WorldWideScience

Sample records for production unit fpu

  1. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  2. Exact solutions in the FPU oscillator chain

    CERN Document Server

    Poggi, P

    1995-01-01

    After a brief comprehensive review of old and new results on the well known Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) conservative system of N nonlinearly coupled oscillators, we present a compact linear mode representation of the Hamiltonian of the FPU system with quartic nonlinearity and periodic boundary conditions, with explicitly computed mode coupling coefficients. The core of the paper is the proof of the existence of one-mode and two-mode exact solutions, physically representing nonlinear standing and travelling waves of small wavelength whose explicit lattice representations are obtained, and which are valid also as N \\rightarrow \\infty. Moreover, and more generally, we show the presence of multi-mode invariant submanifolds. Destabilization of these solutions by a parametric perturbation mechanism leads to the establishment of chaotic in time mode interaction channels, corresponding to the formation in phase space of bounded stochastic layers on submanifolds. The full mode-space stability problem of the N/2 zone-bounda...

  3. Riemann solvers and undercompressive shocks of convex FPU chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider FPU-type atomic chains with general convex potentials. The naive continuum limit in the hyperbolic space–time scaling is the p-system of mass and momentum conservation. We systematically compare Riemann solutions to the p-system with numerical solutions to discrete Riemann problems in FPU chains, and argue that the latter can be described by modified p-system Riemann solvers. We allow the flux to have a turning point, and observe a third type of elementary wave (conservative shocks) in the atomistic simulations. These waves are heteroclinic travelling waves and correspond to non-classical, undercompressive shocks of the p-system. We analyse such shocks for fluxes with one or more turning points. Depending on the convexity properties of the flux we propose FPU-Riemann solvers. Our numerical simulations confirm that Lax shocks are replaced by so-called dispersive shocks. For convex–concave flux we provide numerical evidence that convex FPU chains follow the p-system in generating conservative shocks that are supersonic. For concave–convex flux, however, the conservative shocks of the p-system are subsonic and do not appear in FPU-Riemann solutions

  4. On the definition of temperature in FPU systems

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    It is usually assumed, in classical statistical mechanics, that the temperature should coincide, apart from a suitable constant factor, with the mean kinetic energy of the particles. We show that this is not the case for \\FPU systems, in conditions in which energy equipartition between the modes is not attained. We find that the temperature should be rather identified with the mean value of the energy of the low frequency modes.

  5. On the definition of temperature in FPU systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carati, A.; Cipriani, P.; L. Galgani

    2004-01-01

    It is usually assumed, in classical statistical mechanics, that the temperature should coincide, apart from a suitable constant factor, with the mean kinetic energy of the particles. We show that this is not the case for \\FPU systems, in conditions in which energy equipartition between the modes is not attained. We find that the temperature should be rather identified with the mean value of the energy of the low frequency modes.

  6. Anomalous energy transport in the FPU-beta chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lukkarinen, Jani; Spohn, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the energy current correlation function for the FPU-beta lattice. For small non-linearity one can rely on kinetic theory. The issue reduces then to a spectral analysis of the linearized collision operator. We prove thereby that, on the basis of kinetic theory, the energy current correlations decay in time as t^(-3/5). It follows that the thermal conductivity is anomalous, increasing as N^(2/5) with the system size N.

  7. On the numerical integration of FPU-like systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettin, G.; Ponno, A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper concerns the numerical integration of systems of harmonic oscillators coupled by nonlinear terms, like the common FPU models. We show that the most used integration algorithm, namely leap-frog, behaves very gently with such models, preserving in a beautiful way some peculiar features which are known to be very important in the dynamics, in particular the “selection rules” which regulate the interaction among normal modes. This explains why leap-frog, in spite of being a low order algorithm, behaves so well, as numerical experimentalists always observed. At the same time, we show how the algorithm can be improved by introducing, at a low cost, a “counterterm” which eliminates the dominant numerical error.

  8. FPU physics with nanomechanical graphene resonators: intrinsic relaxation and thermalization from flexural mode coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Qi, Zenan; Croy, Alexander; Harold S. Park; Isacsson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Thermalization in nonlinear systems is a central concept in statistical mechanics and has been extensively studied theoretically since the seminal work of Fermi, Pasta and Ulam (FPU). Using molecular dynamics and continuum modeling of a ring-down setup, we show that thermalization due to nonlinear mode coupling intrinsically limits the quality factor of nanomechanical graphene drums and turns them into potential test beds for FPU physics. We find the thermalization rate $\\Gamma$ to be indepen...

  9. Efficient cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Naoyuki; Park, Enock Y

    2007-01-01

    Cellulase production was investigated in a culture of a strain of Acremonium cellulolyticus. The medium components were optimized for the improvement of cellulase production. The maximum production of cellulolytic enzymes was obtained in a medium containing (grams per liter) 50 Solka Floc, 5 (NH4)2SO4, 24 KH2PO4, 4.7 potassium tartrate hemihydrate, 1.2 MgSO4.7H2O, 1 Tween 80, 4 urea, 0.01 ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.01 MnSO4.6H2O, and 0.01 CuSO4.7H2O, with a pH of 4.0. In the flask culture, 15.5 filter paper units (FPU)/mL of maximum cellulase activity was obtained, 17.42 FPU/mL in a 7-L bioreactor, and 13.08 FPU/mL in a 50-L scale bioreactor for 4-8 d at 30 degrees C. Average production rates were 1.94 FPU/mL.d in flasks, 2.86 FPU/mL.d in the 7-L bioreactor, and 2.56 FPU/mL.d in the 50-L bioreactor. Cellulase production on a small scale was successfully reproduced in the 50-L pilot scale bioreactor. Saccharification activity from A. cellulolyticus was compared with cellulolytic enzymes produced by other strains. The A. cellulolyticus culture broth had a comparable saccharification yield in comparison with those of other Trichoderma enzymes (GC220 or Cellulosin T2) under the same total cellulase activity. Its saccharification yield (percent of released reducing sugar to used dried substrate) was 60%, and its glucose content was 83%. PMID:17253723

  10. Unstable and exact periodic solutions of three-particles time-dependent FPU chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi-Huai; Xing, Ming-Yan; Li, Xin-Xiang; Wang, Chao

    2015-12-01

    For lower dimensional Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) chains, the α-chain is completely integrable and the Hamiltonian of the β-chain can be identified with the Hénon–Heiles Hamiltonian. When the strengths α, β of the nonlinearities depend on time periodically with the same frequencies as the natural angular frequencies, the resonance phenomenon is inevitable. In this paper, for certain periodic functions α(t) and β(t) with resonance frequencies, we give the existence and stability of some nontrivial exact periodic solutions for a one-dimensional αβ-FPU model composed of three particles with periodic boundary conditions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11301106, 11201288, and 11261013), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2014GXNSFBA118017), the Innovation Project of Graduate Education of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, (Grant No. YCSZ2014143), and the Guangxi Experiment Center of Information Science (Grant No. YB1410).

  11. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Oliveira Júnior; Cruz, Flávio E.

    2008-01-01

    Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

  12. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Hobley, Timothy John

    2012-01-01

    .5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from......Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To...... account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0...

  13. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  14. Engaged to Perform: Enhancing Employee Engagement of a Production Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis examines employee engagement of a case company production unit that operates in health technology. According to the recent employee survey results, 58% of the production unit employees are actively disengaged. This acts as a major business challenge that affects the production unit reaching the production goals. Thus, the objective of this thesis is to enhance employee engagement in the case company production unit. In this Thesis, the chosen research approach uses data...

  15. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  16. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First... United States Mint Web site. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  17. Novel Method for Determining the Maximally Productive Units using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new method for determine maximally productive units based on input-output orientation data envelopment analysis. In this method, we find that reduce inputs and improve outputs units without regard to any factor weights is possible. The new method is a linear mathematical programming technique that determines the intensities of units. No assumptions are required on the internal transformation processes of the units. Decision making depends critically on the way excellent units are frequently described. Present findings have implications for the monitoring and financing of units. Some units with the maximal productivity should be considered as a guide for the other units to reduce inputs and improve outputs units. Numerical illustrations are provided for 15 hospitals dataset of Sherman and 12 hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

  18. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical...

  19. Uranium production, the United States perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. uranium production appears to be headed for a level of approximately one quarter of the peak production of the early 1980's. In a free world market the majority of the U.S. production capability is noncompetitive and unnecessary to supply the free world's demand. Those world producers which can produce into the competitive uranium market of the present and the foreseeable future will be sufficient to supply the uranium needs of the world for the next ten to fifteen years. Thus, the U.S. production industry once the leading producer in the world will not regain nor approach that status in the foreseeable future

  20. Units in the Production of Narrative Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the sources of information in oral language. Uses converging evidence from prosody, pausing, structural and semantic parallelism, and stylistic analysis to argue for a series of hypotheses about the units that organize the construction of narrative discourse. Provides examples and appendixes. (JD)

  1. On deregulation, unit duty cycle and production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the importance of explicitly modeling operating considerations in the context of electric utility deregulation. Expected energy production costs are of interest to generation providers, regulatory authorities and consumers to assess the affects and advisability of deregulation. Accurate determination of plant output levels, duration of plant usage and hence the production cost, depend on knowledge of network characteristics, expected future demand and mix of generation in the system and the prevailing operating policies. Currently, generation owners assume fixed Forced Outage Rate (FOR) values, regardless of unit duty cycle, when performing studies. These FOR values may be based on industry averages for new plants or taken from past operation experience in the case of existing plants. Under deregulation, operating policies may undergo drastic change and unit duty cycles may change accordingly. In such a situation, the continued usage of FORs based on a former, and now changed, unit duty cycle could result in erroneous energy production cost computations. Proper and accurate analysis of production costs requires that issues such as changes in generating unit duty cycles, and consequently in FORs be explicitly considered and modeled. A study was carried out on the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) network to evaluate this concept. Expected production costs were computed using unit FORs computed both from pre- and post-deregulation unit duty cycles. Results show that significant errors in production costs may result if appropriate unit duty cycles and unit FORs are not used. (author)

  2. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  3. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  4. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  5. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  6. Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS Production in Distillery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRINIVASAN K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

  7. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2014-01-01

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical efficiency of various “mergers” relative to a common reference technology. The approach is radically different from the usual one based on super-efficiency indexes in DEA. We illustrate the mechanics of our method by a series of numerical examples and further demonstrate that our new index inherits all relevant and desirable properties of the Farrell efficiency index upon which it is constructed.

  8. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  9. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Zhineng Hu; Yurong Pei; Ruikun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before ...

  10. Decisions about Product Safety. A Multidisciplinary Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    A multidisciplinary educational unit featuring product safety decisions made by businesses and consumers is presented. teach critical thinking and decision making while supplementing the science, home economics, social studies, and economics curricula. The activities rely extensively, though not exclusively, on Procter & Gamble's experiences in…

  11. On the design of IEEE compliant floating point units and their quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Peter-Michael

    1999-01-01

    Abstract this thesis addresses the question of which are the important issues in the design of a high-speed floating-point unit (FPU) that is fully compliant with the IEEE floating-point standard 754-1985 [19]. There are a few choices that need to be made when designing an IEEE compliant FPU, among them: the internal representation of floating-point numbers, the rounding algorithms, handling of denormal results, usage of the same rounding hardware for different units (e.g. adder, multiplier, ...

  12. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-YeuChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ?in?, ?, ?, ?; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  13. SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell Deckert

    2000-08-25

    The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

  14. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  15. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  16. Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2012-04-01

    The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

  17. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  18. The productivity advantge of one/two unit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the 1980s there has been tremendous competition in the coal market. This competition has fueled a relentless search for productivity. The employment census has steadily decreased while the total production has been at record levels. Between 1988 and 1989 production increased by three percent while employment decreased approximately fifteen percent. Where longwalls are not financially feasible to purchase and operate, the method of extraction has evolved predominantly to the one or two section coal mines. Both the large and small companies have adopted this philosophy. This paper provides one operator's opinion on why the one and two section coal mines have distinct advantages over the multiple unit mines. It focuses on the opportunity that the smaller mine affords in the areas of employee relations

  19. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... United States Mint Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin and First Spouse Medal Sets\\TM\\, 2010 United States...

  20. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

  1. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  2. Design and optimization of artificial cultivation units for algae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on finding the optimum design of artificial cultivation units for biomass production depending on geographical location and kind of algal species selected for growth. Here, the optimum is defined as the design that yields the lowest net present sink for the lifetime of the cultivation unit. Models are developed for tubular, column, and flat plate photobioreactors by considering diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations. As part of the case study, algae growth is modeled for 10 years in each cultivation unit using two species and four locations, resulting in twenty-four optimization problems. Each optimization model is implemented in GAMS 23.6.5 and the solution is obtained using CONOPT (version 3.14W) solver. The results indicate that algae species with higher oil content requires smaller reactor volume to produce the desired amount of biomass. The results also reveal that the geographical location with higher incident solar irradiance may not necessarily be the optimal location for algae culturing because higher irradiance may lead to cell damage, and hence, lower growth rates. Among the options considered in the case study, the design of tubular photobioreactor for culturing Phaeodactylum tricornutum at Hyderabad, India yields the minimum net present sink. - Highlights: • Studied 3 types of outdoor cultivation units: tubular, column, and flat plate PBRs. • Developed dynamic model to find best combination of species, location, and reactor. • Considered the diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations for a year. • Species with higher oil content and location with moderate irradiance is preferable. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown at Hyderabad, India in a tubular PBR occupies a volume of 29 L

  3. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  4. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  5. Needs of ergonomic design at control units in production industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, I; Schäfer, A; Lang, K-H; Gebhardt, Hj; Klussmann, A

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, an increasing use of innovative technologies in manufacturing areas was monitored. A huge amount of physical workload was replaced by the change from conventional machine tools to computer-controlled units. CNC systems spread in current production processes. Because of this, machine operators today mostly have an observational function. This caused increasing of static work (e.g., standing, sitting) and cognitive demands (e.g., process observation). Machine operators have a high responsibility, because mistakes may lead to human injuries as well as to product losses - and in consequence may lead to high monetary losses (for the company) as well. Being usable often means for a CNC machine being efficient. An intuitive usability and an ergonomic organization of CNC workplaces can be an essential basis to reduce the risk of failures in operation as well as physical complaints (e.g. pain or diseases because of bad body posture during work). In contrast to conventional machines, CNC machines are equipped both with hardware and software. An intuitive and clear-sighted operating of CNC systems is a requirement for quick learning of new systems. Within this study, a survey was carried out among trainees learning the operation of CNC machines. PMID:22316942

  6. Efficiency and productivity in the operational units of the armed forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Torbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Most nations spend a considerable part of their gross domestic product (GDP) on defense. However, no previous study has addressed the productivity and efficiency of the core area of the armed forces, operational units, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Introducing a model for the production process of an operational unit, productivity and efficiency are estimated by DEA for units of one branch of the Norwegian armed forces. Small samples are a characteristic of DEA studies in the militar...

  7. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  8. [Occupational exposure to lead in production units in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, G; Naveda, R

    1998-09-01

    A medical occupational study was performed in 40 workers belonging to productive units in telecommunication works, 22 to car radiator mechanics and 11 to battery repairs. A practical medical and occupational study was applied to the group and also were determined their blood lead and air lead exposure levels. Seventy-three individuals, without risk of laboral exposure to lead, without familiar, pathological and occupational antecedents, and healthy at the time of the test, to whom the blood lead levels were determined served as control group. The mean values of plumbemia in exposure workers to inorganic lead exceed the level threshold of the COVENIN 2277-85 norm (30 micrograms/dl) (Telecommunication work, 40.10 micrograms/dl, radiators mechanics, 37.40 micrograms/dl and battery repairs, 45.77 micrograms/dl), values that were significantly higher (p industrial security. This work will contribute to establish a basic description, to further and more complex observational prospective studies in order to determine the occurrence of alterations that are derived from occupational lead exposure. PMID:9780551

  9. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (?) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ? from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ? also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (?) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ?. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ? using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ? was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ? and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Results from the three case studies show that the population model gives similar estimates to those reported by empirical models in other fish species. This modelling framework allows ? to be related directly to population length- or age-structure and thus has the potential to improve the biological realism of both population and ecosystem models. PMID:25445187

  10. Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Linda L.; Detmer, Sarah

    1989-01-01

    Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

  11. PC based diagnostic system for nitrogen production unit of HWP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant diagnostic system monitors the input data from local processing unit and tries to diagnose the cause of the failure. The system is a rule based application program that can perform tasks itself using fault tree model which displays the logical relationships between critical events and their possible ways occurrence, i.e. hardware failure, process faults and human error etc. Unit 37 Nitrogen Plant is taken as a prototype model for trying the plant diagnostics system. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

  13. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... processed agricultural products that are stored in climate controlled, cooler, and freezer warehouses....

  14. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  15. Riesz Isomorphisms of Tensor Products of Order Unit Banach Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T S S R K Rao

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we formulate and prove an order unit Banach space version of a Banach–Stone theorem type theorem for Riesz isomorphisms of the space of vector-valued continuous functions. Similar results were obtained recently for the case of lattice-valued continuous functions in [5] and [6].

  16. Unit for crystalline ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUC) production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety, maintainable equipment for production of AUC using carbonate technology was developed. Basic apparatus in such technology is continuously working vacuum-crystallization apparatus, which product predetermines uranium dioxide obtaining of ceramic quality. Apparatus of circulating type with forced circulation of suspension is used as crystallizer. Forced circulation of suspension is ensured by air-lift

  17. Green electricity products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these po...

  18. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hast Aira; McDermott Liisa; Järvelä Marja; Syri Sanna

    2014-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problem...

  19. Short-run forecasting of United States coal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaziri, M.; Hutchinson, J.

    1987-12-01

    This paper focuses on short-range modelling and forecasting of aggregate US monthly coal production. The 1976-83 times-series data suggest a multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to replicate national level monthly coal production. The identified model required 12-month seasonal differencing and has an autoregressive component of lag 1 and a moving average component of lag 12. Model predictions for 1984 were very reasonable when compared with actual production: cyclical patterns were correctly replicated and the deterministic increasing trend was properly identified. Intervention analysis was used to determine the impact of labour negotiations in coal production. The estimated model was enhanced by updating it with data for 1984. Information relative to the identified ARIMA model was then used to model the intervening event of labour negotiations. Intervention modelling produced forecasts for 1984 superior to those identified by the ARIMA model. The mean predicted 1984 US monthly coal production of 1976-84 ARIMA and intervention models were 96.05 and 99.65% of the observed value of 74 178 thousand short tons per month, respectively. Simplicity of the ARIMA and intervention models, the reliability of their predictions, and the ease of updating make them very attractive when compared with large scale econometric models for use in short-term coal production forecasting. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Production of short straight sections hits 100 units

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

  1. Myriad and its implications for patent protection of isolated natural products in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Alice Yuen-Ting; Chan, Albert Wai-Kit

    2014-01-01

    Extracts and compounds of natural products have potential as alternatives to current Western medicines. However, these products may not be patentable under the statutory requirements because of their naturally-occurring nature. This article analyzes the current patenting practices for natural products in the United States, particularly in light of the recent Supreme Court ruling in Myriad, and suggests an advantageous strategy for patenting these products. Briefly, isolated natural products p...

  2. Seasonal Unit Root: An Application to Turkish Industrial Production Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Pinar Gürel,

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal patterns of five Turkish manufacturing industry series which have the main characteristics of Turkish economy during the1977:1-2008:4 periods. Many economic time series are often subject to systematic fluctuations within the year such as seasonal movements. All the studies concerning time series methods are useful only when the series do not show seasonal patterns or the methods that care of seasonal patterns used. For this reason, it is important to investigate the seasonal patterns of the series when working with economic time series data. The analysis is conducted using the HEGY approach developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990. It is important to determine what kind of seasonality is present in the data. For this reason, we search for the seasonal unit root with five different models that concern, trends, constant and seasonal dummies. We provide evidence on the presence of seasonal unit roots in the Turkish manufacturing industry series. The main finding is that there are both deterministic and non-stationary stochastic seasonality in the series.

  3. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  4. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hast Aira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0–5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  5. Advanced Dairy Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 410/00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coday, Stan; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the the student reference for the advanced dairy unit. Readings are provided for 18 lessons. Topics include profitability of the dairy enterprise; production costs for dairy; comparative advantages of dairy; milk…

  6. Innovation and productivity in services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Bettina; RILEY, Rebecca; SIEDSCHLAG, IULIA; Vahter, Priit; McQuinn, John

    2014-01-01

    We examine the links between innovation investment, innovation output and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Surveys 2006-2008 in Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom and estimate an augmented structural model which links innovation inputs, innovation outputs and productivity. Our estimates suggest that innovation in service enterprises was linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, amongst the innova...

  7. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance of the unit during the SLS-2 mission.

  8. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research.

  9. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  10. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  11. Classification of geokhod units and systems based on product cost analysis and estimation for a prototype model production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. V.; Walter, A. V.; Gordeyev, A. A.; Kosovets, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The paper considers data systematization on a new shield-type heading machine - geokhod. The target of the paper is to classify geokhod components on the basis of their technical and economical production parameters. A prototype model reveals the structure of a geokhod as an assembly unit and identifies its basic characteristics. The paper overviews the methods of product cost estimations, justifies the application of an operation-based approach for a prototype model, provides the results containing product cost data for various geokhod components and technological processes, and gives the data for a material cost structure. Taking into consideration the product cost analysis, geokhod components are classified according to their technical and economical production parameters. Moreover the paper outlines the ways of a classification application for a geokhod manufacturing techniques improvement.

  12. Study of United Kingdom product licence applications containing new active substances, 1987-9.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, M D; Jefferys, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the fate of product licence applications containing new active substances in relation to their degree of innovation and therapeutic category. To assess the numbers of volunteers and patients exposed to a new active substance when marketing autorisation is first sought. DESIGN AND SETTING--Observational study of records for each licence application submitted to the United Kingdom licensing authority for marketing authorisation from 1987 to 1989. SUBJECTS--118 product...

  13. PV-Tec: Photovoltaic technology evaluation center: Design and implementation of a production research unit

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, D; Preu, R.,; Glunz, S. W.; Rein, S.; J. Rentsch; Emanuel, G.; Brucker, I.; Faasch, T.; Faller, C; Willeke, G.; Luther, J.

    2006-01-01

    In a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor safety (BMU) Fraunhofer ISE has designed and implemented a new kind of research unit for applied R&D for silicon solar cell production. The Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center (PV-TEC) features a high throughput baseline industrial solar cell production process with the possibility to carry out new processes by using innovative functions that have been implemented in the processing to...

