-01-01

239

PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective. Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos.

Joel González Castillo

2012-08-01

240

Identification of the bkdAB gene cluster, a plausible source of the starter-unit for virginiamycin M production in Streptomyces virginiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bkdAB gene cluster, which encodes plausible E1 and E2 components of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) complex, was isolated from Streptomyces virginiae in the vicinity of a regulatory island for virginiamycin production. Gene disruption of bkdA completely abolished the production of virginiamycin M (a polyketide-peptide antibiotic), while the production of virginiamycin S (a cyclodepsipeptide antibiotic) was unaffected. Complementation of the bkdA disruptant by genome-integration of intact bkdA completely restored the virginiamycin M production, indicating that the bkdAB cluster is essential for virginiamycin M biosynthesis, plausibly via the provision of isobutyryl-CoA as a primer unit. In contrast to a feature usually seen in the Streptomyces E1 component, namely, the separate encoding of the alpha and beta subunits, S. virginiae bkdA seemed to encode the fused form of the alpha and beta subunits, which was verified by the actual catalytic activity of the fused protein in vitro using recombinant BkdA overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Supply of an additional bkdA gene under the strong and constitutive promoter ermE* in the wild-type strain of S. virginiae resulted in enhanced production of virginiamycin M, suggesting that the supply of isobutyryl-CoA is one of the rate-limiting factors in the biosynthesis of virginiamycin M. PMID:17375285

Pulsawat, Nattika; Kitani, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Lee, Chang Kwon; Nihira, Takuya

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Distribution of corrosion products in the steam-water circuit of a power unit with WWER-1000 under hydrazine water chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distributions of structural materials corrosion products over the main components of steam generator feedwater were investigated in two power units with WWER-1000 reactors and K-1000-60/1500 turbine plants. Correcting agent (hydrazine) was introduced at the second-stage condensate pump sections. Iron oxide content in feedwater was determined for different levels of hydrazine concentration. It is concluded that main contributions to the total iron loss in steam generators under normal weak-alkaline hydrazine conditions are made by corrosion of steel surfaces of high pressure heaters on water and steam sides (31 and 21% respectively)

242

Introduction to Specialty Animal Production Unit for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide and Student Reference.  

Science.gov (United States)

The materials contained in this document are for a five-lesson course intended to introduce Missouri secondary vocational education students to many of the specialty animal enterprises available in the field of agriculture. The lessons are on speciality animal production possibilities, profitability of specialty animal enterprises, comparative…

Schwindt, Bob

243

Incorporating water production and carbon sequestration into forest management planning: a case study in Yalnizcam planning unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable forest management requires smart integration of forest values both to control forest ecosystems and to satisfy the needs and expectations of stake holders. This research initiative aimed to integrate water and carbon values into forest management plan and explain their effects on forest dynamics. Alternative management strategies with a mix of management objectives maximizing the amount or NPV (Net Present Value) of timber, carbon and water production along with constraints such as area, volume control and ending inventory were developed. A linear programming (LP) model with a planning horizon of 100 years and periods of 10 years was developed. Model outputs as NPV and amounts of timber, water and carbon were used as performance indicators to discuss forest dynamics under various management strategies. The results showed that water NPV aimed strategies (*W) provided minimum timber production and maximum water production. Besides, even though timber NPV aimed strategies (*T) obtained maximum NPV of timber as expected, surprisingly maximum timber and carbon production were provided by carbon NPV aimed strategies (*C) due mainly to afforestation of large forest openings in the case study area. The results indicated that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the contents of a strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate. (Author) 47 refs.

Baskent, E. Z.; Mumcu Kucuker, D.

2010-07-01

244

Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

2014-03-15

245

Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

2014-01-01

246

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-12-17

247

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

2012-05-01

248

The Botulism Hazard in the Proposed Use of Irradiation of Fish and Fishery Products in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proposals to treat packaged fish with pasteurizing doses of radiation, and the potential health hazards of this process are described. It is proposed to introduce irradiation into an existing processing and distribution chain for retail packs of chilled fish. The Codes of Practice at present in use provide an adequate safeguard against possible health hazards, primarily by the control of temperature, and limit the storage time to about half the potential shelf life of the fish. Irradiation of these products with 0.3 Mrad will result in a considerable extension of storage life whilst maintaining the same high quality of the product. It is concluded that whilst Clostridium botulinum types E, F and non-proteolytic B could be present in the raw material, no particular health hazard exists unless gross malpractice occurs, especially in relation to the temperature of storage. (author)

249

The costs and benefits of large-scale solar photovoltaic power production in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for a 10 MW photovoltaic power plant in Abu Dhabi is examined in this paper using RETScreen modeling software to predict energy production, financial feasibility and GHG emissions reductions. Initial results show high energy production potential, generating 24 GWh and saving over 10,000 tons of GHG emissions annually, but poor financial prospects yielding a net present value (NPV) of -$51 million. Benefits of reducing GHG and air pollution emissions by replacing natural gas with PV generation are calculated to have a net present value of $47 million, with a large range of possible values. Results show that the high initial costs and low expected price for electricity generated are driving reasons why photovoltaic systems are not being implemented in Abu Dhabi. A feed-in tariff rate of $0.16/kWh is recommended to make large-scale PV systems profitable. (author)

Harder, Elizabeth; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 148A Rosenau Hall, CB 7431, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431 (United States)

2011-02-15

250

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market....

Kalyan (Kal) Chakraborty

2011-01-01

251

Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

252

PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si [...] el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos. Abstract in english This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective [...] . Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.

Joel, González Castillo.

253

The use of the United States FDA programs as a strategy to advance the development of drug products for neglected tropical diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infections which are endemic in poor populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Approximately one billion people have now or are at risk of getting an NTD and yet less than 5% of research dollars are focused on providing treatments and prevention of these highly debilitating and deadly conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orphan Drug Designation program (ODDP) provides orphan status to drugs and biologics, defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases and/or disorders that affect fewer than 200 000 people in the United States, or that affect more than 200 000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. These regulations have led to the translation of rare disease knowledge into innovative rare disease therapies. The FDA Guidance for Industry on developing drugs for the treatment and prevention of NTDs describes the following regulatory strategies: Orphan Product Designation, Fast Track Designation, Priority Review Designation, Accelerated Approval and Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher. This paper will discuss how these regulations and especially the ODDP can improve the clinical development and accessibility of drug products for NTDs. PMID:24512098

Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Conway, Jocelyn; Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Wasan, Kishor M

2014-11-01

254

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Graham, William D.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-01-01

255

The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good; Les Etats-Unis et la securite petroliere mondiale. Politique petroliere americaine et production d'un bien collectif global  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

Noel, P

2004-07-15

256

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged increases in public investment spending on economic and social infrastructure have a positive and significant effect on the rate of labor productivity growth. In addition, the model is estimated for a shorter period (1970-2010 to capture the impact of inward FDI flows. The estimates suggest that (lagged inward FDI flows have a positive and significant impact on labor productivity growth, while increases in the labor force have a negative effect. From a policy standpoint, the findings call into question the politically expedient policy in many Latin American countries, including Argentina during the 1990s and early 2000s, of disproportionately reducing public capital expenditures to meet reducetions in the fiscal deficit as a proportion of GDP. The results give further support to progrowth policies designed to promote public investment spending and attract inward FDI flows.

Miguel D. Ramirez

2012-10-01

257

Competitividad internacional, productividad y costos laborales unitarios en la industria manufacturera / International Competitiveness, Productivity and Unit Labor Costs in the Manufacturing Industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se investigan los efectos de la productividad laboral, el tipo de cambio real y otras variables, sobre la competitividad internacional (CI) manufacturera durante el período 1996-2008. Para ello, se construye un índice de competitividad internacional y se estiman dos modelos VAR gener [...] alizados. La evidencia sugiere que la productividad laboral influye más sobre la competitividad internacional que el tipo de cambio real. Así mismo, la competitividad internacional aumenta cuando los costos laborales unitarios descienden; es decir, cuando la productividad de los trabajadores crece por encima de los salarios. En este contexto, un paquete de políticas sectoriales de estímulo a la productividad laboral fortalecería más la competitividad internacional que una depreciación cambiaria. Abstract in english This paper explores the effects of labor productivity, the actual exchange rate and other variables on the manufacturing industry's international competitiveness (IC) during a twelve-year period: 1996-2008. To this end, we construct an ic index and estimate two generalized VAR models. The empirical [...] evidence suggests that labor productivity influences ic to a greater extent than actual exchange rate depreciation. Furthermore, manufacturing ic increases when unit labor costs decrease; that is, when labor productivity grows faster than wages. In this way, an integral package of policy measures designed to stimulate productivity of workers may be more effective in increasing manufacturing ic than actual currency depreciation.

Víctor Manuel, Cuevas Ahumada.

258

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

259

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09

260

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

The impact of COPD on quality of life, productivity loss, and resource use among the elderly United States workforce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract To address the gap in knowledge about the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on older working adults, this study examined quality of life, worker productivity, and healthcare resource utilization among employed adults aged 65 and older with and without COPD. Among 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (a cross-sectional, internet-based survey representative of the US adult population) respondents, employed adults aged 65 years and older, with COPD (n = 297) and without COPD (n = 3061), were included in analyses. Impact of self-reported COPD diagnosis on mean quality of life (using health utilities and mental, MCS, and physical, PCS, component summary scores from SF-12v2), work productivity and activity impairment (using the WPAI questionnaire), and resource use were examined. Adjusting for demographic and health characteristics such as co-morbidities (weighted to project to the US population) in regression models (linear, negative binomial, or logistic, as appropriate given the outcome measure), older workers with COPD reported significantly lower MCS (52.1 vs. 53.4, p < .05), PCS (40.3 vs. 47.2, p < .05), and health utilities (0.72 vs. 0.79, p < .05) than those without COPD, and significantly greater percentages of impairment while at work (presenteeism) (12.6% vs. 8.7%, p < .0001), overall work impairment (absenteeism and presenteeism combined) (19.3% vs. 10.0%, p < .05), and impairment in daily activities (23.9% vs. 13.7%, p < .05). There were no significant differences in absenteeism or healthcare use. Quality of life and work productivity suffered among employed adults aged 65 years and older with COPD, emphasizing the need for disease management in this population. PMID:22292597

DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Su, Jun; McDonald, Margaret; Zou, Kelly H; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Shah, Hemal

2012-02-01

262

An Assessment of Land Availability and Price in the Coterminous United States for Conversion to Algal Biofuel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Realistic economic assessment of land-intensive alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) requires information on land availability and price. Accordingly, we created a comprehensive, national-scale model of these parameters for the United States. For algae-based biofuel, a minimum of 1.04E+05 km2 of land is needed to meet the 2022 EISA target of 2.1E+10 gallons year-1. We locate and quantify land types best converted. A data-driven model calculates the incentive to sell and a fair compensation value (real estate and lost future income). 1.02E+6 km2 of low slope, non-protected land is relatively available including croplands, pasture/ grazing, and forests. Within this total there is 2.64E+5 km2 of shrub and barren land available. The Federal government has 7.68E+4 km2 available for lease. Targeting unproductive lands minimizes land costs and impacts to existing industries. However, shrub and barren lands are limited by resources (water) and logistics, so land conversion requires careful consideration.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2012-12-01

263

L-lactic acid production from apple pomace by sequential hydrolysis and fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of apple pomace (a solid waste from cider and apple juice making factories) as a source of sugars and other compounds for fermentation was evaluated. The effect of the cellulase-to-solid ratio (CSR) and the liquor-to-solid ratio (LSR) on the kinetics of glucose and total monosaccharide generation was studied. Mathematical models suitable for reproducing and predicting the hydrolyzate composition were developed. When samples of apple pomace were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose and fructose present in the raw material as free monosaccharides were extracted at the beginning of the process. Using low cellulase and cellobiase charges (8.5 FPU/g-solid and 8.5 IU/g-solid, respectively), 79% of total glucan was saccharified after 12 h, leading to solutions containing up to 43.8 g monosaccharides/L (glucose, 22.8 g/L; fructose, 14.8 g/L; xylose+mannose+galactose, 2.5 g/L; arabinose+rhamnose, 2.8g/L). These results correspond to a monosaccharide/cellulase ratio of 0.06 g/FPU and to a volumetric productivity of 3.65 g of monosaccharides/L h. Liquors obtained under these conditions were used for fermentative lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT-288, leading to media containing up to 32.5 g/L of L-lactic acid after 6 h (volumetric productivity=5.41 g/L h, product yield=0.88 g/g). PMID:17321133

Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, J C

2008-01-01

264

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

Laura Del Coco

2012-05-01

265

1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the United States of America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy's leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

2012-05-01

266

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables

267

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Using survey data from the US consumers this study finds that mandatory labeling for hormone (bST induced milk would increase the economic benefit to the society raising the consumer and producer surpluses and provides the right to choose in the hands of the consumers. 

Kalyan (Kal Chakraborty

2011-04-01

268

Differences in Land Surface Phenology and Primary Productivity in the Western United States during El Niño and La Niña Events from 2000-2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Timing of plant life cycle events (phenology) and annual plant productivity represent key interactions between the atmosphere and the biosphere, with implications and feedbacks for climate and ecosystem functions. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system is the dominant source of interannual climate variability in the western United States, with important effects on temperature, precipitation, and drought. We examine the connection between ENSO and terrestrial vegetation dynamics using the enhanced vegetation index and net primary production (NPP) from MODIS, along with the 2006 National Land Cover Dataset and EPA Level 2 Ecoregions. El Niño events are associated with significant increases in NPP throughout the western U.S., and with an earlier start of the growing season in much of the Pacific Northwest and parts of the Southwest (though the overall association of ENSO with land surface phenology is complex and spatially heterogeneous). The correlation between total annual production and the Southern Oscillation Index is highest in mid- to late-winter prior to the growing season, suggesting some predictive power in advance of the growing season.

Dannenberg, M.; Song, C.; Hwang, T.

2013-12-01

269

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2014-02-21

270

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources, as well as transportation and utility infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and strains of the order Sphaeropleales. A total of 64,000 sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively applied screening criteria and tracked their impact on the number of potential sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrated maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Sphaeropleales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Results were driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low-salinity freshwater (flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species like Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements. PMID:24559117

Venteris, Erik R; McBride, Robert C; Coleman, Andre M; Skaggs, Richard L; Wigmosta, Mark S

2014-03-18

271

Serotype distribution and production of muramidase-released protein, extracellular factor and suilysin by field strains of Streptococcus suis isolated in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Differences in virulence have been noted among the 33 described serotypes, serotype 2 being considered the most virulent. In this study, we aimed at assessing the serotype distribution and the production of virulence-associated markers by strains recovered from diseased pigs in the United States (U.S.). Results showed that among the 100 strains evaluated, serotype 3 (20% of the isolates) and serotype 2 (17%) were the most prevalent. We then investigated the presence in these isolates of the genes sly, epf and mrp, encoding the virulence-associated markers suilysin (SLY), extracellular factor (EF) and muramidase-released (MRP) protein, respectively. The effective production of the markers by the strains was also verified. Results showed that the presence of the gene did not always correlate with actual expression of the respective protein. In the case of MRP, this was due, in most cases, to frameshift mutations at the 5' end of the gene resulting in premature stop codons. The most prevalent phenotypes among U.S. strains were MRP(+)EF(-)SLY(-) (40%) and MRP(-)EF(-)SLY(+) (35%). Serotype distribution greatly differed from that reported in several European countries, as did the production of virulence markers, particularly for serotype 2. On the other hand, our results for the U.S. S. suis isolates are similar to those reported for Canadian strains, suggesting a common status in North America. PMID:19596529

Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Fuller, Troy E; Teel, Janet F; Wilson, Thomas L; Wolfram, Thaddeus J; Lowery, David E; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2009-11-18

272

The product of dpsC confers starter unit fidelity upon the daunorubicin polyketide synthase of Streptomyces sp. strain C5.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of daunorubicin and its precursors proceeds via the condensation of nine C-2 units derived from malonyl-CoA onto a propionyl starter moiety. The daunorubicin polyketide biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. strain C5 has two unique open reading frames, dpsC and dpsD, encoding, respectively, a fatty acid ketoacyl synthase (KAS) III homologue that is lacking an active-site cysteine and a proposed acyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase. The two genes are positioned directly downstream of dpsA and dpsB which encode the alpha and beta components of the type II KAS, respectively. Expression of the dpsABCDEFGdauGI genes in Streptomyces lividans resulted in the formation of aklanonic acid, the first stable chromophore of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Deletion of dpsC, but not dpsD, from this gene set resulted in the formation of desmethylaklanonic acid, derived from an acetyl-CoA starter unit, and aklanonic acid, derived from propionyl-CoA, in a 60:40 ratio. Thus, DpsC contributes to the selection of propionyl-CoA as the starter unit but does not alone dictate it. A dpsCD deletion mutant of Streptomyces sp. strain C5 (C5VR5) still produced daunorubicin but, more significantly, anthracycline and anthracyclinone derivatives resulting from the use of acetyl-CoA as an alternative starter moiety. Expression of dpsC, but not dpsD, in mutant C5VR5 restored the wild-type phenotype. Among the new compounds was the new biosynthesis product feudomycin D. These results suggest that in the absence of DpsC, the daunorubicin PKS complex behaves promiscuously, utilizing both acetyl-CoA (ca. 60% of the time) and propionyl-CoA (ca. 40%) as starter units. The fact that DpsC is not required for initiation with propionyl-CoA is significant, as the information must then lie in other components of the PKS complex. We propose to call DpsC the propionyl starter unit "fidelity factor." PMID:11162232

Rajgarhia, V B; Priestley, N D; Strohl, W R

2001-01-01

273

Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

2013-09-01

274

Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

275

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

Jessica A. Homyack

2014-11-01

276

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01

277

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

278

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

279

Unit contradiction versus unit propagation  

CERN Document Server

Some aspects of the result of applying unit resolution on a CNF formula can be formalized as functions with domain a set of partial truth assignments. We are interested in two ways for computing such functions, depending on whether the result is the production of the empty clause or the assignment of a variable with a given truth value. We show that these two models can compute the same functions with formulae of polynomially related sizes, and we explain how this result is related to the CNF encoding of Boolean constraints.

Bailleux, Olivier

2012-01-01

280

Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

Mostahsine S.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

282

Breed differences over time and heritability estimates for production and reproduction traits of dairy goats in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid in improvement of breeding programs for production and reproduction traits of US dairy goats, breed differences over time were documented and genetic parameters were estimated. Data were from herds with ?2 breeds (Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Oberhasli, Saanen, or Toggenburg), but only purebred data were analyzed. Three kidding periods were examined: 1976 through 1984, 1985 through 1994, and 1995 through 2005. Univariate repeatability mixed models were used to estimate least squares means by kidding period-breed and genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yields, combined fat and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, protein:fat ratio, age at first kidding, and kidding interval. Trends across kidding periods were favorable for most yield traits for all breeds but generally unfavorable for reproduction traits. Saanens had the highest milk (1,063 to 1,125 kg) and protein yields (31 to 33 kg). Nubians had the highest fat yields (37 to 40 kg) and lowest milk yields (791 to 851 kg). Oberhaslis had the lowest fat (31 to 33 kg) and protein (23 to 27 kg) yields. Alpines had the largest increase in milk yield (7.4%); Oberhaslis had the largest increase in protein (17.4%) and combined fat and protein (13.2%) yields. Combined fat and protein yield was higher for Nubians, Saanens, and Alpines (65 to 72 kg) than for LaManchas, Toggenburgs, and Oberhaslis (53 to 67 kg). Nubians had the highest fat (4.7 to 4.8%) and protein (3.6 to 3.8%) percentages. Only Nubians increased in fat percentage (2.1%); protein percentage increased most for Toggenburgs (7.4%) and Alpines (7.1%). Protein:fat ratio was highest for Toggenburgs (0.84 to 0.89) and lowest for Nubians (0.76 to 0.81), but Nubians had the largest increase in protein:fat ratio (6.6%). Saanens were oldest at first kidding (509 to 589 d), and Toggenburgs and LaManchas generally were youngest (435 to 545 d); age at first kidding increased most for Alpines (21.8%) and LaManchas (21.6%). Kidding intervals generally were shorter for Oberhaslis, LaManchas, and Nubians (350 to 377 d) than for Toggenburgs, Alpines, and Saanens (373 to 387 d). Kidding interval increased most for Nubians (3.9%) and Saanens (3.8%) and decreased only for Oberhaslis (5.4%). Heritability estimates across breeds were 0.35 for milk and fat yields, 0.37 for protein yield and protein:fat ratio, 0.36 for combined fat and protein yield, 0.52 for fat percentage, 0.54 for protein percentage, 0.23 for age at first kidding, and 0.05 for kidding interval. Genetic selection within breed is feasible for production and reproduction traits of US dairy goats. PMID:22541500

García-Peniche, T B; Montaldo, H H; Valencia-Posadas, M; Wiggans, G R; Hubbard, S M; Torres-Vázquez, J A; Shepard, L

2012-05-01

283

The cost of muscle power production: muscle oxygen consumption per unit work increases at low temperatures in Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic energy (ATP) supply to muscle is essential to support activity and behaviour. It is expected, therefore, that there is strong selection to maximise muscle power output for a given rate of ATP use. However, the viscosity and stiffness of muscle increases with a decrease in temperature, which means that more ATP may be required to achieve a given work output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP use increases at lower temperatures for a given power output in Xenopus laevis. To account for temperature variation at different time scales, we considered the interaction between acclimation for 4 weeks (to 15 or 25°C) and acute exposure to these temperatures. Cold-acclimated frogs had greater sprint speed at 15°C than warm-acclimated animals. However, acclimation temperature did not affect isolated gastrocnemius muscle biomechanics. Isolated muscle produced greater tetanus force, and faster isometric force generation and relaxation, and generated more work loop power at 25°C than at 15°C acute test temperature. Oxygen consumption of isolated muscle at rest did not change with test temperature, but oxygen consumption while muscle was performing work was significantly higher at 15°C than at 25°C, regardless of acclimation conditions. Muscle therefore consumed significantly more oxygen at 15°C for a given work output than at 25°C, and plastic responses did not modify this thermodynamic effect. The metabolic cost of muscle performance and activity therefore increased with a decrease in temperature. To maintain activity across a range of temperature, animals must increase ATP production or face an allocation trade-off at lower temperatures. Our data demonstrate the potential energetic benefits of warming up muscle before activity, which is seen in diverse groups of animals such as bees, which warm flight muscle before take-off, and humans performing warm ups before exercise. PMID:24625645

Seebacher, Frank; Tallis, Jason A; James, Rob S

2014-06-01

284

United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

285

Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz / International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar [...] la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo mediante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relation [...] ship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

José A. Melquíades, Hernández-Solabac; Martha E., Nava-Tablada; Salvador, Díaz-Cárdenas; Emiliano, Pérez-Portilla; Esteban, Escamilla-Prado.