  14. Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

  15. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  16. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green–blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  17. Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

  18. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production. PMID:26672443

  19. Monolithic film photocatalyst and its application for hydrogen production with repeated unit structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the immobilized film photocatalyst for hydrogen production has been increased. In this study, a simple monolithic film system is used, and a variety of cell configurations is investigated for minimizing electron losses in the electron transport pathways. The relative area ratio of Pt and photocatalyst (CdS/TiO2) is also an important parameter to maximize hydrogen production on a limited substrate. The relative area ratio (Pt/photocatalyst) is 0.37 for the highest hydrogen production in our photocatalyst system. Repeated unit structures generate high amount of hydrogen without decreased efficiency at large photocatalyst area, comparing to the single unit structure for the same area. Therefore, minimizing electron loss and the effective use of limited area are important factors in applications of monolithic large scale film photocatalyst. - Highlights: ? TiO2 photocatalyst film conjugated with CdS quantum dots. ? Electron movements through the photocatalyst film ? Relative area ratio between photocatalyst and Pt films ? Repeated unit structure for improving hydrogen production efficiency

  20. Microfouling assessment and its control in a heavy water production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water treatment plant (WTP) of a heavy water production unit was extensively fouled by microorganisms. On-site investigations showed severe algal and bacterial growth in the various units of WTP and very dense microbial fouling in the vacuum degasser (VD) unit. Digital and microscopic images showed that the microfouling problem was primarily due to a slime bacterium and a fungus. Microbiological analysis showed a bacterial count of ?105 cfu ml-1 in the various sections of WTP. The slime/biofilm scrapings had very high bacterial population (>109 cfu cm-2). High organic carbon values in the system (5.0 to 19.5 ppm) had supported microbial growth in WTP and augmented resin fouling. Chlorination was inadequate in controlling microfouling, consequently chlorine dioxide was tested and found to be a better biocide. A 2.0% sodium omadine solution had completely inhibited the fouling fungus. (author)

  1. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  2. Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project

    OpenAIRE

    M. Reza Mogadam; Abutaleb Kusha; Seyed M. Meysam Abutorabi F.

    2011-01-01

    Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 16...

  3. Quaternionic Hardy spaces in the open unit ball and half space and Blaschke products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Hardy spaces H2(B) and H2(H+), where B and H+ denote, respectively, the open unit ball of the quaternions and the half space of quaternions with positive real part, as well as Blaschke products, have been intensively studied in a series of papers where they are used as a tool to prove other results in Schur analysis. This paper gives an overview on the topic, collecting the various results available.

  4. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  5. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

  6. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their AI programs with a high degree of success. In the United States, slow adoption rates of these technologies may result in a future loss of international market share of beef products as other nations take advantage not only of the additional kilogram of beef that can be produced but also the improved quality of beef that can be realized through incorporation of reproductive technologies and resultant genetic improvement. However, current difficulties the US producers have with the incorporation of applied reproductive technologies, such as TAI, MOET, and sex semen, must not be the reason to overlook and incorporate more traditional reproductive technologies such as castration, breeding season management, or weaning. In many cases, beef producers in the United States fail to incorporate these more traditional technologies, which results in a reduction in production efficiency of the US beef industry. This chapter will focus on both traditional and more developed reproductive technologies that will play a role in enhancing future production efficiencies of the US beef cattle production system. PMID:24170356

  7. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R; Thyssen, Jacob P; Lidén, Carola

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hair dye products constitute an important source of allergen exposure, and contribute importantly to allergic contact dermatitis in consumers and hairdressers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of potent contact sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products intended for home use on the...... US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average...... dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy....

  8. Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Galileo Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1988-04-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotopic Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2)minus/ fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spcaecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has fabricated 134 heater units which will be used on the Galileo Mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at LANL. 4 figs., 15 tabs

  9. The effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit in spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuchu; Wang, Min; Idsardi, William

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments using the form-preparation paradigm were conducted to investigate the effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit during spoken word production with native Mandarin speakers. In both experiments, participants were instructed to memorize nine prompt-response monosyllabic word pairs, after which an associative naming session was conducted in which the prompts were presented and participants were asked to say the corresponding response names as quickly and accurately as possible. In both experiments, the response words in the homogeneous lists shared the same onsets, or shared the same rimes; the response names had no common aspects of pronunciation in the heterogeneous lists. Chinese characters (Experiment 1) and Pinyin (phonetic transcription of the characters) (Experiment 2) were used to investigate the effect of the orthographic form. Significant onset facilitation and rime inhibition was shown for Pinyin syllables but not for characters. The contrasts of the onset and rime effect in the two orthographic forms suggest that a specific phonological unit is promoted in spoken word production in a certain orthographic form. Pinyin cued the participants to prepare the onset whereas Chinese characters did not. The rime interference effect may arise as a result of lexical competition in spoken word production. PMID:25398357

  10. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  11. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, C J

    1996-05-01

    Mohair from Angora goats has been produced in the United States since the introduction of these animals from Turkey in 1849. Cashmere on Texas meat goats was reported in 1973, but domestic interest in commercial production did not occur until the mid-1980s. Since 1982, the average prices of U.S.-produced mohair and cashmere (de-haired) have ranged from $1.81 to $9.48/kg and approximately $55 to $200/kg, respectively. However, return to producers from mohair has been relatively constant, averaging $10.21/kg, due to the federal incentive program. Because this program is scheduled to terminate with final payment in 1996, the future of mohair profitability is questionable. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States are influenced by numerous interacting factors and potential constraints. These include the prospect that the goat and textile industries may no longer be profitable in the absence of clear government policies. Although selection may have slightly increased fiber production by Angoras (long term) and domestic meat goats (short term), availability of genetic resources may prove to be a constraint to increased fiber production by cashmere goats and improved meat production by both types of goat. Land resources are plentiful unless new government policies prohibit goats from vast tracts of rangeland and forest because of environmental concerns. Future demand is an unknown, but with increasing world population and affluence, prospects for long-term improved demand for luxury fibers seem good. Competition from foreign cashmere growers is expected, whereas, in the short term, mohair production overseas is declining. However, increased processing of cashmere in its country of origin is expected to result in shortages of raw materials for European and U.S. processors. The amount of scouring, worsted, and woolen equipment in the United States is adequate to accommodate major increases in domestic processing of goat fibers. However, the absence of specific processing knowledge and skills may be constraints. Similarly, the absence of acceptable small-scale dehairing equipment for cashmere will limit cashmere processing on a cottage industry scale. Purely practical considerations such as the effects of predation and cost of fencing could become major constraints to expanding the goat fiber industry. Likewise the success (or lack thereof) of industry promotion of fiber and goat meat could be an overriding factor. To emerge from the uncertainty of erratic raw material prices and to better control profitability, domestic goat-fiber producers are encouraged to consider innovative, cooperative, retained ownership business ventures that will permit them to profit-share up to the retail level. PMID:8726750

  12. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  13. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  14. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W.H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I.C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  15. Productivity-based relative value units for radiology procedures. A Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, M L; Trivedi, V M

    1983-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop relative value units (RVUs) for radiology procedures. The RVUs were developed to measure and to monitor the productivity of radiologists and technologists in a large HMO. In all, 13 radiologists and 33 technologists participated in a Delphi process to develop relative weights for 595 procedures in eight different radiology modalities, including CAT scanner and ultrasound. The RVUs generated were readily accepted by the users and are currently being implemented in the computerized information system at the HMO. PMID:6368726

  16. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA)

  17. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  18. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up : Escaping the Middle-Income Trap?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out of a small number of firms within each industry rather than catch-up of lagging firms. We then use these finding to investigate on-going patterns of catch-up during 2007 to 2011

  19. The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the demand for shark products, particularly fins, has led to the worldwide overexploitation of many elasmobranch species. Although there are growing concerns about this largely unregulated and unmonitored trade, little information still exists about its dynamics, the species involved and the impact of this pressure on stocks in various regions. Our study provides the first attempt at characterizing the trade in shark products from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fourth largest exporter in the world of raw dried shark fins to Hong Kong. A review of trade records and informal interviews with local traders confirmed that the UAE is being used as hub in the broader North Indian Ocean region for the trade in shark products with the Emirati fishery minimally contributing to this trade. Results based on morphological identification of sharks (n= 12,069) and DNA barcoding of tissue samples (n= 655) indicated that the trade was made up of at least 37 species. The most abundant families represented at the Dubai study site were the Sphyrnidae (9.3%), Lamnidae (9%) and Alopiidae (5.9%). While information was mostly limited to shark products originating from the UAE and Oman, results indicated that 45.3% of species traded were considered to be at high risk of global extinction based on the IUCN Red List Global Assessments. Since many of the species found during this survey are likely part of stocks shared with other countries, regional cooperation and management will be crucial to ensure their long term survival.

  20. Autohydrolysis pretreatment of waste wheat straw for cellulosic ethanol production in a co-located straw pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

    2015-01-01

    Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

  1. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

  2. Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

    2014-07-01

    Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5 FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5 FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59 g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

  3. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  4. Observed aerosol-induced radiative effect on plant productivity in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, S.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    We apply satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in conjunction with flux tower-derived estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) to probe the relationship between atmospheric aerosol loading and carbon uptake rate at 10 select sites (4 deciduous broadleaf, 3 cropland, 1 evergreen needle leaf, 1 mixed forest and 1 grassland) on hourly time scales in the growing season in the eastern United States. For deciduous and mixed forests, the aerosol light scattering increases GPP with a maximum effect observed under polluted conditions (AOD >0.6), when diffuse radiation is 40-60%. During midday hours, high AOD conditions (>0.4) enhance plant productivity by ?13% in deciduous forests. In contrast, we find that high diffuse light fraction does not increase the carbon uptake rate in croplands and grasslands; for these ecosystems, we estimate that high AOD conditions reduce GPP by ?17% during midday hours. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have attributed these contrasting response sensitivities to the complex and closed canopy architecture of forests versus crops and grasslands. C4 but not C3 crops may benefit from pollution-induced changes in diffuse and direct light. Further research is needed to investigate the role of local meteorology as a possible confounder in the connection between atmospheric aerosols and plant productivity.

  5. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  6. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  7. Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium penta oxide (V2O5), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH4OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

  8. Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Danchev.

    Full Text Available Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

  9. Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification

    CERN Document Server

    Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

  10. Efficient production of cellulase in the culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Joni; Zhu, Jing; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulase was produced by Acremonium cellulolyticus using untreated waste paper sludge (PS) as the carbon source. The clay present in PS did not show any inhibitory effect on cellulase production but did alter the pH during fermentation. On the flask scale, the maleate buffer concentration and pH were key factors that affected the efficiency of cellulase production from PS cellulose. Optimum cellulase production in a 3-L fermentor of working volume 1.5 L was achieved by controlling the pH value at 6.0 using 2 M NaOH and 2 M maleic acid, and the productivity reached 8.18 FPU/mL. When 40.89 g/L PS cellulose, 2.2 g/L (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) , and 4.4 g/L urea were added to a 48-h culture, the cellulase activity was 9.31 FPU/mL at the flask scale and 10.96 FPU/mL in the 3-L fermentor. These values are ?80% of those obtained when pure cellulose is used as the carbon source. The method developed here presents a new route for the utilization of PS. PMID:21312360

  11. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE OF TRITICALE ON SEASONAL HERBAGE PRODUCTION IN THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed perennial, cool-season species are the dominant components of pastures in the central Appalachian Region of the United States. Forage production from such pastures is often limited during hot, dry summer months and cool, early and late season periods. We studied forage production and stand d...

  12. Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

  14. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

  15. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. ...

  16. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  17. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

  18. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings. PMID:25488307

  19. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  20. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  1. Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for use as raw material for anaerobic digestion. During this work, both hardwood and softwood species—which are representative of the forests of Sweden—were used for the production of methane. Initially, when untreated forest materials were used for the anaerobic digestion, the yields obtained were very low, even with the addition of enzymes, reaching a maximum of only 40 mL CH4/g VS when birch was used. When hydrothermal pretreatment was applied, the enzymatic digestibility improved up to 6.7 times relative to that without pretreatment, and the yield of methane reached up to 254 mL CH4/g VS. Then the effect of chemical/enzymatic detoxification was examined, where laccase treatment improved the methane yield from the more harshly pretreated materials while it had no effect on the more mildly pretreated material. Finally, addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion improved the methane yields from spruce and pine, whereas for birch separate saccharification was more beneficial. To achieve high yields in spruce 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g was necessary, whereas 15 FPU/g was enough when pine and birch were used. During this work, the highest methane yields obtained from pine and birch were 179.9 mL CH4/g VS and 304.8 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. For mildly and severely pretreated spruce, the methane yields reached 259.4 mL CH4/g VS and 276.3 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. We have shown that forest material can serve as raw material for efficient production of methane. The initially low yields from the untreated materials were significantly improved by the introduction of a hydrothermal pretreatment. Moreover, enzymatic detoxification was beneficial, but mainly for severely pretreated materials. Finally, enzymatic saccharification increased the methane yields even further. PMID:26539186

  2. Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for use as raw material for anaerobic digestion. During this work, both hardwood and softwood species-which are representative of the forests of Sweden-were used for the production of methane. Initially, when untreated forest materials were used for the anaerobic digestion, the yields obtained were very low, even with the addition of enzymes, reaching a maximum of only 40 mL CH4/g VS when birch was used. When hydrothermal pretreatment was applied, the enzymatic digestibility improved up to 6.7 times relative to that without pretreatment, and the yield of methane reached up to 254 mL CH4/g VS. Then the effect of chemical/enzymatic detoxification was examined, where laccase treatment improved the methane yield from the more harshly pretreated materials while it had no effect on the more mildly pretreated material. Finally, addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion improved the methane yields from spruce and pine, whereas for birch separate saccharification was more beneficial. To achieve high yields in spruce 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g was necessary, whereas 15 FPU/g was enough when pine and birch were used. During this work, the highest methane yields obtained from pine and birch were 179.9 mL CH4/g VS and 304.8 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. For mildly and severely pretreated spruce, the methane yields reached 259.4 mL CH4/g VS and 276.3 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. We have shown that forest material can serve as raw material for efficient production of methane. The initially low yields from the untreated materials were significantly improved by the introduction of a hydrothermal pretreatment. Moreover, enzymatic detoxification was beneficial, but mainly for severely pretreated materials. Finally, enzymatic saccharification increased the methane yields even further. PMID:26539186

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89±0.64TgNyr.(-1) (Mean±Standard Deviation) and 1.73±0.29TgPyr.(-1) (1Tg=10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global change. PMID:26519911

  4. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global change.

  6. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and tricllosan in sewage sludge across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Roll, Isaac B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Kinney, Chad A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2?-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge.

  7. Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

  8. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (?4 ± 35 kg ha?1) and K (?6 ± 36 kg ha?1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha?1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha?1 yr?1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha?1 yr?1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha?1 yr?1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  9. Salmonella enterica in Swine Production: Assessing the Association between Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Epidemiological Units of Concern?†

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Chong; McKean, James D.; Logue, Catherine M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Tivendale, Kelly A; O'Connor, Annette M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the ability of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to differentiate Salmonella isolates from different units of swine production and to demonstrate the relatedness of Salmonella between farms and abattoirs by AFLP. Twenty-four farms in the midwestern United States were visited four times from 2006 to 2009. At each farm or abattoir visit, 30 fecal samples or 30 mesenteric lymph nodes were collected, respectively. A total of 220 Salmonella isol...

  10. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION OREGON DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a study in the western United States (EPA Regions 8, 9, and 10) that will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-...

  11. Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

  12. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012, 77 FR 24940. On April 22, 2013, the cost... Renewable Energy. Table 1--Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy......

  13. Polyethylene film incorporation into the horticultural soil of small periurban production units in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura; Berenstein, Giselle; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Horticulture makes intensive use of soil and extensive use of polyethylene (PE) sheeting and pesticides, producing an environment where the dynamics between soil and plastics can affect pesticide fate. We have determined that the presence of plastic residues in the horticultural soil of small production units equals 10% of the soil area, being meso and macro-sections the predominant fragment sizes. All soil samples were taken from different plots located in Cuartel V, Moreno district, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Laboratory experiments were conducted to see the relations among pesticide, soil and PE film. Endosulfan recovery from LDPE films (25?m and 100?m) was studied, observing evidence that indicated migration to the inside of the plastic matrix. To further analyze the dynamics of pesticide migration to soil and atmosphere, experiments using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin were performed in soil-plastic-atmosphere microenvironments, showing that up to 24h significant amounts of pesticides moved away from the PE film. To determine whether PE residues could act as potential pesticide collector in soil, column elution experiments were done using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin. Results showed an important pesticide accumulation in the mulch film (584?g-2284?g pesticide/g plastic) compared to soil (13?g-32?g pesticide/g soil). Finally, chemical and photochemical degradation of deltamethrin adsorbed in PE film was studied, finding a protective effect on hydrolysis but no protective effect on photodegradation. We believe that a deeper understanding of the dynamics among soil, plastic and pesticides in horticultural productive systems may contribute to alert for the implications of PE use for plastic sheeting. PMID:25862993

  14. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dinkov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

  15. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

    There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

  16. Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

  17. Ozone vegetation damage effects on gross primary productivity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.

    2014-09-01

    We apply an off-line process-based vegetation model (the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere model) to assess the impacts of ozone (O3) vegetation damage on gross primary productivity (GPP) in the United States during the past decade (1998-2007). The model's GPP simulation is evaluated at 40 sites of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) synthesis. The ecosystem-scale model version reproduces interannual variability and seasonality of GPP at most sites, especially in croplands. Inclusion of the O3 damage impact decreases biases of simulated GPP at most of the NACP sites. The simulation with the O3 damage effect reproduces 64% of the observed variance in summer GPP and 42% on the annual average. Based on a regional gridded simulation over the US, summertime average O3-free GPP is 6.1 g C m-2 day-1 (9.5 g C m-2 day-1 in the east of 95° W and 3.9 g C m-2 day-1 in the west). O3 damage decreases GPP by 4-8% on average in the eastern US and leads to significant decreases of 11-17% in east coast hot spots. Sensitivity simulations show that a 25% decrease in surface O3 concentration halves the average GPP damage to only 2-4%, suggesting the substantial co-benefits to ecosystem health that may be achieved via O3 air pollution control.

  18. Stored-product insects associated with eight feed mills in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Zeb; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Herrman, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Commercial food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps and pheromone-baited sticky traps were used during 2003 to survey stored-product insect adults in eight participating feed mills in the midwestern United States. Across the eight feed mills, 27 species of beetles (Coleoptera) and three species of moths (Lepidoptera) were captured in commercial traps. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was the most abundant insect species captured inside the eight mills. The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), was the most abundant insect species outside the mill and in the mill load-out area. The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was the most abundant moth species inside the mill and in the mill receiving area. The Simpson's index of species diversity among mills ranged from 0.39 (low diversity) to 0.81 (high diversity). The types of species found among mills were different, as indicated by a Morisita's index of <0.7, for the majority of mills. The differences in the types and numbers of insect species captured inside, outside, in receiving, and in load-out areas could be related to differences in the types of animal feeds produced and the degree of sanitation and pest management practiced. PMID:18613605

  19. Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Mogadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa and temperature (about 100C. The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

  20. Californium-252 source production in the United Kingdom the first five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1970 the USAEC announced that they were going to offer their new nuclide, californium-252, for sale but that sealed sources could only be purchased from commercial encapsulators. Since that time a number of firms in the USA have developed the necessary expertise in source production. In Europe, CEA (France) and the Radiochemical Center (UK) have established themselves as suppliers of californium-252 sources. Although 252Cf is available from Savannah River in the form of wire, pellets, or oxide, the United Kingdom practice has been to prefer the use of oxide. Using this material the encapsulator is able to produce sources of widely differing activities and physical shapes from one batch of starting material. By use of solution sub-division techniques carried out in shielded cells, large numbers of sources with activities ranging from 0.001 ?g (2 x 103 n/sec) to 1.7 mg (4 x 109 n/sec) have been produced. These sources have been used for research, medical, and industrial applications

  1. A comparative waste management performance assessment of two uranium production units in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pocos de Caldas uranium production facility was closed in 1997, and a decommissioning programme started in 1998. The project was intended to produce 500 t U3O8/year and 275 t/year of calcium molybdate as a by-product. The key environmental aspect related to these entities deals with acid drainage. There is only one tailings dam at the site. It accumulates circa 2,05 x 106 tons of tailings, 85% being milled ore. The waste-rock/milled ore ratio is 60. Liquid effluents from the tailings dam are treated with lime and BaCl2. Acidification of the infiltrating waters is still of concern as a result of residual pyrite oxidation. It has been estimated that unrestricted use of the mill tailings area shall not be allowed because exposure to radon may imply in doses up to 40 mSv/year. The Caetite Unit started operation in 2000. The production has been raising, from 100 ton in 2001, up to 340 ton in 2003. It is expected that after 16 years of production 12,2 x 106 ton (6,8 x 106 m+3) of waste-rock material will be generated. This figure is approximately 10 times less than that reported for the Pocos de Caldas project. Differently from the Pocos de Caldas project, pyrite is not present in those rocks. Solid wastes from the industrial plant are composed by the leached ore piles. It is expected that 6 piles of 25.000 a 36.000 ton of ore are formed each year. The uranium liquor and washing waters present precipitated material composed by silica, sulfate, phosphate, titanium, iron and calcium besides uranium. These solids are separated from the uranium solution through filtration in activate coal filters. It can be seen that the uranium content in the leached ore represents 15% of the original ore and that the content of 226Ra is virtually the same. As result the leached ore piles may be a relevant source of 226Ra in the long term. It is expected that this scheme will reduce the fluxes of radionuclides from the piles to marginal levels without major environmental concerns After the solvent extraction uranium content in the liquor drops from 12 to 0,003 g/L. The most important aspect in the operation of the Caetite Unit is that liquid effluent emissions into the environment do not take place. One of the determining factors regarding the environmental performance of both units is the prevailing climatological condition at these sites. Rainfall rates of about 1,700 mm/year are observed at the Pocos de Caldas site. On the other hand this value drops to 800 mm/year at the Caetite site. Due to the highest rainfall rates observed at Pocos de Caldas site, an amount equivalent to US$ 3,35 million has been spent with acid drainage abatement (77% only with water treatment). Remediation plans for the Pocos de Caldas site include the, among other issues, stabilization of the uranium mill tailings dam, and abatement of acid mine drainage. In both cases it has been assessed that the application of dry covers will be the most adequate solution. Remediation costs associated with these measures are estimated to be in the range of US$ 3 to 10 million. In the case of Caetite unit ongoing closure of waste-rock piles and tailings ponds is taking place. Costs involved on these activities are not available. Although, it can be assumed that they will be much lower than those to be practiced at Pocos de Caldas site. The vulnerable aspect of the Caetite site has also to do with rainfall rates, but in an opposite direction. Since perennial water bodies are not available at the mine location, groundwater is of key relevance. Salinity of these waters poses significant difficulties for the uranium recovery operation. In addition, underground water bodies are very sensitive to pollution as they serve as water resource for local communities

  2. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S, of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (? = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

  3. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M. [Laboratory of Environmental Control Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: ahmed@restaff.chiba-u.jp; Kozai, Toyoki [Laboratory of Environmental Control Engineering, Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F {sup S}, of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F {sup S} relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces ({rho} = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F {sup S} factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting.