286

Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

287

Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

2012-01-01

288

Inventory dynamic management applied to supply offshore production units; Gerenciamento dinamico da localizacao de armazens e alocacao de estoques aplicado ao abastecimento de unidades de producao offshore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery of large reserves in the region called the pre-salt, significantly changed the environment of oil production in Brazil, as well as the entire chain involved in these activities. From the standpoint of logistics network linked to exploration and production of oil, located further down the coast at greater depths and in a place with no infrastructure in place, new and challenging problems arise: tighter restrictions need to address the problem at different levels hierarchical, requiring consideration of risks and uncertainties in addressing problems and decision making. The correct dimensioning of the network of support facilities, the allocation and sizing of inventory of supplies and spare parts illustrate a series of decisions ranging from strategic decisions to operational planning. In terms of specific operations involved in oil production in offshore platforms, with severe space constraints and high costs of storage and transport these issues are of particular interest. The objective of this work is to develop a model of inventory management, aiming to supply equipment for the extraction of oil at sea, usually called Production Units (UPs), which considers: effects of consolidating inventory, potential alternatives to location of these inventories and time variation of both the location of the UPs, and their demand patterns. For this purpose we developed a nonlinear mathematical programming model whose objective is to minimize the fixed costs of installation of warehouses and variable costs of transportation and storage. Different scenarios are analyzed to understand how the incorporation of the cycle and safety stocks affects the decision to locate one or more warehouses, and also the effects related to the main inventory allocation policies. (author)

Silva, Thiago Castilho Moreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

289

Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the timing and amount of precipitation suggest three considerations for large mammal conservation in the Southwest. First, being tied to June NDVI, mule deer distribution is likely to track areas defined by relatively early growing seasons, whereas elk abundance is likely to increase in response to enhanced summer precipitation. Second, in mesic environments bighorn sheep are both poor competitors and susceptible to predation. To the extent that bighorn sheep are forced to share ranges with deer or elk, they may be adversely affected by changing climate. Lastly, shifts in ungulate abundance may lead cougars to switch prey in some localities, or contract from the drier portions of their current range as energetic costs rise beyond threshold values.

Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

2013-12-01

290

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose. PMID:24679663

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

2014-04-01

291

Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296?mL?CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12?FPU/g sweet sorghum.

Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

2014-01-01

292

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

293

Influence of the technological know-how of producers on the biochemical characteristics of red sorghum malt from small scale production units in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of red sorghum malt production was monitored three times in five production units (PU) selected upon their ability to produce malt flours having a high capacity to fluidify high-energy-density gruels. Raw, germinated and degermed seeds were analysed for macronutrient, soluble sugars, phytate and cyanide contents and alpha-amylase activity. Know-how differences between producers lay mainly in the duration and type of equipment used for steeping and germination. Moreover, three PUs applied a maturation step before sun-drying and one PU added ashes to steeped seeds before germination. No significant difference was detected in the proximate composition of malts from the five PUs. For all PUs, traditional malting increased the protein content and decreased the lipid and ash contents, while the fibre content was not affected. Significant increases in sugar contents and in alpha-amylase activity were observed but in variable proportions from one PU to another. The phytate content decreased significantly in all PUs. The cyanide content increased in all PUs but more drastically or less drastically according to the PU. Finally, degerming lowered the cyanide content to an acceptable level for human consumption. The between-PU variability may be due either to the nature and origin of the raw seeds or to technological know-how differences between producers. Further investigations are needed to optimize and standardize the malting process with a view to maximizing alpha-amylase and phytase activities and minimizing the variability of their biochemical characteristics. PMID:17415957

Traore, Tahirou; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Traoré, Alfred S; Trèche, Serge

2007-02-01

294

Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

2014-05-06

295

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States / Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos [...] e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural [...] products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural p

Francis X, Mangan; Raquel U de, Mendonça; Maria, Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio, Nunes; Fernando L, Finger; Zoraia de Jesus, Barros; Hilton, Galvão; Gustavo C, Almeida; Rachel AN, Silva; Molly D, Anderson.

2008-03-01

296

Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

2009-01-01

297

Cellulolytic enzymes production by utilizing agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation and its application for biohydrogen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated for cellulase and hemicellulase production using various agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. Optimization of various environmental factors, type of substrate, and medium composition was systematically investigated to maximize the production of enzyme complex. Using grass powder as a carbon substrate, maximum activities of endoglucanase (188.66 U/gds), exoglucanase (24.22 U/gds), cellobiase (244.60 U/gds), filter paperase (FPU) (30.22 U/gds), glucoamylase (505.0 U/gds), and xylanase (427.0 U/gds) were produced under optimized conditions. The produced crude enzyme complex was employed for hydrolysis of untreated and mild acid pretreated rice husk. The maximum amount of reducing sugar released from enzyme treated rice husk was 485 mg/g of the substrate. Finally, the hydrolysates of rice husk were used for hydrogen production by Clostridium beijerinckii. The maximum cumulative H2 production and H2 yield were 237.97 mL and 2.93 mmoL H2/g of reducing sugar, (or 2.63 mmoL H2/g of cellulose), respectively. Biohydrogen production performance obtained from this work is better than most of the reported results from relevant studies. The present study revealed the cost-effective process combining cellulolytic enzymes production under solid state fermentation (SSF) and the conversion of agro-industrial residues into renewable energy resources. PMID:25374139

Saratale, Ganesh D; Kshirsagar, Siddheshwar D; Sampange, Vilas T; Saratale, Rijuta G; Oh, Sang-Eun; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-12-01

298

Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from 'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

NONE

2005-03-15

299

Widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type UV light filters in personal care products from china and the united states: an assessment of human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a sunscreen agent used in a variety of personal care products (PCPs) for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Concerns have been raised over exposure of humans to BP-3, owing to the estrogenic potential of this compound. Nevertheless, the levels and profiles of BP-3 in PCPs and sources of exposure of humans to this estrogenic compound are not well-known. In this study, concentrations of BP-3 were determined in seven categories of 231 PCPs collected from several cities in China (n = 117) and the United States (U.S.) (n = 114), using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BP-3 was found in the majority (81%) of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 0.148%. The highest BP-3 concentrations (geometric mean [GM]: 548; median: 530 ng/g) were found in skin lotions (including sunscreen lotions), followed by makeup products (284; 221 ng/g). PCPs collected from the U.S. contained higher concentrations of BP-3 than those collected from China. On the basis of the concentrations measured and daily usage rates of PCPs, we estimated the daily intake of BP-3 through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs. The GM and 95th percentile exposure doses to BP-3 were 0.978 and 25.5 ?g/day, respectively, for adult women in China, which were 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found for adult women in the U.S. (24.4 and 5160 ?g/day). Skin lotions and face creams contributed to the preponderance of daily BP-3 exposures (>80%). PMID:24588714

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-04-01

300

Grau de acabamento e unidades equivalentes de produção: uma abordagem conceitual e empírica / Finishing level and equivalent production units: an empirical and conceptual approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objeto de estudo o problema da determinação do grau de acabamento utilizado no processo de cálculo das unidades equivalentes de produção no sistema de custeio por processo contínuo. Foi estabelecida a hipótese que a teoria da contabilidade de custos não oferece uma solução objet [...] iva para o cálculo do grau de acabamento e, dessa forma, as empresas não adotam os conceitos teóricos fundamentais definidos pela teoria, no que diz respeito à valorização do estoque de produtos em processo e valorização dos produtos acabados em indústriais de produção contínua A revisão da literatura, considerando-se um grupo de obras de autores clássicos da contabilidade de custos, constatou que não existe indicação objetiva da forma de cálculo do grau de acabamento. Este trabalho apresenta um método para cálculo do grau de acabamento e um estudo exploratório desenvolvido com a finalidade de se obter um conhecimento pragmático sobre a realidade das empresas quanto ao tema em questão. As pesquisas bibliográfica e empírica indicam a validade da hipótese estabelecida. Abstract in english This paper focuses on how to determine the finishing level used in calculating the equivalent production units in the continuous process costing system. The hypothesis was established that cost accounting theory does not offer an objective solution for the calculation of the finishing level and, con [...] sequently, enterprises do not adopt the fundamental theoretical concepts about the inventory evaluation of goods in process and finished goods in continuous production industries. A collection of classic cost accounting works was revised¹ , which revealed that there does not exist any objective indication about how to measure the finishing level. In this paper, a method for finishing level measurement is presented and an exploratory study is developed, which aims at obtaining practical knowledge about the reality of the enterprises in relation to the subject discussed in this paper. The bibliographical and empirical researches indicate the validity of the hypothesis established.

Reinaldo, Guerreiro; Edgard Bruno, Cornachione Jr; Armando, Catelli.

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part II: Characteristics of the calcium silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated in order to determine the effects of mineralisation on alite and belite; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, P2m'). The polymorphism of alite was studied using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), wavelength 1.5227 A, and electron diffraction (ED) in a transmission electron microscope. The substitutions of minor elements in alite and belite were determined using electron microprobe analysis. Clinkers P1 and P1m both contained apparent rhombohedral alite (XRD) with an incommensurately modulated structure (ED), while clinkers P2, P2m, and P2m' all contained monoclinic alite (XRD). The addition of mineralisers in the process caused increased content of fluoride in alite and increased substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) and S(6+) in both calcium silicates. The latter effect was most pronounced in clinker P1m due to its high molar SO3 to alkali oxide ratio (R=2.18). The improved hydraulic activity of P1m compared to P1 was caused by substitutions rather than a change in symmetry. The decreased hydraulic activity of P2m and P2m' compared to P2 was explained by the high levels of fluorine, which had a retarding effect on the hydration

302

EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON ON THE BODY WEIGHT, SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND LIBIDO IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS MAINTAINED AT THE SEMEN PRODUCTION UNIT, QADIRARAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of age and season on body weight, scrotal circumference and libido in 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad. Depending on age, these bulls were divided into three equal groups viz. young (3-4 years of age, adult (5-8 years of age and old (12-15 years of age. Body weight and scrotal measurements were made at monthly intervals while libido of each bull was assessed weekly during the low (May to July and the peak (September to November breeding seasons. The results indicated that the body weight of adult and old bulls was higher (P<0.05 than young bulls. Similarly. The body weight was higher during peak than low breeding season. Scrotal circumference was higher in adult and old bulls than young bulls and during peak than low breeding season (P<0.05. The libido of the adult bulls was higher than young or old bulls, and during the peak than the low breeding season. It was concluded that body weight, scrotal circumference and libido of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were significantly affected by age of the bull and season of the year.

M. Younis, H.A. Samad, N. Ahmad and I. Ahmad

2003-04-01

303

Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

2006-11-01

304

Interface unit:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit comprises a processor for receiving and processing data inputs and transmitting data outputs. The interface unit is designed for selecting for each room separately a desired temperature setting.

Keyson, D. V.; Freudenthal, A.; Hoogh, M. P. A.; Dekoven, E. A. M.

2001-01-01

305

Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from 429 litters reared in 36 batches at six Danish multi-site farms chronically infected with the agents. At the farms, weaning age was 3-4.5 weeks, after which batches of pigs were reared using all-in/all-out management by room. Blood samples were collected shortly before: weaning, transfer from weaning-site to finishing-site, and sending the first pigs in the batch for slaughter (third sampling). Few pigs seroconverted at the weaning-sites, whereas considerable variation in seroconversion was observed at the finishing-sites. Multilevel logistic models (initially including four levels: farm, batch, litter, pig) were used to decompose the variation in seroconversion at the finishing-site. However, there was essentially no clustering at the litter level-leading to the use of three-level models. In the case of Ap2, clustering within batch was so high that the data eventually were reduced to two levels (farm, batch). For seroconversion to Ap2, ICC between pigs within batches was similar to90%, whereas the ICC between pigs within batches for Mh was similar to40%. This indicates that the possibility for Mh to spread between pigs within batches is lower than for Ap2. The diversity in seroconversion between batches within the same farm was large for Ap2 (ICC similar to 10%), whereas there was a relative strongly ICC (similar to50%) between batches for Mh. This indicates that the transmission of Mh is more consistent within a farm, whereas the presence of Ap2 varies between batches within a farm.

Vigre, Håkan

2004-01-01

306

Antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from an intensive care Unit of a hospital in Kerman, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter spp. has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs of hospitals. To assess the sensitivity of Acinetobacter isolates to antibiotics routinely used in ICUs, we investigated antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the ICU of a university hospital in Kerman, Iran. Methods Fifteen isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were recovered from one hundred clinical specimens collected from the ICU of Afzalipoor Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from October 2010 to June 2011. Preliminary antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using the disk-diffusion breakpoint assay, and MICs of different antibiotics were determined using the E-test. ESBL production was detected by a double-disk synergy test and confirmed by a phenotypic confirmatory test. Substrate hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the following inhibitors was carried out using the rapid fixed-time method: para-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and NaCl. Results Overall, 73.3% of the isolates were resistant to imipenem (MIC range 240-128 µg/mL and 66% to ciprofloxacin (MIC range 240-64 ± 0.08 µg/mL. All of the isolates were fully resistant (MIC 240 µg/mL to piperacillin, while 93.3%, 53.3%, and 93.3% were resistant to piperacillin + tazobactam (MIC 240 µg/mL, amikacin (MIC range 128-16 µg/mL, and cefepime (MIC range 240-60 µg/mL, respectively. The isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline: MICs of these two agents were ? 240 µg/mL. The test for ESBL production was positive for only three isolates (nos. 1, 10, and 15. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was highest in the presence of p-CMB (80.2 ± 0.02 and lowest in the presence of NaCl (2.1 ± 0.01 (P ? 0.05. Conclusions Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp. are resistant to almost all antibiotics routinely used in the ICU of our hospital, including imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin + tazobactam. Three isolates were ESBL producers. The other isolates exhibited high resistance to ?-lactams, but they did not produce any ESBL enzymes.

Shakibaie Mohammad

2012-01-01

307

S. 1228: A Bill to impose sanctions on foreign persons exporting petroleum products, natural gas, or related technology to Iran. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document contains S.1228, a Bill to impose sanctions on foreign persons exporting petroleum products, natural gas, or related technology to Iran. This bill was introduced in the Senate of the United States, 104th Congress, First session, September 8, 1995.

NONE

1995-12-31

308

Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

2012-06-01

309

Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

310

31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States...of Licensing Policy § 560.511 Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States...the prohibitions in § 560.204, the exportation or supply of goods or...

2010-07-01

311

Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná / Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305) de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de in [...] teração genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39) foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23) para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57). As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná. Abstract in english It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305) of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holstei [...] ns cows between dairy production units in the state of Paraná using the Bayesian inference. All animals were officially controlled by the Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, between January/1992 and December/2003. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using one and multiple-trait analysis, where MY305 of each dairy production unit was considered as a different variable. Means and standard deviations for MY305 (kg) for dairy production units of Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte and Oeste, were 8,414 ± 1,825; 8,481 ± 2,010; 7,636 ± 1,594; 7,850 ± 1,795; 8,617 ± 2,050; 7,401 ± 1,809 and 7,336 ± 2,456, respectively. The highest heritability estimated was obtained for the Oeste unit (0.39) while Carambeí unit presented the lowest value (0.23). Genetic correlations were low (0.09 to 0.57) between dairy production units. Pearson and Spearman correlations were lower for the Oeste unit, when compared with other dairy production units, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.41, and from 0.37 to 0.49, respectively. These results show the presence of genotype × environment interaction between dairy production units in the state of Paraná.