  4. Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

  5. Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

    2012-10-15

    Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

  6. Expert system for maintenance/troubleshooting of final product unit (unit-18) Heavy Water Plant - Tuticorin (Paper No. 3.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EXPERT system has been developed at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin to allow quick operator detection and diagnose incipient failures. The EXPERT system can monitor the input data and try to diagnose the root cause of the failure and suggest the maintenance personnel correct mode of approach to solve the problem. Initial development steps include writing the program fault tree and failure modes and its effect on the operation of the process. Fault tree models display the logical relationship between critical events and possible ways in which the events can occur. As a developmental effort, unit 18 (final product unit) process loop instrumentation of heavy water plant is taken as prototype for trying the EXPERT system. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Work styles, attitudes, and productivity of scientists in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A comparison by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Woerdeman, Dara L.; Rodgers, Yana van der Meulen

    2006-01-01

    With scientific research growing increasingly multidisciplinary in nature, team playing and communication skills have become critical in the achievement of scientific breakthroughs. This study adds valuable evidence to the oft-cited "productivity puzzle" in the sciences by comparing the work styles, attitudes, and productivity of female and male scientists. The application of t-test analysis to data on scientists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands indicates that women report relative...

  8. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stockmann Keith D; Anderson Nathaniel M; Skog Kenneth E; Healey Sean P; Loeffler Dan R; Jones Greg; Morrison James F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation ob...

  9. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges i...

  10. Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

  11. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Administrations to the Market... International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements With Foreign Postal Operators AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service...

  12. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  13. Isotope production at department of energy sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) provides both stable and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many domestic and foreign research, development,and/or commercial applications. The materials and services are available through the Isotope Distribution Program established by the USDOE at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is operated by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc. The materials and services are provided on a full-cost recovery basis and are limited to those materials and services that are not commercially available. Many USDOE sites, including the ORNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL), Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), are utilized in meeting the user community needs for specific materials and/or services. Stable isotopes are provided by the ORNL through the use of the electromagnetic separation process. Distribution of enriched stable isotopes through the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program began in 1954 and presently includes a total of approximately 350 specific isotopic enichments of 50 different materials. These materials are avilable in various compound forms and specific configurations to meet a wide variety of research, development, and commercial applications. The radioisotopes provided by the varius USDOE sites (ORNL, LANL, BNL, HEDL, INEL, SRL, and ANL) are used in a multitude of applications that include basic research, remote power sources, medical applications, radiography, radiation processing, remote light sources, and neutron dosimetry. The stable and radioisotope production and/or processing capabilities at various USDOE sites and the availability of the materials and services throght the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program are described in detail. (author)

  14. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  15. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  16. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated June 3, 2009, 74 FR 26675. Effective April 19, 2010, the... 2004-2008 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the December 2009, Monthly... Monthly Energy Review (December 2009) 1. Btu stands for British thermal units. 2. kWh stands for...

  17. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 10, 2011, 76 FR 13168. May 29, 2012, the cost figures... averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the March, 2012, Monthly Energy Review DOE... Review (March, 2012), except for propane. \\1\\ Btu stands for British thermal units. \\2\\ kWh stands...

  18. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 18, 2010, 75 FR 13123. Effective April 11, 2011, the... 2005-2009 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price data is the January, 2011, Monthly...) and Monthly Energy Review (January 2011). 1. Btu stands for British thermal units. 2. kWh stands...

  19. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... calibrating units for breath alcohol testers to Model Specifications for such devices (49 FR 48865) and to... found to conform to the 1994 amended Model Specifications (59 FR 67377) when tested at alcohol... of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  20. Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added, 58-67% and 80-83% of the cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the waste were converted into monomeric sugars. The cellulose conversion efficiency during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) assay at 10% DM was 79% for the highest enzyme loading (25 FPU g(-1) DM) while 69% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids mainly (total carboxylic acids = 3.1-7.4% on DM basis).

  1. The Way of Establishing a Relative Position for Some Production Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The CRAFT Method was at the basis of the development of the heuris-tic commuting models, in which one starts from an initial emplacement of units that is successively improved, through the successive commuting of units among them on the basis of some criteria. In the present paper we have resolved to the Facility Location and Layout module of the WinQSB program that uses the CRAFT Method in solving problems of the Functional Layout type.

  2. The Way of Establishing a Relative Position for Some Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Ioana Amariei; Denis Fourmaux; Constantin Dan Dumitrescu

    2010-01-01

    The CRAFT Method was at the basis of the development of the heuris-tic commuting models, in which one starts from an initial emplacement of units that is successively improved, through the successive commut-ing of units among them on the basis of some criteria. In the present paper we have resolved to the Facility Location and Layout module of the WinQSB program that uses the CRAFT Method in solving problems of the Functional Layout type.

  3. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...

  4. Trends in Braille and Large-Print Production in the United States: 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Corn, Anne; Sille, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated practices in the production and distribution of braille and large-print textbooks, highlighting changes in production and delivery systems from 2000 to 2004. The findings indicate that fewer states use production models for the statewide acquisition and distribution of special materials and that there is a greater reliance…

  5. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  6. Business Plan for Peloton: A Software Product Firm Focused on the Credit Union Industry in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flippance, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This business plan proposes a new software firm, Peloton Software Inc., the product of which will meet an evident need of credit unions with 30-200 employees based in the United States. The hosted software product, based on Microsoft SharePoint, will improve top-down communication and horizontal collaboration. The firm will be composed of a development office in Vancouver, BC and a sales office in Los Angeles, CA, and will sell to credit unions and their credit union service organizations in ...

  7. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from......, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity....

  8. Mortality study of workers in 1,3-butadiene production units identified from a chemical workers cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, E. M.; Fajen, J M; Ruder, A M; Rinsky, R. A.; Halperin, W. E.; Fessler-Flesch, C A

    1995-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has given the designations of "sufficient evidence" of carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in experimental animals and "limited evidence" of carcinogenicity in humans. To investigate the carcinogenic effect in humans, we conducted a cohort mortality study among 364 men who were assigned to any of three 1,3-butadiene production units located within several chemical plants in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia, including 277 men employed in a U.S. R...

  9. Setting up and Running a Small-Scale Microfiche Production Unit in a Developing Country: A Case History. Matheson Library Contributions to Tropical Librarianship, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Alan

    This document details the creation and development of a small-scale microfiche production unit in the Matheson Library of the Papua New Guinea University of Technology. Emphasized are the technical aspects of developing the unit, especially in a developing nation. Specifications for equipment are provided, and production procedures are detailed.…

  10. Vitrification of fission product wastes: industrial experience and construction of the new vitrification units at La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first industrial-scale unit for vitrification of fission product wastes was commissioned at Marcoule in France in 1978. Operating experience has been applied in design and construction of the R7 and T7 units at La Hague for vitrification of fission product solutions from the new UP2-800 and UP3 reprocessing plants, (annual capacity of 1,600 tonnes of LWR spent fuel). After outlining the vitrification process, this paper presents the sustained throughput performances achieved during 9 years operation of the continuous vitrification line at Marcoule, plus information concerning technologies, maintenance, process effluents and safety. It then describes the new R7 and T7 units with their six 25 kg/hour glass production lines. Emphasis is placed on the process-related and technological changes, layout optimizations and main innovations decided to improve operation and achieve economies of scale in extrapolating from the 15 kg/hour line at Marcoule. Storage facility design for vitrified waste containers is briefly presented

  11. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  13. Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

  14. In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur through addition of a carbon source such as acetate or molasses to augment the natural bacterial population which can induce simultaneous reduction and precipitation of uranium in solution. Bioremediation experiments are presently being conducted at U.S. Department of Energy sites in western states. Monitored natural attenuation suggest that groundwater flow that created the deposit moved from an oxidized zone through the orebody to a reduced zone. Re-establishment of ground-water flow after mining should move contaminants from the mined orebody into the reduced zone where natural processes can reduce the contaminants and remove them from the ground water. Questions: 1) Is current ground-water hydrology suitable? 2) What is the reducing capacity of the reduced zone? 3) Do kinetics of reduction reactions in the reducing zone vs. speed of ground water flow? 4) Effects of heterogeneity in mining zone and reducing zone? 5) Can all analytes of concern be attenuated? 6) Monitored attenuation- can the limited time frame preferred by operators be achieved? (author)

  15. Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción / Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Chacón; Isabel, Besembel; Dulce M, Rivero; Juan, Cardillo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de [...] vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from [...] the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

  16. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-01-01

    The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1) The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2) The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supp...

  17. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  18. 75 FR 27614 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-- Measures Affecting the... consultations under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement... clove. This ] request may be found at http://www.wto.org in a document designated as WT/DS406/1....

  19. 75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-- Measures Affecting the... the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Pub. L. 111-31). That request may be found at http://www.wto.org in...

  20. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  1. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths. PMID:26421418

  3. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Dormann, B.; Decker, C.; Guerrier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range ...

  4. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for floating-point computations, and for this reason, floating-point operators consume a significant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

  5. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  6. The relationship between farmers' attitude and behaviour towards calves, and productivity of veal units

    OpenAIRE

    Lensink, Joop; Boissy, Alain; Veissier, Isabelle

    2000-01-01

    Although veal production is highly standardised, there still remains variability in productivity between farms, which might be due to the farmers' behaviour towards their animals, which in turn depends on their attitude towards animals. Fifty farms affiliated with the same veal company were studied. The farmers' behaviour with the calves was observed during one morning meal. The farmers were then asked to fill in questionnaires designed to measure their attitude towards calves, and to obtain ...

  7. THE NECESSITY OF LOWERING PRODUCTION COST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL MINING UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA-CLAUDIA DINA; GABRIELA BU?AN

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, cost is a key instrument in decisionson resource allocation, which are often limited, on the volume and structure of production,increase or withdraw supply of goods or services market, etc. In these circumstances the bestchoice is to choose a minimum cost. In its universal acceptance, the cost of production is aneconomic category that provides information about the work done by an operator and is a keyfactor of economic and financial analysis of the efficie...

  8. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Liu

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under this project. A promising process scheme has been developed for power generation and/or hydrogen coproduction with CCS based upon our proposed "one-box" process. Our preliminary economic analysis indicates about 10% reduction in the required electricity selling price and ~40% cost reduction in CCS on per ton CO{sub 2} can be achieved in comparison with the base case involving conventional WGS with a two-stage Selexsol® for CCS. Long term field tests (e.g., >1,000 hrs) with the incorporation of the catalyst for the WGS membrane reactor and more in-depth analysis of the process scheme are recommended for the future study.

  9. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut-downs and periods of high power demand resulted in 3375 hours of separate operation over the year, giving an average bioethanol energy cost of 0.56 Euro/L. The results suggest that the polygeneration system cannot produce lignocellulosic bioethanol competitively under the given conditions, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity.

  10. Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ► Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ► SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ► Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ► Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ► Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

  11. Linking crime guns: the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Anthony A; Pierce, Glenn L

    2004-07-01

    Ballistics imaging technology has received national attention as a potent tool for moving the law enforcement response to violent gun criminals forward by linking multiple crime scenes to one firearm. This study examines the impact of ballistics imaging technology on the productivity of the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Using negative binomial regression models to analyze times series data on ballistics matches, we find that ballistics imaging technology was associated with a more than sixfold increase in the monthly number of ballistics matches made by the Boston Police Department's Ballistics Unit. Cost-effectiveness estimates and qualitative evidence also suggest that ballistics imaging technology allows law enforcement agencies to make hits that would not have been possible using traditional ballistics methods. PMID:15317183

  12. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses, considering both average values and standard deviations.

  14. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

  15. Integrity of production wells and confining unit at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sonya A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water in the shallow alluvial aquifer is contaminated at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas. Five production wells at the site are cased through the alluvial aquifer and underlying units and are screened in either the Paluxy or Twin Mountains aquifer. Three abandoned wells, originally completed in the Twin Mountains aquifer but filled with drilling mud in 1958, also penetrate the alluvial aquifer. The Paluxy and Twin Mountains aquifers are used for drinking-water supplies in and around the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. Trichloroethylene and its degradation products, dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride, and the metal chromium previously have been detected in the shallow alluvial aquifer. Current (1995) analyses of water-quality samples taken from the static water column of the five production wells and one of the abandoned wells indicate no trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, or vinyl chloride in the water column of these wells. Chromium was detected in all samples, but concentrations were less than the practical quantitation limit, which is the regulatory action level for this site. The results of borehole geophysical log analysis indicate that two of the production wells could have vertically connected intervals where cement bonding in the well annulus is poor. The other production wells have overall good cement bonding. Temperature logs do not indicate flow behind casing except in the screened interval of one well. Geophysical logs show the Eagle Ford Shale ranges from 147 to 185 feet thick at the site. The Eagle Ford Shale has low permeability and a high plasticity index. These physical characteristics make the Eagle Ford Shale an excellent confining unit.

  16. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  17. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research. PMID:18791137

  18. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang City..., Irwindale, CA 91706 Vittore Wheel & Tire, 502 Industrial Park Avenue, Asheboro, NC 27203 RTM Wheel & Tire... tires and products containing same by reason of infringement of U.S. Design Patent No. D487,424...

  19. Design and analysis of health products and services: An example at a specialized COPD unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

    2008-01-01

    Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible.In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based on the concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. This has led to the emergence of a new discipline for the design and evaluation of medical service production, known as servuction, an amalgam of "service" and "production". The organigram of a new health product should include the problems the program faces and the steps proposed to overcome these problems. The concept of evaluation can be divided into two categories: administrative evaluation, and evaluative research. Avedis Donabedian was one of the founders of evaluative research, based on an easy-to-remember triad: structure-process-results. In the final evaluation of a new health care model, the innovations it provides must be considered.In this article we describe the stages involved in the design of a new health product and correlate them with the types of evaluation that should be applied at each point in the process. Our discussion addresses general aspects of servuction, but also focuses on the design of a particular service, created to care for patients with severe COPD. PMID:19340319

  20. Radon decay product removal unit as adpated for use with a lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radon decay product remover is described for use in a walled living enclosure having an airspace with radon decay products therein, comprising: (a) a threaded male adapter for insertion into a light bulb socket so as to connect the radon decay product remover to an A.C. electrical power supply; (b) an ion generator in the remover and coupled through the adapter to the A.C. power supply, the ion generator having an A.C. to D.C. converter, including a rectifier for rectifying the A.C. power to produce high voltage D.C. power which is coupled to an electrode for creating ions that are distributed in the airspace, resulting in an electric field gradient such that the electrical potential decreases from its maximum voltage at the electrode to essentially zero voltage at the room surfaces causing migration of ions and charged airborne radon decay products toward the boundaries of the airspace of the living enclosure where they deposit on surfaces and are thereby removed from the airspace, (c) a female socket for insertion of a light bulb, the female socket being electrically coupled to the A.C. power supply through the adapator

  1. Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that…

  2. Geography of the United States uranium supply: resources, production, and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resources and production in the US are reviewed. The time frame extends from the early development of domestic uranium in the 1940's, through 1976. The role of the Federal government is discussed. A glossary and a selected bibliography (40 references) are included

  3. Methyl Chloride Synthesis in a Microreactor-Development of a Small Scale Production Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, S.A.; Wärnå, J.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kumar, N.; Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Yu.; Salmi, T.

    Budapest : Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2014, s. 57-58. ISBN 978-963-05-9518-6. [International Conference on Microreactor Technology IMRET /13./. Budapest (HU), 23.06.2014-25.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : methyl chloride * chloromethane * on-site production Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... (subject worker group). The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2010 (75 FR 71460... Register on June 13, 2011 (76 FR 34271). The Department has not received any written comments from...

  5. United-atom K X-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability for compound-nucleus X-ray production Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) in atomic collisions where long-lived compound nuclei are formed is calculated using the second-order distorted wave Born Approximation. The results are compared with a semi-classical formula which relates Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) to the product of the K-vacancy decay rate GAMMAsub(K), the compound-nucleus lifetime tau, the probability of creating a K vacancy on the incoming part of the collision, and the fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) that have formed a compound nucleus. For an isolated resonance, we find that tau is just the inverse of the resonance with GAMMA, and for the compound-nucleus reactions involving many unresolved resonances, tau is the inverse of the Erison correlation with GAMMAsub(C). For isobaric analog resonances GAMMAsub(C) is expected to be larger on resonance than off resonance. The fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) is given in terms of squares of complex reaction amplitudes. (orig.)

  6. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States : a consumer exposure study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hair dye products constitute an important source of allergen exposure, and contribute importantly to allergic contact dermatitis in consumers and hairdressers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of potent contact sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products intended for home use on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average product contained six (range 0-11). p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) was found in 83 products (78%), but resorcinol (89%), m-aminophenol (75%), p-aminophenol (60%) and toluene-2,5-diamine (21%) were also frequently identified. CONCLUSIONS: Potent contact sensitizers were almost universally included in the hair dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy.

  7. Exploring the potential of Eucalyptus for energy production in the Southern United States: Financial analysis of delivered biomass. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Wright, J.; Saloni, D.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H. [Wood and Paper Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Abt, R. [Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern United States offer a viable feedstock for renewable bioenergy. Delivered cost of eucalypt biomass to a bioenergy facility was simulated in order to understand how key variables affect biomass delivered cost. Three production rates (16.8, 22.4 and 28.0 Mg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, dry weight basis) in two investment scenarios were compared in terms of financial analysis, to evaluate the effect of productivity and land investment on the financial indicators of the project. Delivered cost of biomass was simulated to range from 55.1 to 66.1 per delivered Mg (with freight distance of 48.3 km from plantation to biorefinery) depending on site productivity (without considering land investment) at 6% IRR. When land investment was included in the analysis, delivered biomass cost increased to range from 65.0 to 79.4 per delivered Mg depending on site productivity at 6% IRR. Conversion into cellulosic ethanol might be promising with biomass delivered cost lower than 66 Mg{sup -1}. These delivered costs and investment analysis show that Eucalyptus plantations are a potential biomass source for bioenergy production for Southern U.S. (author)

  8. Development of production of corrosion-resistant steel with its processing in unit of argon-oxygen refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology of producing low-carbon stainless steels 03Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10, 08Kh18N10T, including electrical furnace smelt of semifinished article with 1.5-2.0% content of carbon and alloying elements content close to the ready-made metal composition is described. The semifinished products are processed in argon-oxygen refining unit. Casting is accomplished at continuous melting slab machine of curvilineal type special attention is paid to increase in degree of chrome utilization and phosphor removal. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Comparing social-economic conditions in ethanol production areas in Brazil and United States - a spatial econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol has increased in United States and Brazil in recent years, because of incentives to reduce gas consumption. In Brazil, there is a big program to use ethanol both as a single fuel or an additive to gas. In US, the incentive is to use ethanol combined to gas in proportion that can reach to 85 percent of the mix. This situation has prompted the need to assess the economic, social and environmental impacts of this process, both for the country as a whole and for the regi...

  10. Heavy water production by the ammonia rectification method with heat pump. Experience of a commercial unit start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facility for heavy water production by ammonia rectification method with heat pump with efficiency of 8 t/year is described. The negative scale effect-decrease in efficiency mass-exchange device of one and the same design by increase in diameter was reliably established for the first time by the plant start-up. It's hydrodynamic nature was determined and foundations of modern theory of scale transfer were laid down. Large-scale testing unit was created for the first time in Russia. 12 refs.; 9 figs

  11. Characterization of precipitation product errors across the United States using multiplicative triple collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemohammad, S. H.; McColl, K. A.; Konings, A. G.; Entekhabi, D.; Stoffelen, A.

    2015-08-01

    Validation of precipitation estimates from various products is a challenging problem, since the true precipitation is unknown. However, with the increased availability of precipitation estimates from a wide range of instruments (satellite, ground-based radar, and gauge), it is now possible to apply the triple collocation (TC) technique to characterize the uncertainties in each of the products. Classical TC takes advantage of three collocated data products of the same variable and estimates the mean squared error of each, without requiring knowledge of the truth. In this study, triplets among NEXRAD-IV, TRMM 3B42RT, GPCP 1DD, and GPI products are used to quantify the associated spatial error characteristics across a central part of the continental US. Data are aggregated to biweekly accumulations from January 2002 through April 2014 across a 2° × 2° spatial grid. This is the first study of its kind to explore precipitation estimation errors using TC across the US. A multiplicative (logarithmic) error model is incorporated in the original TC formulation to relate the precipitation estimates to the unknown truth. For precipitation application, this is more realistic than the additive error model used in the original TC derivations, which is generally appropriate for existing applications such as in the case of wind vector components and soil moisture comparisons. This study provides error estimates of the precipitation products that can be incorporated into hydrological and meteorological models, especially those used in data assimilation. Physical interpretations of the error fields (related to topography, climate, etc.) are explored. The methodology presented in this study could be used to quantify the uncertainties associated with precipitation estimates from each of the constellations of GPM satellites. Such quantification is prerequisite to optimally merging these estimates.

  12. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  13. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P < 0.001) hump-shaped unimodal relationship, of which the generalized coefficients of determination averaged 20.5% over all the forest types. That is, tree species richness first increased as productivity increased at a progressively slower rate, and, after reaching a maximum, richness started to decline. Our consistent findings suggest that forests of high productivity would sustain few species because they consist mostly of flat homogeneous areas lacking an environmental gradient along which a diversity of species with different habitats can coexist. The consistency of the productivity-biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts. PMID:26954431

  14. Three essays on productivity and research and development in United States investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Haru

    Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the effects regulation, participation in EPRI, diversification, and features of the utility's technology have on the utility's own R&D. R&D rises with the size of the utility; as the investor-friendliness of regulation worsens, R&D falls.

  15. Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

  16. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimdina, Ginta; Timma, Lelde; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  17. Investigating solid waste production and associated management practices in private dental units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed. In the present work, results of this survey are presented; critical parameters and factors affecting the quantity and quality of the dental waste stream are reported together with the analysis and classification of dominant conditions and needs of the dental sector in the waste management field

  18. Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

  19. Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

  20. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    OpenAIRE

    Symonds, E M; M. M. Cook; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; R. O. Schenck; J. O. Lukasik; E. S. Van Vleet; Breitbart, M

    2015-01-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in dome...

  1. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; Simon, H; Bhave, P.; Yarwood, G.

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2) which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can b...

  2. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; Simon, H; Bhave, P.; Yarwood, G.

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2) which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Both chlorine and NO2 affect atm...

  3. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    OpenAIRE

    Di Onofrio Valeria; Negrone Mario; Gallè Francesca; Bagattini Maria; Liguori Giorgio; Triassi Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan co...

  4. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using γ-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  5. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  6. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source to produce potable water albeit at a relatively low productivity rate. A new modification has been introduced to the conventional solar still to enhance its productivity. The modification consists of a light weight, black finished, slowly-rotating drum, which leads to a sustainable, cost-effective, and low-tech amendment that preserves the key features of the still while considerably increasing its yield compared to a control still that does not include the drum. In this paper, three different cover geometries of the modified still are studied and the effect of cover design on the performance of the still in terms of measured temperatures and productivity is considered. The three cover designs are as follows: double-sloped or triangular, single-sloped and curved cover. In addition, a conventional double-sloped still without the rotating drum is operated in parallel as a control and the findings of this study are reported and discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity

  8. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants. PMID:26866460

  9. Comparison of Mechanized Units in Rural Cooperatives, Production Cooperatives and Mechanized Companies in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karami

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative have always been considered institutions capable of solving major problems in the process of development in different countries. These institutions has evolved along with theories of development from government dependent organization to independent, people centered with the objective of being equal-opportunity systems for all members in order to be responsive to current goals of development. The aim of the present research was to determine the level of success in mechanized companies in Fars Province (12 Mechanized Companies, 24 Rural Cooperatives and 8 Production Cooperatives in achieving development goals through a survey research. The findings indicated that production cooperatives were more successful in promoting farmers' income and participation of members in community activities, increasing equity and farmers' work related welfare while mechanized companies had more achievements in flexibility and participation of members in making decisions regarding farming activities and in terms of payment to farmers. In other words, production cooperatives have been more successful in achieving development goals (increasing income, participation, and work related welfare and decreasing inequity. Mechanized companies rank a position in the middle of the success scale, but rural cooperatives had the lowest success level in achieving development goals.

  10. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kummu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products. We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency. We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years. Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management. For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

  11. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

  13. China : anti-dumping and countervailing duty measures on broiler products from the United States : how the chickens came home to roost

    OpenAIRE

    PRUSA, Thomas J; VERMULST, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The WTO panel report on China – Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States was circulated to Members on 2 August 2013. In the report the Panel examined a variety of issues challenged by the United States under various provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, the Anti-dumping Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The Panel upheld the United States’ claims on the majority of the issues, which cov...

  14. Comparison of ionisation chamber and semiconductor detector devices for measurement of the dose–width product for panoramic dental units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses for panoramic dental radiography are assessed in terms of the dose–width product (DWP) or dose–area product, which gives a measure of the radiation through a whole exposure. The DWP can be measured using a pencil ionisation chamber (IC) similar to that used for computed tomography dose assessment. However, ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all directions and so backscatter from the image receptor may increase the recorded dose. This study compares measurements performed using four options: a pencil IC mounted straight on the image receptor, the IC mounted with a steel plate to the rear to standardise scatter conditions, the IC mounted with a steel plate and lead collimators in front to minimise the effect of extra-focal radiation, and a Quart Dido employing a one square centimetre semiconductor detector (SD) designed for panoramic measurements. The results indicate that modification of the current method by incorporating a steel plate reduced the measurement dose by 7% on average, but the reduction was greater for units with semiconductor imaging plates. The measurements with the SD agree more closely with the IC with the steel plate to the rear. An IC with a backing plate to standardise scatter or a suitable SD is recommended for measurement on panoramic dental units. (paper)

  15. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process. The chemical composition of the inflow samples showed a very heterogenic composition and strongly varied, reflecting that large scale industrial synthesis is carried out in batches. The outflow contained mainly unspecific chlorinated educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses as well as compounds which are known as typical constituents of municipal wastewaters. PMID:24840322

  16. Changes in value-added wood product manufacturer perceptions about certification in the United States from 2002 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Certification is a voluntary mechanism which involves assessing either forest management practices or chain-of-custody tracking through supply chains against a set of standards. Certification is becoming an important market requirement particularly in value-added wood product sectors such as furniture, flooring and millwork. In 2002 and 2008 we conducted national studies in the United States to identify value-added wood industry perspectives and participation in certification and to see what has changed in the industry in the past 6 years. Results show that certification continues to be an important issue for the value-added wood products sector in the U.S. Certification awareness and participation have increased significantly from 2002-2008. The percent of respondents receiving premiums for certified products has increased significantly from 2002-2008 and the percent of respondents incurring (non-raw material costs for certified wood raw materials declined. Finally, 97% of respondents in 2008 said that they will continue to sell certified wood products in the future.

  17. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  18. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture...

  19. Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Products into the Decision Support Systems of the United Nations World Food Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Kempler, S.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will describe our collaborative work with the World Food Programme of the United Nations, including web-based information services and tools to address global and regional water related issues, such as, floods and droughts. Set-up in 1963, the World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. WFP depends on donors worldwide. The United States of America has been the largest donor. Natural disasters, such as, floods and droughts, occur every year in third world countries and often require emergency food aid. Moving large quantities of foods is not an easy task. Time and planning are required. Accurate and timely environmental information will facilitate decision-making and food distribution and maximize the use of contributions. Few observational data are available for disaster monitoring in remote and poor countries. Satellite observations provide a unique way in providing such data from space. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and Dr. Lenard Milich of WFP have been collaborating for the past three years on ways to integrate Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data into forward planning exercises for establishing geographic areas (e.g., sub-equatorial Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea) in need of food assistance. To monitor and assess current conditions, the GES DISC has developed a number of rainfall products derived from TRMM and online based tools to facilitate data and information access. These tools will not only benefit the WFP decision-making activities, but also other local agencies and the general public. All data and services are web-based to minimize the cost for data accessing and maximize the use of global rainfall data products.

  20. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

  1. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small...

  2. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. PRODUCTION OF RAPESEED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, IN THE ZONAL AND EUROPEAN CONTEXT (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is currently one of the world's most important oil species. Rapeseed oil contains varying proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic - 20%, linoleic 15%, linolenic - 9% -15% erucic, casenoic - 8%, palmitic - 4%, 1% stearic acid. Erucic acid from rapeseed oil used in diet has negative effects on the human body because it retards the growth of young organism causing diseases of the circulatory system and the adrenal glands, liver and thyroid gland. By reducing the erucic acid content has increased proportion of oleic acid, from 14-20% to more than 64%, and the percentage of linoleic acid from 13-15% to more than 24%, which increased the food quality of rapeseed oil which can replace in this respect the sunflower oil. It should be noted also that, rapeseed oil low in erucic acid content, has unique effects on serum total cholesterol, serum fatty acids and the level of antioxidants, compared to diets high in saturated fat or oil mono- or poly-unsaturated from sunflower. The work was born following the presentation of producer’s performance placed in another area of culture, rather than national, through different environmental conditions and production (production structure, way of organizing the activity, degree of capitalization of the producers etc..

  4. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  5. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short-term (2015) and mid-term (2020) scenarios could be between: 1,984 to 6,475 tons (2015) and 3,487 to 13,763 tons (2020) of neodymium; 331 to 864 tons (2015) and 587 to 1,834 tons (2020) of dysprosium; 123 to 325 tons (2015) and 219 to 687 tons (2020) of terbium; finally, zero to 871 tons (2015) and zero to 1,493 tons (2020) of praseodymium. Hybrid vehicle sales in non-U.S. countries could account for a large portion of magnetic rare earth consumption. Wind turbine and related rare earth consumption growth will also be driven by non-U.S. countries, especially developing nations like China. Despite wind turbines using bigger magnets, the sheer volume of hybrids sold and non-U.S. consumers could account for most future consumption of permanent magnets and their rare earths.

  6. Extending the "web of drug identity" with knowledge extracted from United States product labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Zhu, Qian; Freimuth, Robert; Boyce, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Structured Product Labels (SPLs) contain information about drugs that can be valuable to clinical and translational research, especially if it can be linked to other sources that provide data about drug targets, chemical properties, interactions, and biological pathways. Unfortunately, SPLs currently provide coarsely-structured drug information and lack the detailed annotation that is required to support computational use cases. To help address this issue we created LinkedSPLs, a Linked Data resource that extends the "web of drug identity" using information extracted from SPLs. In this paper we describe the mapping that LinkedSPLs provides between SPL active ingredients and DrugBank chemical entities. These mappings were created using three approaches: InChI chemical structure descriptors comparison, exact string matching based on the chemical name, and automatic (unsupervised) linkage identification. Comparison of the approaches found that, while these three approaches are complementary, the automatic approach performs well in terms of precision and recall. PMID:24303301

  7. A historical gazetteer and bibliography of by-product coking plants in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.G.

    2001-07-01

    Almost 170 by-product coking plants of various sizes have existed in Great Britain, at collieries, steelworks, gasworks or other sites in several regions, with start-up dates ranging from 1882 to 1981. This new study provides details of all these plants; name, location, period of existence, ownership, numbers and types of coke ovens (with start-up and shutdown dates where known), coal carbonizing capacity, location of photographs and plans in the literature, and references to technical articles dealing with the plants. An introduction outlines the rather specialised technology of coke manufacture, which differ from that of the coal-based gas industry. No compilation of this kind has previously been attempted. This book provides a record of an industry for which little or no archaeological evidence survives, and will form a basic reference for future studies of individual enterprises or cokemaking in general. 6 figs., 12 photos.

  8. Assessment of radiological problems due to natural radionuclides, in units of exploration and production of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the study of the occurrence of technologically enhanced natural radioactive material in petroleum offshore platforms of Campos Basin. The material found in drums that came from the platforms and scales from production tubes were analyzed for characterization and determination of its specific activity. There were made measurement of the dose rate in several platforms and radon concentration in onshore and offshore facilities. The results were compared with limits of the Brazilian legislation and international recommendations and actions were proposed to be implemented to assure the workers and environment protection. The results show that with the adequate actions the workers will not receive exposures above the public limits according international recommendations. (author)

  9. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  10. The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Choi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  11. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  12. Land-Use Analysis of Croplands for Sustainable Food and Energy Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumkehr, Andrew Lee

    Energy security and environmental sustainability are major concerns to many in the U.S. Energy from biomass has been proposed as a strategy to help meet future energy needs; however, widespread cultivation for biofuels could have significant impacts on food security and the environment. One solution to minimizing the impacts of biofuel cultivation is to limit production to abandoned croplands where competition from food crops and environmental degradation will be minimized. Here I estimate the spatial distribution of historical U.S. cropland areas from 1850 to 2000 and subsequently calculate abandoned cropland areas for the year 2000. From this data I estimate the potential biomass energy that could be obtained from abandoned croplands. I also estimate the potential for biomass energy to contribute to a renewable energy system consisting of wind and solar power by meeting seasonal energy storage needs that are a result of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Lastly, I use the historical cropland areas result to estimate the ability of U.S. croplands to supply food to local populations at the county level.

  13. United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sean, Gillon.

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

  14. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending. PMID:25739195

  15. The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  17. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots of environmental impacts that could be subject to mitigation. PMID:22184425

  18. Production of a liquid de-icer by evaporation of FGD waste water at Nordjyllandsvaerket, unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, N.O. [Elsam Engineering A/S, Nordjyllandsvaerket Vodskov (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    The Elsam-owned, Danish 380 MW{sub e} pulverised coal-fired power plant 'Nordjyllandsvaerket, unit 3', commissioned in 1998, is equipped with a limestone-based Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) flue gas desulphurisation plant. After six years of operation the rotary regenerative gas-gas heater had to be replaced due to corrosion and increased pressure drop. At the same time, intensified environmental regulation on the FGD wastewater outlet forced Nordjyllandsvaerket to evaporate all liquid effluents. The upgrading has almost been completed in September 2005 with the commissioning of an evaporator for the FGD waste water. The final product, i.e. a concentrated calcium chloride solution - brine - will be sold as a liquid de-icer. (orig.)

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockmann Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

  20. Impact of Subspecialty Fellowship Training on Research Productivity Among Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therattil, Paul J.; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors’ aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Methods: Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. Results: In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P < .01) and multiple fellowships (10.4; P < .01). Craniofacial-trained plastic surgeons demonstrated the next highest h-index (9.8), followed by no fellowship (8.4), microsurgery (8.3), hand (7.7), cosmetic (5.2), and burn (5.1). Conclusion: Plastic surgeons with a research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery.

  1. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety :an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement about product saf...

  2. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    . Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by...... building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was...... and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010...

  3. Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

  4. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  5. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  6. Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation

    OpenAIRE

    M.D. Mashitah; Fadzilah, K

    2010-01-01

    Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm) on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1) and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1) was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation r...

  7. Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Veleva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

  8. Tipología de unidades de producción de nuez de castilla en sistema de producción tradicional / Typology of walnut production units in traditional production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naxeai, Luna-Méndez; José L., Jaramillo-Villanueva; Javier, Ramírez-Juárez; Sergio, Escobedo-Garrido; Ángel, Bustamante-González; Guillermo, Campos-Ríos.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En México, el sistema de producción familiar de nuez de Castilla es generador de ingresos complementarios para las familias y de tradiciones culinarias; como el chile en nogada. En el sur de México se desarrolla un sistema de producción tradicional-familiar, intercalado con cultivos anuales y perenn [...] es en condiciones socioeconómicas muy similares a las condiciones socio-económicas de las unidades de producción en estudio. A pesar de su importancia, poco se conoce sobre el sistema de cultivo y las características de sus unidades de producción (UP); lo que ha limitado el desarrollo de la actividad. El análisis de las UP se realizó por muestreo aleatorio simple con una confiabilidad de 95 %. Se entrevistó a 167 productores en su domicilio particular. Para la construcción de la tipología se utilizó análisis multivariado con variables categóricas. Se identificaron tres tipos de UP diferenciadas por región de producción, manejo poscosecha y mano de obra contratada. Las variables culturales no discriminaron productores, pero contribuyeron a entender la lógica de funcionamiento del cultivo. Se concluye que variables del factor espacial, en términos de las relaciones de mercado, diferencian UP de nuez de Castilla periurbanas de la región Sierra Nevada. Abstract in english In México, the walnut family production system generates complementary income for families as well as culinary traditions such as chile en nogada. In the south of México, a traditional-family production system is practiced, interspersed with annual and perennial crops in very similar socioeconomic c [...] onditions. In spite of its importance, little is known about the cultivation system and the characteristics of its production units (PU), limiting the development of the activity. The analysis of PUs was carried out by simple random sampling with a reliability of 95 %. Interviews were done with 167 producers in their homes. For the construction of the typology, a multivariate analysis with categorical variables was used. Three types of different PUs were identified based on production region, post-harvest management and hired workforce. The cultural variables did not discriminate producers, but they did contribute to understand the logic of the crop functioning. It is concluded that variables of the spatial factor, in terms of the market relationships, differentiate peri-urban walnut PUs in the Sierra Nevada region.

  9. STUDY CONCERNING PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES IN SOLID STATE CULTURES OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTIL?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of the lignocelluloses to fermentable sugars seems to be the main reason for the high producing cost of ethanol from lignocelluloses. The objective of this work is to test two strains of Trichoderma in liquid state and solid state cultures for cellulase production, and to compare the productivity and efficiency of the two systems of fermentation. Submerged liquid cultures (SLC and solid state cultures (SSC were carried out to compare the productivity of the two strains of Trichoderma. Comparing the productions of cellulases in the systems applied in this study, data indicate the system of solid state culture with flushing as the most efficient (660% more efficient in T. viride ATCC 13.631 SSC+f than in SLC and 455% more efficient in T. viride CMGB1 SSC+f than in SLC. Still, T. viride CMGB1 show a higher production (2160 FPU in SSC+f than T. viride ATCC 13.631 (1880 FPU in SSC+fm in laboratory conditions. These results recommend solid state cultures as systems for producing cellulases at lower price than liquid state cultures. These low cost cellulases can lower the price of ethanol produces from lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total N = 1 - 1.25%) complicates attempts to construct a N mass balance for the barns, and may represent a source of N and S that elevates pit liquid content in addition to daily additions from fecal matter and urine from the hogs. The ancillary information collected during the NAEMS project will provide critical information in order to facilitate the development and test the predictions of process-based models of emissions from shallow-pit hog barns typically used on swine AFOs in the southeastern United States.

  11. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  12. Health, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Home Publications and Information Products Health, United States, 2014 Health, United States is an annual report ... Special Feature Adults Aged 55–64 Health, United States, 2014 data on selected topics American Indian or ...

  13. Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

  14. Novel approach for computing photosynthetically active radiation for productivity modeling using remotely sensed images in the Great Plains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

    2012-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is a key indicator of ecosystem performance, and helps in many decision-making processes related to environment. We used the Eddy covariancelight use efficiency (EC-LUE) model for estimating GPP in the Great Plains, United States in order to evaluate the performance of this model. We developed a novel algorithm for computing the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) based on net radiation. A strong correlation (R2=0.94,N=24) was found between daily PAR and Landsat-based mid-day instantaneous net radiation. Though the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based instantaneous net radiation was in better agreement (R2=0.98,N=24) with the daily measured PAR, there was no statistical significant difference between Landsat based PAR and MODIS based PAR. The EC-LUE model validation also confirms the need to consider biological attributes (C3 versus C4 plants) for potential light use efficiency. A universal potential light use efficiency is unable to capture the spatial variation of GPP. It is necessary to use C3 versus C4 based land use/land cover map for using EC-LUE model for estimating spatiotemporal distribution of GPP.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jugend

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this purpose, was conducted an exploratory and qualitative researched operationalized by case study. Among the main results, it was noted collaboration between locals marketing and engineering with the R & D centers, important role of senior management in the Brazilian unit to communicate outcomes of the strategic planning of products and technologies established by the headquarters to the subsidiary, the adoption of technological and information mechanisms and the application of methods such as technology roadmap.

  16. Use of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate–Containing Medical Products and Urinary Levels of Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Ronald; Calafat, Antonia M.; Schettler, Ted; Huttner, Kenneth; Hu, Howard; Hauser, Russ B.; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Ringer, Steven Alan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in medical products made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and may be toxic to humans. DEHP is lipophilic and binds non-covalently to PVC, allowing it to leach from these products. Medical devices containing DEHP are used extensively in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Among neonates in NICUs, we studied exposure to DEHP-containing medical devices in relation to urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), ...

  17. Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Miguel D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews) unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged) increases in public invest...

  18. The Impact of Migraine and the Effect of Migraine Treatment on Workplace Productivity in the United States and Suggestions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Wayne N.; Landy, Stephen H.; Downs, Kristen E.; Runken, M. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that migraine is associated with decreased productivity. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications that measured the impact of migraine on workplace productivity in the United States and provides recommendations for future research. A MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2008. Articles were included if the results were from a prospective or retrospective study that reported work-specific produc...

  19. Vibrational resonances in 1D Morse and FPU lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Astakhova, T. Yu.; Erikhman, N. S.; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper the resonances of vibrational modes in one-dimensional random Morse lattice are found and analyzed. The resonance energy exchange is observed at some values of elongation. Resonance $2 \\omega_1 = \\omega_2$ is investigated in details. The interacting modes are inequivalent: the higher-frequency mode is much more stable in the excited state, i.e. its life-time is larger than the life-time of lower-frequency mode under the resonance conditions. Simple model of two nonlinearl...

  20. Action minimizing fronts in general FPU-type chains

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We study atomic chains with nonlinear nearest neighbour interactions and prove the existence of fronts (heteroclinic travelling waves with constant asymptotic states). Generalizing recent results of Herrmann and Rademacher we allow for non-convex interaction potentials and find fronts with non-monotone profile. These fronts minimize an action integral and can only exists if the asymptotic states fulfil the macroscopic constraints and if the interaction potential satisfies a ...

  1. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  2. Investigation of the Distribution of Salmonella within an Integrated Pig Breeding and Production Organisation in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, A; Weaver, J.; McLaren, I. M.; Smith, R. P.; Mueller-Doblies, D.; Davies, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    To examine patterns of Salmonella herd infections in units linked by common sources of pigs, the study examined pooled pen faeces samples from 161 nursery and finishing units in a UK integrated pig enterprise. An epidemiological questionnaire was also completed by investigators for each farm. Salmonella was isolated from 630 (19.5%) of the samples: S. Typhimurium was found in 387 (12%) and S. Derby in 157 (4.9%) samples; 111 units yielded at least one sample containing Salmonella. The proport...

  3. Aerosol Precursor Emissions, Secondary Aerosol Production, and Climate-Forcing Gas Exchange in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol precursors in the Midwest are generated from a myriad of sources including biogenic emissions of terpenes from the Ozarks region, anthropogenic emissions of volatile and semivolatile aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the St. Louis airshed, and agricultural emissions of ammonia (NH3), amines, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from animal husbandry and cropping systems of the Midwest Corn Belt. The deciduous and coniferous forests of the Ozarks region are significant sources of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes that are sensitive to rising CO2 levels and temperature and generate light-scattering, secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Application of nitrogen fertilizers stimulates emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural soils and crops. Nitric acid, generated through photooxidation of NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion in urban air and from soil emissions in agroecosystems, reacts rapidly with NH3 to generate light-scattering, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA). The atmospheric lifetime of N2O is about 120 years, making the substance a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 290 for a time horizon of 20 years relative to CO2. Emissions of CO2, N2O, and SIA precursors from the Midwest Corn Belt and surrounding areas are likely to increase in the near future as pastureland and prairie is converted to grow corn and other biofuel crops to meet the demand for renewable fuels. Several large river systems transport nutrients from fertilized fields of the Midwest agroecosystem to the Gulf of Mexico where plankton growth is accelerated. Microbial decomposition of plankton detritus consumes oxygen and creates a hypoxic zone, which might be a significant source of N2O.The presentation will discuss gaps in our knowledge of the production of climate-forcing species in the Midwestern United States.