Meiby Carneiro de, Paula; Elias Nunes, Martins; Luiz Otávio Campos da, Silva; Carlos Antonio Lopes de, Oliveira; Altair Antônio, Valotto; Newton Pohl, Ribas.

312

Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

2009-12-01

313

Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68?±?2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS). PMID:22101444

Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

2012-01-01

314

Unit Conversions  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a digital tool for performing unit conversions. It provides the additional feature of displaying cancellation of terms, enabling users to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical processes involved in converting units. Users can convert among 25 quantities, including units such as force, temperature, energy, and current. Also available are less commonly used units, such as illuminance and magnetic flux. In addition, the calculations respect the number of significant figures. It is part of Web-Based Computer Aided Instruction, a set of free resources for teachers and learners.

Mzoughi, Taha

315

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT). FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC) and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC). The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas...

Dinkov, R.; Stratiev, D.

2008-01-01

316

Navigation Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit on Navigation begins with a brief history of navigation and maps, including building a simple compass as an introduction to the magnetic field of Earth. Division of Earth navigation units in Lat/Long and UTM are explored in detail. Topographic maps as an expression of Earth's surface are used to integrate all of the pervious topics.

Suzanne M (Suki) Smaglik

317

Ethanol and lignin production from Brazilian empty fruit bunch biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil Government is promoting palm plantations to use degraded land for biofuels. Palm production is expected to increase 35 per cent in future and there would be profuse biomass available that needs to be handled efficiently. Therefore, in this study the potential of EFB from Brazil as raw material for biorefinery was explored by compositional analysis and pretreatment conditions optimization to produce ethanol and co-products. EFB from Brazil contains significant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and low ash content. The optimized dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment conditions for efficient cellulose and hemicellulose separation were 160°C temperature, 1.025% v/v acid concentration, 10.5min and 20% solid loading. Under optimum pretreatment process conditions, low enzyme loading (10FPU, 20IU cellulase and glucosidase enzyme/g glucan) and 15% solid loading, 51.1g ethanol, 344.1g solid residue (65% lignin and 24.87MJ/kg LHV) and 3.7l xylose rich liquid could be produced per kg dry EFB. PMID:25265328

Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

2014-11-01

318

Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

2004-02-01

319

Simulation, exergy analysis and application of diabatic distillation to a tertiary amyl methyl ether production unit of a crude oil refinery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a detailed exergy analysis of a tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) unit of a crude oil refinery and the application of diabatic distillation to the depentanizer tower of the unit. Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is not only supplied to the reboiler and extracted from the condenser [as in a conventional (adiabatic) distillation column], but is also transferred inside the column. The process enables operation to approach equilibrium conditions, thus reducing exergy losses and increasing exergy effectiveness. In a TAME unit of a refinery, isoamylenes are converted to TAME. Before transforming the isoamylenes in the reactors, it is necessary to recover them from a catalytic gasoline stream by a depentanization process. The exergy losses of this depentanization process represent about 70% of the total exergy losses of the unit. The results of the exergy analysis of the TAME unit are presented and a detailed exergy analysis of the conventional adiabatic depentanizer column is conducted for comparison purposes. Then, the application of diabatic distillation to the system is evaluated by using cooling water circulating in series from tray to tray in the rectification section and by making the steam emanating from the reboiler circulate in series from tray to tray in the stripping section. The results in terms of the reduction of exergy losses, heating and cooling media flow rates, and cost effectiveness of the diab rates, and cost effectiveness of the diabatic option for the depentanizer section of the plant are compared to the original adiabatic system, and the effect of the diabatization on the overall exergy performance parameters of the depentanizer section and on the whole TAME unit, are presented in this paper

320

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn s geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbances affecting multiple MODIS pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn's geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbance patches of multiple pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2012-12-01

322

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT. FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC. The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas the high octane high boiling components are mainlyaromatics. The raise of ROT leads to increase of ratio of ?-cracking relative to hydrogen transfer which results inenhancement of the lower molecular hydrocarbon content in the FCC gasoline.

R.Dinkov

2008-03-01

323

Order of 21 October 1988 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 1 and 2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 1 and 2 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. The annual limits are 1650 terabecquerels for gas and 55 gigabecquerels for gaseous halogens and aerosols. The Order specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible. (NEA)

324

Order of 4 august 1989 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible

325

Order of 4 August 1989 on licensing liquid radioactive effluent releases from the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of liquid radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible

326

7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...gross payable units for all biodiesel production from eligible inputs. For...gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible inputs will...to maintain year to date biodiesel production increases between...

2010-01-01

327

Pretreatment solution recycling and high-concentration output for economical production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to enhance the economic efficiency of producing bioethanol. Pretreatment solution recycling is expected to increase economic efficiency by reducing the cost of pretreatment and the amount of wastewater. In addition, the production of high-concentration bioethanol could increase economic efficiency by reducing the energy cost of distillation. The pretreatment conditions were 95 °C, 0.72 M NaOH, 80 rpm twin-screw speed, and flow rate of 90 mL/min at 18 g/min of raw biomass feeding for pretreatment solution recycling. The pretreatment with NaOH solution recycling was conducted five times. All of the components and the pretreatment efficiency were similar, despite reuse. In addition, we developed a continuous biomass feeding system for production of high-concentration bioethanol. Using this reactor, the bioethanol productivity was investigated using various pretreated biomass feeding rates in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The maximum ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 74.5 g/L, 89.5%, and 1.4 g/L h, respectively, at a pretreated biomass loading of approximately 25% (w/v) with an enzyme dosage of 30 FPU g/cellulose. The results presented here constitute an important contribution toward the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus. PMID:24794172

Han, Minhee; Moon, Se-Kwon; Choi, Gi-Wook

2014-11-01

328

Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order te and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work in all aspects of the field of alternative energy. The Consortium's primary objectives are to find ways to: - Include minorities in the development and ownership of infrastructure in the alternative energy industry; - Promote research and education programs to inform the public about risks and benefits of various forms of alternative energy; - Build a Mentor/Protege Program between HBCU/MSIs and industry leaders to enhance minority participation in ownership and career success in alternative energy production and distribution. The Consortium will work together to create a process whereby minorities and low income individuals will be recruited, educated, and mentored to maximize alternative energy ownership and job opportunities. Industry specialists and government representatives will work with academicians and others to: 1. research areas and methods where minorities and rural communities can engage in the industry; 2. invest in minorities by serving as mentors to minority serving institutions by offering hands-on experience through apprenticeships; 3. work to identify ownership opportunities for minorities; and 4. work to develop legislation that supports economic development and participation for minorities and rural communities in the industry. To accomplish this goal, the Consortium has set out a three-phase plan. Phase I organized a meeting of professionals to discuss the concept, explore the fundamentals, identify key players, and draft next steps. The group took a critical look at the energy industry: 1) trends, 2) economics, 3) limited number of minorities; and 4) infrastructure. Through that process the group identified four areas that would greatly impact economic development for minorities and rural communities: I Energy; II Broadband Communications; III Education; IV Labor Resources. Phase II presented a roundtable panel discussion that continued to refine the Consortium. The goal of these discussions is to produce a well-balanced Consortium committed to working together to produce effective solutions that

329

Order of 21 October 1988 on licensing the release of liquid radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 1 and 2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorized releases of liquid radioactive effluents from units 1 and 2 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. The annual limits are 1.1 terabecquerel for radioelements other than tritium, potassium 40 and radium and 80 terabecquerels for tritium. The Order specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible. (NEA)

330

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

331

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. / Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevist [...] a con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios. Abstract in english With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structure [...] s centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E, Ludovic; N, Rincón; L, Huerta; R, Rincón.