  4. The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenchon, C.; Rossig, J.H. [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G. [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-05-01

    The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  5. Water usage for natural gas production through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has promoted the exploitation of shale oil and natural gas in the United States (U.S.). However, the large amounts of water used in hydraulic fracturing may constrain oil and natural gas production in the shale plays. This study surveyed the amounts of freshwater and recycled produced water used to fracture wells from 2008 to 2014 in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, North Dakota, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Results showed that the annual average water volumes used per well in most of these states ranged between 1000 m(3) and 30,000 m(3). The highest total amount of water was consumed in Texas with 457.42 Mm(3) of water used to fracture 40,521 wells, followed by Pennsylvania with 108.67 Mm(3) of water used to treat 5127 wells. Water usages ranged from 96.85 Mm(3) to 166.10 Mm(3) annually in Texas from 2012 to 2014 with more than 10,000 wells fractured during that time. The percentage of water used for hydraulic fracturing in each state was relatively low compared to water usages for other industries. From 2009 to 2014, 6.55% (median) of the water volume used in hydraulic fracturing contained recycled produced water or recycled hydraulic fracturing wastewater. 10.84% (median) of wells produced by hydraulic fracturing were treated with recycled produced water. The percentage of wells where recycled wastewater was used was lower, except in Ohio and Arkansas, where more than half of the wells were fractured using recycled produced water. The median recycled wastewater volume in produced wells was 7127 m(3) per well, more than half the median value in annual water used per well 11,259 m(3). This indicates that, for wells recycling wastewater, more than half of their water use consisted of recycled wastewater. PMID:26826457

  6. Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-11-01

    Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

  7. Product Evaluation Attributes and Consumer Product Trust of Branded and Generic Drugs: A Comparative Study of the United States and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Musyimi; Verna Omanwa

    2014-01-01

    A focus on understanding the attributes that impact product evaluation is important in developing effectivemarketing strategies of branded and generic drugs. This Quantitative cross-cultural study examines whether arelationship exists between product evaluation attributes and consumer product trust and loyalty of branded andgeneric drugs. This study examined the attributes of gender, country, product involvement, and consumerknowledge.A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect ...

  8. NICU Notes: A Palm OS® and Windows® Database Software Product and Process to Facilitate Patient Care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    This is a database software application for information a neonatologist routinely considers in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Users enter data at the point of care on a handheld device that also encrypts the data. Data management follows synchronization via an ODBC DSN to a secure Microsoft® Access application. User feedback guides software modification over time. The poster illustrates the data model, the software user interface, and data management products.

  9. Effect of sampling procedures of release testing on drug release and scale-up production feasibility of multiple-unit dextromethorphan resinate tablets: A technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2007-01-01

    In conclusion, multiple-unit DMP resinate tablets showed a good feasibility for scale-up production for industrial manufacturing. Good physical properties and continuous drug release of the resinate tablets in simulated GI conditions were obtained. Moreover, the variation of drug release from the resinate tablets can be accepted. This study also suggests that a high level of sampling volume and frequency should be conducted in the sampling procedure when using a fixed-volume dissolution appar...

  10. How important are human capital, physical capital and total factor productivity for determining state economic growth in the United States: 1840-2000?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Chad; Tamura, Robert; Mulholland, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This paper creates a new data set on physical capital at the state level for the United States from 1840 - 2000. Combining these new data with state level human capital and output data enables us to estimate the contribution of aggregate input growth and total factor productivity (TFP) growth to output growth across states from 1840 - 2000, and to decompose the cross-sectional variance of output growth into the component explained by variation in aggregate inputs and the compenent explained ...

  11. High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschmiter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event.

  12. High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

  14. High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event

  15. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States. PMID:16719535

  16. Evaluation of the Productive Skills in the Second Language: The Work of the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Peter

    The work in second language education of the Assessment of Performance Unit, established by the Department of Education and Science of England and Wales to monitor certain areas of the public education curriculum is described. The focus is on the development of a rationale for testing, the elicitation procedures used in the assessment of speaking…

  17. 75 FR 52453 - Entry Requirements for Certain Softwood Lumber Products Exported From Any Country Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT...United States AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department...Register (73 FR 49934), as Customs and Border Protection Decision...to his best knowledge and belief, that the exporter has...

  18. 77 FR 70724 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ...the United States are safe, wholesome, and properly...and is added as a whole food and not as an extract...or converted to animal food (subject to approval...Phytosanitary Measures (WTO/SPS Committee) in Geneva...customized access to selected food safety news and...

  19. Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (?2, ?1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), ?-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process. PMID:26232771

  1. Optimization of ethanol production from microfluidized wheat straw by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ozge; Isci, Asli; Mert, Behic; Sakiyan, Ozge; Donmez, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wheat straw was pretreated with a microfluidizer to improve its enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields. The pretreatment was performed at various pressures (500, 1000, and 1500 bar) and solid loadings (1, 2, and 3%). The microfluidized biomass was then subjected to hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) experiments at different enzyme loadings (5, 10, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw) using a mutant yeast. The results indicated that the microfluidization method alters the structure of biomass and leads to a reduction in lignin content. The samples pretreated at 1% solid loading contained the minimum lignin concentration and provided the maximum sugar and ethanol yields. These results signified that the microfluidization method is more effective on biomass at low solid loadings. The process conditions were optimized for higher ethanol and sugar yields using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum pressure and solid and enzyme loadings were found as 1500 bar, 1%, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw, respectively. The yields obtained at this condition were 82%, 94%, and 65% for glucose, xylose, and ethanol, respectively. High sugar yields implied that microfluidization is an effective pretreatment method for cellulosic ethanol production. On the other hand, low ethanol yield may indicate that the microorganism was sensitive to inhibitory compounds present in the fermentation medium. PMID:25181638

  2. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml?1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l?1) and glutamate (3.6 g l?1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml?1) were also much greater (8–150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

  3. Acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water of the United States, 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies, approximately 5,100 water samples were collected and analyzed for the acetamide parent herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, and metolachlor and their degradation products ethanesulfonic acid, oxanilic acid, and sulfinyl acetic acid. During this period, various analytical methods were developed to detect and measure concentrations of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water. Results showed that the degradation products of acetamide herbicides in ground water were detected more frequently and occurred at higher concentrations than their parent compounds. Further study showed that the acetamide herbicides and their degradation products were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. In general, the parent compounds were detected at similar or greater frequencies than the degradation products in surface water. The developed methods and data were valuable for acquiring information about the occurrence, fate, and transport of the herbicides and their degradation products and the importance of analyzing for both parent compounds and their degradate products in water-quality studies.

  4. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m?2 bar?1. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ? Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ? Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ? Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ? Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ? The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  5. Mycotoxin Contamination of Agricultural Products in the Southern United States and Approaches to Reducing it from Pre-harvest to Final Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins represent >300 fungal natural products. Some, notably aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenones, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins frequently contaminate cereal grains, causing acute and chronic illnesses in livestock and humans, including teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, endocrine disrup...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Petroleum Products Corporation Site, Operable Unit 1, Pembroke Park, Broward County, FL. (First remedial action), October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Products site is an inactive oil processing plant in Pembroke Park, Broward County, Florida. The area surrounding the site is highly developed with industrial, commercial, and residential properties. The Petroleum Products (PPC) site lies within the radius of two major municipal wellfields. Current site features include an industrial warehouse complex, a fenced area with several dozen drums of investigation - derived waste, a french drain system, and several monitoring and abandoned storm drainage wells. Subsequent sampling identified that the groundwater had been contaminated by oils, VOCs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the first operable unit (OU1), enhancement of the free product recovery system as an interim remedy. A future ROD will address source control and ground water treatment. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals, including chromium and lead; and oils. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  7. Studies on IL-2 Production and T-Cell Colony Forming Unit in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Sung Kyu; Cho, Han Sun; Lee, Ho Yung; Kim, Heung Soo; Choi, Kyu Hun; Han, Dae Suk; Lee, Bong Ki; Kim, Joo Deuk

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the nature of altered cellular immunity seen in patients with chronic renal failure, the values of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a kind of lymphokine, and T-cell colony forming units were measured in controls (N=10), predialysis uremic patients (N=14), patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD, N=11) and patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, N=9). Dialytic patients were selected as relatively stable cases receiving dialysis for more than 3 months. The duration o...

  8. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  9. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. Three...

  10. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  11. Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

  12. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  13. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  14. A large scale manual production of [18F]FDG using a synthetic unit made of sterile disposable components and operated by a master slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self contained, Master Slave Manipulator operated and largely disposable apparatus for the large scale production of [18F]FDG using nucleophilic fluorination methodology has been developed. The synthetic unit consists of readily available sterile disposable components and is easy to assemble. Operation of the synthetic unit is carried out in a hot cell under a closed system to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Recovery of [18O]water by direct distillation from the reaction vial makes the system even more attractive. Normal production runs yield 25-150 mCi of [18F]FDG. Since no manual handling of radioactivity is involved, a scaled up production is feasible by this procedure. We have avoided the use of any permanent electrical liquid transfer devices in our system, thereby eliminating the possibility of pyrogen build up. An in-house radiopharmaceutical program to check the sterility and apyrogenicity of the short-lived radiopharmaceuticals is an added convenience at our institution. (author)

  15. Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business

    OpenAIRE

    Vesela Veleva

    2009-01-01

    Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. ...

  16. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently th...

  17. Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was to evaluate the use of the social media site Facebook in recruitment. In this cross-sectional study, 145 English-speaking adult patients and caregivers of children with haemophilia A were recruited through two state-based haemophilia organizations in the United States (US) and one national organization in Canada for a web-based survey assessing demographics and FVIII product ordering, usage, and storage practices. Of the 101 individuals who completed the survey, 60% resided in Canada; 57% were recruited through Facebook. Caregivers and patients responded similarly to questions about ordering practices and product usage, with some distinction between groups in storage practices. Two-thirds of participants noted challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population. PMID:24870350

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research would guide the additional parameter refinement required for the MOD16 and SSEBop algorithms in order to further improve their accuracy and performance for agro-hydrologic applications.

  19. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  20. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  1. EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON ON THE BODY WEIGHT, SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND LIBIDO IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS MAINTAINED AT THE SEMEN PRODUCTION UNIT, QADIRARAD

    OpenAIRE

    M. Younis, H.A. Samad, N. Ahmad and I. Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate effects of age and season on body weight, scrotal circumference and libido in 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad. Depending on age, these bulls were divided into three equal groups viz. young (3-4 years of age), adult (5-8 years of age) and old (12-15 years of age). Body weight and scrotal measurements were made at monthly intervals while libido of each bull was assessed weekly during the low (May to July) and the ...

  2. Anticipatory Life Cycle Analysis of In Vitro Biomass Cultivation for Cultured Meat Production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Carolyn S; Landis, Amy E; Allenby, Braden R; Genovese, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Cultured, or in vitro, meat consists of edible biomass grown from animal stem cells in a factory, or carnery. In the coming decades, in vitro biomass cultivation could enable the production of meat without the need to raise livestock. Using an anticipatory life cycle analysis framework, the study described herein examines the environmental implications of this emerging technology and compares the results with published impacts of beef, pork, poultry, and another speculative analysis of cultured biomass. While uncertainty ranges are large, the findings suggest that in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents. From this perspective, large-scale cultivation of in vitro meat and other bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialization with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs. PMID:26383898

  3. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  4. The Botulism Hazard in the Proposed Use of Irradiation of Fish and Fishery Products in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals to treat packaged fish with pasteurizing doses of radiation, and the potential health hazards of this process are described. It is proposed to introduce irradiation into an existing processing and distribution chain for retail packs of chilled fish. The Codes of Practice at present in use provide an adequate safeguard against possible health hazards, primarily by the control of temperature, and limit the storage time to about half the potential shelf life of the fish. Irradiation of these products with 0.3 Mrad will result in a considerable extension of storage life whilst maintaining the same high quality of the product. It is concluded that whilst Clostridium botulinum types E, F and non-proteolytic B could be present in the raw material, no particular health hazard exists unless gross malpractice occurs, especially in relation to the temperature of storage. (author)

  5. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Del Coco; Francesco Paolo Schena; Francesco Paolo Fanizzi

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers...

  6. Trade secrets: a ten year overview of the illegal import of sea turtle products into the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Susan M.; Moore, M. Katherine

    2008-01-01

    For more than 25 years all sea turtle products have been prohibited from international commerce by the 170-member nations of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Sea turtles continue to be threatened by direct take (including poaching) and illegal trade despite multi-national protection efforts. Although take may contribute significantly to sea turtle decline, illegal take is difficult to measure since there are few quantified records associated with legal fish...

  7. Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Usin...

  8. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-based food production is an important and pervasive way humans impact the environment. It causes about one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is the key land user and source of water pollution by nutrient overabundance. It also competes with biodiversity, and promotes species extinctions. Empowering consumers to make choices that mitigate some of these impacts through devising and disseminating numerically sound information is thus a key socioenvironmental priority. Unfor...

  9. Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Given choice, bacteria prefer a community-based, surface-bound colony to an individual existence. The inclination for bacteria to become surface bound is so ubiquitous in diverse ecosystems that it suggests a strong survival strategy and selective advantage for surface dwellers over their free-ranging counterparts. Virtually any surface, biotic or abiotic (animal, mineral, or vegetable is suitable for bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Thus, a biofilm is "a functional consortium of microorganisms organized within an extensive exopolymeric matrix." Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect biofilm production from the repertoire stocks of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa obtained from clinical specimens. The tube method was performed to qualitatively detect biofilm production. Results: A total of 109 isolates of both organisms were included in the study, out of which 42% (46/109 isolates showed biofilm detection. Among the biofilm producers, 57% of P. aeruginosa and 73% of A. baumannii showed multidrug resistance (MDR pattern which was statistically significant in comparison to nonbiofilm producers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study to have tested the biofilm production in both P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in a single study. Biofilm production and MDR pattern were found to be significantly higher in A. baumannii than P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance was significantly higher among biofilm producing P. aeruginosa than non producers. Similarly, antibiotic resistance was significantly higher among biofilm producing A. baumannii than non producers.

  10. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

  11. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  12. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  13. Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

  14. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

  15. United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R; Kona, Ravikanth; Faustino, Patrick J; Gupta, Abhay; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Khan, Mansoor

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD)-United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shelf-life extension program (SLEP) was established in 1986 through an intra-agency agreement between the DoD and the FDA to extend the shelf life of product nearing expiry. During the early stages of development, special attention was paid to program operation, labeling requirements, and the cost benefits associated with this program. In addition to the substantial cost benefits, the program also provides the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research with significant scientific understanding and pharmaceutical resource. As a result of this unique resource, numerous regulatory research opportunities to improve public health present themselves from this distinctive scientific database, which includes examples of products shelf life, their long-term stability issues, and various physical and chemical tests to identify such failures. The database also serves as a scientific resource for mechanistic understanding and identification of test failures leading to the development of new formulations or more robust packaging. It has been recognized that SLEP is very important in maintaining both national security and public welfare by confirming that the stockpiled pharmaceutical products meet quality standards after the "expiration date" assigned by the sponsor. SLEP research is an example of regulatory science that is needed to best ensure product performance past the original shelf life. The objective of this article is to provide a brief history and background and most importantly the public health benefits of the SLEP. PMID:24623105

  16. Competitividad internacional, productividad y costos laborales unitarios en la industria manufacturera / International Competitiveness, Productivity and Unit Labor Costs in the Manufacturing Industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Manuel, Cuevas Ahumada.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigan los efectos de la productividad laboral, el tipo de cambio real y otras variables, sobre la competitividad internacional (CI) manufacturera durante el período 1996-2008. Para ello, se construye un índice de competitividad internacional y se estiman dos modelos VAR gener [...] alizados. La evidencia sugiere que la productividad laboral influye más sobre la competitividad internacional que el tipo de cambio real. Así mismo, la competitividad internacional aumenta cuando los costos laborales unitarios descienden; es decir, cuando la productividad de los trabajadores crece por encima de los salarios. En este contexto, un paquete de políticas sectoriales de estímulo a la productividad laboral fortalecería más la competitividad internacional que una depreciación cambiaria. Abstract in english This paper explores the effects of labor productivity, the actual exchange rate and other variables on the manufacturing industry's international competitiveness (IC) during a twelve-year period: 1996-2008. To this end, we construct an ic index and estimate two generalized VAR models. The empirical [...] evidence suggests that labor productivity influences ic to a greater extent than actual exchange rate depreciation. Furthermore, manufacturing ic increases when unit labor costs decrease; that is, when labor productivity grows faster than wages. In this way, an integral package of policy measures designed to stimulate productivity of workers may be more effective in increasing manufacturing ic than actual currency depreciation.

  17. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

  18. Mortality study of workers in the man-made mineral fiber production industry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Simpson, M J; Hamilton, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    The workforces of two factories in the United Kingdom have been followed up to the end of 1984 as part of the collaborative European study of the health of workers in the man-made mineral fiber industry. In the cohort from an English glass-wool plant there was no suggestion of any excess mortality compared to national or local rates, except for lung cancer among men in comparison to the national level. However, the data indicate that the workers were largely local persons by place of birth, occupation, and death, and they therefore suggest that the national comparison was inappropriate. Lung cancer mortality showed little relationship to length of employment, duration of time since first exposure, occupational classification, or level of exposure. In the cohort from a continuous-filament plant in Northern Ireland no excess mortality from cancer was found. There were, however, raised death rates from violent causes and cardiovascular disease, but these rates were not exceptional for the area of the country in which the factory was located. No deaths from mesothelioma were reported in either cohort. PMID:3798059

  19. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2012-05-01

    Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy's leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

  20. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Del Coco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

  1. Mercury loading and methylmercury production and cycling in high-altitude lakes from the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Olson, Mark L.; DeWild, John F.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Rob; Dornblaser, Mark M.; VanMetre, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Studies worldwide have shown that mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous contaminant, reaching even the most remote environments such as high-altitude lakes via atmospheric pathways. However, very few studies have been conducted to assess Hg contamination levels of these systems. We sampled 90 mid-latitude, high-altitude lakes from seven national parks in the western United States during a four-week period in September 1999. In addition to the synoptic survey, routine monitoring and experimental studies were conducted at one of the lakes (Mills Lake) to quantify MeHg fluxrates and important process rates such as photo-demethylation. Results show that overall, high-altitude lakes have low total mercury (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels (1.07 and 0.05 ng L-1, respectively), but a very good correlation of Hg to MeHg (r2= 0.82) suggests inorganic Hg(II) loading is a primary controlling factor of MeHg levels in dilute mountain lakes. Positive correlations were also observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and both Hg and MeHg, although to a much lesser degree. Levels of MeHg were similar among the seven national parks, with the exception of Glacier National Park where lowerconcentrations were observed (0.02 ng L-1), and appear to be related to naturally elevated pH values there. Measured rates ofMeHg photo-degradation at Mills Lake were quite fast, and this process was of equal importance to sedimentation and stream flow for removing MeHg. Enhanced rates of photo-demethylation are likely an important reason why high-altitude lakes, with typically high water clarity and sunlight exposure, are low in MeHg.

  2. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectric generation. Texas, conversely, is vulnerable because of its heavy dependence on thermoelectric generation, which relies on surface water for cooling, along with the fact that this basin seems to experience more severe drought events on average. Further modeling analysis will be performed in conjunction with the modeling teams at the participating interconnections (WECC and ERCOT) to explore the transmission implications of the drought scenarios in more detail. Given the first-order nature of this analysis, more detailed study of the potential impacts of drought on electricity generation is recommended. Future analyses should attempt to model the potential impacts of drought at the power-plant level, including potential mitigation strategies; include the effects of drought duration; understand the impacts of climate change; and consider economic impacts.

  3. Usage Of Aksaray Ignimbrites As Natural Lighweight Aggregate And Evaluation Of The Production For Lightweight Hollow Masonry Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nükhet ?apc?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid and/or hollow masonry wall elements on the form in construction sector is the main component of the basic elements of the wall. Nowadays light weight form of masonry wall elements are commonly used as construction industry. Taspinar region and around Aksaray ignimbrite volcanic formations in the form of mass shows a very wide spread areas. These ignimbrite formations in the high proportions of pumice grains are also included. As is known, the production of ignimbrite rocks in the world and our country are considered elements of masonry block wall. Therefore in this study, eligibility criteria of ignimbrite formation for EN standards related to lightweight aggregate have been analyzed and the evaluation of their usability for obtaining a light form-cavity wall blocks have been investigate in detail.

  4. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  5. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation. These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures. PMID:24101984

  6. Interconnections between the depletion of minerals and fuels: The case of copper production in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the relationship between natural resources and economic development frequently neglect the interdependency between the depletion of one resource and the depletion of other resources. Of particular interest is how energy resource extraction is affected by the depletion of nonfuel minerals due to the important role of energy in upgrading minerals to a useful state. Although this relationship has been described in theoretical terms, there is little detailed empirical support. To quantify the relationship between the depletion of mineral and fuel resources, the authors develop a dynamic model that is based on physical, technological, and economic data. The analysis quantifies the relationship between the depletion of copper in the US and the depletion of fossil fuel and uranium energy resources stimulated by the increase in demand for refined copper that is forecast for the next 50 years. The model calculates the increase in the energy cost of extracting energy due to the depletion of copper. The results of the model indicate that this feedback is significant. The energy cost of producing a refined ton of copper increases 23% over the 50-year simulation period due to the diminution in ore grade and diminishing returns to technical change. The increase in the energy cost for copper increases the production of fossil and uranium fuels, which diminishes their quality and increases their energy cost

  7. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Homyack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

  8. Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

  9. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  10. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of fungal pretreated cornstalk for hydrogen production using Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Cao, Guang-Li; Wang, Ai-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Hong-Yu; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2013-10-01

    In this research, environmentally friendly fungal pretreatment was first adopted for deconstruction of cornstalk. Then the fungal-pretreated cornstalk was employed to produce hydrogen in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using crude enzyme from Trichoderma viride and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum W16. The influence of various factors including substrate concentration, initial pH, and enzyme loading on hydrogen production were evaluated. The highest hydrogen yield of 89.3 ml/g-cornstalk was obtained with an initial pH 6.5, 0.75% substrate concentration, and 34 FPU/g cellulose. Compared the result with SSF of physical or chemical pretreated lignocellulosic materials, this research suggested an economic and efficient way for hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:23489570

  12. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J.; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16?FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  13. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16?FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  14. Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostahsine S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

  18. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States / Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francis X, Mangan; Raquel U de, Mendonça; Maria, Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio, Nunes; Fernando L, Finger; Zoraia de Jesus, Barros; Hilton, Galvão; Gustavo C, Almeida; Rachel AN, Silva; Molly D, Anderson.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos [...] e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural [...] products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for

  19. Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

  20. Production of Commercial Uranium Concentrate From El-Sela Shear Zone Mineralized Ore Material, South Eastern Desert - Egypt, At Inshas Pilot Plant Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with studying the different processes leading to the production of commercial uranium concentrate (yellow cake) from the mineralized ore material of El-Sela Shear zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Uranium concentrate is produced by the treatment of about 25 tons from the study ore material that assaying about 580 ppmU at Inshas Pilot Plant Unit. In the present work, the studied lab-scale leaching and extraction conditions of the ore material under consideration are shifted to the pilot plant scale. From the latter, an average leaching efficiency exceeding 82% has been achieved. On the other hand, some difficulties being arised during pilot operations such as filtration, settling, washing and huge dilute volumes of the sulfate leach slurry, are overcome through the flocculent addition and reputed concentrations. The pH of prepared pregnant sulfate leach liquor is then adjusted at 1.75 and then shifted to the fixed bed ion exchange resin unit for the extraction of uranium to obtain highly pure concentrate UO4. 2H2O. The latter would be subjected to further purification processes to prepare nuclear fuel.

  1. Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

  2. Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

  3. Inventory dynamic management applied to supply offshore production units; Gerenciamento dinamico da localizacao de armazens e alocacao de estoques aplicado ao abastecimento de unidades de producao offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thiago Castilho Moreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of large reserves in the region called the pre-salt, significantly changed the environment of oil production in Brazil, as well as the entire chain involved in these activities. From the standpoint of logistics network linked to exploration and production of oil, located further down the coast at greater depths and in a place with no infrastructure in place, new and challenging problems arise: tighter restrictions need to address the problem at different levels hierarchical, requiring consideration of risks and uncertainties in addressing problems and decision making. The correct dimensioning of the network of support facilities, the allocation and sizing of inventory of supplies and spare parts illustrate a series of decisions ranging from strategic decisions to operational planning. In terms of specific operations involved in oil production in offshore platforms, with severe space constraints and high costs of storage and transport these issues are of particular interest. The objective of this work is to develop a model of inventory management, aiming to supply equipment for the extraction of oil at sea, usually called Production Units (UPs), which considers: effects of consolidating inventory, potential alternatives to location of these inventories and time variation of both the location of the UPs, and their demand patterns. For this purpose we developed a nonlinear mathematical programming model whose objective is to minimize the fixed costs of installation of warehouses and variable costs of transportation and storage. Different scenarios are analyzed to understand how the incorporation of the cycle and safety stocks affects the decision to locate one or more warehouses, and also the effects related to the main inventory allocation policies. (author)

  4. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  5. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including damage from caterpillars, bark beetles, ice storms, hail and wind storms, and wildfire. The MODIS forest disturbance products compared well with reference data (e.g., Landsat, aerial sketch maps, and news accounts). These products have been useful in aiding development of the forest threat EWS. Information on location and extent of regional forest disturbance is important to Federal, State, and private sector forest managers. The 2-date RGB product for 2009 was also processed into a classification of forest disturbance for the Colorado Front Range. Validation of this classification is underway. Regional forest disturbance classifications in conjunction with available CONUS forest biomass products could be useful for assessing carbon impacts from biotic threats such as mountain pine beetle and from abiotic threats related to climate change. The latency of the NRT eMODIS products addresses an important need of the USFS EWS.

  6. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  7. Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz / International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A. Melquíades, Hernández-Solabac; Martha E., Nava-Tablada; Salvador, Díaz-Cárdenas; Emiliano, Pérez-Portilla; Esteban, Escamilla-Prado.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar [...] la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo mediante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relation [...] ship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

  8. Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

  9. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong

    2014-01-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain’s promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose

  10. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and ?-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5FPUperg of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. PMID:26773948

  11. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l−1) and glutamate (3.6 g l−1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No......The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of...... individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml−1) were obtained with...

  12. Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mashitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

  13. Pressure based leak detection for pipelines, implemented at business unit of production and exploration of Petrobras in Rio Grande Do Norte and Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovey, D.J. [EFA Technologies, CA (United States)]|[Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, A.A. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In 2000, the Petrobras Business Unit installed a pipeline leak detection system on high priority pipelines following an accidental pipeline leak that remained undetected, resulting in the pollution of Guanabara Bay in Brazil. The installation involved nine multiphase oil pipelines that link a series of production facilities together over a distance of 450 km. Petrobras installed the Pressure Point Analysis (PPA) system developed by EFA Technologies Inc. This sophisticated statistical method for leak detection uses simple field instrumentation to facilitate installation and maintenance. The pressure methodology statistically evaluates the normal background noise found within the pressure and flow inputs. It can operate in both wet and multiphase environments because it evaluates each instrument individually for relational changes rather than combining the absolute values for an end to end calculation. The system also depends on a fast, reliable supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for long distance communication. This paper presented the key operations of the software, the required instrumentation and a description of the SCADA system that supplies the needed field data to the software for leak detection. The start-up activities of the system were also described along with the difficulties associated with tuning and the corrective actions taken. The system was shown to be an attractive alternative for cases where conventional mass balance leak detection systems are not suitable. Undesirable false alarms can be avoided by understanding how the pipeline is operated. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

    2009-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

  15. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed by commercial software. The aim of this work is to develop detailed process flow diagram for the FT technology in order to subsequently study the economic feasibility based on once-Through mode. A cost analysis is performed to find out the convenience of the proposed solutions.

  16. Letter Report. Independent Confirmatory Survey Results Of Soils Associated With The Argyle Street Sewer Line At The United Nuclear Corporation Naval Products Site, New Haven, Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated

  17. Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from 429 litters reared in 36 batches at six Danish multi-site farms chronically infected with the agents. At the farms, weaning age was 3-4.5 weeks, after which batches of pigs were reared using all-in/all-out management by room. Blood samples were collected shortly before: weaning, transfer from weaning-site to finishing-site, and sending the first pigs in the batch for slaughter (third sampling). Few pigs seroconverted at the weaning-sites, whereas considerable variation in seroconversion was observed at the finishing-sites. Multilevel logistic models (initially including four levels: farm, batch, litter, pig) were used to decompose the variation in seroconversion at the finishing-site. However, there was essentially no clustering at the litter level-leading to the use of three-level models. In the case of Ap2, clustering within batch was so high that the data eventually were reduced to two levels (farm, batch). For seroconversion to Ap2, ICC between pigs within batches was similar to90%, whereas the ICC between pigs within batches for Mh was similar to40%. This indicates that the possibility for Mh to spread between pigs within batches is lower than for Ap2. The diversity in seroconversion between batches within the same farm was large for Ap2 (ICC similar to 10%), whereas there was a relative strongly ICC (similar to50%) between batches for Mh. This indicates that the transmission of Mh is more consistent within a farm, whereas the presence of Ap2 varies between batches within a farm.

  18. Cellulolytic enzymes production by utilizing agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation and its application for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Kshirsagar, Siddheshwar D; Sampange, Vilas T; Saratale, Rijuta G; Oh, Sang-Eun; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2014-12-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated for cellulase and hemicellulase production using various agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. Optimization of various environmental factors, type of substrate, and medium composition was systematically investigated to maximize the production of enzyme complex. Using grass powder as a carbon substrate, maximum activities of endoglucanase (188.66 U/gds), exoglucanase (24.22 U/gds), cellobiase (244.60 U/gds), filter paperase (FPU) (30.22 U/gds), glucoamylase (505.0 U/gds), and xylanase (427.0 U/gds) were produced under optimized conditions. The produced crude enzyme complex was employed for hydrolysis of untreated and mild acid pretreated rice husk. The maximum amount of reducing sugar released from enzyme treated rice husk was 485 mg/g of the substrate. Finally, the hydrolysates of rice husk were used for hydrogen production by Clostridium beijerinckii. The maximum cumulative H2 production and H2 yield were 237.97 mL and 2.93 mmoL H2/g of reducing sugar, (or 2.63 mmoL H2/g of cellulose), respectively. Biohydrogen production performance obtained from this work is better than most of the reported results from relevant studies. The present study revealed the cost-effective process combining cellulolytic enzymes production under solid state fermentation (SSF) and the conversion of agro-industrial residues into renewable energy resources. PMID:25374139

  19. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6. 4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. Annual report 1993. Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6. 4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. Jahresbericht 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (orig.)

  20. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. PMID:26687227

  1. Response surface optimization for enhanced production of cellulases with improved functional characteristics by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Rawat, Rekha; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Fungi isolated from partially decayed wood log samples showing characteristic diversity for spore colour, colony morphology and arrangement of spores were assessed for cellulolytic enzyme production. Isolates showing a cellulolytic index of ?2.0 were assayed for filter paper (FP) cellulase and ?-glucosidase (BGL) production. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of the selected cellulolytic isolate as a strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger HN-2). Addition of 2 % (w/v) urea enhanced FP and BGL activity by about 20 and 60 %, respectively. Validation studies conducted at parameters (29 °C, pH 5.4, moisture content 72 % and 66 h) optimized through response surface methodology in a solid-state static tray fermentation resulted in FP, BGL, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), endoglucanase (EG), xylanase activity and protein content of 25.3 FPU/g ds, 750 IU/g ds, 13.2 IU/g ds, 190 IU/g ds, 2890 IU/g ds and 0.9 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, A. niger N402 which is a model organism for growth and development studies, produced significantly lower FP, BGL, CBHI, EG, xylanase activity and protein content of 10.0 FPU/g ds, 100 IU/g ds, 2.3 IU/g ds, 50 IU/g ds, 500 IU/g ds and 0.75 mg/ml, respectively under the same process conditions as were used for A. niger HN-2. Process optimization led to nearly 1.8- and 2.2-fold increase in FP and BGL activity, respectively showing promise for cellulase production by A. niger HN-2 at a higher scale of operation. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms each for EG and cellobiohydrolase and three isoforms for BGL. Crude cellulase complex produced by A. niger HN-2 exhibited thermostability under acidic conditions showing potential for use in biofuel industry. PMID:24158534

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated cashew apple bagasse with alkali and diluted sulfuric Acid for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cashew apple bagasse (CAB) after diluted acid (CAB-H) and alkali pretreatment (CAB-OH), and to evaluate its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose conversion of 82 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H and 730 +/- 20 mg/g CAB-OH was obtained when 2% (w/v) of solid and 30 FPU/g bagasse was used during hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, 2-fold higher than when using 15 FPU/g bagasse, 44 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H, and 450 +/- 50 mg/g CAB-OH, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, achieved after 6 h of fermentation, were 20.0 +/- 0.2 g L(-1) and 3.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, when using CAB-OH hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 52.4 g L(-1)). For CAB-H hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 17.4 g L(-1)), ethanol concentration and productivity were 8.2 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) and 2.7 g L(-1) h(-1) in 3 h, respectively. Hydrolyzates fermentation resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.38 and 0.47 g/g glucose with pretreated CAB-OH and CAB-H, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, obtained using CAB-OH hydrolyzate, were close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice or sugar cane juice. PMID:19031051

  3. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (?37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (?8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (?14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (?5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  4. Research on the production performances achieved by pig bloodlines used within a swine intensive husbandry unit in the NE of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Through this paper, we proposed to establish the production performances of breeder lines belonging to one of the most important providers of genetic material in Romania, respectively the Pig Improvement Company (P.I.C.), exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. The researches goal was to study the reproduction performances (sperm volume, spermatozoids concentration in sperm, the amount of spermatozoids and of produced doses, etc.). There have been analysed the reproduction performances achieved by three PIC boars lines (PIC 1075, PIC 402, PIC 408). The insemination material, issued from the 1075 boars, is used to artificially inseminate the PIC 1050 sows from the hybridisation farm of the unit. The insemination material, issued from the boars of PIC 408 and PIC 402 lines, is used to artificially inseminate the Camborough sows, resulting piglets exclusively designed for slaughtering. Both boars and sows used as biological material have been examined from the reproductive life onset toward their culling. Ejaculate volume at the three bloodlines of boars we studied, was comprised within the limits specified in the references. It reached values between 224 and 235 ml during 8-12 months old, between 310 and 366 ml during 13-24 months old, between 330 and 348 ml between 25-36 months old and between 304 and 404 ml during 37-42 months old. Significant and distinguished significant values occurred both between boars and age periods. The level of sperm concentration, as influenced by boars' age, was found high, in all lines, during the 25-36 months old period, the differences compared to the other periods being statistically significant. Comparing the values achieved in each boar line, we could find differences between PIC 1075 (372 x spermatozoids / ml =100%) and PIC 402 (311.5 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 16.28%, or compared to PIC 408 (302.3 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 18.76%. The average spermatozoids mobility within the crude semen had mean values comprised between 76.92 % and 79.4%, but not significantly influenced by boar's age. Expressed in relative values, the differences between the average level observed in PIC 402 line (79.4%=100) and those found in the other lines, were comprised between 3.13% (comp. to the PIC 1075 line) and 0.57% (comp. to PIC 408 line). The amount of doses per ejaculate subscribed to the trend presented in the last field researches. The maximum amount of doses/ejaculate has been achieved in both bloodlines during 25-36 months old period, while the poor amount during the reproduction activity onset (8-12 months old period). The highest doses amount (21.12) has been produced by the PIC 402 line. No significant differences occurred between groups. Expressed as relative values, the differences were of 3.17 % (compared to PIC 1075 line), respectively of 7.20 % (compared to PIC 408 line). It could be stated, basing on the researches we carried on, that, due to the high sperm concentration, meaning high spermatozoids amounts per ejaculate during the whole exploitation period, the reproduction usage intensity of studied PIC boars could be improved. Thus, the period between two ejaculates could be shortened to 3 or 4 d, compared to the actual used interval, of 5 d. In the studied PIC boars, the sperm production level allows the exploitation of a reduced amount of males, generating thus favourable financial and zootechnic consequences. (author)

  5. Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

  6. Analisis Integritas Struktur Kaki Jack-up yang Mengalami Retak dengan Pendekatan Ultimate Strength; Studi Kasus Jack-up Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alit Winiscoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jack-up adalah suatu struktur bangunan lepas pantai yang terdiri dari lambung (hull, kaki (legs, dan suatu sistem jacking sehingga memungkinkan untuk dipindahkan dari satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan studi kasus struktur Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit yang dioperasikan oleh SANTOS (Madura Pty.Ltd. yang beroperasi di Selat Madura blok Maleo dengan kedalaman perairan di lokasi ini adalah 57 m terhadap MSL (Mean Sea Level. Studi kasus ini dilakukan karena ditemukan indikator retak lelah/damage pada sambungan antara kaki jack-up dan mudmat. Analisis ultimate strength akan dilakukan untuk mengetahui integritas struktur terhadap beban maksimal . Variasi dead load, live load dan environmental load menjadi tahapan penting dalam analisa ini untuk mengetahui tingkat integritas struktur. Dengan pengaruh variasi beban (dead load dan live load terhadap struktur untuk tiap-tiap kasus didapatkan nilai unity check (UC yang dari semua kasus dikategorikan aman karena tidak ada nilai UC yang melebihi 1,3 (API RP 2A WSD. Dari semua analisis yang dilakukan dead load lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan dengan live load. Dari analisis pushover yang telah dilakukan pada jack-up Maleo MOPU yang dimitigasi dengan menambahkan brace dan menambahkan ketebalan dihasilkan nilai Reserve Strength Ratio (RSR terkecil pada arah pembebanan 2700 dengan nilai 6,5 pada Brace Clamp case dan terbesar dengan nilai 18,3 pada X-Bracing case. Nilai RSR tersebut masih memenuhi syarat yang telah ditetapkan API RP 2A berupa nilai RSR minimal untuk platform berpenghuni adalah 1,6.  

  7. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Schmidt, A.S.; Jørgensen, H.; Ahring, B.K.; Olsson, L.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension...... supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.......2.1.21) activities, in contrast to the other fungi where lower activities were found. The culture filtrates were concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. After enzyme concentration, the highest enzyme activities (1.34 FPU/ml) were found in the culture broth originating from P. brasilianum. Enzymatic...

  8. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  10. Multimode FPGA with Flexible Embedded FPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Murugaboopathi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Performance of field-programmable gate arrays used for Floating-point applications are poor due to complexity of floating-point arithmetic. Implementing floating-point units on FPGAs consume a large amount of resources. This makes FPGAs less attractive for use in floating-point intensive applications. There is a need for embedded FPUs in FPGAs. We proposed a flexible multimode embedded FPU for FPGAs that can be configured to perform a wide range of operations. The floatingpoint adder and multiplier in embedded FPU can be configured to perform one double-precision operation or two single-precision operations in parallel. To increase flexibility, access to large integer multiplier, adder and shifters in the FPU is provided. Benchmark circuits were implemented on both a standard Xilinx Virtex-V FPGA and FPGA with embedded FPU blocks. We design modified to allow an unrounded product to be fed to the floating-point adder to minimize rounding error, like in a dedicated floatingpoint MAC unit

  11. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

  12. Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  13. Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiby Carneiro de Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305 de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39 foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23 para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57. As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná.It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305 of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holsteins cows between dairy production units in the state of Paraná using the Bayesian inference. All animals were officially controlled by the Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, between January/1992 and December/2003. The (covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated using one and multiple-trait analysis, where MY305 of each dairy production unit was considered as a different variable. Means and standard deviations for MY305 (kg for dairy production units of Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte and Oeste, were 8,414 ± 1,825; 8,481 ± 2,010; 7,636 ± 1,594; 7,850 ± 1,795; 8,617 ± 2,050; 7,401 ± 1,809 and 7,336 ± 2,456, respectively. The highest heritability estimated was obtained for the Oeste unit (0.39 while Carambeí unit presented the lowest value (0.23. Genetic correlations were low (0.09 to 0.57 between dairy production units. Pearson and Spearman correlations were lower for the Oeste unit, when compared with other dairy production units, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.41, and from 0.37 to 0.49, respectively. These results show the presence of genotype × environment interaction between dairy production units in the state of Paraná.

  14. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  15. Coastal Geostationary Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Products from NOAA GOES and Japanese MTSAT-1R satellites, coastal United States, 2000 - present (NODC Accession 0108128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA's Office of Satellite and Data Distribution (OSDPD) generates geostationary sea surface temperature (SST) products. These products are derived from NOAA's...

  16. UNIT, PETROLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

  17. Trial production of ceramic heat storage unit and study on thermal properties and thermal characteristics of the heat storage unit. Mixed salts of Na2CO3, MgCl2 and CaCl2 as heat storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat storage technique of high temperature and high density latent heat can be applied to an accumulator of heat generated by nuclear power plant in the night and to a thermal load absorber. For the practical use of the heat storage technique, it is important to improve heat exchange characteristics between heat storage medium, such as molten salts, and heat transfer fluid because of low thermal conductivity of the molten salts, to improve durability among molten salt and structure materials and to develop the molten salt with stable thermal properties for a long period. Considering the possibility for the improvement of heat exchange characteristics of phase change heat storage system by absorbing molten salt in porous ceramics with high thermal conductivity, high temperature proof and high resistance to corrosion, several samples of the ceramics heat storage unit were made. Basic characteristics of the samples (strength, thermal properties, temperature characteristics during phase change) were measured experimentally and analytically to study the utility and applicability of the samples for the heat storage system. The results show that the heat storage unit should be used in inactive gas condition because water in the air absorbed in the molten salts would yield degeneration of properties and deterioration of strength and that operation temperature should be confined near fusion temperature because some molten salts would be vaporized and mass would be decreased in considerable high temperature. The results also show that when atmospheric temperature changes around the melting temperature, change in ceramic temperature becomes small. This result suggests the possibility that ceramic heat storage unit could be used as thermal load absorber. (J.P.N.)

  18. Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stra...

  20. The creation of jobs and productive units of the Creative Economy in the Region of Corede Vale do Rio dos Sinos - CONSINOS - RS / Brazil from 1996 to 2009. New Perspective Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bem, Judite; Giacomini, Nelci Maria Richter; Souza Rech, Gislaine Cristina de

    2011-01-01

    Activities that develop in a region, using resources to be produced and generating results that affect the economy and trigger a multiplier effect on employment and income. The activities on the economy of culture have this effect on the economy, namely the impact that investments generate benefits they bring on other productive activities. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) - UN Special Body was established in 1964 as a result of demands from countries with lower...

  1. Simulation, exergy analysis and application of diabatic distillation to a tertiary amyl methyl ether production unit of a crude oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a detailed exergy analysis of a tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) unit of a crude oil refinery and the application of diabatic distillation to the depentanizer tower of the unit. Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is not only supplied to the reboiler and extracted from the condenser [as in a conventional (adiabatic) distillation column], but is also transferred inside the column. The process enables operation to approach equilibrium conditions, thus reducing exergy losses and increasing exergy effectiveness. In a TAME unit of a refinery, isoamylenes are converted to TAME. Before transforming the isoamylenes in the reactors, it is necessary to recover them from a catalytic gasoline stream by a depentanization process. The exergy losses of this depentanization process represent about 70% of the total exergy losses of the unit. The results of the exergy analysis of the TAME unit are presented and a detailed exergy analysis of the conventional adiabatic depentanizer column is conducted for comparison purposes. Then, the application of diabatic distillation to the system is evaluated by using cooling water circulating in series from tray to tray in the rectification section and by making the steam emanating from the reboiler circulate in series from tray to tray in the stripping section. The results in terms of the reduction of exergy losses, heating and cooling media flow rates, and cost effectiveness of the diabatic option for the depentanizer section of the plant are compared to the original adiabatic system, and the effect of the diabatization on the overall exergy performance parameters of the depentanizer section and on the whole TAME unit, are presented in this paper

  2. Simulation, exergy analysis and application of diabatic distillation to a tertiary amyl methyl ether production unit of a crude oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, R.; Garcia, M.; Urquiza, J

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed exergy analysis of a tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) unit of a crude oil refinery and the application of diabatic distillation to the depentanizer tower of the unit. Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is not only supplied to the reboiler and extracted from the condenser [as in a conventional (adiabatic) distillation column], but is also transferred inside the column. The process enables operation to approach equilibrium conditions, thus reducing exergy losses and increasing exergy effectiveness. In a TAME unit of a refinery, isoamylenes are converted to TAME. Before transforming the isoamylenes in the reactors, it is necessary to recover them from a catalytic gasoline stream by a depentanization process. The exergy losses of this depentanization process represent about 70% of the total exergy losses of the unit. The results of the exergy analysis of the TAME unit are presented and a detailed exergy analysis of the conventional adiabatic depentanizer column is conducted for comparison purposes. Then, the application of diabatic distillation to the system is evaluated by using cooling water circulating in series from tray to tray in the rectification section and by making the steam emanating from the reboiler circulate in series from tray to tray in the stripping section. The results in terms of the reduction of exergy losses, heating and cooling media flow rates, and cost effectiveness of the diabatic option for the depentanizer section of the plant are compared to the original adiabatic system, and the effect of the diabatization on the overall exergy performance parameters of the depentanizer section and on the whole TAME unit, are presented in this paper.

  3. On wage formation, wage flexibility and wage coordination:A focus on the wage impact of productivity in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; den Reijer, Ard

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the endeavours of policy makers to come to some degree of wage coordination among EU countries, aiming at aligning wage growth with labour productivity growth at the national levels. In this context, we analyse the wage and productivity developments in Germany, the European Union’s periphery countries Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain along with the US for the period 1980-2010. Apart from the contribution of productivity to wages, we take into account the contributions...

  4. On wage formation, wage flexibility and wage coordination : A focus on the nominal wage impact of productivity in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Den Reijer, Ard

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the endeavours of policy makers to come to some degree of wage coordination among EU countries, aiming at aligning wage growth with labour productivity growth at the national levels. In this context, we analyse the wage and productivity developments in Germany, the European Union’s periphery countries Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain along with the US for the period 1980-2010. Apart from the contribution of productivity to wages, we take into account the contributions...

  5. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn's geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbance patches of multiple pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

  6. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn s geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbances affecting multiple MODIS pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

  7. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Dinkov

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT. FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC. The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas the high octane high boiling components are mainlyaromatics. The raise of ROT leads to increase of ratio of ?-cracking relative to hydrogen transfer which results inenhancement of the lower molecular hydrocarbon content in the FCC gasoline.

  8. United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The chapter provides a history of the development of financial reporting in the United Kingdom, covering the impact of regulation through law and accounting standards. An extensive list of further reading is provided.

  9. Freight transport, food production and consumption in the United States of America and in Europe: Or how far can you ship a bunch of onions in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Böge, Stefanie

    1996-01-01

    CO2-emissions from traffic - increasingly from freight transport - are growing, es-pecially in the highly developed industrialized countries. The answers to thisenvironmentally problematical development are technical ones mainly: Admi-nistrators and scientists try to improve engines, transportation modes and logisticstrategies. Freight transport is influenced by production, consumption, land-usepatterns and life-styles. But these fundamental determinants of increasing trafficare rarely given ...

  10. Production System Analysis of Brem Processing Unit (Case Study: The Industrial Centers of Brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village, Madiun District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardaneswari Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the condition, the priorities, and the strategy development policy of the brem Madiun production system as an effort to increase the brem Madiun production system. The samples which are used were the brem industries at industrial centers of brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village at Madiun District. The main instrument to collect the data was a questionnaire for 21 respondents of business leaders. Data analysis method which is used was Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results showed that the sequence of factors causing the decline of brem’s production capacity were the final product (0,477, capital (0,244, raw materials (0,123, human resources (0,088, the tools and machinery (0,041, and the method (0,026. Benchmarks for goals to be achieved by the production system were the effectiveness of brem Madiun (0,548, productivity (0,227, efficiency (0,138, and quality (0,087. Strategies that can be done on developing the brem industry in Madiun are provision of venture capital to support the administrations, improvement of licensing services, improvement of joint venture accessibility on infrastructure production, supporting on marketing, improvement of human resources quality (coaching and training, development of product, improvement of business management, and development on network of business partnership respectively. After the several strategies development policy was formulated based on existing condition, then the performance of the brem Madiun production system can be improved. Keywords : Brem, Production System Analysis, Strategy Formulation

  11. Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work in all aspects of the field of alternative energy. The Consortium's primary objectives are to find ways to: - Include minorities in the development and ownership of infrastructure in the alternative energy industry; - Promote research and education programs to inform the public about risks and benefits of various forms of alternative energy; - Build a Mentor/Protege Program between HBCU/MSIs and industry leaders to enhance minority participation in ownership and career success in alternative energy production and distribution. The Consortium will work together to create a process whereby minorities and low income individuals will be recruited, educated, and mentored to maximize alternative energy ownership and job opportunities. Industry specialists and government representatives will work with academicians and others to: 1. research areas and methods where minorities and rural communities can engage in the industry; 2. invest in minorities by serving as mentors to minority serving institutions by offering hands-on experience through apprenticeships; 3. work to identify ownership opportunities for minorities; and 4. work to develop legislation that supports economic development and participation for minorities and rural communities in the industry. To accomplish this goal, the Consortium has set out a three-phase plan. Phase I organized a meeting of professionals to discuss the concept, explore the fundamentals, identify key players, and draft next steps. The group took a critical look at the energy industry: 1) trends, 2) economics, 3) limited number of minorities; and 4) infrastructure. Through that process the group identified four areas that would greatly impact economic development for minorities and rural communities: I Energy; II Broadband Communications; III Education; IV Labor Resources. Phase II presented a roundtable panel discussion that continued to refine the Consortium. The goal of these discussions is to produce a well-balanced Consortium committed to working together to produce effective solutions that bridge the gap between alternative energy

  12. The effect of hydrazine dosing on high temperature water chemistry and corrosion product transport in primary circuit of VVER 440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the VVER 440 type reactors have started to use hydrazine dosing to primary coolant instead of ammonia, because it has been shown to be efficient in reducing activity transport. On the other hand, some other studies have shown that there is no significant difference between new VVER units using hydrazine dosing and the ones operating with standard potassium/ammonia water chemistry. In this paper the results are presented concerning the out-of-core high temperature water chemistry and in-core redox potential measurements at Rez research reactor in Czech republic during hydrazine/ammonia water chemistries. At Loviisa 1 unit (VVER 440) in Finland the pHT and redox potentials were monitored during standard potassium hydroxide/ammonia operation. (authors). 5 figs., 13 refs

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 16. Changes in forest health and productivity in the United States and Canada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews available information about forest health problems in the United States and Canada, with special attention to the possible involvement of acidic deposition and associated pollutants. Available information indicates that most forests in the United States and Canada are health. There is no evidence of a general decline of forests due to acidic deposition or any other stress factor. Acidic deposition has not been ruled out as a potential cause of future subregional forest nutrition problems through effects on elemeqnt cycling. There is also experimental evidence that acidic deposition and associated pollutants can alter the resistance of red spruce to winter injury. Through this mechanism, acidic deposition may have contributed to dieback and mortality of red spruce at high elevations in the northern Appalachians. Ozone is an important factor in a decline of pines in southern California and is the pollutant of greatest concern with respect to possible regional scale impacts on North American forests

  14. Order of 21 October 1988 on licensing the release of liquid radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorized releases of liquid radioactive effluents from units 1 and 2 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. The annual limits are 1.1 terabecquerel for radioelements other than tritium, potassium 40 and radium and 80 terabecquerels for tritium. The Order specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible. (NEA)

  15. United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  16. Assessing patients’ and caregivers’ perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T.; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was ...

  17. Production System Analysis of Brem Processing Unit (Case Study: The Industrial Centers of Brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village, Madiun District)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardaneswari Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi; Sri Kumalaningsih; Imam Santoso 1)

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the condition, the priorities, and the strategy development policy of the brem Madiun production system as an effort to increase the brem Madiun production system. The samples which are used were the brem industries at industrial centers of brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village at Madiun District. The main instrument to collect the data was a questionnaire for 21 respondents of business leaders. Data analysis method which is used was Analytical Hierarc...

  18. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave the most accurate predictions (<3%) for cellulose loss.

  19. Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. / Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Ludovic; N, Rincón; L, Huerta; R, Rincón.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevist [...] a con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios. Abstract in english With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structure [...] s centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

  20. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  1. Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

  2. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip; Chollacoop, Nuwong; Cheali, Peam

    2014-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there...

  3. The effect of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the USSR on the export of milk products from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper exposes the problems experienced by exporters of milk products resulting essentially from the confusion of acceptable levels of radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident, the development of limits in the ensuing six months and the recommended action which should be taken internationally for the future. (author)

  4. An exemplary refrigeration concept - Hybrid ice-storage unit guarantees constant ice-water temperature for the processing of dairy products; Ein mustergueltiges Kaeltekonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    2002-07-01

    This article describes a refrigeration system installed at a German dairy produce facility that has replaced several old distributed ammonia-based refrigeration systems. The innovative system, which features five centrally located, R 407C-driven brine chillers and a hybrid ice-storage unit, delivers ice-water at 1 {sup o}C. The operation of the system has been outsourced to the local electricity utility that acts as a contractor for the supply of cold. The operation of the system is described and the advantages of the ice-storage system are discussed. The article also describes the principles behind the hybrid ice-storage system used and stresses the importance of such new concepts in the dairy industry in the light of regulations on the use of ammonia that have recently become more stringent.

  5. Epithermal gold-siver deposits in the western United States: time-space products of evolving plutonic, volcanic and tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; Bonham, H.F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The western United States has been the locus of considerable subaerial volcanic and plutonic igneous activity since the mid-Mesozoic. After the destruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc-trench system, subduction was re-established in the Late Mesozoic with low-angle underthrusting of the oceanic plate beneath western North America. This resulted in crustal shortening during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary and removal of the mantle lithosphere west of the Rocky Mountains. Commencing in the Eocene, flat subduction ceased, the volcanic arc began to re-establish itself along the continental margin, and the hingeline along the steepening subducting plate migrated from east to west. The crust east of the migrating hingeline was exposed to hot asthenosphere, and widespread tectonics and volcanic activity resulted. Hydrothermal activity accompanied the volcanism resulting in numerous epithermal gold-silver deposits. The temporal and spatial distributions of epithermal deposits in the region are therefore systematic and can be subdivided into discrete time intervals which are related to widespread changes in magmatic activity. Time intervals selected for discussion are Pre-Cenozoic, 66-55 Ma, 54-43 Ma, 42-34 Ma, 33-24 Ma, 23-17 Ma, and <17 Ma. Many of these intervals contain both sedimentary-rock and two varieties of volcanic-rock hosted deposits (adularia-sericite and alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite). Continental rifting is important to the formation of deposits, and, within any given region, it is at the initiation of deep rifting that alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite type epithermal deposits are formed. Adularia-sericite type deposits are most common, being related to all compositions and styles of volcanic activity. Therefore, the volcano-tectonic context of the western United States provides a unified framework in which to understand and explore for epithermal type deposits. ?? 1990.

  6. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  8. Universal thermoelectric unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of energy supply of low power electric devices very often can be solved with thermoelectric generator even with low coefficient of performance, when other electric energy sources are not convenient. The problems of thermoelectric and construction choice for such generators are discussed in the paper. A series of domestic thermoelectric generators was designed by the authors. The work is based on designing an universal thermoelectric unit---a battery which consist of ten thermoelements. The coefficient of performance of the unit is about 4%. Any thermoelectric generator can be made as a combination of these units. Principal opportunity of production such thermoelectric generators on industrial scale was proved. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife...

  10. A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2013-03-15

    A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

  11. Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará / Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raimundo Nonato da Silveira, Ribeiro; Manoel Malheiros, Tourinho; Antônio Cordeiro de, Santana.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-i [...] ndicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. T [...] he indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a previously established level of sustainability.

  12. Effects of Enzyme Loading, Densification, and Storage on AFEX-Pretreated Biomass for Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersbach, Gwen; Rijal, Binod; Pryor, Scott W; Gibbons, William R

    2015-12-01

    Corn stover, switchgrass, and prairie cordgrass were treated with an ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and a novel densification method (ComPAKco). Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were used to evaluate impacts of densification. ComPAKco densification is characterized by low-temperature and low-energy requirements, resulting in compacted biomass briquettes (CBB) 1-2 cm square, with a bulk density of 380-460 kg/m(3). Feedstocks were evaluated before and following AFEX pretreatment, after densification, and after storage. Two enzyme doses were tested. The low rate used 5 filter paper units (FPU) of Spezyme CP (cellulase) and 21.3 cellobiase units (CBU) of Novozyme 188 (aka NS50010 [?-glucosidase]) per gram of glucan. The high dosage rate was three times higher and resulted in 40-56 % and 33-82 % higher ethanol yields with SHF and SSF, respectively. Trials revealed no adverse effect on ethanol yield following densification or 6-month storage of densified, AFEX-pretreated feedstocks. PMID:26373942

  13. Heat conductivity in the beta-FPU lattice. Solitons and breathers as energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Astakhova, T. Yu.; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. The first part proposes a new methodological framework within which the heat conductivity in 1D lattices can be studied. The total process of heat conductivity is decomposed into two contributions where the first one is the equilibrium process at equal temperatures T of both lattice ends and the second -- non-equilibrium process with the temperature \\Delta T of one end and zero temperature of the other. The heat conductivity in the limit \\Delta T \\to 0 is red...

  14. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas (3He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

  15. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  16. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  17. Cogeneration units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles are outlined of cogeneration, i.e. of combined generation of electricity and heat. The assets of this approach include a decrease in the consumption of primary sources, and lower air pollution. Replacement of 1000 MWe brown coal fired power sources by cogeneration units in the Czech Republic would imply the shutdown of 3 to 4 brown coal fired power plants, bringing about a reduction in SO2, NOx and particulate emissions by 13.4%, 7%, and 4.3%, respectively. (J.B.)

  18. Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  19. dSSURGO: Development and validation of a 30 meter digital soil class product over the 8-million square kilometer contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Hempel, Jonathan W.; Odgers, Nathan; McBratney, Alexander B.; Wood, Eric F.

    2015-04-01

    An increase in computing resources and accessibility of high-resolution land data allows us to address many unresolved earth science challenges, such as the lack of high-resolution soil data at continental scales. This data would be helpful for agriculture, hydrologic modeling, and resource planning. Current available continental soil datasets are mainly based on legacy polygon datasets built from surveys and local expert knowledge. These products are difficult to use at regional to continental scales due to surveyor biases (e.g. county boundary discontinuities), varying effective spatial resolution, and un-surveyed areas. A path forward is to use machine learning (e.g. DSMART) to harmonize and spatially disaggregate these products by relating high resolution soil covariates to available observations. In this study, the DSMART algorithm is applied over CONUS at a 30 meter spatial resolution. The gSSURGO database provides the ground truth and the USGS NED, MLRC NLCD, and USGS aeroradiometric datasets the soil covariates. Using a moving window approach, random forests are fit and used to estimate the 50 most probable soil classes and their associated probabilities at each 30 meter grid cell over CONUS (~9 billion grid cells). We will discuss the value and accessibility of the new dataset, its potential applications, and preliminary validation results.

  20. Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzebio Beli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

  1. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with peanut butter and peanut butter-containing products--United States, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    On November 25, 2008, an epidemiologic assessment began of a growing cluster of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates that shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in PulseNet. As of January 28, 2009, 529 persons from 43 states and one person from Canada had been reported infected with the outbreak strain. This report is an interim summary of results from ongoing epidemiologic studies and recall and control activities by CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local public health agencies. Confirmed, reported onset of illness dates have ranged from September 1, 2008, to January 16, 2009. A total of 116 patients were reported hospitalized, and the infection might have contributed to eight deaths. Sequential case-control studies have indicated significant associations between illness and consumption of any peanut butter (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 2.53), and specific brands of prepackaged peanut butter crackers (mOR = 12.25), but no association with national brand jarred peanut butter sold in grocery stores. Epidemiologic and laboratory findings indicate that peanut butter and peanut paste produced at one plant are the source of the outbreak. These products also are ingredients in many foods produced and distributed by other companies. This outbreak highlights the complexities of "ingredient-driven" outbreaks and the importance of rapid outbreak detection and investigation. Consumers are advised to discard and not eat products that have been recalled. PMID:19194370

  2. Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

  3. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

  4. Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

  5. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two plants that are operated by Mayak and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  6. Global warming can negate the expected CO2 stimulation in photosynthesis and productivity for soybean grown in the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew; Gray, Sharon B; Drag, David W; Rosenthal, David M; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 ?mol mol(-1)) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops. PMID:23512883

  7. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines a...... general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  8. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54?±?0.70% and 33.80?±?1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21?±?0.35%, 12.05?±?0.37%, and 38.11?±?0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372?±?12 and 355?±?37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g?L(-1) and 1.41 g?L(-1) h(-1), respectively. PMID:21302146

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of Black Thunder coal and liquefaction products from HRI Bench Unit Run CC-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugmire, R.J.; Solum, M.S. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This study was designed to apply {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-stream materials. {sup 13}C-NMR was shown to have a high potential for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived samples in Phase II of this program. In this Phase III project, {sup 13}C-NMR was applied to a set of samples derived from the HRI Inc. bench-scale liquefaction Run CC-15. The samples include the feed coal, net products and intermediate streams from three operating periods of the run. High-resolution {sup 13}C-NMR data were obtained for the liquid samples and solid-state CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR data were obtained for the coal and filter-cake samples. The {sup 1}C-NMR technique is used to derive a set of twelve carbon structural parameters for each sample (CONSOL Table A). Average molecular structural descriptors can then be derived from these parameters (CONSOL Table B).

  10. Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system 'corrosion products (MenOm; Me(OH)k)) - water (H2O) - gas (H2, O2) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction' in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear 'post-transitional' process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

  11. Unidades de hemodinâmica: a produção do conhecimento Unidad de hemodinamia: la producción del conocimientos Unit of hemodynamics: the production of the knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com o objetivo de investigar o que se tem publicado sobre enfermagem em hemodinâmica nas bases de dados: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS, e Base de Dados em Enfermagem (BDENF; com os descritores: Enfermagem/Hemodinâmica e Nursing/Hemodynamics. Os dados indicam que os estudos em sua maioria foram desenvolvidos por enfermeiros, e relacionados à assistência de enfermagem. Ainda, foram abordados aspectos relacionados ao reprocesso de cateteres e saúde dos profissionais de enfermagem. Contudo, pode-se perceber que a publicação de trabalhos relacionados às unidades de hemodinâmica é escassa. No entanto, demonstram o predomínio de pesquisas e relatos relacionados aos aspectos da assistência de enfermagem nesse setor, o que pode representar as necessidades e os problemas que permeiam o trabalho.Se trata de una revisión integradora que tiene por objetivo investigar lo que se ha publicado sobre enfermería en hemodinámica, en las bases de datos: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, e Base de Datos de Enfermería (BDENF; con los descriptores: Enfermería/Hemodinámica y Nursing/Hemodynamics. Los datos indican que los estudios en su mayoría fueron desarrolladas por enfermeros, y relacionadas a la asistencia de enfermería. Fueron percibidos aún, aspectos relacionados al reprocesamiento de catéteres y salud de los profesionales de enfermería. Todavía, puede percibirse que la publicación de trabajos relacionados a las unidades de hemodinámica es escasa. Pero, hay una demostración de la predominancia de investigaciones e informes relacionados a los aspectos de la asesoría de enfermería en ese sector, lo que puede representar las necesidades y los problemas que hay por detrás del trabajo.It the question is a integrative review that has like objective investigates what has been published on nursing in hemodynamic in the bases of data: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, and Nursing Database (BDENF; with the descriptors: Enfermagem and Hemodinâmica and Nursing and Hemodynamics. The data indicate that the studies in his majority were developed by nurses, and made a list to the presence of nursing, there were still boarded aspects made a list to the reprocess of catheters and health of the professionals of nursing. Nevertheless, it be pruned that it realizes that the publication of connected works the unit of hemodynamic is scarce. However, they demonstrate the predominance of inquiries and reports made a list to the aspects of the presence of nursing in this sector, which can represent the necessities and the problems that permeate the work.

  12. Analysis of loss of product specification and loss of operational continuity in the REDUC (Refinaria de Duque de Caxias) propene separation unit; Analises de perda de especificacao do produto e de continuidade operacional da unidade de separacao de propeno da REDUC - U-3100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joao Carlos Galvao; Araujo e Lima, Julio Cesar de; Silva, CArlos Alberto Bezerra da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas; Amaral Netto, Joaquim Domingues; Lima, Jaime Eduardo Pinto [Principia Engenharia de Confiabilidade e Informatica Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This paper contains the results of two reliability analysis using fault trees for the REDUC C{sub 3} Splitter Unit. Two fault trees were made to evaluate the unit unavailability related to loss of product specification and to loss of operational continuity. The first analysis evaluated the fraction of time in which the unit produces propylene out of specification and delivers it to the consumer (product quality). The second determined the fraction of time in which the unit does not produce propylene either because it fails to produce according to specifications directing the product to LPG storage or because it is down due to operational problems (operational continuity). In each analysis the main contributors to the unavailability were identified, being evaluated some suggestions for the unavailability reduction. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Estimation of quality and yields of products from the process of future national oils indelayed coking units; Estimativa da qualidade e dos rendimentos de produtos de coqueamento a partir do processamento de petroleos nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipakis, Sofia D.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Guimaraes, Regina C.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the importance of the delayed coking process increases in the Brazilian refinery scenario, it is necessary to perform a more detailed evaluation of vacuum residues potential on this kind of process. This work compares the performance of future produced and exported oils residues with those which are references nowadays as delayed coking feeding. This information is essential for the prediction of the future quality and yield of the products generated by this process, and for the determination of the oils value for exportation. For this purpose, a process simulator was used considering the operational conditions of a real delayed coking unit. The carbon residue and asphaltenes ratio from the residues were also evaluated. This simulation demonstrated that most of the future oils will produce a high quality coke from the point of view of crystallinity and metals content, and it will present high contents of both volatile matter and sulphur. The exported oils residues are likely to show good crystallinity. (author)

  14. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  15. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o'clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course

  16. MANCHESTER UNITED’S IPO (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A practice quite rarely used in the competition industry, the Initial Public Offering (IPO of a sporting entity can have as a goal the procurement of financial resources in order to invest in productive assets or to adjust the economic image of the club. The listing on the Stock Exchange in 2012 of one of the most valuable football clubs in the world, Manchester United, was an atypical one within the sporting area, both in terms of the motivation behind it and of the technical considerations. This analysis aims to provide a general perspective on the stock exchange index in this niche area and its relevance, focusing on the details of the English club’s listing and analyzing a set of indicators relevant to the dynamics of its economic evolution and popularity. After more than two years from the club’s listing on the Stock Exchange, the stocks have a value close to the initial one, the stock price following an oscillating trend, marked by a couple of stages of significant growth too. The research emphasizes the opposing effects of certain indicators: the brand value experiences a negative growth, while the income from current activities, especially the one from commercial activities follows a rising trend. So, it is still premature to deem the listing of Manchester United on the Stock Exchange a success or a failure, but the scientific debate is worth continuing.

  17. Novel clostridial fusants in comparison with co-cultured counterpart species for enhanced production of biobutanol using green renewable and sustainable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashif; Dahman, Yaser

    2015-11-01

    In this work, biobutanol was produced through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw (WS) that traditionally produces acetone, butanol and ethanol solvents (ABE). Thermal stability was imparted to two mesophilic clostridial wild strains (Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium acetobutylicum) through protoplast fusion with that of a corresponding thermophilic clostridial species (Clostridium thermocellum). Production was pursued by the fused strains at 45 °C compared to that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Results showed that the fused strains generally achieved higher production at 45 °C than that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Highest butanol production of 13.82 g/L was recorded with C. beijerinckii fusant, with ABE solvents production of 23 g/L (yields of 0.17 and 0.57, respectively). Total sugar consumption of this strain was the highest among all strains and was 84%. Fused strains also showed immense level of tolerance towards butanol toxicity compared to the wild strains. Filter paper enzyme assay demonstrated that fused strains were able to produce cellulolytic enzymes in the range of 58.73-68.52 FPU/ml. Cellulosome producing C. thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars offers a promising future in biofuels through eliminating the need to add external enzymes. Generally, productions reported in the present study were higher than literature where biobutanol stripping systems were employed to eliminate toxicity during production. This demonstrates a clear potential for improving productivity and yield at a larger-scale facility. PMID:26395807

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  20. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

  1. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

  2. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

  3. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production...availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal production...year 2013 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or a...

  4. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:26562687

  5. Comparison of five pretreatments for the production of fermentable sugars obtained from Pinus pseudostrobus L. wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; López-Miranda, Javier; Castro-Montoya, Agustín Jaime; Saucedo-Luna, Jaime; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Pineda-Pimentel, María Guadalupe; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    To benefit from the use of a waste product such as pine sawdust from a sawmill in Michoacán, Mexico, five different pretreatments for the production of reducing sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated (sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, steam explosion, organosolv and combined method nitric acid / sodium hydroxide). The main finding of the study was that the pretreatment with 6 % HNO3 and 1 % NaOH led to better yields than those obtained with sodium hydroxide, dilute sulfuric acid, steam explosion, and organosolv pretreatments. Also, HNO3 yields were maximized by the factorial method. With those results the maxima concentration of reducing sugar found was 97.83 ± 1.59, obtained after pretreatment with 7.5 % HNO3 at 120 °C for 30 minutes; followed by 1 % of NaOH at 90 °C for 30 minutes at pH 4.5 for 168 hours with a load enzyme of 25 FPU/g of total carbohydrates. Comparing the results obtained by the authors with those reported in the literature, the combined method was found to be suitable for use in the exploitation of sawdust. PMID:26535036

  6. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  7. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska

  8. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  9. Estimation of entrance skin dose, dose area product and effective dose in radiological examinations performed in a digital radiographic unit using DICOM headers and Monte Carlo derived conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: Digital radiographic units store images in DICOM format and thus apart the radiographic image, data regarding the examination type, the geometrical conditions and the exposure parameters of each acquisition are also stored. These data can be used for the estimation of the Entrance Surface Air Kerma (ESAK), Entrance Skin Dose (ESD), Dose Area Product (DAP) and Effective dose (E). Our objective was to develop a method that enables automatic dose calculations from DICOM data. Materials and methods: More than 1000 radiological examinations performed with a DR Xray unit were recorded on a DVD-rom. Using appropriate software (DICOM Info Extractor) all necessary DICOM headers were extracted. These data were input into a Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet, containing embedded algorithms for the identification of each radiological examination type and the estimation of ESAK, ESD, DAP and E. The ESD and DAP to E conversion coefficients for each examination type were derived using the PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. For each examination type, a simulation was performed using the mathematical adult phantom and the examination data deduced from DICOM images and data. Results: Analysis of data exhibited that in the vast majority of examinations the correct protocol was used. The average E values (in mSv) were: Skull AP/LAT=0.01/0.01; Cervical Spine AP/LAT=0.024/0.011; Chest PA/LAT=0.016/0.044; Thoracic SpineAP/LAT=0.117/0.079; Lumbar Spine AP/LAT=0.159/0.150; KUB AP=0.202; Abdomen PA=0.111 and Pelvis AP=0.133. Conclusion: The methodology and spreadsheet that we developed offers to medical physicists a useful tool for conducting patient dose surveys in radiological examinations. (authors)

  10. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series. 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. 1996; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [Deutsch] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  11. Federal Statistical Office: Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. 1998; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [Deutsch] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  12. Federal Statistical Office, Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants 2000; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [German] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  13. Federal Statistical Office, special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants 2001; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. [German] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung.

  14. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. Annual report 1994; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. Jahresbericht 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (orig.)

  15. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. 1999; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [German] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  16. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. 1997; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [Deutsch] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  17. Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. Annual report 1995; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. Jahresbericht 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (HS) [Deutsch] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung. (HS)

  18. Federal Statistical Office, special series 4: Production. Series 6.4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants 2002; Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6.4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. [German] Das jaehrlich erscheinende Heft enthaelt Daten ueber Stromversorgungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe (nach Wirtschaftszweigen und Laendern geordnet) und ueber Leistung und Belastung der Stromerzeugungsanlagen sowie ueber Verbrauch an Brennstoffen fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung.

  19. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis X Mangan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to gain access to this market it is important to understand the distribution system used for fresh produce in the United States.Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos.

  20. Pharmacists´ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates / Actitud, conocimiento y percepciones de los farmacéuticos hacia el uso de plantas medicinales en Abu Dhabi, Emiratos Árabes Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahar A., Fahmy; Shajahan, Abdu; Mohammed, Abuelkhair.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la práctica actual de los farmacéuticos, las percepciones y el conocimiento sobre el uso de plantas medicinales en Abu Dhabi, Emiratos Árabes Unidos (EAU). El estudio evaluó la necesidad de incorporar las plantas medicinales como materia separada en el [...] currículo de los estudiantes de farmacia. Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 600 farmacéuticos empleados en Abu Dhabi, que fueron contactados electrónicamente, de los que 271 completaron la encuesta. Los datos se recogieron utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: El uso de plantas medicinales es elevado en EAU, ya que existe una creencia sobre la alta efectividad de estos productos, y sólo la edad fue la variable más predominante que influenció el uso personal de plantas medicinales por los farmacéuticos (p-value=0.0171). Los farmacéuticos tenían más conocimientos de los usos/indicaciones de las plantas medicinales (47%) que de otras áreas. El conocimiento del modo de dispensación (prescripción o over-the-counter) obligado por el Ministerio de Salud era bastante bueno, sin embargo se vio que la fuente de información para la dispensación eran los representantes médicos (48%). El conocimiento del modo de dispensación pareció estar influenciado significativamente por el lugar de trabajo, con mayor conocimiento los que trabajaban en el sector privado (p-value 0.0007). Los resultados del estudio también señalan la necesidad de incluir las plantas medicinales como materia separada en el currículo de la facultad de farmacia y de proporcionar más seminarios y programas de formación continua enfocados hacia los farmacéuticos del Emirato de Abu Dhabi. Conclusiones: Los farmacéuticos necesitan estar informados de indicaciones, interacciones, efectos adversos y precauciones de las plantas medicinales. Las entidades relacionadas también deben proporcionarles programas de formación continua regulares además de incluir los aspectos relevantes de las plantas medicinales en el currículo de los estudiantes de farmacia. Abstract in english Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists´ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student [...] curricula. Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results: Pharmacists´ use of herbal products is high in the UAE, as they have a high belief on the effectiveness of herbal products, and only age was found to be the most predominant variable that was influencing pharmacists´ personal use of herbal products (p-value=0.0171). Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on the uses/indications of herbal products (47%) rather than on other areas. Knowledge of the dispensing mode (prescription only or over the counter medicines) mandated by the Ministry of Health was quite good, however, it is to be noted that the source of information on the dispensing mode was provided by medical representatives (48%). Knowledge of dispensing mode of herbal products was found to be significantly influenced by the place of work with more knowledge of the dispensing mode by pharmacists working in the private sector (p-value 0.0007). The results from the study also underscores the need for including herbal medicine as a separate topic in pharmacy college curriculum and to provide for more seminars and continuing pharmacy education programs targeting pharmacists in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Conclusions: Pharmacists need to be informed on indications, drug interactions, adverse events and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their efforts to incorporate relevant topics on herbal medicine in the pharmacy stud

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

  2. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover. PMID:24114460

  3. Statistical Optimization for Application of Nonionic Surfactants in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Palm Fiber for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatuporn Parnthong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Palm fiber is a lignocellulosic material, which is available in large quantity from oil palm industry. Due to its cellulosic structure, it is considered as a highly potential alternative material for ethanol production. Thus, the palm fiber is utilized as a raw material in this study. The palm fiber is obtained from local industry and mechanically ground to reduce the size in the range of 0.417-1 mm. Then, it is pretreated with 10% sodium hydroxide. Then, it is further utilized in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The commercial cellulase enzyme (Trichoderma reesei is employed in this study. The nonionic surfactant (Tween80 is applied to enhance the conversion of cellulose to sugar. In the experiment, the effects of enzyme loading, surfactant concentration, and hydrolysis time on sugar yield are investigated at 50 ?C and pH 5. By employing the response surface methodology, optimum sugar yield was obtained at as high as 67.65 % from palm fiber at 107 h hydrolysis time, 20 FPU/g substrate enzyme loading, and 7.39 g/L surfactant concentration

  4. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal I. Daoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

  5. New undersea research unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first cold-water activity under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Undersea Research Program will begin in the Gulf of Maine in August, according to NOAA Administrator John V. Byrne. The prime objective of the new activity will be to survey ocean dumping grounds and to study the productivity of the area's valuable fish resources. (The World Court is currently deciding on the fishing boundary between the United States and Canada in and around the Gulf of Maine.)Detailed maps of dumpsites off Portland, Maine, and Boston, Mass., will be made, followed by an assessment of the effects dumping has on marine life. Dredge spoil is dumped offshore from Portland; a variety of material—from dredge spoil to munitions—is dumped off Boston.

  6. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of nuclear development in the United Kingdom is traced, together with the factors (eg electricity demand, fossil fuel prices, political policy) that have influenced policy choices. Many of the research establishments and the fissile material production plants were established in the late 1940s. In these early years the civil and military development programmes were not separate. The initial growth period was in the 1950s when the plan was to build twelve reactors in three groups of four over ten years. The first were to be Magnox type reactors. This was trebled in 1957 and the advanced gas cooled reactor was developed. The Windscale fire in 1957 affected confidence in the nuclear programme. However, five AGR twin-reactor stations were ordered in 1964. These ran into construction problems and delay and it was not until 1980 that more new units were contemplated. The plan then was to build a pressurized water reactor at Sizewell-B. A delay to allow for the public inquiry put back the start of this until 1987 with commissioning planned for 1994. A list of the UK nuclear power stations is given and their operating performance discussed. The present situation and future prospects for nuclear power are reviewed. (U.K.)

  7. ON DEVELOPING CLEANER ORGANIC UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic waste products, potentially harmful to the human health and the environment, are primarily produced in the synthesis stage of manufacturing processes. Many such synthetic unit processes, such as halogenation, oxidation, alkylation, nitration, and sulfonation are common to...

  8. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  9. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and national sovereignty: An appraisal of United States-measures affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TV, Warikandwa; PC, Osode.

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absen [...] ce of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes) have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  10. O modo de inserção do médico no processo produtivo em saúde: o caso das unidades básicas de Belo Horizonte / Ways of inserting physicians into the healthcare production process: case of study of basic healthcare units in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Terezinha, Gariglio; Antônio Leite Alves, Radicchi.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever e analisar o processo de trabalho ou o modo de inserção do médico no processo produtivo em saúde. O tema se justifica pelo entendimento de que esse modo de trabalhar possa ser um problema e ao mesmo tempo uma chave que possibilite a implantação de modelos de ass [...] istência eticamente e politicamente comprometidos com a vida dos usuários dos sistemas públicos de saúde. A descrição do problema começa pela construção do arquétipo médico e seus condicionantes históricos e socioculturais; toma como exemplo o processo de trabalho dos médicos em unidades básicas de saúde em Belo Horizonte construído através de entrevistas e observação participante e aponta algumas possibilidades de intervenção através da introdução de novos conceitos e tecnologias capazes de transformar o trabalho desses profissionais de modo a garantir a formação de vínculos e de maior gradiente de responsabilização pelo cuidado e pela vida dos usuários que procuram os serviços públicos de saúde. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the ways of inserting physicians into the health production process. This subject is justified by a belief that that this way of working may be a problem but at the same time may well be the key to implementing healthcare models that are ethi [...] cally and politically committed to the lives of public health system users. Initially, the problem is presented through the construction of an archetype physician and his historical and social and cultural conditioning factors, taking the work processes of physicians at Basic Healthcare Units in Belo Horizonte as an example that is built up through interviews and participative observations. Some possibilities for intervention are indicated through the introduction of new concepts and technologies that could transform the work of these practitioners in ways that would build up links with more responsibility for the care and lives of users of public healthcare services.

  11. Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California / Economic rent of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Fisheries Typical Production Units in the Gulf of California

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán, Ponce-Díaz; Luis, Almendarez-Hernández.

    Full Text Available La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empr [...] esas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas cala-mareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades representativas de producción (URP): una que opera en BCS con 10 embarcaciones menores, recibe anualmente $2722,000.00 pesos por la venta de calamar, invierte el 68% en pago de mano de obra y obtuvo una razón beneficio-costo de 1.74. La otra trabaja con 5 barcos desde puertos en SON, recibe $4027,000.00 pesos de ingresos totales anuales (54% del camarón, 18% del calamar y 22% del subsidio al diesel); el costo del combustible representa el 52% de los egresos y la razón beneficio-costo en 2008 fue de 0.93. Abstract in english The jumbo squid fishery in Mexico is mainly performed off the Baja California Sur (BCS) and Sonora (SON) coasts in the Gulf of California by cooperatives and private firms which operate outboard boats (pangas) or shrimp trawlers. The differences in economic returns of each type of fleet were estimat [...] ed through the characterization of typical production units (TPU). The TPU of BCS, with 10 pangas, obtains Mexican pesos $2722,000.00 annually from squid sales and pays 68% of it in salaries. The TPU in SON, with 5 shrimp trawlers, earns Mexican pesos $4027,000.00 annually (54% from shrimp sales, 18% from squid and, additionally receives 22% from the government for diesel subsidies); diesel costs represent 52% of the total income.

  12. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.)

  13. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have indicated that under these conditions approximately 100,000 m3/d of potable water can be produced The use of preheated feedwater results in an improvement in water production efficiency of up to about 15% relative to a system operating at the ambient seawater temperature. This preliminary design study has shown that significant improvements in the cost of water production can be achieved through this 'marriage' of Russian small reactor technology and Canadian RO technology. The potential benefits warrant further detailed evaluation followed by a demonstration project. (author)

  14. Use of surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and lactic acid production from rice straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Peng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste by-products worldwide and provides an alternative substrate to produce useful chemicals such as bioethanol and lactic acid. However, higher enzyme loadings are needed to obtain a higher product yield, which makes the large-scale utilization economically difficult. The presence of non-ionic surfactants and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics has been found to increase the conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars. We have found that adding 0.2g g-1 substrate of polyoxyethylene(20 sorbitan monooleate (PSM or high-mass PEG increased the sugar yield by 22% and 12%, respectively, when enzyme loading was at 10FPU g-1 for 24h. PSM behaved better than PEG when different substrate concentrations, temperatures, and enzyme loadings were investigated. PSM provides an opportunity to reduce enzyme dosage while still keeping the same extent of hydrolysis. We also investigated the effect of PSM on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated RS to lactic acid. Results showed that addition of 0.7g L-1 PSM improved the lactic acid production by 24% compared to the reference without PSM addition at 72h.

  15. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

  16. Proyección económica de unidades representativas de producción en caprinos en la Comarca Lagunera, México / Economic projection of representative production units of caprine cattle in the Comarca Lagunera region, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Orona Castillo; Dora Ma., Sangerman-Jarquín; Jacob, Antonio-González; Enrique, Salazar Sosa; José Luis, García Hernández; Agustín, Navarro-Bravo; Rita, Schwentesius de Rindermann.

    2013-06-29

    Full Text Available La caprinocultura en México es importante por la cantidad de familias rurales que dependen de ésta, estimada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía en 250 mil. Sin embargo, por tradición, para apoyar la actividad, el gobierno mexicano a través de Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, P [...] esca y Alimentación, considera que todos los productores dedicados a las cabras tienen condiciones tecnológicas iguales, y que todos se dedican a producir lo mismo. La realidad es que los productores son diferentes entre sí, por regiones, entidades y al interior mismo de una localidad, por lo que el tipo de apoyos que se canalice debe ser acorde a sus necesidades y características. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la proyección de la viabilidad económica y financiera de una Unidad Representativa de Producción (URP) productora de leche y cabrito bajo un sistema de producción extensivo para el periodo 2008-2018 en el municipio de Lerdo Durango, ubicado en la región Comarca Lagunera, tomando como año base el comportamiento económico de las URP en 2008 y a partir de ello identificar qué componentes tecnológicos deben apoyarse para incrementar la rentabilidad de éste tipo de sistema productivo. Los datos necesarios para llevar a cabo este estudio y formar la URP productora de leche y cabrito surgieron de paneles de productores realizados en el ejido La Loma, Durango. El análisis económico y de simulación se llevó a cabo en el modelo de simulación agroeconómica MexSim, cuyos resultados muestran un comportamiento futuro positivo a los productores dedicados a esta actividad que cuenten con un hato de 100 vientres y produzcan leche y cabrito. Abstract in english In México, caprine cattle breeding is important due to the families living in rural areas who depend on the activity; according to estimations made by the National Institute for Statistics and Geography, there are about 250 thousand animals in México. Nevertheless, traditionally and so as to show su [...] pport for this activity, the Mexican government, represented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Stockbreeding, Fishing and Food, considers that all the producers who breed goats have access to the same technology, and that all of them produce the same thing. In reality, producers have differences according to the region, entity and even within the same township, and so the type of support they receive must be according to their needs and characteristics. The objective of this paper is to present the economic and financial feasibility projection for a Representative Production Unit (URP, in Spanish), which would produce milk and kid, under an extensive production system for the period that goes from 2008-2018, in the municipality of Lerdo, Durango, located in the region known as Comarca Lagunera, taking as baseline year the economic behavior shown by the URPs in 2008, and deriving from it the identification of the technologic components which need support in order to increase the profitability of this kind of productive system. The data required to undertake this study and establish the milk and kid producing URP, came from panel s of producers presented at the common land of La Loma, state of Durango. The economic and simulation analysis was realized within the agro-economic simulation model MexSim, which results show a positive behavior in the future for the producers focused in this activity, who own a herd of 100 breeding stock, and produce milk and kid.

  17. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs...... of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of...... fresh water production for solar desalination units....

  18. trituration units, ?Maasra?, in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lamrani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil production in Morocco is carried out at traditional trituration units called ?maasras?. The thermophilic mycobiota present in these places was studied, from which strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were identifi ed by classical and molecular methods (ITS region from the rDNA. Selected strains of A. fumigatus were tested for fumagillin production using a quantitative analysis by HPLC. More than 700 thermophilic strains were obtained from ?maasras? studied. The predominant species was A. fumigatus (31%. Eleven strains (50%, out of 22, of A. fumigatus were capable of producing fumagillin ranging from 4.55-46.48 ng/g of wheat dry weight.

  19. Márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal de vaca en unidades de producción familiar en Totoremo, Venezuela Cesar / Marketing profits of cattle handmade cheese in family production units in Totoremo, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Araque; Aleyda, Delgado; Wilmer, Armas; Arlenis, Albornoz; Valentín, Espinosa; Tonny, Quijada.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar los márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal bovino elaborado en unidades de producción familiar, se realizó una investigación de campo descriptiva, en la comunidad de Totoremo, municipio Urdaneta, estado Lara, Venezuela. Se identificaron los agentes participantes [...] del mercado, los canales de comercialización utilizados y se calcularon los márgenes de comercialización y la participación directa del productor, en base a entrevistas a productores de ese sistema familiar y transportistas de la zona, durante el año 2008. Los resultados muestran que de 22 productores entrevistados, el 95% realiza la venta directamente a transportistas. El canal de comercialización más común fue: productor (quesero en finca), comprador-transportista, comercio detallista y consumidor final. Los precios promedios al productor y al consumidor de 3,25 US$ y 5,34 US$, respectivamente. El margen bruto de comercialización (MBC) obtenido fue 39,13%, el margen neto de comercialización (MNC) de 38,38% y la participación directa del productor (PDP) de 61%. Se concluye, que en la comercialización del queso artesanal el 39% del precio del consumidor se queda en el sistema intermediario y el 61% en el productor Abstract in english In order to analyze the marketing channels and margins of commercialization of cattle handmade cheese, elaborated in family production units it was carried out a study in Totoremo community, Urdaneta Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela. There were identified the actors involved in the market, market [...] ing channels and margins of commercialization and direct participation of the farmers, based on interviews with producers of that family system and carriers in the area in 2008. The results show that of 22 farmers interviewed, 95% make the sale directly to carriers. The most common marketing channel was: producer (on-farm cheese), buyer-carrier, retail and consumer. The average price to the producer and consumer of 3,25 U.S. $ and 5,34 U.S. dollars, respectively. Marketing gross margin (MBC) obtained was 39,13%, the net marketing margin (MNC) of 38,38% and the direct participation of the producer (PDP) of 61%. We conclude that in the marketing of artisanal cheese 39% of the consumer price remains in the buffer system and 61% in the producer

  20. CELLULASES PRODUCTION UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGRO WASTE AS A SUBSTRATE AND ITS APPLICATION IN SACCHARIFICATION BY TRAMETES HIRSUTA NCIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaumik R. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and energy crisis are the biggest constraint all over the world which has focused lights on need of utilizing renewable resources to meet the future demand. A promising strategy is efficient utilization of lignocellulosic waste and fermentation of the resulting sugars for production of desired metabolites or biofuel. Production of all the cellulase enzymes on wheat bran and different parameters regulating it like pH, moisture ratio (substrate: liquid, temperature and inoculum size has been optimized which found to be 4.5, 1:3, 30°C and 108 spores respectively. Salient feature of partially purified enzyme with stability in the range of 30-50°C under acidic pH range was found to be prominent for industrial applications, moreover in this study, Trametes hirsuta, an efficient cellulase producer, was observed to be an effective species for saccharification of wheat straw to enhance the sugar yield. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw with 15 FPU of cellulase from the species showed 73% yield in 20 hrs. It may prove to be a suitable choice for the industrial saccharification of lignocellulosic biomasses.