2005-07-01

332

Diagnosis methodology applied to the preventive maintenance of power generation units in isolated sites; Methodologie de diagnostic appliquee a la maintenance preventive d'unites de production d'electricite en sites isoles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Todays, overseas territories gather more than 25% of the photovoltaic systems of the French territory. More than 600 kWc of this photovoltaic park is located in French Guiana and 75% in isolated areas. This leads to the problem of implementation of a convenient maintenance policy mainly because of the problem of supply of replacement parts, of the lack of qualified local manpower, and of the complexity of a fast diagnosis of the installations. Therefore, the development of a diagnosis tool for the different kinds of failures and defects that can occur on a photovoltaic power system is of prime importance. Starting from the elements of preventive maintenance philosophy developed in the thesis of S. Salvat, this work describes the development of a functional simulation tool allowing the validation of these first results. Using models for the simulation of each sub-part of the system, involving a statistical modeling of the solar resource and of the connected load, a detailed analysis of the operation defects is presented. This tool, which is a key element of the elaboration of the diagnosis, allows the use of detection methods based on pattern recognition principle. The supervised learning makes a classification using the search for a parametric discriminating function minimizing the quadratic error on the base. The algorithms performing the real-time monitoring of the system in the presence of defects are fitted in an experimental kit representing the production of an individual generator at a reduced scale. The experimental detection procedures are then tested on production and regulation defects and then compared to those obtained from simulations performed in the same operating conditions. (J.S.)

Marie-Joseph, M.

2003-04-01

333

Feed and livestock model of the United States with an application to the possible effects on US agriculture of large-scale corn alcohol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models of the three major crops, corn ethanol production and the livestock economy are specfied and estimated. The models are simulated under various scenarios to determine the possible short-term and long-term effects on the US agriculture economy in the event the US engages in large-scale production of fermentation ethanol from corn. Such production would be the result of price incentives caused by a rapid increase in the price of crude oil. The ethanol would be used as octane booster in premium unleaded gasoline. In this analysis the author found that limiting the use of alcohol as blender to boost octane ratings of premium unleaded gasoline would have only minor effects on the crop and livestock economies of the US agricultural sector. He does feel, however, that expansion of its use into the broader gasohol market might result in a much larger impact on both the crops and livestock sectors of the US agricultural economy. He also analyzed the effects on the byproduct feed markets of the alcohol production and found that byproduct prices would probably remain sufficiently strong to make such production economically feasible.

Silver, S.J.

1983-01-01

334

A characterization of the modular units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide an exact formula for the complex exponents in the modular product expansion of the modular units, and deduce a characterization of the modular units in terms of the growth of these exponents, answering a question of W. Kohnen.

Folsom, Amanda

2007-01-01

335

Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

336

Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

2013-03-01

337

Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature.

Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

338

UNITED KINGDOM  

Kingdom performs around the average in mathematics and reading and above average in science, compared with ...• Girls in the United Kingdom do not enjoy mathematics, are anxious when asked ...to solve mathematical problems, and underperform compared with boys.Boys also outperform girls in science.Girls outperform boys in

339

Use of ERTS-1 to utlitize and apply marine station data to study productivity along eastern shelf expanded waters of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The author has identified the following significant results. Water samples taken in offshore waters between Cap Cod, Massachusetts, and Charleston, South Carolina have been used with other sea truth information as a basis to correlate productivity values with ERTS-1 sensory data. Positive correlations were established on January 26, 1973 regarding chlorophyll concentrations and optical density values.

Marshall, H. G. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

340

Agricultural Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

 
 
 
 
341

Epithermal gold-siver deposits in the western United States: time-space products of evolving plutonic, volcanic and tectonic environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The western United States has been the locus of considerable subaerial volcanic and plutonic igneous activity since the mid-Mesozoic. After the destruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc-trench system, subduction was re-established in the Late Mesozoic with low-angle underthrusting of the oceanic plate beneath western North America. This resulted in crustal shortening during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary and removal of the mantle lithosphere west of the Rocky Mountains. Commencing in the Eocene, flat subduction ceased, the volcanic arc began to re-establish itself along the continental margin, and the hingeline along the steepening subducting plate migrated from east to west. The crust east of the migrating hingeline was exposed to hot asthenosphere, and widespread tectonics and volcanic activity resulted. Hydrothermal activity accompanied the volcanism resulting in numerous epithermal gold-silver deposits. The temporal and spatial distributions of epithermal deposits in the region are therefore systematic and can be subdivided into discrete time intervals which are related to widespread changes in magmatic activity. Time intervals selected for discussion are Pre-Cenozoic, 66-55 Ma, 54-43 Ma, 42-34 Ma, 33-24 Ma, 23-17 Ma, and <17 Ma. Many of these intervals contain both sedimentary-rock and two varieties of volcanic-rock hosted deposits (adularia-sericite and alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite). Continental rifting is important to the formation of deposits, and, within any given region, it is at the initiation of deep rifting that alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite type epithermal deposits are formed. Adularia-sericite type deposits are most common, being related to all compositions and styles of volcanic activity. Therefore, the volcano-tectonic context of the western United States provides a unified framework in which to understand and explore for epithermal type deposits. ?? 1990.

Berger, B.R.; Bonham, H.F., Jr.

1990-01-01

342

Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

2014-01-01

343

Plasma-chemical processes and units in powder metallurgy for production of ultra-dispersed powders and nano-structural materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parers dealt with plasma-chemical processes used for production of powders of refractory metals, their oxides, nitrides and carbides, are reviewed. The possibility is noted to obtain in a plasma jet the nanocrystalline powders of WC, WC-Co, TaC, NbC, W as well as the coatings of a nanostructured hard alloy WC-15Co. The plasma-chemical technology is shown to be promising for sintering nanosized powders of hard alloys

344

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15

345

Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead metabolism was studied in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) of Wistar rats during the genesis of developmental abnormalities and embryonic death. Female rats were injected iv with tracer /sup 210/Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, alone or in combination with 5 or 25 mg Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2//kg, at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). The distribution of lead and its effects were determined in the FPUs during the ensuing 30-h period and at 20 dg. Hemorrhage of the egg cylinder was noted as early as 6 h postinjection of 25 mg/kg at 9 dg. By 20 dg, fetuses exhibited characteristic stunting and external malformations (gastroschisis and severe skeletal defects). Administration of this dose at 15 dg produced petechial hemorrhage in fetal brain within 90 min; more massive hemorrhage was a consistent observation by 24 h. At 20 dg, embryo mortality was 44% in rats injected with 25 mg/kg at 9 dg and 100% in those injected at 15 dg. At 90 min after injection, lead content of 15-dg FPUs were 16 times greater. Values remained relatively constant in 15-dg FPUs for 30 h, but early clearance was observed after injection at 9 dg, with a return to 90-min values by 20 dg. In the 15-dg FPUs, placental clearance was followed by fetal lead incorporation, which reached a maximum at 6 h. Fetal lead values were constant from 6 to 30 h after injection at tracer and 5-mg/kg dose levels, but values increased progressively at 25 mg/kg. Both temporal and quantitative relationships of fetal lead metabolism were disrupted by the 25-mg/kg dose, but the nature of the effect was determined by the stage of fetal development at exposure.

Hackett, P.L.; Hess, J.O.; Sikov, M.R.

1982-05-01

346

Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead metabolism was studied in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) of Wistar rats during the genesis of developmental abnormalities and embryonic death. Female rats were injected iv with tracer 210Pb(NO3)2, alone or in combination with 5 or 25 mg Pb(NO3)2/kg, at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). The distribution of lead and its effects were determined in the FPUs during the ensuing 30-h period and at 20 dg. Hemorrhage of the egg cylinder was noted as early as 6 h postinjection of 25 mg/kg at 9 dg. By 20 dg, fetuses exhibited characteristic stunting and external malformations (gastrochisis and severe skeletal defects). Administration of this dose at 15 dg produced petechial hemorrhage in fetal brain within 90 min; more massive hemorrhage was a consistent observation by 24 h. At 20 dg, embryo mortality was 44% in rats injected with 25 mg/kg at 9 dg and 100% in those injected at 15 dg. At 90 min after injection, lead content of 15-dg FPUs was 10 times that of the 9-dg FPUs, but the weights of the 15-dg FPUs were 16 times greater. Values remained relatively constant in 15-dg FPUs for 30 h, but early clearance was observed after injection at 9 dg, with a return to 90-min values by 20 dg. In the 15-dg FPUs, placental clearance was followed by fetal lead incorporation, which reached a maximum at 6 h. Fetal lead values were constant from 6 to 30 h after injection at tracer and 5-mg/kg dose levels, but values increased progressively at 25 mg/kg. Both temporal and quantitative relationships of fetal lead metabolism were disrupted by the 25-mg/kg dose, but the nature of the effect was determined by the stage of fetal development at exposure

347

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Regina Helena Pires

2011-09-01

348

A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

2009-06-03

349

Different process schemes for converting light straight run and fluid catalytic cracking naphthas in a FCC unit for maximum propylene production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light straight run (LSR) and fluid catalytic cracking (FCCN) naphthas were cracked in a transported bed reactor (MicroDowner) and in a fixed bed reactor (MAT) over a commercial Y zeolite based catalyst, over a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite based additive, and over a mixture of both at selected conditions. Based on the mechanisms through which naphtha hydrocarbons are converted, we evaluated the best alternatives for processing these streams to produce light olefins and/or to reduce olefins content in commercial gasoline. The experimental set-up allowed us to simulate the cracking behaviour of the different naphtha streams in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit by different processing schemes. Results indicate that LSR only cracks at high severity, yielding large amounts of dry gas. Despite its high olefins content, FCCN practically does not crack when it is fed together with gas oil feed. When cracking FCCN alone at typical gas oil cracking conditions, olefins are transformed preferentially into naphtha-range isoparaffins and aromatics, and when cracking FCCN at high severity, olefins are transformed preferentially into propylene and butylenes. Finally, cracking naphtha in the stripper produces some propylene and increases the aromatics in the remaining gasoline.

Corma, Avelino; Melo, FranciscoV.; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Ortega, F.J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avenida de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

2004-07-08

350

Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

Euzebio Beli

2010-04-01

351

Small sized hydraulic drilling units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes a number of small sized drilling units produced in various European countries for mining in thin seams, drilling surveying entries etc. These units have a chassis with pneumatic tires and a hydraulic drilling head. Technical specifications are given for 3 French units - the CMM 500HE Microdrill (Equipment Miner), the ATH-12-1F (Secoma) and the Minipantophore and Micropantophore (Montabert), 1 Finnish unit - the Micromatic H102F, and 3 units produced by Atlas Copco. A table gives comparative data for hydraulic drilling heads produced by Atlas Copco, Boart, Montabert, Equipment Miner, Torgue Tension, ZIG, Sullivan Machinery, Victor Products, Gardner Denver, Krupp and Tamrock. These units weigh between 3 and 7.5 t (drilling heads 25-80 kg) and are designed to mechanize the drivage of roadways 4-10 m/sup 2/ in cross section.

Tsiferblat, V.L.; Shevchenko, A.I.

1987-10-01

352

Cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles are outlined of cogeneration, i.e. of combined generation of electricity and heat. The assets of this approach include a decrease in the consumption of primary sources, and lower air pollution. Replacement of 1000 MWe brown coal fired power sources by cogeneration units in the Czech Republic would imply the shutdown of 3 to 4 brown coal fired power plants, bringing about a reduction in SO2, NOx and particulate emissions by 13.4%, 7%, and 4.3%, respectively. (J.B.)

353

Microcontroller Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

354

Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

355

Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

2007-01-01

356

The use of ERTS-1 to more fully utilize and apply marine station data to the study and productivity along the eastern shelf waters of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The author has identified the following significant results. Sea truth data were obtained during two ERTS overpasses in waters near the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. Correlations were made between total phytoplankton and chlorophyll values in these waters to radiance detected by ERTS in an effort to map areas of similar productivity levels. Band 4 radiance had the highest correlation to all parameters with bands 5 and 6 showing decreasing correlations in each case. The radiance values were apparently influenced by one or more factors, most likely including the sediment content of the water. Data have shown that ERTS MSS is not suitable for monitoring chlorophyll in near-shore waters where sediment loads are high. It is suggested that in more seaward or pelagic locations, that ERTS MSS would be more efficient in monitoring surface chlorophyll values and establishing direct relationships to phytoplankton concentrations.

Marshall, H. G. (principal investigator); Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

1976-01-01

357

Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

2003-06-30

358

76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2011-04-19

359

77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2012-04-11

360

75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of Black Thunder coal and liquefaction products from HRI Bench Unit Run CC-15  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to apply {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-stream materials. {sup 13}C-NMR was shown to have a high potential for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived samples in Phase II of this program. In this Phase III project, {sup 13}C-NMR was applied to a set of samples derived from the HRI Inc. bench-scale liquefaction Run CC-15. The samples include the feed coal, net products and intermediate streams from three operating periods of the run. High-resolution {sup 13}C-NMR data were obtained for the liquid samples and solid-state CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR data were obtained for the coal and filter-cake samples. The {sup 1}C-NMR technique is used to derive a set of twelve carbon structural parameters for each sample (CONSOL Table A). Average molecular structural descriptors can then be derived from these parameters (CONSOL Table B).

Pugmire, R.J.; Solum, M.S. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1994-02-01

362

United at last: the tuberous sclerosis complex gene products connect the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular interplay between the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling in the control of cell growth and proliferation has been the subject of much interest and debate amongst cell biologists. A recent escalation of research in this area has come from the discovery of the tuberous sclerosis complex gene products, tuberin and hamartin, as central regulators of mTOR activation. The PI3K effector Akt/protein kinase B has been found to directly phosphorylate tuberin and is thereby thought to activate mTOR through inhibition of the tuberin-hamartin complex. The many recent studies aimed at defining the molecular nature of this revamped PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are reviewed here. The collective data discussed have laid the groundwork for important new insights into the many cancers caused by aberrant PI3K activation and the clinically challenging tuberous sclerosis complex disease and have suggested a possible means of treatment for both. PMID:12773158

Manning, B D; Cantley, L C

2003-06-01

363

Estimation of quality and yields of products from the process of future national oils indelayed coking units; Estimativa da qualidade e dos rendimentos de produtos de coqueamento a partir do processamento de petroleos nacionais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the importance of the delayed coking process increases in the Brazilian refinery scenario, it is necessary to perform a more detailed evaluation of vacuum residues potential on this kind of process. This work compares the performance of future produced and exported oils residues with those which are references nowadays as delayed coking feeding. This information is essential for the prediction of the future quality and yield of the products generated by this process, and for the determination of the oils value for exportation. For this purpose, a process simulator was used considering the operational conditions of a real delayed coking unit. The carbon residue and asphaltenes ratio from the residues were also evaluated. This simulation demonstrated that most of the future oils will produce a high quality coke from the point of view of crystallinity and metals content, and it will present high contents of both volatile matter and sulphur. The exported oils residues are likely to show good crystallinity. (author)

Filipakis, Sofia D.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Guimaraes, Regina C.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

364

Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

NONE

1996-01-01

365

Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain m