WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

2

Efficient cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulase production was investigated in a culture of a strain of Acremonium cellulolyticus. The medium components were optimized for the improvement of cellulase production. The maximum production of cellulolytic enzymes was obtained in a medium containing (grams per liter) 50 Solka Floc, 5 (NH4)2SO4, 24 KH2PO4, 4.7 potassium tartrate hemihydrate, 1.2 MgSO4.7H2O, 1 Tween 80, 4 urea, 0.01 ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.01 MnSO4.6H2O, and 0.01 CuSO4.7H2O, with a pH of 4.0. In the flask culture, 15.5 filter paper units (FPU)/mL of maximum cellulase activity was obtained, 17.42 FPU/mL in a 7-L bioreactor, and 13.08 FPU/mL in a 50-L scale bioreactor for 4-8 d at 30 degrees C. Average production rates were 1.94 FPU/mL.d in flasks, 2.86 FPU/mL.d in the 7-L bioreactor, and 2.56 FPU/mL.d in the 50-L bioreactor. Cellulase production on a small scale was successfully reproduced in the 50-L pilot scale bioreactor. Saccharification activity from A. cellulolyticus was compared with cellulolytic enzymes produced by other strains. The A. cellulolyticus culture broth had a comparable saccharification yield in comparison with those of other Trichoderma enzymes (GC220 or Cellulosin T2) under the same total cellulase activity. Its saccharification yield (percent of released reducing sugar to used dried substrate) was 60%, and its glucose content was 83%. PMID:17253723

Ikeda, Yuko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Naoyuki; Park, Enock Y

2007-01-01

3

Chapter 2. The production units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (Constructions and operation of A1 Power Plant - archive video, plant technology, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1982-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant Impact of operation on the environment, Plan of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

4

Execution and Result Integration Scheme in FPU Farms for Co-ordinated Performance  

CERN Document Server

- The main goal of this research is to develop the concept of an innovative processor system called Functional Processor System. The particular work carried out in this paper focuses on the execution of functions in the heterogeneous functional processor units(FPU) and integration of functions to bring net results. As the functional programs are super-level programs, the requirements of execution are only at functional level. The Execution and integration of results of functions in FPUs are a challenge. The methodology of executing the functions in the functional processor farm and the integration of results of functions according to the assigned addresses are investigated here. The concept of feeding the functions into the processor is promoted rather than the processor fetching the instructions/functions and executing in this paradigm. This work is carried out at conceptual levels and it takes a long way to go into the realization of this model in hardware, possibly only with a large industry team and with ...

Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Saraf, Vighnaraju

2010-01-01

5

Product Quality of Parenteral Vancomycin Products in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo ac...

Nambiar, S.; Madurawe, R. D.; Zuk, S. M.; Khan, S. R.; Ellison, C. D.; Faustino, P. J.; Mans, D. J.; Trehy, M. L.; Hadwiger, M. E.; Boyne, M. T.; Biswas, K.; Cox, E. M.

2012-01-01

6

Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160 and 180 degrees C, the sugar production with 15 FPU (filter paper unit)/g straw was equally high compared to higher enzyme loadings. For the pretreatments at 170 degrees C an enzyme loading higher...

Panagiotopoulos, I. A.; Lignos, G. D.; Bakker, R. R. C.; Koukios, E. G.

2012-01-01

7

Energy transport along FPU-beta chains containing binary isotopic disorder: Zero temperature systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dissipation from harmonic energy eigenstates is used to characterize energy transport in binary isotopically disordered (BID) Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-beta) chains. Using a continuum analog for the corresponding harmonic portion of the Hamiltonian, the time-independent wave amplitude is calculated for a plane wave having wavelength \\lambda that is incident upon the disordered section, and the solution is mapped onto the discrete chain. Due to Anderson localization, energy is in...

Snyder, K. A.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.

2005-01-01

8

Low-dimensional q-Tori in FPU Lattices: Dynamics and Localization Properties  

CERN Document Server

This is a continuation of our study concerning q-tori, i.e. tori of low dimensionality in the phase space of nonlinear lattice models like the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model. In our previous work we focused on the beta FPU system, and we showed that the dynamical features of the q-tori serve as an interpretational tool to understand phenomena of energy localization in the FPU space of linear normal modes. In the present paper i) we employ the method of Poincare - Lindstedt series, for a fixed set of frequencies, in order to compute an explicit quasi-periodic representation of the trajectories lying on q-tori in the alpha model, and ii) we consider more general types of initial excitations in both the alpha and beta models. Furthermore we turn into questions of physical interest related to the dynamical features of the q-tori. We focus on particular q-tori solutions describing low-frequency `packets' of modes, and excitations of a small set of modes with an arbitrary distribution in q-space. In the former case, ...

Christodoulidi, Helen

2012-01-01

9

THE PRODUCTION PREPARATION FOR ASSEMBLING HOUSING UNITS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The task is dealt with the problem of preparing the production of a new product in a production company. The diploma consists of a brief description of the company where I also performed internship and had the task of a production management. Product description is corroborated with detailed drawings of components and method of assembly. Presented are appropriate procedures for the production layout, production planning system and production management. All prepared processes are designed on ...

Marton, Miki

2009-01-01

10

Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

11

Weakly nonlinear localization for a 1-D FPU chain with clustering zones  

Science.gov (United States)

We study weakly nonlinear spatially localized solutions of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model describing a unidimensional chain of particles interacting with a number of neighbors that can vary from site to site. The interaction potential contains quadratic and quartic terms, and is derived from a nonlinear elastic network model proposed by Juanico et al. [1]. The FPU model can be also derived for arbitrary dimensions, under a small angular displacement assumption. The variable interaction range is a consequence of the spatial inhomogeneity in the equilibrium particle distribution. We here study some simple one-dimensional examples with only a few, well defined agglomeration regions. These agglomerations are seen to lead to spatially localized linear modes and gaps in the linear spectrum, which in turn imply a normal form that has spatially localized periodic orbits.

Martínez-Farías, F.; Panayotaros, P.; Olvera, A.

2014-12-01

12

Non-linear unit root properties of crude oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and unit roots in crude oil production. To realize our objective, this study applies a threshold autoregressive model with an autoregressive unit root to monthly crude oil production for 17 OPEC and non-OPEC countries over the period January 1973 to December 2007. Specifically, first we test for the presence of non-linearities (threshold effects) in the production of crude oil in two regimes. Second, we test for a unit root against a non-linear stationary process in two regimes and a partial unit root process when the unit root is present in one regime only. We find that crude oil production is characterized by threshold effects. We find that for eleven of the countries a unit root was present in both regimes, while for the others a partial unit root was found to be present in either the first regime or second regime

13

A Novel FPGA based Leading One Anticipation Algorithm for Floating Point Arithmetic Units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In multimedia Systems-on-Chips, the design of specialized IEEE-754-compliant floating point arithmetic units (FPU) is critical with respect to both operating speed and silicon area demand. Leading one anticipation is a well-known issue in the implementation of high speed FPUs. We investigated a novel leading one anticipation algorithm allowing us to significantly reduce the anticipation failure rate with respect to the state-of the art. We embedded our technique into a complete FPU and compar...

Ashwini Suresh Deshmukh

2012-01-01

14

Writing units of integral group rings of finite abelian groups as a product of Bass units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a constructive proof of the theorem of Bass and Milnor saying that if $G$ is a finite abelian group then the Bass units of the integral group ring $\\Z G$ generate a subgroup of finite index in its units group $\\U(\\Z G)$. Our proof provides algorithms to represent some units that contribute to only one simple component of $\\Q G$ and generate a subgroup of finite index in $\\U(\\Z G)$ as product of Bass units. We also obtain a basis $B$ formed by Bass units of a free abe...

Jespers, Eric; Del Ri?o, A?ngel; Gelder, Inneke

2011-01-01

15

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

16

The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

Yaple, Charles; And Others

17

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

18

Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS Production in Distillery Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

SRINIVASAN K

2013-02-01

19

Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical efficiency of various “mergers” relative to a common reference technology. The approach is radically different from the usual one based on super-efficiency indexes in DEA. We illustrate the mechanics of our method by a series of numerical examples and further demonstrate that our new index inherits all relevant and desirable properties of the Farrell efficiency index upon which it is constructed.

Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

2014-01-01

20

Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ?in?, ?, ?, ?; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

Jenn-YeuChen

2013-08-01

22

The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O'Seaghdha et al., 2010). The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target). Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous) or did not share (heterogeneous) the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Experiment 1: 687 vs. 684 ms, Experiment 2: 717 vs. 716). In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 3: 685 vs. 704, Experiment 4: 594 vs. 650). In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ± in , , , ; called a logographeme). Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Experiment 5: 576 vs. 625, Experiment 6: 586 vs. 620). These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit. PMID:23950752

Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Cherng, Rong-Ju

2013-01-01

23

Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

2009-12-31

24

Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

Heydorn, Barbara

1990-01-01

25

Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

Roesjorde, Audun

2004-08-01

26

Oligophilic bacteria as tools to monitor aseptic pharmaceutical production units.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial loads of air, surfaces, and personnel in clean rooms are routinely monitored using a set of standard media. Bacteria that can grow on these media are a tiny fraction of the total numbers in any environment. A substantial proportion of bacteria long thought to be unculturable were recently shown to be oligophilic. Oligophile counts in clean rooms in our studies exceeded the standard plate counts by up to 2 orders of magnitude. They responded to disinfection routines in ways similar to the responses of conventional bacteria. We suggest that oligophiles are better tools than conventional bacteria for environmental monitoring in aseptic pharmaceutical production units. PMID:11229934

Nagarkar, P P; Ravetkar, S D; Watve, M G

2001-03-01

27

Charging unit of the product char for the gasification plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a pulverized coal gasification furnace, gasification efficiency is enhanced by recycling the product char to the gasification furnace. For this, however, an exclusive burner for the char combustion should be added. In this invention, the product char is supplied to a pulverized coal distributor, a pulverized coal transporting gas mixer or a pulverized coal transporting unit; the coal and the char are blended; then the mixture is supplied from the existing fine coal burner to the gasification furnace. This eliminates the necessity of newly installing an exclusive char burner, simultaneously eliminating any supply line of oxidant and burner cooling water, etc. which are usually required with the installation of the exclusive burner, thus greatly simplifying the raw material supply system of the gasification furnace. 7 figs.

Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Koyama, Shuntaro; Morihara, Jun.

1989-01-25

28

Production and Release of Carbon-14 at Younggwang unit-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PWR, Carbon-14 is produced as activation product in the coolant, fuel and structural material during normal operation of nuclear power plant. Carbon-14 has a radioactive half-life of 5730 yr and, when released to the atmosphere, becomes a long term contaminant to environment. Since the amount of Carbon-14 released from PWR is small and it is not easy to detect, it is not selected as a main monitoring nuclide for environmental release in PWR in general. Korean regulatory authority (KINS) raised the issues on a practical evaluation of Carbon-14 including released amount, environmental behavior and dose assessment. Therefore, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has performed the monitoring for Carbon-14 at Yonggwang-4 unit since January 2003. The samples are collected and analyzed monthly

29

Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of the Great Plains, United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) are the fundamental environmental characteristics that promote carbon exchanges with the atmosphere (Chapin and others, 2009), although other exchanges of carbon, such as direct oxidation (Lovett and others, 2006), can modify net ecosystem production (NEP). The accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems results in systems in which soil organic matter (SOM) carbon often exceeds biomass carbon (Post and Kwon, 2000). This SOM pool exists at a steady state between GPP and Re in ecosystems unless drivers change or the ecosystem endures environmental perturbations (for example, climatic). As indicated by Wilhelm and others (2011), conversion of grasslands to agriculture and cultivation can result in reduced soil carbon, with the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere by stimulated oxidation and higher Re; therefore, land-use and land management practices have clear effects on NEP, with potential repercussions on ecosystems. The recent demand for biofuels has changed land-use and cropping patterns, especially in Midwestern United States (Wilhelm and others, 2011). It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to assess the effects on NEP.

Howard, Daniel; Gilmanov, Tagir; Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce; Zhang, Li

2012-01-01

30

LEONDARE - SPARC V8 Processor with High-Speed FPU and MMU  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the LEONDARE device, a new generation of processor perfectly suitable for spacecraft control and instrument applications. Around a Gaisler LEON3-FT processor and its associated AMBA 2.0 bus, it implements peripherals such as a dual SpaceWire link supporting the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP), a CAN Bus 2.0 Controller with redundant bus interfaces, UARTs with Debug Support Unit and a memory controller with EDAC interfacing PROM, SRAM and SDRAM. The design is manufactured using the Design Against Radiation Effects (DARE) developed under European Space Agency (ESA) funds in a UMC 0.18 commercial process. Validation and evaluation phase following ESA standards are part of the LEONDARE development.

Somerlinck, P.; Habinc, S.; Gaisler, J.; Redant, S.; Glass, B.

2008-08-01

31

Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

32

Construction of Modular Turbine Control Unit for Applications in Hydroelectric Power Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this degree project is to design a modular turbine control unit for applications in hydroelectric power production. Normally, the control units are custom made for each new customer, this method is however quite expensive and time-consuming. The local conditions (such as turbine type or number of generators) can vary greatly between hydro power plants, and the unit must therefore be designed to be as compatible and allround as possible. The control unit is required to manage th...

Danielsson, Christoffer

2012-01-01

33

Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

Sanjay RODE

2009-06-01

34

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

35

Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

2010-01-01

36

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

Toly Chen

2012-10-01

37

DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

Field, K.V.

1996-02-01

38

Production of short straight sections hits 100 units  

CERN Document Server

The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

2005-01-01

39

Pediatric eye injuries related to consumer products in the United States, 1997–2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines which consumer products are most commonly associated with pediatric eye injuries that are treated in emergency departments in the United States. The results demonstrate that, overall, boys experienced proportionally more consumer product–related eye injuries than girls, but eye injuries from specific product categories are more likely to be associated with one sex than the other. Age-specific patterns also revealed that certain product categories are more likely to be as...

Cross, Jennifer Moren; Griffin, Russell; Owsley, Cynthia; Mcgwin, Gerald

2008-01-01

40

Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland  

Science.gov (United States)

In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Improvement of cellulase production in cultures of Acremonium cellulolyticus using pretreated waste milk pack with cellulase targeting for biorefinery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulase production in cultures of Acremonium cellulolyticus was significantly improved by using waste milk pack (MP) that had been pretreated with cellulase. When MP cellulose pretreated with cellulase (3 FPU/g MP) for 12h was used as the sole carbon source for A. cellulolyticus culture in a 3-L fermentor, the cellulase activity was 16 FPU/ml. This was 25-fold higher (0.67 FPU/ml) compared with untreated MP cellulose and was comparable to that achieved with pure cellulose (Solka Floc). As the pretreatment progressed, roughness on the surface of untreated MP cellulose became to be smooth, but development of fissures on the surface of pretreated MP cellulose was observed. Cellulase pretreatment of MP increased both the accessibility of A. cellulolyticus to the surface and number of adsorption sites of cellulase on the surface of MP cellulose, leading to improved cellulase production in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:21392970

Park, Enoch Y; Naruse, Kazuya; Kato, Tatsuya

2011-05-01

42

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

43

Pediatric eye injuries related to consumer products in the United States, 1997–2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines which consumer products are most commonly associated with pediatric eye injuries that are treated in emergency departments in the United States. The results demonstrate that, overall, boys experienced proportionally more consumer product–related eye injuries than girls, but eye injuries from specific product categories are more likely to be associated with one sex than the other. Age-specific patterns also revealed that certain product categories are more likely to be associated with eye injuries among different age groups. These findings are salient because children experience a disproportionate amount of ocular trauma, possibly resulting in visual disability or blindness and concomitant developmental delays. Given the heretofore lack of detailed information on products that may contribute to the burden of pediatric eye injuries in the United States, the results of the current study provide valuable information for identifying priorities for prevention and intervention. PMID:18848479

Cross, Jennifer Moren; Griffin, Russell; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

2012-01-01

44

Pediatric eye injuries related to consumer products in the United States, 1997-2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines which consumer products are most commonly associated with pediatric eye injuries that are treated in emergency departments in the United States. The results demonstrate that, overall, boys experienced proportionally more consumer product-related eye injuries than girls, but eye injuries from specific product categories are more likely to be associated with one sex than the other. Age-specific patterns also revealed that certain product categories are more likely to be associated with eye injuries among different age groups. These findings are salient because children experience a disproportionate amount of ocular trauma, possibly resulting in visual disability or blindness and concomitant developmental delays. Given the heretofore lack of detailed information on products that may contribute to the burden of pediatric eye injuries in the United States, the results of the current study provide valuable information for identifying priorities for prevention and intervention. PMID:18848479

Moren Cross, Jennifer; Griffin, Russell; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

2008-12-01

45

Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research.

Carl, Michael

46

Multi-Objective Optimization of an Industrial Isoprene Production Unit by Using Genetic Algorithm Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work deals with the multi-objective optimization of an industrial Isoprene production unit by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The purpose of this plant is to produce high purity Isoprene for obtaining synthetic and thermoplastic rubber from a C5 cut arising from a pyrolysis gasoline unit. The chemical process consists basically of a dimerization reactor and a separation column train. The Isoprene industrial process is a complex process, and not easy to be solved by commercial simula...

Alves, Rita M. B.; Nascimento, Claudio A. O.; Loureiro, Luiz V.; Floquet, Pascal; Joulia, Xavier

2005-01-01

47

Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

2008-10-01

48

Use of organic waste for the production of added-value holocellulases with Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the production of holocellulases from the cellulolytic microorganisms Cellulomonas flavigena PR-22 and Trichoderma reesei MCG 80 using as substrates the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and digestates from a hydrogenogenic-methanogenic bioenergy production process. The first set of experiments (E1) used the mutant actinobacteria C. flavigena PR-22 whereas another set (E2) used the mutant filamentous fungi T. reesei MCG 80. In E1 with OFMSW as substrate, xylanolytic activities ranged from 1800 to 3900 international units g(holocellulose)(-1) (IU g(hol)(-1)), whereas the cellulolytic activities ranged from 220 to 420 IU g(hol)(-1). The variation of agitation speed did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, whereas the increase of substrate concentration had a significant negative effect on both xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities on a holocellulose feed basis. Regarding E2, the OFMSW was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 % volatile solids (VS). At 2 % VS the best filter paper activities were 1200 filter paper units (FPU) l(-1); however, in a holocellulase basis the best result was 67 FPU g(hol)(-1), corresponding to 1 % VS. Next, OFMSW was compared with OFMSW supplemented with lactose, digested solids from hydrogenogenic fermentation (D1) and digested solids from a two-stage process (D2). Against expectations, no positive effect was found in OFMSW due to lactose. The best enzymatic titres were in the order D1 > OFMSW ? OFMSW + lactose > D2. The use of digestates from hydrogenogenic fermentation for enzyme production holds promise for waste management. It promotes energy and added-value bioproduct generation-a green alternative to common practice of management and disposal of organic wastes. PMID:23877254

Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

2013-08-01

49

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

50

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

51

Strain improvement of Acremonium cellulolyticus for cellulase production by mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the search for an efficient producer of cellulolytic enzymes, Acremonium cellulolyticus strain C-1 was subjected to mutagenesis using UV-irradiation and N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) and strain CF-2612 was isolated. Strain CF-2612 exhibited higher filter paperase (FPase) activities (17.8 U/ml) than the parent strain C-1 (12.3 U/ml). Soluble protein production and beta-glucosidase activity from strain CF-2612 were also significantly improved. FPase activity, cellulase productivity and yield of CF-2612 using batch culture with 5% Solka Floc in a 2-l jar fermentor at 30 degrees C reached 18.0 U/ml, 150.0 FPU/l/h and 360.0 FPU/g carbohydrate, respectively; when fed-batch culture was used with Solka Floc, these values reached 34.6 U/ml, 240.3 FPU/l/h and 346.0 FPU/g carbohydrate, respectively. It was observed that more hydrolyzed glucose was released from pretreated eucalyptus with the enzyme of strain CF-2612, compared with that of the commercial cellulase GC-220. This result was attributed to the higher ratio of beta-glucosidase/FPase activity of strain CF-2612. Three distinguishable phases including the periods of primary or second mycelial growth and mycelial fragmentation were proposed in batch culture by A. cellulolyticus. PMID:19269588

Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

2009-03-01

52

Productivity, private and public capital, and real wage in the United States: 1948 - 1990  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the relationship between real wages in the United States and productivity. The measure of productivity includes the impact of public capital as well as private capital. Both neo-classical and Keynesian theories predict that real wages increase with increases in the capital stock and technical progress, and move inversely over business cycles. However, the question of whether real wages are cyclical or countercyclical has not been confirmed by empirical studies. These studi...

Erenburg, Sharon J.

1993-01-01

53

Hofer-Zehnder capacity of unit disk cotangent bundles and the loop product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove the finiteness of the Hofer-Zehnder capacity of unit disk cotangent bundles of closed Riemannian manifolds, under some simple topological assumptions on the manifolds. The key ingredient of the proof is a computation of the pair-of-pants product on Floer homology of cotangent bundles. We reduce it to a simple computation of the loop product, making use of results of A.Abbondandolo- M.Schwarz.

Irie, Kei

2011-01-01

54

Productivity, Efficiency, and Managerial Performance Regress and Gains in United States Universities: A Data Envelopment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis to investigate the extent to which universities in the United States have undergone productivity and efficiency changes, partly due to managerial performance, during the 2005-09 academic years. Using panel data for 133 research and doctoral universities, the focus is on the primary drivers of U.S. publicly controlled higher education. DEA efficiency and returns to scale estimates are provided. In addition, university total factor productivity changes via the Malmquist index are decomposed into component parts. Results suggest that U.S. universities experienced average productivity regress. On an annual basis such was present prior to the global financial crisis. However, productivity gains appeared in concert with the crisis. Managerial efficiency tended to hamper productivity gains but, on the positive side, showed slight improvements over time. Decreasing returns to scale prevailed but from a policy perspective a return to economy wide growth may automatically correct some over production.

G. Thomas Sav

2012-08-01

55

9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

2010-01-01

56

A versatile floating production unit: the DP FPSO for Brazilian waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in drilling and completion techniques have resulted in improved well system design and completion reliability. Extended reach wells, multi-laterals, smart wells producing from multiple pay-zones and a range of completion methods provide high well production rates and significant recoverable reserves per well. During the initial phase of a field development, limited or no data may be available concerning the hydrocarbon reservoir. An extended well test facility or early production facility can provide additional high-quality production data related to properties of the recovered hydrocarbons, reservoir drive mechanism, reservoir pressure and temperature, etc. By obtaining critical reservoir and production data during the initial project phase, technical and commercial risks can be further quantified and a possible field development plan optimized. With exploration and production operations in deeper water, the cost for traditional (passive) station keeping systems of floating offshore structures has increased accordingly. Hardware and offshore installation costs associated with a passive mooring system of a floating offshore facilities can be significant, especially in case of operations in remote deep water areas and with frequent relocations. A DP system provides a cost-effective and proven means of station keeping and has been extensively applied to deep water drilling units. Operating as a first-stage field development unit, the DP-FPSO will enable a cost-effective means to gain valuable reservoir and production data, while generating early sales revenues. (author)

Cann, Bram Van; Poldervaart, Leen [SBM Inc., Marly (Switzerland); Beenen, Marco [Gusto Engineering B.V. (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

57

Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date. PMID:21376555

Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

2011-07-01

58

Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

59

An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed. (author)

Subhadra, Bobban [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Mark [Marketing and Sustainability, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)

2010-09-15

60

Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 16...

Reza Mogadam, M.; Abutaleb Kusha; Seyed M. Meysam Abutorabi F.

2011-01-01

62

Total factor productivity convergence amongst Italian regions: some evidence from Panel Unit Root Tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this paper, we employ panel unit root tests to investigate convergence in Total Factor Productivity amongst Italian regions. These tests provide us with inference valid in the presence of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence, and when the cross-sectional dimension is smaller than the time dimension, allowing us to investigate convergence among different subset of regions. Our results add a futher dimension to the conventional view on growth dynamics in the Itali...

Fazio, Giorgio; Byrne, Joseph Paul; Piacentino, Davide

2009-01-01

63

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

64

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program's inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy-efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA'S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 and 107 Tg C (1993-2006) and between 132 and 278 Tg C (2007-2015)

65

Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their AI programs with a high degree of success. In the United States, slow adoption rates of these technologies may result in a future loss of international market share of beef products as other nations take advantage not only of the additional kilogram of beef that can be produced but also the improved quality of beef that can be realized through incorporation of reproductive technologies and resultant genetic improvement. However, current difficulties the US producers have with the incorporation of applied reproductive technologies, such as TAI, MOET, and sex semen, must not be the reason to overlook and incorporate more traditional reproductive technologies such as castration, breeding season management, or weaning. In many cases, beef producers in the United States fail to incorporate these more traditional technologies, which results in a reduction in production efficiency of the US beef industry. This chapter will focus on both traditional and more developed reproductive technologies that will play a role in enhancing future production efficiencies of the US beef cattle production system. PMID:24170356

Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

2014-01-01

66

Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the activities of six parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent report found that generic parenteral vancomycin products may not have in vivo efficacies equivalent to those of the innovator in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model despite having similar in vitro microbiological activities and murine serum pharmacokinetics. We compared the in vitro and in vivo activities of six of the parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. The in vitro assessments for the potencies of the vancomycin products included MIC/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) determinations, quantifying the impact of human and murine serum on the MIC values, and time-kill studies. Also, the potencies of the vancomycin products were quantified with a biological assay, and the human and mouse serum protein binding rates for the vancomycin products were measured. The in vivo studies included dose-ranging experiments with the 6 vancomycin products for three isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. The pharmacokinetics of the vancomycin products were assessed in infected mice by population pharmacokinetic modeling. No differences were seen across the vancomycin products with regard to any in vitro evaluation. Inhibitory sigmoid maximal bacterial kill (Emax) modeling of the relationship between vancomycin dosage and the killing of the bacteria in mice in vivo yielded similar Emax and EC50 (drug exposure driving one-half Emax) values for bacterial killing. Further, there were no differences in the pharmacokinetic clearances of the 6 vancomycin products from infected mice. There were no important pharmacodynamic differences in the in vitro or in vivo activities among the six vancomycin products evaluated. PMID:25385113

Louie, Arnold; Boyne, Michael T; Patel, Vikram; Huntley, Clayton; Liu, Weiguo; Fikes, Steven; Kurhanewicz, Stephanie; Rodriquez, Jaime; Robbins, Nichole; Brown, David; Baluya, Dodge; Drusano, G L

2015-01-01

67

Comprehensive review of the limitations of relative value unit measurements of productivity in academic departments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring radiologist, especially sonologist, productivity has never been of greater interest than now, as radiology has moved from its historical status as a cost center to the largest revenue generator in most institutions. With more local institutional and federal oversight and regulation into the reimbursement and valuation of imaging procedures, including emphasis on outsourcing, overvalued procedures, and bundling, the ability to measure productivity and to draw meaningful conclusions from the data becomes increasingly imperative if we as radiologists and sonologists expect to contribute meaningfully to the process. This article presents a history of the "relative value unit" and discusses the valuation of radiologist/sonologist productivity in this era of ubiquitous high-technology implementation. PMID:23676323

Dubinsky, Theodore J

2013-06-01

68

Extreme heat reduces and shifts United States premium wine production in the 21st century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Premium wine production is limited to regions climatically conducive to growing grapes with balanced composition and varietal typicity. Three central climatic conditions are required: (i) adequate heat accumulation; (ii) low risk of severe frost damage; and (iii) the absence of extreme heat. Although wine production is possible in an extensive climatic range, the highest-quality wines require a delicate balance among these three conditions. Although historical and projected average temperature changes are known to influence global wine quality, the potential future response of wine-producing regions to spatially heterogeneous changes in extreme events is largely unknown. Here, by using a high-resolution regional climate model forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario, we estimate that potential premium winegrape production area in the conterminous United States could decline by up to 81% by the late 21st century. While increases in heat accumulation will shift wine production to warmer climate varieties and/or lower-quality wines, and frost constraints will be reduced, increases in the frequency of extreme hot days (>35 degrees C) in the growing season are projected to eliminate winegrape production in many areas of the United States. Furthermore, grape and wine production will likely be restricted to a narrow West Coast region and the Northwest and Northeast, areas currently facing challenges related to excess moisture. Our results not only imply large changes for the premium wine industry, but also highlight the importance of incorporating fine-scale processes and extreme events in climate-change impact studies. PMID:16840557

White, M A; Diffenbaugh, N S; Jones, G V; Pal, J S; Giorgi, F

2006-07-25

69

Tobacco product use among adults--United States, 2012-2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite significant declines in cigarette smoking among U.S. adults over the past five decades, progress has slowed in recent years, and the prevalence of use of other tobacco products such as cigars and smokeless tobacco has not changed. Additionally, the prevalence of use of emerging products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), has rapidly increased. This report provides the most recent national estimates of tobacco use among adults aged ?18 years, using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). The findings indicate that 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.2% used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Population-level interventions focused on the diversity of tobacco product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact antitobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting, in conjunction with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States. PMID:24964880

Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A; Husten, Corinne G; Bunnell, Rebecca; Ambrose, Bridget K; Hu, S Sean; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Day, Hannah R

2014-06-27

70

Economic growth, labor and productivity in Brazil and the United States: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between economic growth and labor market dynamics in Brazil between 1981 and 2009, making a comparison with the United States. Among the findings, one can mention that economic growth in Brazil has been related to a massive incorporation of labor forc [...] e in labor intensive activities, whereas, in the United States, to a substantial improvement of labor productivity in high-technology activities. Despite the favorable economic context in the 2000s, huge inequalities between these countries have widened since the structure of the Brazilian labor market remained with few or no changes.

Alexandre Gori, Maia; Esther, Menezes.

2014-06-01

71

How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

72

The effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit in spoken word production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments using the form-preparation paradigm were conducted to investigate the effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit during spoken word production with native Mandarin speakers. In both experiments, participants were instructed to memorize nine prompt-response monosyllabic word pairs, after which an associative naming session was conducted in which the prompts were presented and participants were asked to say the corresponding response names as quickly and accurately as possible. In both experiments, the response words in the homogeneous lists shared the same onsets, or shared the same rimes; the response names had no common aspects of pronunciation in the heterogeneous lists. Chinese characters (Experiment 1) and Pinyin (phonetic transcription of the characters) (Experiment 2) were used to investigate the effect of the orthographic form. Significant onset facilitation and rime inhibition was shown for Pinyin syllables but not for characters. The contrasts of the onset and rime effect in the two orthographic forms suggest that a specific phonological unit is promoted in spoken word production in a certain orthographic form. Pinyin cued the participants to prepare the onset whereas Chinese characters did not. The rime interference effect may arise as a result of lexical competition in spoken word production. PMID:25398357

Li, Chuchu; Wang, Min; Idsardi, William

2014-11-15

73

Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

2010-07-01

74

Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States of America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mohair from Angora goats has been produced in the United States since the introduction of these animals from Turkey in 1849. Cashmere on Texas meat goats was reported in 1973, but domestic interest in commercial production did not occur until the mid-1980s. Since 1982, the average prices of U.S.-produced mohair and cashmere (de-haired) have ranged from $1.81 to $9.48/kg and approximately $55 to $200/kg, respectively. However, return to producers from mohair has been relatively constant, averaging $10.21/kg, due to the federal incentive program. Because this program is scheduled to terminate with final payment in 1996, the future of mohair profitability is questionable. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States are influenced by numerous interacting factors and potential constraints. These include the prospect that the goat and textile industries may no longer be profitable in the absence of clear government policies. Although selection may have slightly increased fiber production by Angoras (long term) and domestic meat goats (short term), availability of genetic resources may prove to be a constraint to increased fiber production by cashmere goats and improved meat production by both types of goat. Land resources are plentiful unless new government policies prohibit goats from vast tracts of rangeland and forest because of environmental concerns. Future demand is an unknown, but with increasing world population and affluence, prospects for long-term improved demand for luxury fibers seem good. Competition from foreign cashmere growers is expected, whereas, in the short term, mohair production overseas is declining. However, increased processing of cashmere in its country of origin is expected to result in shortages of raw materials for European and U.S. processors. The amount of scouring, worsted, and woolen equipment in the United States is adequate to accommodate major increases in domestic processing of goat fibers. However, the absence of specific processing knowledge and skills may be constraints. Similarly, the absence of acceptable small-scale dehairing equipment for cashmere will limit cashmere processing on a cottage industry scale. Purely practical considerations such as the effects of predation and cost of fencing could become major constraints to expanding the goat fiber industry. Likewise the success (or lack thereof) of industry promotion of fiber and goat meat could be an overriding factor. To emerge from the uncertainty of erratic raw material prices and to better control profitability, domestic goat-fiber producers are encouraged to consider innovative, cooperative, retained ownership business ventures that will permit them to profit-share up to the retail level. PMID:8726750

Lupton, C J

1996-05-01

75

Calculation of radiation quantities for the medical products sterilization unit by gamma ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical products sterilization unit using 60Co will be in operation starting from in 1991, at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria. The irradiator produced by USSR and exported by Technoexport. Intial activity of the 6OCo source is 100 Kci. In order to calculate the utilization factor, non-homogeneity factor, shielding, activity and exposure, a computure program written in BASIC language is used. The programe operates on version 3.2 MS DOS using IBM compatable microcomputers. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

76

Vitrification of HLW generated by a production unit for radiopharmaceuticals using simulated waste solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Durable borosilicate glasses for the immobilizing of radioisotopes from nuclear waste streams generated by a radiopharmaceutical production unit are studied. Different boron frits (glasses) and waste-loaded glasses were prepared under various experimental conditions. The effects of some parameters such as melting temperature, cooling procedure and various raw materials were investigated. The best composition of the frits as well as the best glass/waste ratio was determined to optimize the immobilization process. All experiments were performed in non-active bench scale. (author)

77

Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

Jamar, L. G.

1986-01-01

78

9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The inspection, sanitation, quality, species verification, and residue standards applied...Australia (ratites only). Canada. Chile. France. Great Britain. Hong Kong...poultry products to the United States. New Zealand (ratites only)....

2010-01-01

79

The process of constructing new competencies in the family agricultural production unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the difficulties dairy farmers face when they decide to install a new type of production on their units. We intend to discuss the nature of the new competencies the farmers will construct in order to install new production ateliers, and to show the complexity of the means they used, the difficulties they face in this process, and the strategies farmers develop in consonance with the practical knowledge of their profession. The method used was Ergonomic Work Analysis, together with semi-structured interviews, done after sessions of observation and work analysis. The results show that it is possible to apprehend a part of the complexity of the process of constructing competencies among dairy farmers, the diversity of kinds of resources they mobilize, integrate and transfer in this construction process that materializes through their activities in the work context. PMID:22316703

Montedo, Uiara Bandineli

2012-01-01

80

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C. W.

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

82

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

Di Onofrio Valeria

2010-10-01

83

Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for ?oating-point computations, and for this reason, ?oating-point operators consume a signi?cant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

2013-05-01

84

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. This chemistry also substantially reduces the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 6% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that heterogeneous production of ClNO2 can further increase O3 and reduce TNO3 if elevated particulate-chloride levels are present in the atmosphere.

G. Sarwar

2012-07-01

85

Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals. PMID:22324295

Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

2012-03-01

86

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

G. Sarwar

2012-02-01

87

Continuous natural gas hydrate pellet production (NGHP) by process development unit (PDU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Artificially formed natural gas hydrate (NGH) is considered to be an unconventional medium for storage and transport of natural gas. NGH contains large amount of natural gas and it is able to be stored or transported safely under the atmospheric pressure at slightly below freezing point of water using so-called self preservation effect. Especially, we propose a NGH pellet transport chain since the pellet form has a number of merits such as high fill-up efficiency, easy handling and so on. In order to develop the NGH pellet transport chain, we have built and operated a process development unit (PDU) which is a bench scale plant (NGH production and gasification capacity of 0.6tpd) for verification of process conditions and for demonstration of the continuous plant operation. PDU consists of six processes, such as hydrate production, hydrate cooling , pressure reduction, pelletizing and regasification of NGH pellet including storage and conveyor apparatus. Operating data of PDU indicated that approximately 25kg of NGH particles in bulk was formed in an hour during steady state and NGH in bulk was pelletized into spherical pellets at the same production rate as NGH formation. Measured gas concentration in sampled NGH (methane gas hydrate) was almost 90% of theoretically containable. Regasification process was also verified by dissociating 25kg of NGH pellet per hour using water as a heat source. This paper reports the outlines of the processes, hardware of components and operating data of PDU using methane gas as a raw material. (Author)

Iwasaki, Toru; Katoh, Yuuich; Nagamori, Shigeru; Takahashi, Shinji; Oya, Nobutaka

2005-07-01

88

76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit Including...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit, including...Global Parts Supply Chain, Global...Life Cycles Management Unit,...

2011-07-14

89

75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...TM . The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1...26, 2010. The 2010 United States Mint Official American...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B. Craig, Associate...Sales and Marketing, United States Mint, 801 9th...

2010-03-19

90

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

Peter, Danchev.

91

Computer-controlled radiochemical synthesis: a chemistry process control unit for the automated production of radiochemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer-controlled general purpose chemistry process control unit (CPCU) suitable for the automated production of radiochemicals has been developed. This valve-and-tubing synthesis system can be user programmed to accommodate a variety of chemical processes. In a practical demonstration of its utility, the CPCU has been configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) using aqueous [18F]fluoride ion. Using this instrument, the yield of 2-[18F]FDG from [18F]fluoride ion is 54.9% (+/- 11.2%, n = 125) corrected to EOB, after a synthesis time of 50-55 min. The average total activity produced (for runs of 5-10 microA) is 28.1 mCi/microA (+/- 5.03 mCi/microA). Thus, the amount of 2-[18F]FDG produced from a 10 microA for 1 h bombardment was 154.3 mCi (+/- 27.4 mCi). The unit has been similarly configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-mannose (48% EOB), 3-(2'-[18F]fluoroethyl)spiperone (29% EOB), and [18F]fluoroacetate (66% EOB) from aqueous [18F]-fluoride ion, and 2-[18F]FDG from gaseous acetyl hypo[18F]fluorite (20% EOB). PMID:2548977

Padgett, H C; Schmidt, D G; Luxen, A; Bida, G T; Satyamurthy, N; Barrio, J R

1989-01-01

92

Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

MODIS active fire data offer new information about global fire patterns. However, uncertainties in detection rates can render satellite-derived fire statistics difficult to interpret. We evaluated the MODIS 1??km daily active fire product to quantify detection rates for both Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors, examined how cloud cover and fire size affected detection rates, and estimated how detection rates varied across the United States. MODIS active fire detections were compared to 361 reference fires (??? 18??ha) that had been delineated using pre- and post-fire Landsat imagery. Reference fires were considered detected if at least one MODIS active fire pixel occurred within 1??km of the edge of the fire. When active fire data from both Aqua and Terra were combined, 82% of all reference fires were found, but detection rates were less for Aqua and Terra individually (73% and 66% respectively). Fires not detected generally had more cloudy days, but not when the Aqua data were considered exclusively. MODIS detection rates decreased with fire size, and the size at which 50% of all fires were detected was 105??ha when combining Aqua and Terra (195??ha for Aqua and 334??ha for Terra alone). Across the United States, detection rates were greatest in the West, lower in the Great Plains, and lowest in the East. The MODIS active fire product captures large fires in the U.S. well, but may under-represent fires in areas with frequent cloud cover or rapidly burning, small, and low-intensity fires. We recommend that users of the MODIS active fire data perform individual validations to ensure that all relevant fires are included. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hawbaker, T.J.; Radeloff, V.C.; Syphard, A.D.; Zhu, Z.; Stewart, S.I.

2008-01-01

93

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process paramet...

Dinkov, R.; Stratiev, D.

2007-01-01

94

Application of a casting-rolling unit in a combined process of production of high-quality products from copper scrap  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly efficient technology of processing of copper scrap is considered: it implies a combination of melting, refining, casting, and rolling to produce high-quality copper products. The characteristics and parameters of the main element of this technology (casting-rolling unit) and its most important functional element (mold), which substantially affects the unit capacity and the quality of the forming billet, are described.

Smirnov, A. N.; Shutov, I. V.; Kuberskii, S. V.; Volkov, S. M.

2012-12-01

95

Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

D. P. Turner

2007-04-01

96

Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

D. P. Turner

2007-08-01

97

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

1993-12-31

98

Preliminary estimation of activation products inventory in reactor components for Kori unit 1 decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the necessity to evaluate the activation products inventory during decommissioning for domestic nuclear power plants, a preliminary estimation of the activation products inventory for Kori unit 1, which is getting close to the end of lifetime, was carried out with ANISN and ORIGEN2 code. In order to calculate neutron flux using ANISN code, the reactor was divided into 8 zones from core to bioshield concrete for radial direction. Also the cross-section of main nuclides were calibrated with neutron flux in the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) region. The results showed that 95% of the total radioactivity in RPV from reactor shutdown to 10 years came from the nuclides of 55Fe, 59Ni, 63Ni and 60Co. And the total radioactivity with cooling of more than 50 years after decommissioning was no more than 0.2% of at the time of shutdown. Considering the weight of RPV is 210 tons, the total radioactivity of RPV reached to 5.25x106 GBq at shutdown time. As compared with the total radioactivity of bioshield concrete at reactor shutdown time, the radioactivity after cooling more than 10 years was below 1 %

99

Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21?000-35?000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10?000-50?000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10?000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12?000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings. PMID:25488307

Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

2015-01-01

100

Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

102

Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

2015-01-01

103

New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

104

Assessment of atmospheric tritium concentration levels due to the normal operation of a radiopharmaceutical production unit (UPPR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals (UPPR) Unit started to operate in 2008. This Unit consists of a laboratory for {sup 18}F production, one for F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glycose (FDG) synthesis and a room for packing and preparing the final product. The Environmental Monitoring Program of the Nuclear Technology Developing Center - (CNEN/ CDTN) aims to assess the radiological environmental impact as a result of the activities undertaken by the Center. Among various measurements and analyses established in this program, sampling and analysis of atmospheric tritium is one facet that is regularly carried out. The main objective of this paper is to present an assessment of the increments of tritium concentration in the atmosphere due to the release of gaseous effluents by the UPPR Unit, as well as to determine the dose received by public individuals due to eventual inhalation of this material. (author)

Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Dias, Vagner S., E-mail: cmp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

105

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

106

Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity  

Science.gov (United States)

United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

2012-01-01

107

Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

2014-06-01

108

Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Waste Wheat Straw for Cellulosic Ethanol Production in a Co-located Straw Pulp Mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

2015-01-01

109

Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served theusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

110

Biomass Production in Switchgrass across the United States: Database Description and Determinants of Yield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental to deriving a sustainable supply of cellulosic feedstock for an emerging biofuels industry is understanding how biomass yield varies as a function of crop management, climate, and soils. Here we focus on the perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and compile a database that contains 1190 observations of yield from 39 field trials conducted across the United States. Data include site location, stand age, plot size, cultivar, crop management, biomass yield, temperature, precipitation, and information on land quality. Statistical analysis revealed the major sources of variation in yield. Frequency distributions of yield for upland and lowland ecotypes were unimodal, with mean ({+-}SD) biomass yields of 8.7 {+-} 4.2 and 12.9 {+-} 5.9 Mg ha-1 for the two ecotypes, respectively. We looked for, but did not find, bias toward higher yields associated with small plots or preferential establishment of stands on high quality lands. A parametric yield model was fit to the data and accounted for one-third of the total observed variation in biomass yields, with an equal contribution of growing season precipitation, annual temperature, N fertilization, and ecotype. The model was used to predict yield across the continental United States. Mapped output was consistent with the natural range of switchgrass and, as expected, yields were shown to be limited by precipitation west of the Great Plains. Future studies should extend the geographic distribution of field trials and thus improve our understanding of biomass production as a function of soil, climate, and crop management for promising biofuels such as switchgrass.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Davis, Ethan B. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Borsuk, Mark E. [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

2010-01-01

111

Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-07-01

112

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

R. Dinkov

2007-12-01

113

77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers  

Science.gov (United States)

...includes a 105 Liter tank with alcohol concentrations of 104.3 to...Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers (Manufacturer and...2\\ Infra-red (IR) and fuel cell breath testers may be...Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol...

2012-10-22

114

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

115

Expert system for maintenance/troubleshooting of final product unit (unit-18) Heavy Water Plant - Tuticorin (Paper No. 3.8)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An EXPERT system has been developed at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin to allow quick operator detection and diagnose incipient failures. The EXPERT system can monitor the input data and try to diagnose the root cause of the failure and suggest the maintenance personnel correct mode of approach to solve the problem. Initial development steps include writing the program fault tree and failure modes and its effect on the operation of the process. Fault tree models display the logical relationship between critical events and possible ways in which the events can occur. As a developmental effort, unit 18 (final product unit) process loop instrumentation of heavy water plant is taken as prototype for trying the EXPERT system. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

116

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa and temperature (about 100C. The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

M. Reza Mogadam

2011-01-01

117

Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

118

A comparative waste management performance assessment of two uranium production units in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pocos de Caldas uranium production facility was closed in 1997, and a decommissioning programme started in 1998. The project was intended to produce 500 t U3O8/year and 275 t/year of calcium molybdate as a by-product. The key environmental aspect related to these entities deals with acid drainage. There is only one tailings dam at the site. It accumulates circa 2,05 x 106 tons of tailings, 85% being milled ore. The waste-rock/milled ore ratio is 60. Liquid effluents from the tailings dam are treated with lime and BaCl2. Acidification of the infiltrating waters is still of concern as a result of residual pyrite oxidation. It has been estimated that unrestricted use of the mill tailings area shall not be allowed because exposure to radon may imply in doses up to 40 mSv/year. The Caetite Unit started operation in 2000. The production has been raising, from 100 ton in 2001, up to 340 ton in 2003. It is expected that after 16 years of production 12,2 x 106 ton (6,8 x 106 m+3) of waste-rock material will be generated. This figure is approximately 10 times less than that reported for the Pocos de Caldas project. Differently from the Pocos de Caldas project, pyrite is not present in those rocks. Solid wastes from the industrial plant are composed by the leached ore piles. It is expected that 6 piles of 25.000 a 36.000 ton of ore are formed each year. The uranium liquor and washing waters present precipitated material composed by silica, suecipitated material composed by silica, sulfate, phosphate, titanium, iron and calcium besides uranium. These solids are separated from the uranium solution through filtration in activate coal filters. It can be seen that the uranium content in the leached ore represents 15% of the original ore and that the content of 226Ra is virtually the same. As result the leached ore piles may be a relevant source of 226Ra in the long term. It is expected that this scheme will reduce the fluxes of radionuclides from the piles to marginal levels without major environmental concerns After the solvent extraction uranium content in the liquor drops from 12 to 0,003 g/L. The most important aspect in the operation of the Caetite Unit is that liquid effluent emissions into the environment do not take place. One of the determining factors regarding the environmental performance of both units is the prevailing climatological condition at these sites. Rainfall rates of about 1,700 mm/year are observed at the Pocos de Caldas site. On the other hand this value drops to 800 mm/year at the Caetite site. Due to the highest rainfall rates observed at Pocos de Caldas site, an amount equivalent to US$ 3,35 million has been spent with acid drainage abatement (77% only with water treatment). Remediation plans for the Pocos de Caldas site include the, among other issues, stabilization of the uranium mill tailings dam, and abatement of acid mine drainage. In both cases it has been assessed that the application of dry covers will be the most adequate solution. Remediation costs associated with these measures are estimated to be in the range of US$ 3 to 10 million. In the case of Caetite unit ongoing closure of waste-rock piles and tailings ponds is taking place. Costs involved on these activities are not available. Although, it can be assumed that they will be much lower than those to be practiced at Pocos de Caldas site. The vulnerable aspect of the Caetite site has also to do with rainfall rates, but in an opposite direction. Since perennial water bodies are not available at the mine location, groundwater is of key relevance. Salinity of these waters poses significant difficulties for the uranium recovery operation. In addition, underground water bodies are very sensitive to pollution as they serve as water resource for local communities

119

Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

Xiang Li

2013-10-01

120

Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

 
 
 
 
121

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

122

Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5 FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5 FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59 g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

2014-07-01

123

Isotope production at department of energy sites in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) provides both stable and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many domestic and foreign research, development,and/or commercial applications. The materials and services are available through the Isotope Distribution Program established by the USDOE at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is operated by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc. The materials and services are provided on a full-cost recovery basis and are limited to those materials and services that are not commercially available. Many USDOE sites, including the ORNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL), Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), are utilized in meeting the user community needs for specific materials and/or services. Stable isotopes are provided by the ORNL through the use of the electromagnetic separation process. Distribution of enriched stable isotopes through the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program began in 1954 and presently includes a total of approximately 350 specific isotopic enichments of 50 different materials. These materials are avilable in various compound forms and specific configurations to meet a wide variety of research, development, and commercial applications. The radioisotopes provided by the varius USDOE sites (ORNL, LANL, BNL, HEDL, INEL, SRL, and ANL) are used in a multitude of applications that include basic research, remote power sources, medical applications, radiography, radiation processing, remote light sources, and neutron dosimetry. The stable and radioisotope production and/or processing capabilities at various USDOE sites and the availability of the materials and services throght the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program are described in detail. (author)

124

A study on the probabilistic production simulation with energy-limited units using mixture of cumulants approximation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new method which can effectively simulate the production simulation with energy-limited units using Mixture of Cumulants Approximation (MOCA). In this method, the deconvolution procedure of not needed in hydro unit simulation by using Energy Invariance Property. Therefore, we can reduce computational burden. The method is applied to the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) system. The test results are compared with those of Booth-Baleriaux (B-B) method. We conclude that the proposed method is characterized by a combination of high accuracy and considerably reduced computing time.(Author)

125

Exergetic analysis of a liquefied petroleum gas (L.P.G.) production unit; Analyse exergetique d`une unite de production des gaz de petrole liquifies (G.P.L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the energetic performances of an LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) production plant is analyzed using exergy balances with operating data collected on site. In the beginning, a description of the studied unit is given, then the general procedure for making energetic balances is outlined. The obtained results are used for computing energetic losses and locating the sections of the plant which are the most responsible for energy degradation. (authors) 9 refs.

Rekik, A.; Hajji, N.; Ghaieb, J.; Jeday, M.R. [Laboratoire d`Energetique et d`Ingenierie, Ecole Nationale d`Ingenieurs de Gabes (Tunisia)

1997-12-31

126

Investigation of environmental and exergetic performance for coal-preparation units in cement production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of the present study are to perform energy and exergy analyses of a coal-preparation unit in a cement plant and investigate the effect of varying dead state (ambient) temperatures on exergy efficiency. This is the first study conducted on a coal-preparation unit located in a cement plant with respect to the perspective of exergy. The consumption of exergy, the potential improvement of the unit and the effects of CO2 emission by the unit are also examined in terms of the chosen type of fuel. Based on the results of the analyses, the mean values of energy and exergy efficiencies of the unit are found to be 74.03% and 21.36%, respectively while the average potential improvement of the unit is calculated as 78.24%. The analyses demonstrate that the exergy destruction ratio affects the CO2 emission rate of the unit. Consequently, the present technique is proposed as a useful tool for purposes of developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures, especially concerning similar types of industrial processes.

127

History of the development and industrial production of low thermal emissivity coatings for high heat insulating glass units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings play a dominate role in high heat insulating multiple glass units with which an essential part of heat energy can be saved in buildings. With such coatings as the main part, and to a lesser part with low thermal conductive filling gases of the units' interspaces, their heat transmittance can be reduced from 6.0 W/m(2)? K for a single glazing--still glazed to a high degree--to 0.4 W/m(2) K for a triple insulating glass unit. This astonishing development is regarded as one of the most important innovations of the flat glass industry in the past century. The roots of low-E coatings in the 1960s, their startup for production in the 1970s, and, most important, further development steps accompanied by, and partly also codesigned actively by the author, are depicted. PMID:18449246

Gläser, Hans J

2008-05-01

128

76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased...

2011-06-13

129

Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción / Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de [...] vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from [...] the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

Edgar, Chacón; Isabel, Besembel; Dulce M, Rivero; Juan, Cardillo.

2009-04-01

130

The Unites States Department of Agriculture Regulation of Veterinary Biological Products. The use of prelicensing evaluation and postlicensing monitoring to achieve regulatory compliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Stated Department of Agriculture is responsible for regulating veterinary biological products in the United States, and the regulatory authority is provided in the Animal Virus-serum-Toxin Act of 1913. The act authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to promulgate regulations for the production, testing, and marketing of veterinary biological products into, within, or from the United States. The current regulatory program consists of extensive prelicensing review of products, labeling, facilities, and personnel and a postlicensing monitoring system of unannounced in-depth inspections, premarketing control of product batches (serials), random check testing of finished product, and postmarketing epidemiological surveillance. This combination of regulatory oversight before and after licensure assures that pure, safe, potent, and effective veterinary biologics are available for use in the United States. PMID:8890360

Hill, R E; Randall, D C

1995-12-01

131

Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

2013-01-01

132

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

133

Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy-wide impacts of the current ethanol production with a government subsidy and the LCF-to-ethanol production using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process. The model is innovative in three ways. First, a production subsidy is explicitly included in the model. Second, co-products are explicitly accounted for in ethanol production. Third, ethanol and gasoline are treated as perfect demand substitutes, as are the co-products and the manufacturing sector's output. The CGE model shows that current ethanol production expands grain crop production by creating an additional demand. In contrast, LCF-to-ethanol production has adverse impacts on grain crop production because Biomass feedstocks substitute for grain in the production of ethanol. The LCF-to-ethanol production also discourages the manufacturing industry because co-products displace a part of intermediate input demand for manufacturing outputs. It is also found that, even though ethanol production using TVA's conversion technology with MSW is economically viable, it is not favorable to the economy. Finally, the results suggest that ethanol production from Biomass feedstocks using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process is beneficial to the U.S. economy.

Choi, Youn-Sang

134

Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory) and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age) were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo) in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7%) were positive, 49 (35,3...

Mirko C.P.; Bilkei G.

2005-01-01

135

Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

136

In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISght work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur through addition of a carbon source such as acetate or molasses to augment the natural bacterial population which can induce simultaneous reduction and precipitation of uranium in solution. Bioremediation experiments are presently being conducted at U.S. Department of Energy sites in western states. Monitored natural attenuation suggest that groundwater flow that created the deposit moved from an oxidized zone through the orebody to a reduced zone. Re-establishment of ground-water flow after mining should move contaminants from the mined orebody into the reduced zone where natural processes can reduce the contaminants and remove them from the ground water. Questions: 1) Is current ground-water hydrology suitable? 2) What is the reducing capacity of the reduced zone? 3) Do kinetics of reduction reactions in the reducing zone vs. speed of ground water flow? 4) Effects of heterogeneity in mining zone and reducing zone? 5) Can all analytes of concern be attenuated? 6) Monitored attenuation- can the limited time frame preferred by operators be achieved? (author)

137

Experimental study of device reduction of toxic combustion products gas burner units boilers / ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laboratory experiments to determine the geometric parameters and the effectiveness of the neu-tralizer of toxic combustion products are conducted. / ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????.

??? ??????? ?????????, Kusch L. R.

2010-01-01

138

A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

139

Determination of the Desirable Size of Range Units through the Use of Aggregate Index of Productivity of Factors of Production, A Case Study in the Province of Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper utilization of ranges and their destruction have always constituted a major concern of policymakers and planners of the natural resource sector in Iran. In this article, an attempt has been made to use the aggregate index of productivity of factors of production and to present a suitable econometric model for determining the economically correct size of range management projects in the ranges of the province of Mazandaran and to specify factors influencing this size. In this study, the economically suitable size of pasture units was estimated to be 165 hectares, which is much smaller than the size of rangeland turned over to those engaged in range management in the province of Mazandaran. Moreover, results obtained showed that the number of livestock kept in ranges exceeds the economically desirable number. In other words, the suitable balance is not maintained between the size of the range and the number of Livestock kept on it. For this very reason an increase in the size of the range unit managed by each range manager and a reduction in the number of livestock kept on it constitute effective measures in increasing the productivity of ranges and in preventing farther destruction of rangeland, and it is recommended that. These measures are carried out meticulously.

Abed Vahedi

2011-06-01

140

The use of a thermal energy recycle unit in conjunction with a basin-type solar still for enhanced productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recently developed thermal energy recycling unit operating under forced air circulation was attached to a conventional, basin-type solar still to enhance overall still productivity. In this unit, a relatively large fraction of the latent heat of condensation of the distillate is utilized to preheat and evaporate the feedstock. The system performance was tested in the laboratory using a solar simulator. The solar still was double glazed and no condensation was observed on the inner glazing when operating in the thermal energy recycling mode. The overall system productivity was about three times that of a conventional (single-effect) basin-type solar still. The advantages of the proposed system design are the following: (i) the solar still productivity can be enhanced significantly and at a reasonable cost; (ii) non-wetting glazings (e.g. certain plastic glazings) can be utilized, since in this mode of operation the glazing does not function as a condensation surface; (iii) as a result, the thermal losses from the outer surface of the glazing to the ambient can be reduced significantly by the use of double glazings; (iv) the system is very adaptable to the utilization of an external waste energy source (e.g. wet steam or hot saturated air) for nocturnal distillation, viz. operation in the absence of solar radiation. (Author)

Aboabboud, M.M.; Horvath, L.; Szepvolgyi, J. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest (Hungary). Koezponti Kemiai Kutato Intezete; Mink, G.; Radhika, E. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand); Kudish, A.I. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Development of natural gas hydrate NGH pellet production system by bench scale unit for transportation and storage of NGH pellets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas hydrates (NGH) can be used to store and transport natural gas safely under atmospheric pressures. This paper described an NGH bench scale unit (BSU) designed as part of an NGH test plant process development unit. The BSU consisted of 3 processes: hydrate and water slurry production dehydration; and a pelletizing process in a high pressure gas environment. The paper outlined the BSU process flow and the results of tests conducted using methane gas and mixed gas as raw materials. The paper also provided details of studies conducted to optimize the gas inclusion density and decomposition rates of the pellets during storage under atmospheric conditions. The relationship between pellet density and pellet dissociation rate was examined. The production process verified by the BSU will be used to build a 5-tonne demonstration plant. It was concluded that the BSU will be used to optimize the energy efficiency of a full-scale NGH production plant that will be built within the next few years. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

Takahashi, M.; Moriya, H.; Katoh, Y.; Iwasaki, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2008-07-01

142

Motor unit activation and force production during eccentric, concentric and isometric actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present series of studies is to examine force and myoelectrical activity in human forearm flexors and knee extensors during dynamic and isometric muscle actions. The main purposes are 1) to clarify the methodological issues regarding the measurements of maximal force, EMG and EMG power spectrum in eccentric, concentric and isometric conditions, 2) to examine the motor unit activation patterns during dynamic and isometric actions by following the behavior of the EMG power spectr...

Linnamo, Vesa

2002-01-01

143

Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth: Firm-Level Evidence from the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate international technology spillovers to U.S. manufacturing firms via imports and foreign direct investment (FDI) between the years of 1987 and 1996. In contrast to earlier work, our results suggest that FDI leads to substantial productivity gains for domestic firms. The size of FDI spillovers is economically important, accounting for about 11% of productivity growth in U.S. firms between 1987 and 1996. In addition, there is some evidence for imports-related spillovers, but it is we...

Keller, Wolfgang; Yeaple, Stephen R.

2004-01-01

144

Extreme heat reduces and shifts United States premium wine production in the 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Premium wine production is limited to regions climatically conducive to growing grapes with balanced composition and varietal typicity. Three central climatic conditions are required: (i) adequate heat accumulation; (ii) low risk of severe frost damage; and (iii) the absence of extreme heat. Although wine production is possible in an extensive climatic range, the highest-quality wines require a delicate balance among these three conditions. Although historical and projected average temperatur...

White, M. A.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Jones, G. V.; Pal, J. S.; Giorgi, F.

2006-01-01

145

Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under

Paul Liu

2012-05-01

146

Heavy water production by the ammonia rectification method with heat pump. Experience of a commercial unit start-up  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facility for heavy water production by ammonia rectification method with heat pump with efficiency of 8 t/year is described. The negative scale effect-decrease in efficiency mass-exchange device of one and the same design by increase in diameter was reliably established for the first time by the plant start-up. It's hydrodynamic nature was determined and foundations of modern theory of scale transfer were laid down. Large-scale testing unit was created for the first time in Russia. 12 refs.; 9 figs

147

Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ? Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ? SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ? Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ? Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ? Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

148

Assessment of GOES imager microburst product over the southwestern United States  

CERN Document Server

A GOES-West (GOES-11) imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3, band 4, and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived microburst products. Band 3 is intended to indicate mid to upper-level moisture content and advection while band 5 indicates low-level moisture content. Large BTDs between bands 3 and 5 imply a large relative humidity gradient between the mid-troposphere and the surface, a condition favorable for strong convective downdraft generation due to evaporational cooling of precipitation in the deep sub-cloud layer. In addition, small BTDs between bands 4 and 5 indicate a relatively dry surface layer with solar heating in progress. This paper provides further assessment of the GOES imager microburst product, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2008 convective season over Arizona.

Pryor, Kenneth L

2009-01-01

149

Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

150

Production of 1-Carbon Units from Glycine Is Extensive in Healthy Men and Women12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycine undergoes decarboxylation in the glycine cleavage system (GCS) to yield CO2, NH3, and a 1-carbon unit. CO2 also can be generated from the 2-carbon of glycine by 10-formyltetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase and, after glycine-to-serine conversion by serine hydroxymethyltransferase, from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To evaluate the relative fates of glycine carbons in CO2 generation in healthy volunteers (3 male, 3 female, aged 21–26 y), primed, constant infusions were conducted using 9.2...

Lamers, Yvonne; Williamson, Jerry; Theriaque, Douglas W.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Gilbert, Lesa R.; Keeling, Christine; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

2009-01-01

151

Radon decay product removal unit as adpated for use with a lamp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radon decay product remover is described for use in a walled living enclosure having an airspace with radon decay products therein, comprising: (a) a threaded male adapter for insertion into a light bulb socket so as to connect the radon decay product remover to an A.C. electrical power supply; (b) an ion generator in the remover and coupled through the adapter to the A.C. power supply, the ion generator having an A.C. to D.C. converter, including a rectifier for rectifying the A.C. power to produce high voltage D.C. power which is coupled to an electrode for creating ions that are distributed in the airspace, resulting in an electric field gradient such that the electrical potential decreases from its maximum voltage at the electrode to essentially zero voltage at the room surfaces causing migration of ions and charged airborne radon decay products toward the boundaries of the airspace of the living enclosure where they deposit on surfaces and are thereby removed from the airspace, (c) a female socket for insertion of a light bulb, the female socket being electrically coupled to the A.C. power supply through the adapator

152

Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

2010-01-01

153

21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.  

Science.gov (United States)

...electronic product radiation safety standards contained...Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and...3) If the radiation safety specifications for...Center for Devices and Radiological Health, may grant an...the public health and safety and shall notify...

2010-04-01

154

Design and analysis of health products and services: An example at a specialized COPD unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible.In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based on the concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. This has led to the emergence of a new discipline for the design and evaluation of medical service production, known as servuction, an amalgam of "service" and "production". The organigram of a new health product should include the problems the program faces and the steps proposed to overcome these problems. The concept of evaluation can be divided into two categories: administrative evaluation, and evaluative research. Avedis Donabedian was one of the founders of evaluative research, based on an easy-to-remember triad: structure-process-results. In the final evaluation of a new health care model, the innovations it provides must be considered.In this article we describe the stages involved in the design of a new health product and correlate them with the types of evaluation that should be applied at each point in the process. Our discussion addresses general aspects of servuction, but also focuses on the design of a particular service, created to care for patients with severe COPD. PMID:19340319

Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

2008-01-01

155

A novel hydrogen production unit producing hydrogen under pressure without the use of a hydrogen compressor or asbestos membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was believed that the art of producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water was well established many years ago. It was apparently so well established that nobody had examined the process and kept it up to date. There where two drawbacks with the traditional systems that made them non-acceptable for the oil industry: the use of asbestos in the electrolysis cell partition membranes and the problem with delivering hydrogen under pressure without the use of a hydrogen compressor. For our first work with deoxygenating injection water we used a commercially available hydrogen generator, which proved to be a complete disaster. Aside from the asbestos membranes that the oil companies would not accept, the compressor proved very unreliable. A check with established suppliers showed no interest in delivering or developing a unit that could meet the stringent oil offshore requirements. This left us with the task of developing it ourselves, alone or in cooperation with other interested parties. As a result a cooperative effort was initiated between Elwatec, a German company specializing in electrolyzer cells for different purposes and Norsk Process, utilizing the cell in a complete system. The cell is described later in this paper. Referring to the P and ID, the hydrogen production unit (HPU) can conveniently be divided into 3 parts: The make up water treatment and supply system, the product separation and purifying system and the electrolysis cell.

Grimsrud, L. [Norsk Process AS, Oslo (Norway); Wenske, M. [Elwatec GmbH, Grimma (Germany)

1998-07-01

156

Comparison of ionisation chamber and semiconductor detector devices for measurement of the dose–width product for panoramic dental units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses for panoramic dental radiography are assessed in terms of the dose–width product (DWP) or dose–area product, which gives a measure of the radiation through a whole exposure. The DWP can be measured using a pencil ionisation chamber (IC) similar to that used for computed tomography dose assessment. However, ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all directions and so backscatter from the image receptor may increase the recorded dose. This study compares measurements performed using four options: a pencil IC mounted straight on the image receptor, the IC mounted with a steel plate to the rear to standardise scatter conditions, the IC mounted with a steel plate and lead collimators in front to minimise the effect of extra-focal radiation, and a Quart Dido employing a one square centimetre semiconductor detector (SD) designed for panoramic measurements. The results indicate that modification of the current method by incorporating a steel plate reduced the measurement dose by 7% on average, but the reduction was greater for units with semiconductor imaging plates. The measurements with the SD agree more closely with the IC with the steel plate to the rear. An IC with a backing plate to standardise scatter or a suitable SD is recommended for measurement on panoramic dental units. (paper)

157

Comparison of ionisation chamber and semiconductor detector devices for measurement of the dose-width product for panoramic dental units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Doses for panoramic dental radiography are assessed in terms of the dose-width product (DWP) or dose-area product, which gives a measure of the radiation through a whole exposure. The DWP can be measured using a pencil ionisation chamber (IC) similar to that used for computed tomography dose assessment. However, ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all directions and so backscatter from the image receptor may increase the recorded dose. This study compares measurements performed using four options: a pencil IC mounted straight on the image receptor, the IC mounted with a steel plate to the rear to standardise scatter conditions, the IC mounted with a steel plate and lead collimators in front to minimise the effect of extra-focal radiation, and a Quart Dido employing a one square centimetre semiconductor detector (SD) designed for panoramic measurements. The results indicate that modification of the current method by incorporating a steel plate reduced the measurement dose by 7% on average, but the reduction was greater for units with semiconductor imaging plates. The measurements with the SD agree more closely with the IC with the steel plate to the rear. An IC with a backing plate to standardise scatter or a suitable SD is recommended for measurement on panoramic dental units. PMID:23482401

Mitchell, S A; Martin, C J

2013-06-01

158

The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We re-examine the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output, as well as employment, in the United States using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach developed by Pesaran and Pesaran [Pesaran, M.H., Pesaran, B., 1997. Working with Microfit 4.0. Camfit Data Ltd, Cambridge] and Pesaran, Shin and Smith [Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., Smith, R.J., 2001. Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics 16; 289-326] In particular, we focus attention on the following energy consumption variables: coal, fossil fuels, conventional hydroelectric power, solar energy, wind energy, natural gas, wood, and waste. The sample period covers 2001:1-2005:6. Our results imply that real output and employment are long run forcing variables for nearly all measures of disaggregate energy consumption. (author)

Sari, Ramazan [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Economics, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Texas Tech Univ., Rawls College of Business, Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States); Soytas, Ugur [Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2008-09-15

159

Technical constraints limiting application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to petroleum production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the interval since the publication in September 1980 of the technical constraints that inhibit the application of enhanced oil recovery techniques in the United States, there has been a large number of successful field trials of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. The Department of Energy has shared the costs of 28 field demonstrations of EOR with industry, and the results have been made available to the public through DOE documents, symposiums and the technical literature. This report reexamines the constraints listed in 1980, evaluates the state-of-the-art and outlines the areas where more research is needed. Comparison of the 1980 constraints with the present state-of-the-art indicates that most of the constraints have remained the same; however, the constraints have become more specific. 26 references, 6 tables.

1984-01-01

160

Investigating solid waste production and associated management practices in private dental units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed. In the present work, results of this survey are presented; critical parameters and factors affecting the quantity and quality of the dental waste stream are reported together with the analysis and classification of dominant conditions and needs of the dental sector in the waste management field

 
 
 
 
161

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized...

Di Onofrio Valeria; Negrone Mario; Gallè Francesca; Bagattini Maria; Liguori Giorgio; Triassi Maria

2010-01-01

162

Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity.

Winsor, G.H.; Faletti, D.W.; DeSteese, J.G.

1980-03-01

163

The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert

2000-01-01

164

Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

Kenneth M. Casebeer

2012-05-01

165

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

Haas, Kevin

2013-09-15

166

Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

Mirko C.P.

2005-01-01

167

Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20?000 ?g L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process. The chemical composition of the inflow samples showed a very heterogenic composition and strongly varied, reflecting that large scale industrial synthesis is carried out in batches. The outflow contained mainly unspecific chlorinated educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses as well as compounds which are known as typical constituents of municipal wastewaters. PMID:24840322

Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

2014-07-01

168

Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

2014-04-01

169

Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small cold bridge effect.The measurements were carried out in 1996.

Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa HØjgaard

1997-01-01

170

An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditint is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

171

Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012.

Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.

2012-01-01

172

Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

2014-05-01

173

United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

Sean, Gillon.

174

Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short-term (2015) and mid-term (2020) scenarios could be between: 1,984 to 6,475 tons (2015) and 3,487 to 13,763 tons (2020) of neodymium; 331 to 864 tons (2015) and 587 to 1,834 tons (2020) of dysprosium; 123 to 325 tons (2015) and 219 to 687 tons (2020) of terbium; finally, zero to 871 tons (2015) and zero to 1,493 tons (2020) of praseodymium. Hybrid vehicle sales in non-U.S. countries could account for a large portion of magnetic rare earth consumption. Wind turbine and related rare earth consumption growth will also be driven by non-U.S. countries, especially developing nations like China. Despite wind turbines using bigger magnets, the sheer volume of hybrids sold and non-U.S. consumers could account for most future consumption of permanent magnets and their rare earths.

Hart, Matthew

175

Assessment of radiological problems due to natural radionuclides, in units of exploration and production of petroleum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the study of the occurrence of technologically enhanced natural radioactive material in petroleum offshore platforms of Campos Basin. The material found in drums that came from the platforms and scales from production tubes were analyzed for characterization and determination of its specific activity. There were made measurement of the dose rate in several platforms and radon concentration in onshore and offshore facilities. The results were compared with limits of the Brazilian legislation and international recommendations and actions were proposed to be implemented to assure the workers and environment protection. The results show that with the adequate actions the workers will not receive exposures above the public limits according international recommendations. (author)

176

Geoneutrino production of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, United States of America  

Science.gov (United States)

Current neutrino observatories operate underground to isolate the detector from cosmic rays and background radiation. However, background radiation from local sources has yet to be accounted for. Current models for neutrino contributions from terrestrial rocks are formulated from bulk compositional estimates of the whole Earth. To better understand local background radiation from geologic sources surfaces rocks were collected throughout the area surrounding the Homestake Mine, South Dakota, home of the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory. The surface rocks were analyzed for radioactivity and neutrino luminosity, producing heat maps indicating the levels of neutrino production throughout the area. The area around the Homestake Mine was found to be more luminous then upper crustal averages generated from current bulk silicate Earth models.

Zimny, Eric Gerald

177

A comparison of four methods for integrating 14C-primary productivity measurements per unit area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four methods were compared for the integration of 14C-primary productivity per m2; (1) the in situ method at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5m (standard depths 1); (2) the in situ method at 0, 5, 10 and 12.5m (standard depths 2); (3) the in situ method at 2.5, 7.5 and 11.5m for each sample pumped over depth intervals 0 to 5m, 5 to 10m, and 10 to 12.5m, respectively (integrated depths); and (4) the simulated in situ method for samples collected from light standard depths. The method which appeared to give the most reliable results was that (3) in which samples were averaged by pumping water over the euphotic depth followed by incubation of integrated samples at the middle of each depth interval. (author)

178

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this pu...

Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

2012-01-01

179

First production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon was the location of the first production-level bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil in the U.S. Soil from munitions washout lagoons contained high concentrations of TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) and RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine) as well as HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). In addition to these primary contaminants, laboratory tests were performed for Tetryl (Methyl-2,4,6-trinitrophenylnitramine), 4-Am-DNT (4-Amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2-Am-DNT (2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4 DNT (2,4-Dinitrotoluene), 2,6 DNT (2,6-Dinitrotoluene), 1,3,5-TNB (1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene), 1,3,-DNB (1,3-Dinitrobenzene) and NB (Nitrobenzene) during the pilot-scale treatability tests. The clean-up goal established by the Record of Decision (ROD) was 30 mg/kg each for TNT and RDX. Degradation progress was monitored using immunoassay field screening Methods SW 846,4050 and 4051. Confirmational analysis consisted of EPA Method 8330. Treatment time on a 2,700 cubic yard batch (810 cubic yards of soil) was 10-12 days. A composting technique developed by the Army Environmental Center and implemented by Bioremediation Service, Inc., Portland, Oregon was used at the site. Agricultural waste products (or amendments including cow manure, chicken manure, potato waste, sawdust and alfalfa) were blended with the contaminated soil during treatment. Specialized soil turning equipment mixed the compost for optimum biological action and homogeneity. Homogeneity of the compost mix ensured rapid degradation of all contaminants. Physical and chemical properties were closely monitored to ensure that thermophilic bacteria played a dominant role in the degradation process. Nearly 5,000 cubic yards of soil have been successfully treated, and more than 70% of all analyses indicate non-detectable levels of both TNT and RDX. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that over $2.6 million is being saved using bioremediation at Umatilla. PMID:9472327

Emery, D D; Faessler, P C

1997-11-21

180

Site Specific Nematode Management—Development and Success in Cotton Production in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton.

Overstreet, C.; McGawley, E. C.; Khalilian, A.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Monfort, W. S.; Henderson, W.; Mueller, J. D.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Site specific nematode management-development and success in cotton production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton. PMID:25580023

Overstreet, C; McGawley, E C; Khalilian, A; Kirkpatrick, T L; Monfort, W S; Henderson, W; Mueller, J D

2014-12-01

182

Site Specific Nematode Management—Development and Success in Cotton Production in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton. PMID:25580023

Overstreet, C.; McGawley, E. C.; Khalilian, A.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Monfort, W. S.; Henderson, W.; Mueller, J. D.

2014-01-01

183

Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

None

1996-02-01

184

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

185

Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

186

Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

187

Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

188

Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

Vesela Veleva

2009-02-01

189

75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...friction management products and Shipping Systems Division (``SSD'') products, are not being divested. These products are...equipment or inputs. For example, the friction management and SSD products are merely assembled at Huntington from...

2010-12-20

190

Use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate–containing medical products and urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care unit infants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in medical products made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and may be toxic to humans. DEHP is lipophilic and binds non-covalently to PVC, allowing it to leach from these products. Medical devices containing DEHP are used extensively in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Among neonates in NICUs, we studied exposure to DEHP-containing medical devices in relation to urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), ...

Green, Ronald; Calafat, Antonia M.; Schettler, Ted; Huttner, Kenneth; Hu, Howard; Hauser, Russ B.; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Ringer, Steven Alan

2005-01-01

191

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

192

Osmium Isotope Constraints on the Timing of Production and Destruction of Mantle Lithosphere in the Southwest United States  

Science.gov (United States)

When convecting mantle melts, the residual peridotite becomes less dense and may be become stabilized as lithosphere. The Re-Os isotope chronometer has been successfully applied to determining the timing of melt extraction in mantle peridotite. In continental regions where multiple mantle xenolith locales are present, the Re-Os chronometer can be applied to assessing the timing of mantle melting in relation to juvenile continental crust production, stabilization, and destruction of mantle lithosphere. This is evaluated here for the off-craton mantle lithosphere in the Southwest United States by examining 5 mantle xenolith suites from locales spanning a region hundreds of kilometers north to south and east to west - Dish Hill, California; Lunar Crater Nevada; Grand Canyon and San Carlos, Arizona; and Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico. Because Re is mobile in mantle peridotites at surface conditions, direct Re-Os isochrons representing mantle melting ages are typically absent. Instead melting proxies for Re such as Al2O3 can be used to obtain ';aluminachron' ages or to assess disturbances of the mantle lithosphere following partial melting. The Dish Hill, Grand Canyon, and Kilbourne Hole suites display lithophile element evidence for post-melting, multiple modal and cryptic metasomatic events in combination with positive and well correlated Os isotope versus Al2O3 trends. For example, each of these xenolith suites has samples with light rare earth element (LREE) depleted to LREE-enriched bulk rock and clinopyroxene compositions. However, no correlation exists between LREE differences and their Os isotope, bulk rock Al compositions, or other indices of melt-rock interaction. The Os-aluminachron age obtained for Dish Hill is 2.15 Ga, for Grand Canyon is 2.31 Ga, and for Kilbourne Hole is 1.96 Ga. These ages overlap TDM ages for the overlying crustal provinces confirming a link between melting that creates mantle lithosphere and production of juvenile continental crust. A second aluminacrhon is present in a distinct group of Dish Hill samples with an age of 1.4 Ga, indicating a later melting event and possible creation of mantle lithosphere. Two of the sample suites, San Carlos and Lunar Crater, show no correlations between Os isotopes and melt depletion indices. The lowest Os isotope value in the San Carlos suite is 0.1206, giving a minimum melt depletion age of 1.23 Ga, and for the Lunar Crater suite is 0.1191, giving a minimum melt depletion age of 1.4 Ga, significantly younger than their respective overlying crustal provinces, but are similar to the age obtained for the younger suite of Dish Hill samples. Both locales fall within the Basin and Range extensional province with its associated present-day mantle upwelling. These Os isotope systematics and younger ages than the ca. 2 to 2.3 Ga melt depletion ages of the 3 other locales may indicate that lithospheric mantle was removed in some portions of the Basin and Range and replaced with younger partially melted mantle. The extent and the mechanisms of mantle lithosphere production and removal within the Southwest United States can be further examined with Os isotopes from additional mantle xenolith locales spanning a wide spatial distribution within the Basin and Range province.

Brandon, A. D.

2013-12-01

193

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

2010-04-15

194

9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...poultry and processing of poultry products, by the assignment of inspectors...adulterated or misbranded poultry products are not processed for export...certified establishments and for sanitary handling of poultry products; (G) Official...

2010-01-01

195

9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...slaughtering and preparation of product, by the assignment of inspectors...that adulterated or misbranded product is not prepared for export to...certified establishments and for sanitary handling of product; (G) Official controls...

2010-01-01

196

Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

2009-01-01

197

Improvements in titer, productivity, and yield using Solka-floc for cellulase production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers studying cellulase enzymes for the economical production of fuel ethanol envision cellulose as the carbon source. However, submerged Trichoderma reesei cultures grown on cellulose exhibit high run-to-run variability. Thus, an investigation of 30 batch cellulase production experiments was instrumental in determining fermentation conditions that improved enzyme titers, yields, and productivities. Eighteen of the 30 batch experiments experienced minimal process upsets and were classified into eight groups based on agitation rate, gas sparge rate, and the use of oxygen supplementation. Comparing corn steep liquor with yeast extract/peptone also tested the effect of different sources of nitrogen in the media. Average 7-d enzyme titers were doubled from 4 to 8 FPU/mL primarily by increasing aeration. PMID:10849843

Hayward, T K; Hamilton, J; Tholudur, A; McMillan, J D

2000-01-01

198

The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting. PMID:23000415

Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

2012-12-01

199

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m?2 bar?1. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ? Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ? Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ? Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ? Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commto those obtained with commercial pepsin. ? The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

200

The high-efficient regenerative cycle of a gas turbine unit with recirculation of combustion products at high pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

The circuit of a stationary gas turbine unit is proposed using which it is possible to obtain the thermodynamic advantages of a regenerative cycle with a small compression ratio as a result of setting up a partially closed loop (with a small compression ratio) and high absolute values of pressure at the inlet to and outlet from the circulation loop compressor.

Khodus, V. V.

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

202

Acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water of the United States, 1993-2003  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies, approximately 5,100 water samples were collected and analyzed for the acetamide parent herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, and metolachlor and their degradation products ethanesulfonic acid, oxanilic acid, and sulfinyl acetic acid. During this period, various analytical methods were developed to detect and measure concentrations of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water. Results showed that the degradation products of acetamide herbicides in ground water were detected more frequently and occurred at higher concentrations than their parent compounds. Further study showed that the acetamide herbicides and their degradation products were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. In general, the parent compounds were detected at similar or greater frequencies than the degradation products in surface water. The developed methods and data were valuable for acquiring information about the occurrence, fate, and transport of the herbicides and their degradation products and the importance of analyzing for both parent compounds and their degradate products in water-quality studies.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, Michael

2004-01-01

203

A comparison of individual annual doses for unit releases of activation products over a period of 50 years into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-site individual annual doses to the public from unit releases over a period of 50 years of activation products from a planned fusion reactor into the aquatic environment are assessed within the framework of the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP). A comparison is made for two different site options: a large inland lake-river water system and a seashore-sited brackish water system. Continuous unit releases (1 Bq/year for 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, which gives the annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) integrated over 50 years. The results of this study show that individual annual doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides into the lake-river water system become 1.3-60 times smaller than the doses obtained for the brackish water system. The Niobium isotopes, however, give a 2.5-4.8 higher dose. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the dilution in the lake-river water system chosen here is higher than in the brackish water system. Another reason is that the bioaccumulation factor for a nuclide can vary considerably between fresh water and marine water. If collective doses were to be compared, the result could be completely different since many more people are exposed to the activity if it is released into an inland lake-river system. (orig.)

204

Determination of the Desirable Size of Range Units through the Use of Aggregate Index of Productivity of Factors of Production, A Case Study in the Province of Mazandaran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Improper utilization of ranges and their destruction have always constituted a major concern of policymakers and planners of the natural resource sector in Iran. In this article, an attempt has been made to use the aggregate index of productivity of factors of production and to present a suitable econometric model for determining the economically correct size of range management projects in the ranges of the province of Mazandaran and to specify factors influencing this size. In this study...

Abed Vahedi; Sadegh Khalilian; Esmaeil Yasari

2011-01-01

205

Modelling Ozonation Processes for Disinfection By-Product Control in Potable Water Treatment: From Laboratory to Industrial Units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Facing major challenges, management of ozonation process will increasingly need prediction tools based on modelling. Dealing with different types of waters (chemistry) and different types of tanks (hydraulics), modelling of ozonation units has to adapt to site-specific conditions. The main objective of this work was to develop an integrated modelling procedure for industrial ozonation processes for predicting concentration profiles of: ozone, bromate and specific micropollutants. Two types of...

Mandel, Pierre

2010-01-01

206

Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was to evaluate the use of the social media site Facebook in recruitment. In this cross-sectional study, 145 English-speaking adult patients and caregivers of children with haemophilia A were recruited through two state-based haemophilia organizations in the United States (US) and one national organization in Canada for a web-based survey assessing demographics and FVIII product ordering, usage, and storage practices. Of the 101 individuals who completed the survey, 60% resided in Canada; 57% were recruited through Facebook. Caregivers and patients responded similarly to questions about ordering practices and product usage, with some distinction between groups in storage practices. Two-thirds of participants noted challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population. PMID:24870350

DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R

2014-07-01

207

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN-PROCESS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS QUALITY CONTROL TESTS OF INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA, BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA & UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA FOR CAPSULES AND LIQUID ORALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study deals with a brief overview of the comparative study of quality requirements for in-process and finished products quality control Tests of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP, British Pharmacopeia (BP & United States Pharmacopeia (USP for some conventional dosage forms. The concept of total quality control test refers to the process of striving to produce a quality product by a series of measures, requiring an organized effort in order to eliminate errors at every stage in the production. In process product testing is done in order to check the conformance of the final product with the compendial standards as specified in the pharmacopoeias. As the final sample taken for the finished product testing is only a representative of a large batch, a significant difference still remains. The pharmacopoeias have laid down the specified limits within which the value should fall in order to be compliant as per the standards. The official pharmacopoeias in different parts of the world specify the quality requirements for pharmaceutical products. However the parameters and standards differ to some extent from each other. Hence an attempt is being made to compare and bring out the harmonized limits within which a product should fall in order to meet the pharmacopoeial specifications that satisfy quality requirements for many regions. The main aim is to study the quality control tests for capsules and liquid orals and to list down the similarities and differences as per various Pharmacopoeias. The parameters examined for capsules and liquid orals dosage forms as per the Pharmacopoeias were compared and certain similarities and differences were observed. It was noted that except for a few parameters, the quality control tests were broadly similar.

Teja CH

2011-09-01

208

Ethanol production from sunflower meal biomass by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lignocellulosic materials are considered promising renewable resources for ethanol production, but improvements in the processes should be studied to reduce operating costs. Thus, the appropriate enzyme loading for cellulose saccharification is critical for process economics. This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of cellulase and ?-glucosidase in the production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sunflower meal biomass. The sunflower biomass was pretreated with 6% H2SO4 (w/v), at 121 °C, for 20 min, for hemicellulose removal and delignificated with 1% NaOH. SSF was performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907, at 38 °C, 150 rpm, for 72 h, with different enzyme concentrations (Cellulase Complex NS22086-10, 15 and 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-Glucosidase NS22118, with a cellulase to ?-glucosidase ratio of 1.5:1; 2:1 and 3:1). The best condition for ethanol production was cellulase 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-glucosidase 13.3 CBU/gsubstrate, resulting in 27.88 g/L ethanol, yield of 0.47 g/g and productivity of 0.38 g/L h. Under this condition the highest enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose was attained (87.06%). PMID:24794173

Camargo, Danielle; Gomes, Simone D; Sene, Luciane

2014-11-01

209

A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research would guide the additional parameter refinement required for the MOD16 and SSEBop algorithms in order to further improve their accuracy and performance for agro-hydrologic applications.

Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

2013-01-01

210

Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere).

Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

211

EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON ON THE BODY WEIGHT, SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND LIBIDO IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS MAINTAINED AT THE SEMEN PRODUCTION UNIT, QADIRARAD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to investigate effects of age and season on body weight, scrotal circumference and libido in 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad. Depending on age, these bulls were divided into three equal groups viz. young (3-4 years of age), adult (5-8 years of age) and old (12-15 years of age). Body weight and scrotal measurements were made at monthly intervals while libido of each bull was assessed weekly during the low (May to July) and the ...

M Younis, H. A. Samad

2003-01-01

212

Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-11-01

213

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

2012-05-01

214

Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2013-01-01

215

The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

2009-02-01

216

Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

2014-03-15

217

Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion--that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories--is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

2014-08-19

218

Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (?-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (?-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ?-6/?-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ?-6 fatty acids and 62% more ?-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ?-6/?-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ?-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--?-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ?-6/?-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ?-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ?-6/?-3 ratio among adult women by ?80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ?-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ? "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more ?-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ?-6/?-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and chronic health problems. PMID:24349282

Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

2013-01-01

219

Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

2009-06-01

220

The use of the United States FDA programs as a strategy to advance the development of drug products for neglected tropical diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infections which are endemic in poor populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Approximately one billion people have now or are at risk of getting an NTD and yet less than 5% of research dollars are focused on providing treatments and prevention of these highly debilitating and deadly conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orphan Drug Designation program (ODDP) provides orphan status to drugs and biologics, defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases and/or disorders that affect fewer than 200 000 people in the United States, or that affect more than 200 000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. These regulations have led to the translation of rare disease knowledge into innovative rare disease therapies. The FDA Guidance for Industry on developing drugs for the treatment and prevention of NTDs describes the following regulatory strategies: Orphan Product Designation, Fast Track Designation, Priority Review Designation, Accelerated Approval and Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher. This paper will discuss how these regulations and especially the ODDP can improve the clinical development and accessibility of drug products for NTDs. PMID:24512098

Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Conway, Jocelyn; Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Wasan, Kishor M

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornados, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-12-01

222

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Graham, William D.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-01-01

223

United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Defense (DoD)-United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shelf-life extension program (SLEP) was established in 1986 through an intra-agency agreement between the DoD and the FDA to extend the shelf life of product nearing expiry. During the early stages of development, special attention was paid to program operation, labeling requirements, and the cost benefits associated with this program. In addition to the substantial cost benefits, the program also provides the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research with significant scientific understanding and pharmaceutical resource. As a result of this unique resource, numerous regulatory research opportunities to improve public health present themselves from this distinctive scientific database, which includes examples of products shelf life, their long-term stability issues, and various physical and chemical tests to identify such failures. The database also serves as a scientific resource for mechanistic understanding and identification of test failures leading to the development of new formulations or more robust packaging. It has been recognized that SLEP is very important in maintaining both national security and public welfare by confirming that the stockpiled pharmaceutical products meet quality standards after the "expiration date" assigned by the sponsor. SLEP research is an example of regulatory science that is needed to best ensure product performance past the original shelf life. The objective of this article is to provide a brief history and background and most importantly the public health benefits of the SLEP. PMID:24623105

Khan, Saeed R; Kona, Ravikanth; Faustino, Patrick J; Gupta, Abhay; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Khan, Mansoor

2014-05-01

224

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged increases in public investment spending on economic and social infrastructure have a positive and significant effect on the rate of labor productivity growth. In addition, the model is estimated for a shorter period (1970-2010 to capture the impact of inward FDI flows. The estimates suggest that (lagged inward FDI flows have a positive and significant impact on labor productivity growth, while increases in the labor force have a negative effect. From a policy standpoint, the findings call into question the politically expedient policy in many Latin American countries, including Argentina during the 1990s and early 2000s, of disproportionately reducing public capital expenditures to meet reducetions in the fiscal deficit as a proportion of GDP. The results give further support to progrowth policies designed to promote public investment spending and attract inward FDI flows.

Miguel D. Ramirez

2012-10-01

225

The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good; Les Etats-Unis et la securite petroliere mondiale. Politique petroliere americaine et production d'un bien collectif global  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

Noel, P

2004-07-15

226

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

227

Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

228

The Botulism Hazard in the Proposed Use of Irradiation of Fish and Fishery Products in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proposals to treat packaged fish with pasteurizing doses of radiation, and the potential health hazards of this process are described. It is proposed to introduce irradiation into an existing processing and distribution chain for retail packs of chilled fish. The Codes of Practice at present in use provide an adequate safeguard against possible health hazards, primarily by the control of temperature, and limit the storage time to about half the potential shelf life of the fish. Irradiation of these products with 0.3 Mrad will result in a considerable extension of storage life whilst maintaining the same high quality of the product. It is concluded that whilst Clostridium botulinum types E, F and non-proteolytic B could be present in the raw material, no particular health hazard exists unless gross malpractice occurs, especially in relation to the temperature of storage. (author)

229

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse wood...

Homyack, Jessica A.; Kroll, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

230

The effects of growth phase and light intensity on toxin production by Dinophysis acuminata from the northeastern United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many years, the study of toxic Dinophysis species was primarily restricted to field populations until it was recently demonstrated that some of these organisms can be mixotrophically cultured in the laboratory with the ciliate prey, Myrionecta rubra. which had previously been fed with cryptophytes of the genus Teleaulax and Geminigera. Here we investigated the influence of growth phase and light intensity on the production of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (...

Tong, M.; Kulis, D. M.; Fux, E.; Smith, J. L.; Hess, P.; Zhou, Q.; Anderson, D. M.

2011-01-01

231

Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Livestock-based food production is an important and pervasive way humans impact the environment. It causes about one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is the key land user and source of water pollution by nutrient overabundance. It also competes with biodiversity, and promotes species extinctions. Empowering consumers to make choices that mitigate some of these impacts through devising and disseminating numerically sound information is thus a key socioenvironmental priority. Unfor...

Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

2014-01-01

232

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

233

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to gain access to this market it is important to understand the distribution system used for fresh produce in the United States.Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cad

Francis X Mangan

2008-03-01

234

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09

235

Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

2009-11-15

236

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml?1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l?1) and glutamate (3.6 g l?1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml?1) were also much greater (8–150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

237

Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (?2, ?1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), ?-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

238

Optimization of Ethanol Production from Microfluidized Wheat Straw by Response Surface Methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the wheat straw was pretreated with a microfluidizer to improve its enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields. The pretreatment was performed at various pressures (500, 1000 and 1500 bar) and solid loadings (1, 2 and 3%). The microfluidized biomass was then subjected to hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) experiments at different enzyme loadings (5, 10 and 15 FPU/ g dry wheat straw) using a mutant yeast. The results indicated that microfluidization method alters the structure of biomass and leads to reduction in lignin content. The samples pretreated at 1% solid loading contained the minimum lignin concentration and provided the maximum sugar and ethanol yields. These results signified that the microfluidization method is more effective on biomass at low solid loadings. The process conditions were optimized for higher ethanol and sugar yields using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum pressure, solid and enzyme loadings were found as 1500 bar, 1%, and 15 FPU/ g dry wheat straw, respectively. The yields obtained at this condition were 82%, 94% and 65% for glucose, xylose and ethanol, respectively. High sugar yields implied that microfluidization is an effective pretreatment method for cellulosic ethanol production. On the other hand, low ethanol yield may indicate that the microorganism was sensitive to inhibitory compounds present in the fermentation medium. PMID:25181638

Turhan, Ozge; Isci, Asli; Mert, Behic; Sakiyan, Ozge; Donmez, Sedat

2014-09-01

239

Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse by enzymatic hydrolysis after autohydrolysis and mechanical refining.  

Science.gov (United States)

The autohydrolysis process has been considered a simple, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for generation of sugars from biomass. In order to improve accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis as well as to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate, the sugarcane bagasse was pretreated using autohydrolysis followed by a mechanical refining process. The autohydrolysis was carried out in three different conditions. Autohydrolysis at 190°C for 10min provided the highest overall sugar (19.2/100g raw bagasse) in prehydrolyzate. The enzymatic hydrolysis step was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 5 and 10FPU/g for 96h. A total of 84.4% of sugar can be recovered from sugarcane bagasse at 180°C for 20min with 5 FPU/g enzyme charge. The economic analysis for the proposed method showed that the bioethanol production can have a financial return larger than 12%. PMID:25590426

Batalha, Larisse Aparecida Ribas; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Borges Gomes, Fernando José

2015-03-01

240

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

Laura Del Coco

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Economic and environmental transportation effects of large-scale ethanol production and distribution in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of current and planned 2007 U.S. ethanol production capacity is 50 billion L/yr, one-third of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) target of 136 billion L of biofuels by 2022. In this study, we evaluate transportation impacts and infrastructure requirements for the use of E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) in light-duty vehicles using a combination of corn and cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol distribution is modeled using a linear optimization model. Estimated average delivered ethanol costs, in 2005 dollars, range from $0.29 to $0.62 per liter ($1.3-2.8 per gallon), depending on transportation distance and mode. Emissions from ethanol transport estimated in this work are up to 2 times those in previous ethanol LCA studies and thus lead to larger total life cycle effects. Long-distance transport of ethanol to the end user can negate ethanol's potential economic and environmental benefits relative to gasoline. To reduce costs, we recommend regional concentration of E85 blends for future ethanol production and use. PMID:19452867

Wakeley, Heather L; Hendrickson, Chris T; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

2009-04-01

242

Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

Morales, D

2006-07-15

243

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2014-02-21

244

Methane production, oxidation and emission in United Kingdom peatlands and the effect of anions from acid rain  

Science.gov (United States)

The production, oxidation and emission of methane in UK peatlands was investigated. The main field study site was Ellergower Moss, Dumfriesshire where the peat was characterised by hollows (water-filled depressions) and hummocks (raised vegetative areas). The pathways of carbon flow in peat under hummocks and hollows were determined and compared on a seasonal basis. Methane emissions were significantly greater from hollows than hummocks (0.88 mols and 0.07 mols CH4 m-2 y-1 respectively). Methane emission rates varied seasonally e.g. for hollows were 0.04 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for January and 2.3 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for June. Methane emissions were modulated by biological methane oxidation by 0% of methane produced in the winter months, increasing during spring until 97% of methane produced was oxidised in the summer months. Both methane oxidation and methanogenesis were strongly temperature dependant with Q10 values of 2.2 and 16, respectively. Rates of methane oxidation potential (MOP) were greatest between 4-8 cm depths below the level of the water table, and were located above the most active zone of methanogenesis (8-16 cm depths below the water table levels). This enabled vertically diffusing methane to be utilised by methanotrophic bacteria, providing a very efficient filter for methane. Methanogenesis was limited by hydrogen availability in the peat, but not by acetate, suggesting that methane was produced by hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria (MB), rather than acetate utilising MB. Acid rain pollutants were found to significantly affect carbon flow, with sulphate deposition causing a seasonal inhibition in methanogenesis. Carbon flow predominated through sulphate reduction in the winter and spring months (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio was 1008 and 189, for hummocks and hollows respectively) when sulphate was freely available and when temperatures were low. During the summer when temperatures increased and sulphate became limited carbon flow through methanogenesis predominated (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio 0.39 and 0.07, for hummocks and hollows respectively). The examination of two other peatlands-Great Dun Fell and Caithness which received higher and lower sulphate loadings than Ellergower respectively, did not show a consistent effect of sulphate inhibition on methanogenesis. The methane oxidation kinetics were used in a mathematical model to examine the effect of plant roots on increasing the vertical transport rate of methane out, and oxygen into the peat, by gas phase transport through the roots. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Watson, Andrea

245

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Using survey data from the US consumers this study finds that mandatory labeling for hormone (bST induced milk would increase the economic benefit to the society raising the consumer and producer surpluses and provides the right to choose in the hands of the consumers. 

Kalyan (Kal Chakraborty

2011-04-01

246

A practical aryl unit for azlactone dynamic kinetic resolution: orthogonally protected products and a ligation-inspired coupling process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first strategy for bringing about enantioselective azlactone dynamic kinetic resolution to generate orthogonally protected amino acids has been developed. In the presence of a C2 -symmetric squaramide-based catalyst, benzyl alcohol reacts with novel yet readily prepared tetrachloroisopropoxycarbonyl-substituted azlactones to generate trapped phthalimide products of significant synthetic interest with excellent enantiocontrol. These materials are masked amino acids which are demonstrably orthogonally protected: cleavage of the phthalimide can be achieved in the presence of the ester and vice versa. This process could be utilized to bring about a highly stereoselective ligation-type coupling of protected serines (at stoichiometric loadings) with racemic azlactones derived from both natural and abiotic amino acids. After deprotection, a subsequent base-mediated O?N acyl transfer occurs to form a dipeptide. PMID:25425156

Tallon, Sean; Manoni, Francesco; Connon, Stephen J

2015-01-12

247

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables

248

The ASTER Data System: An Overview of the Data Products in Japan and in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data system is a cooperative system, which is operated jointly by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) through its Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC), and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) primarily through its Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). ASTER is a moderate-resolution land remote sensing system onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft. ASTER-acquired data are received at the White Sands, New Mexico, ground receiving station, and then transmitted via land network to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) within the Goddard DAAC, located at the GSFC. EDOS pre-processes raw ASTER data to Level-0 (L0) data, and sends them via the high-speed Asia-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN) to the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) in Japan. ASTER GDS processes the L0 data to level-1 (L1) datasets; they distribute these data to users, and also use them to generate higher-level products for their user community. ASTER GDS sends a copy of all L1A data they produce to NASA's LP DAAC, located at the U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. All L1 data received from Japan are ingested, archived, and available for users at LP DAAC. The LP DAAC also generates and distributes higher-level products from L1 data based on requests from users. To meet time-critical needs related to sensor health and performance, natural disasters, national emergencies, and certain field campaigns, the ASTER Expedited Data System (EDS) was developed, and is operated jointly by U.S. and Japanese partners.

Watanabe, Hiroshi; Bailey, Bryan; Duda, Kenneth; Kannari, Yoshiaki; Miura, Akira; Ramachandran, Bhaskar

249

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

250

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

251

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

NONE

1995-05-01

252

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

1994-09-01

253

Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

254

A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

2010-03-01

255

Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) whiof fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

256

Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

2012-01-01

257

Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

258

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

Jessica A. Homyack

2014-11-01

259

Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

260

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

262

Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

Mostahsine S.

2012-09-01

263

Influence of the technological know-how of producers on the biochemical characteristics of red sorghum malt from small scale production units in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of red sorghum malt production was monitored three times in five production units (PU) selected upon their ability to produce malt flours having a high capacity to fluidify high-energy-density gruels. Raw, germinated and degermed seeds were analysed for macronutrient, soluble sugars, phytate and cyanide contents and alpha-amylase activity. Know-how differences between producers lay mainly in the duration and type of equipment used for steeping and germination. Moreover, three PUs applied a maturation step before sun-drying and one PU added ashes to steeped seeds before germination. No significant difference was detected in the proximate composition of malts from the five PUs. For all PUs, traditional malting increased the protein content and decreased the lipid and ash contents, while the fibre content was not affected. Significant increases in sugar contents and in alpha-amylase activity were observed but in variable proportions from one PU to another. The phytate content decreased significantly in all PUs. The cyanide content increased in all PUs but more drastically or less drastically according to the PU. Finally, degerming lowered the cyanide content to an acceptable level for human consumption. The between-PU variability may be due either to the nature and origin of the raw seeds or to technological know-how differences between producers. Further investigations are needed to optimize and standardize the malting process with a view to maximizing alpha-amylase and phytase activities and minimizing the variability of their biochemical characteristics. PMID:17415957

Traore, Tahirou; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Traoré, Alfred S; Trèche, Serge

2007-02-01

264

Microbiological evaluation of a range of disinfectant products to control mixed-species biofilm contamination in a laboratory model of a dental unit water system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible biofilms were developed in the model over 14 days; decontamination was assessed using total viable counts (TVC) and microscopic-image analysis techniques to view the inner surface of tubing. Flushing did not reduce the biofilm coverage or TVC. Combizyme and ozone did not completely eliminate the viable bacteria (70 and 65% reduction in biofilm TVC, respectively), nor did they remove the biofilm (45 and 57% reduction in biofilm coverage, respectively). Chlorhexidine and Bio2000 (active agent: ethanol and chlorhexidine), Tegodor and Gigasept Rapid (aldehyde based), and Grotanol (hydroxide based) completely eliminated the TVC but did not completely remove biofilm (31, 53 33, 34, and 64.9% reduction of biofilm coverage, respectively). Other products including Grotanol Flussig (phenol based), Betadine (povidone-iodine based), Alpron (chlorite based), and the hydroxide-containing products Sporklenz, Sterilex Ultra, Dialox, Sterilox, Sanosil, Oxigenal, and Grotanat Bohrerbad resulted in a 100% reduction in the biofilm TVC and a >95% reduction in biofilm coverage. The study demonstrated that while many disinfectants achieve a sufficient reduction in TVC they may not necessarily remove unwanted biofilm from the tubing surfaces as tested in this laboratory-controlled biofilm model. PMID:12788733

Walker, J T; Bradshaw, D J; Fulford, M R; Marsh, P D

2003-06-01

265

Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

2014-05-06

266

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part I: Composition and hydration of the clinkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, low SO3 and P2m', high SO3). The chemical composition of the clinkers was determined by X-ray fluorescence, ICP analysis, titration (free lime) and ion selective electrode measurements (F). Observed clinker parameters (LSF, SR, AR, R, wt.% MgO, F, SO3, free lime): P1 (0.96, 2.72, 1.27, 1.04, 0.78, 0.06, 0.64, 0.71); P1m (1.03, 2.21, 1.58, 2.18, 0.87, 0.23, 1.95, 0.69); P2 (1.00, 2.66, 1.72, 0.75, 4.06, 0.20, 1.38, 1.51); P2m (1.01, 2.91, 1.96, 0.90, 3.21, 0.39, 1.72, 2.06); P2m' (0.97, 2.70, 1.84, 1.15, 3.86, 0.42, 2.48, 0.89). The qualitative and quantitative phase compositions were characterised using X-ray powder diffraction, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping, plus optical reflection microscopy. Phases observed in all clinkers were: alite, ?-belite, cubic aluminate, ferrite and free lime. Additional phases observed were: aphthitalite (P1, P2, P2m, P2m'), calcium langbeinite (P1m) and periclase (P2, P2m, P2m'). The clinker composition and texture differ more between the two plants, than between ordinary and mineralised clinker from the same production unit. Laboratory cements were prepared by mixing ground clinker with CaSO4·2H2O. The cements were hydrated in an isothermal calorimeter at 20 deg. C (water/cement weight ratio=0.5) during 33 h. After 12 h, the laboratory cement based on P1m reached a higher level of reaction than the one based on P1. The P2m and P2m' laboratory cements had a slower reaction than the P2 cement

267

Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from 'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

NONE

2005-03-15

268

Widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type UV light filters in personal care products from China and the United States: an assessment of human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a sunscreen agent used in a variety of personal care products (PCPs) for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Concerns have been raised over exposure of humans to BP-3, owing to the estrogenic potential of this compound. Nevertheless, the levels and profiles of BP-3 in PCPs and sources of exposure of humans to this estrogenic compound are not well-known. In this study, concentrations of BP-3 were determined in seven categories of 231 PCPs collected from several cities in China (n = 117) and the United States (U.S.) (n = 114), using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BP-3 was found in the majority (81%) of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 0.148%. The highest BP-3 concentrations (geometric mean [GM]: 548; median: 530 ng/g) were found in skin lotions (including sunscreen lotions), followed by makeup products (284; 221 ng/g). PCPs collected from the U.S. contained higher concentrations of BP-3 than those collected from China. On the basis of the concentrations measured and daily usage rates of PCPs, we estimated the daily intake of BP-3 through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs. The GM and 95th percentile exposure doses to BP-3 were 0.978 and 25.5 ?g/day, respectively, for adult women in China, which were 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found for adult women in the U.S. (24.4 and 5160 ?g/day). Skin lotions and face creams contributed to the preponderance of daily BP-3 exposures (>80%). PMID:24588714

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-04-01

269

Grau de acabamento e unidades equivalentes de produção: uma abordagem conceitual e empírica / Finishing level and equivalent production units: an empirical and conceptual approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objeto de estudo o problema da determinação do grau de acabamento utilizado no processo de cálculo das unidades equivalentes de produção no sistema de custeio por processo contínuo. Foi estabelecida a hipótese que a teoria da contabilidade de custos não oferece uma solução objet [...] iva para o cálculo do grau de acabamento e, dessa forma, as empresas não adotam os conceitos teóricos fundamentais definidos pela teoria, no que diz respeito à valorização do estoque de produtos em processo e valorização dos produtos acabados em indústriais de produção contínua A revisão da literatura, considerando-se um grupo de obras de autores clássicos da contabilidade de custos, constatou que não existe indicação objetiva da forma de cálculo do grau de acabamento. Este trabalho apresenta um método para cálculo do grau de acabamento e um estudo exploratório desenvolvido com a finalidade de se obter um conhecimento pragmático sobre a realidade das empresas quanto ao tema em questão. As pesquisas bibliográfica e empírica indicam a validade da hipótese estabelecida. Abstract in english This paper focuses on how to determine the finishing level used in calculating the equivalent production units in the continuous process costing system. The hypothesis was established that cost accounting theory does not offer an objective solution for the calculation of the finishing level and, con [...] sequently, enterprises do not adopt the fundamental theoretical concepts about the inventory evaluation of goods in process and finished goods in continuous production industries. A collection of classic cost accounting works was revised¹ , which revealed that there does not exist any objective indication about how to measure the finishing level. In this paper, a method for finishing level measurement is presented and an exploratory study is developed, which aims at obtaining practical knowledge about the reality of the enterprises in relation to the subject discussed in this paper. The bibliographical and empirical researches indicate the validity of the hypothesis established.

Reinaldo, Guerreiro; Edgard Bruno, Cornachione Jr; Armando, Catelli.

2000-12-01

270

Ethanol production from oil palm trunks treated with aqueous ammonia and cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm trunks are a possible lignocellulosic source for ethanol production. Low enzymatic digestibility of this type of material (11.9% of the theoretical glucose yield) makes pretreatment necessary. An enzymatic digestibility of 95.4% with insoluble solids recovery of 49.8% was achieved after soaking shredded oil palm trunks in ammonia under optimum conditions (80°C, 1:12 solid-to-liquid ratio, 8h and 7% (w/w) ammonia solution). Treatment with 60 FPU of commercial cellulase (Accellerase 1000) per gram of glucan and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D(5)A resulted in an ethanol concentration of 13.3g/L and an ethanol yield of 78.3% (based on the theoretical maximum) after 96 h. These results indicate that oil palm trunks are a biomass feedstock that can be used for bioethanol production. PMID:21616661

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Jae Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-08-01

271

EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON ON THE BODY WEIGHT, SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND LIBIDO IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS MAINTAINED AT THE SEMEN PRODUCTION UNIT, QADIRARAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of age and season on body weight, scrotal circumference and libido in 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad. Depending on age, these bulls were divided into three equal groups viz. young (3-4 years of age, adult (5-8 years of age and old (12-15 years of age. Body weight and scrotal measurements were made at monthly intervals while libido of each bull was assessed weekly during the low (May to July and the peak (September to November breeding seasons. The results indicated that the body weight of adult and old bulls was higher (P<0.05 than young bulls. Similarly. The body weight was higher during peak than low breeding season. Scrotal circumference was higher in adult and old bulls than young bulls and during peak than low breeding season (P<0.05. The libido of the adult bulls was higher than young or old bulls, and during the peak than the low breeding season. It was concluded that body weight, scrotal circumference and libido of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were significantly affected by age of the bull and season of the year.

M. Younis, H.A. Samad, N. Ahmad and I. Ahmad

2003-04-01

272

Letter Report. Independent Confirmatory Survey Results Of Soils Associated With The Argyle Street Sewer Line At The United Nuclear Corporation Naval Products Site, New Haven, Connecticut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated

273

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part II: Characteristics of the calcium silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated in order to determine the effects of mineralisation on alite and belite; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, P2m'). The polymorphism of alite was studied using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), wavelength 1.5227 A, and electron diffraction (ED) in a transmission electron microscope. The substitutions of minor elements in alite and belite were determined using electron microprobe analysis. Clinkers P1 and P1m both contained apparent rhombohedral alite (XRD) with an incommensurately modulated structure (ED), while clinkers P2, P2m, and P2m' all contained monoclinic alite (XRD). The addition of mineralisers in the process caused increased content of fluoride in alite and increased substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) and S(6+) in both calcium silicates. The latter effect was most pronounced in clinker P1m due to its high molar SO3 to alkali oxide ratio (R=2.18). The improved hydraulic activity of P1m compared to P1 was caused by substitutions rather than a change in symmetry. The decreased hydraulic activity of P2m and P2m' compared to P2 was explained by the high levels of fluorine, which had a retarding effect on the hydration

274

Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

2009-07-01

275

Recent innovations in design of mooring systems for floating production and drilling units; Recentes inovacoes no projeto de sistemas de ancoragem para unidades de producao e perfuracao flutuantes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the recent technological innovations adopted in the design of mooring systems for floating platforms. Three points that represent new frontiers in deep water mooring will be focused: In the first point the innovative concept of taut-leg mooring will be shown. In the second point the application of poliester ropes in the mooring of floating platforms will be described, stressing the characteristics of this kind of rope that are fundamental to make feasible the concept of taut-leg mooring. In the third point the utilization of vertically loaded anhors (VLA's) for fixation of mooring lines to the marine bed will be explored. The VLA development program with two manufacturer will be detailed, including prototype and full scale tests done at Campos Basin. The characteristics of some platforms installed in Campos Basin using the above technologies will be shown, stressing the benefits of taut-leg mooring and including comparisons with conventional mooring. The installation of PETROBRAS-27 (first production unit installed with VLA's) will be detailed, to point the advantages and disadvantages of using Vertical Loaded Anhors compared to more conventional fixation points (piles). In the recent years, we have seen a movement of oil industry towards fields located in deeper and deeper waters. The utilization of the described technologies drives a big impulse to the technical and economical viabilization of deep water projects. (author)

Castro, Gustavo A.V.; Henriques, Carlos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1998-07-01

276

Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

2006-11-01

277

Measurement of area of surplus X-ray radiation by dose-area product meter at image intensifier in angiography X-ray units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to assess the area of surplus X-ray radiation (surplus area) of three image intensifiers (I.I.) of two angiography X-ray units. Surplus area refers to an area surrounded with a circular collimator and effective field of view (FOV). Dose-area product (DAP) was used to measure surplus X-rays. A ratio of surplus area when based on each FOV showed an 8% to 39.3% increase with expansion of FOV, surplus area showed an 18 cm2 to 95 cm2 decrease with FOV. When the circular collimator was narrowed to a degree that could be confirmed partially in effective FOV, the rate of surplus area was decreased almost as much as the rate of scattered radiation. Surface dose was almost unchanged. The radiation exposure of the physician as well as that of the patient was reduced by the reduction of surplus area. The DAP meter, while a tool for patient radiation exposure management, is also highly useful for machinery management such as the measurement of surplus area at the I.I. system. (author)

278

Antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from an intensive care Unit of a hospital in Kerman, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter spp. has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs of hospitals. To assess the sensitivity of Acinetobacter isolates to antibiotics routinely used in ICUs, we investigated antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the ICU of a university hospital in Kerman, Iran. Methods Fifteen isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were recovered from one hundred clinical specimens collected from the ICU of Afzalipoor Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from October 2010 to June 2011. Preliminary antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using the disk-diffusion breakpoint assay, and MICs of different antibiotics were determined using the E-test. ESBL production was detected by a double-disk synergy test and confirmed by a phenotypic confirmatory test. Substrate hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the following inhibitors was carried out using the rapid fixed-time method: para-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and NaCl. Results Overall, 73.3% of the isolates were resistant to imipenem (MIC range 240-128 µg/mL and 66% to ciprofloxacin (MIC range 240-64 ± 0.08 µg/mL. All of the isolates were fully resistant (MIC 240 µg/mL to piperacillin, while 93.3%, 53.3%, and 93.3% were resistant to piperacillin + tazobactam (MIC 240 µg/mL, amikacin (MIC range 128-16 µg/mL, and cefepime (MIC range 240-60 µg/mL, respectively. The isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline: MICs of these two agents were ? 240 µg/mL. The test for ESBL production was positive for only three isolates (nos. 1, 10, and 15. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was highest in the presence of p-CMB (80.2 ± 0.02 and lowest in the presence of NaCl (2.1 ± 0.01 (P ? 0.05. Conclusions Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp. are resistant to almost all antibiotics routinely used in the ICU of our hospital, including imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin + tazobactam. Three isolates were ESBL producers. The other isolates exhibited high resistance to ?-lactams, but they did not produce any ESBL enzymes.

Shakibaie Mohammad

2012-01-01

279

Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from 429 litters reared in 36 batches at six Danish multi-site farms chronically infected with the agents. At the farms, weaning age was 3-4.5 weeks, after which batches of pigs were reared using all-in/all-out management by room. Blood samples were collected shortly before: weaning, transfer from weaning-site to finishing-site, and sending the first pigs in the batch for slaughter (third sampling). Few pigs seroconverted at the weaning-sites, whereas considerable variation in seroconversion was observed at the finishing-sites. Multilevel logistic models (initially including four levels: farm, batch, litter, pig) were used to decompose the variation in seroconversion at the finishing-site. However, there was essentially no clustering at the litter level-leading to the use of three-level models. In the case of Ap2, clustering within batch was so high that the data eventually were reduced to two levels (farm, batch). For seroconversion to Ap2, ICC between pigs within batches was similar to90%, whereas the ICC between pigs within batches for Mh was similar to40%. This indicates that the possibility for Mh to spread between pigs within batches is lower than for Ap2. The diversity in seroconversion between batches within the same farm was large for Ap2 (ICC similar to 10%), whereas there was a relative strongly ICC (similar to50%) between batches for Mh. This indicates that the transmission of Mh is more consistent within a farm, whereas the presence of Ap2 varies between batches within a farm.

Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.

2004-01-01

280

Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz / International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar [...] la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo mediante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relation [...] ship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

José A. Melquíades, Hernández-Solabac; Martha E., Nava-Tablada; Salvador, Díaz-Cárdenas; Emiliano, Pérez-Portilla; Esteban, Escamilla-Prado.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Research on the production performances achieved by pig bloodlines used within a swine intensive husbandry unit in the NE of Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Through this paper, we proposed to establish the production performances of breeder lines belonging to one of the most important providers of genetic material in Romania, respectively the Pig Improvement Company (P.I.C.), exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. The researches goal was to study the reproduction performances (sperm volume, spermatozoids concentration in sperm, the amount of spermatozoids and of produced doses, etc.). There have been analysed the reproduction performances achieved by three PIC boars lines (PIC 1075, PIC 402, PIC 408). The insemination material, issued from the 1075 boars, is used to artificially inseminate the PIC 1050 sows from the hybridisation farm of the unit. The insemination material, issued from the boars of PIC 408 and PIC 402 lines, is used to artificially inseminate the Camborough sows, resulting piglets exclusively designed for slaughtering. Both boars and sows used as biological material have been examined from the reproductive life onset toward their culling. Ejaculate volume at the three bloodlines of boars we studied, was comprised within the limits specified in the references. It reached values between 224 and 235 ml during 8-12 months old, between 310 and 366 ml during 13-24 months old, between 330 and 348 ml between 25-36 months old and between 304 and 404 ml during 37-42 months old. Significant and distinguished significant values occurred both between boars and at values occurred both between boars and age periods. The level of sperm concentration, as influenced by boars' age, was found high, in all lines, during the 25-36 months old period, the differences compared to the other periods being statistically significant. Comparing the values achieved in each boar line, we could find differences between PIC 1075 (372 x spermatozoids / ml =100%) and PIC 402 (311.5 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 16.28%, or compared to PIC 408 (302.3 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 18.76%. The average spermatozoids mobility within the crude semen had mean values comprised between 76.92 % and 79.4%, but not significantly influenced by boar's age. Expressed in relative values, the differences between the average level observed in PIC 402 line (79.4%=100) and those found in the other lines, were comprised between 3.13% (comp. to the PIC 1075 line) and 0.57% (comp. to PIC 408 line). The amount of doses per ejaculate subscribed to the trend presented in the last field researches. The maximum amount of doses/ejaculate has been achieved in both bloodlines during 25-36 months old period, while the poor amount during the reproduction activity onset (8-12 months old period). The highest doses amount (21.12) has been produced by the PIC 402 line. No significant differences occurred between groups. Expressed as relative values, the differences were of 3.17 % (compared to PIC 1075 line), respectively of 7.20 % (compared to PIC 408 line). It could be stated, basing on the researches we carried on, that, due to the high sperm concentration, meaning high spermatozoids amounts per ejaculate during the whole exploitation period, the reproduction usage intensity of studied PIC boars could be improved. Thus, the period between two ejaculates could be shortened to 3 or 4 d, compared to the actual used interval, of 5 d. In the studied PIC boars, the sperm production level allows the exploitation of a reduced amount of males, generating thus favourable financial and zootechnic consequences. (author)

282

Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

2012-06-01

283

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain’s promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong

2014-01-01

284

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

285

Evaluation of dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for methane production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

2014-01-01

286

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

1992-09-01

287

Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

2009-12-01

288

Cellulolytic enzymes production by utilizing agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation and its application for biohydrogen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated for cellulase and hemicellulase production using various agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. Optimization of various environmental factors, type of substrate, and medium composition was systematically investigated to maximize the production of enzyme complex. Using grass powder as a carbon substrate, maximum activities of endoglucanase (188.66 U/gds), exoglucanase (24.22 U/gds), cellobiase (244.60 U/gds), filter paperase (FPU) (30.22 U/gds), glucoamylase (505.0 U/gds), and xylanase (427.0 U/gds) were produced under optimized conditions. The produced crude enzyme complex was employed for hydrolysis of untreated and mild acid pretreated rice husk. The maximum amount of reducing sugar released from enzyme treated rice husk was 485 mg/g of the substrate. Finally, the hydrolysates of rice husk were used for hydrogen production by Clostridium beijerinckii. The maximum cumulative H2 production and H2 yield were 237.97 mL and 2.93 mmoL H2/g of reducing sugar, (or 2.63 mmoL H2/g of cellulose), respectively. Biohydrogen production performance obtained from this work is better than most of the reported results from relevant studies. The present study revealed the cost-effective process combining cellulolytic enzymes production under solid state fermentation (SSF) and the conversion of agro-industrial residues into renewable energy resources. PMID:25374139

Saratale, Ganesh D; Kshirsagar, Siddheshwar D; Sampange, Vilas T; Saratale, Rijuta G; Oh, Sang-Eun; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-12-01

289

31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...country other than the United States or Iran, intended specifically or predominantly for Iran or the Government of Iran, is permitted under this part where...incorporation abroad were not subject to export license application requirements...

2010-07-01

290

Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stra...

Jay-russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

291

Zelfsturing, de beste wordt je niet alleen! : een onderzoek naar de tevredenheid over het functioneren van semi-autonome teams in de Product Unit Special bij Philips Lighting Roosendaal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a study of the level of satisfaction concerning the functioning of self controlling teams within Philips Lighting Roosendaal, Product Unit Special Lighting. This study answers the main question: of which factors is the level of satisfaction about the functioning of self controlling team within the PU Special Lighting of Philips Lighting Roosendaal dependent? Two supporting questions will have to help in answering the main question. 1.Which factors will influence the level of ...

Olphen, E.

2004-01-01

292

Navigation Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit on Navigation begins with a brief history of navigation and maps, including building a simple compass as an introduction to the magnetic field of Earth. Division of Earth navigation units in Lat/Long and UTM are explored in detail. Topographic maps as an expression of Earth's surface are used to integrate all of the pervious topics.

Suzanne M (Suki) Smaglik

293

Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (?37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (?8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (?14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (?5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

294

Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

Leonidas Matsakas

2015-01-01

295

Heating unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a heating unit adapted for attachment to or inclusion in heating appliances of the type having a combustion chamber. The heating unit includes a shaped flue duct positioned in association with a combustion chamber of a heating appliance and adapted, via fan means, to draw gases from the chamber and through at least one convector pipe before the flue gases return and pass to a flue to be allowed to escape to the atmosphere. In a domestic central heating situation, the combustion chamber can be a firebox of a space heater or an open fireplace. The firebox has an associated duct through which the flue gases are drawn to a free standing convector unit, in which the convector pipes are situated, and around which ambient air circulates to be heated to thereby heat the area in which the convector unit is situated. In an industrial, horticultural and agricultural situation, the heating unit can be associated with a firebox or a coal, wood, woodwaste or oil fired boiler or burner. The free standing convector unit thereof can be sited in a glasshouse or in a factory so that heat convected therefrom heats the ambient air in which the convector unit is sited.

Henry, D.D.

1988-04-19

296

Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

2004-02-01

297

Improvements and simplifications of staged gasification unit for CHP production. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Forbedringer og forenklinger af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. In this subproject the Castor plant has been used to develop and test improvements to the cogeneration system at the following points: 1) Optimization of process design of the gas generator within the existing framework; 2) Establishment of a heating system to start up the gas generator; 3) Automation of switching the gas engine to operate on produced gas; 4) Simplification of the gas generator's fuel feeding system; 5) Improving the control options for the supply of gasification air. The introduced changes have led to the operation of the total gasification-cogeneration system becoming more convenient and easier to operate for non specialists. Operational testing of the plant during the project has covered approx. 2,300 hours of operation of cogeneration. It has identified the periodic maintenance tasks on the demonstration plant. Through further development of plant components that may happen in the subsequent development versions, it will be possible to eliminate some of the regular maintenance tasks and reduce the frequency of others. The optimization of the process design was completed with an experiment with the addition of extra air in the middle of the lower coke zone. Observations during the experiment gave the impression that both the amount and size of charcoal pieces are reduced. Because of the gas generator's section-wise construction, it will be relatively easy to construct and install a new subsection to it and thereby install the system permanently. It is estimated that with a proper design of any such additional process step, an almost complete conversion of the charcoal quantity to ashes will be within reach. (ln)

Houmann Jakobsen, H.

2010-08-15

298

On wage formation, wage flexibility and wage coordination:A focus on the wage impact of productivity in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the endeavours of policy makers to come to some degree of wage coordination among EU countries, aiming at aligning wage growth with labour productivity growth at the national levels. In this context, we analyse the wage and productivity developments in Germany, the European Union’s periphery countries Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain along with the US for the period 1980-2010. Apart from the contribution of productivity to wages, we take into account the contributio...

Peeters, M.; Den Reijer, A.

2012-01-01

299

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn's geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbance patches of multiple pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2012-12-01

300

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn s geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbances affecting multiple MODIS pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT. FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC. The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas the high octane high boiling components are mainlyaromatics. The raise of ROT leads to increase of ratio of ?-cracking relative to hydrogen transfer which results inenhancement of the lower molecular hydrocarbon content in the FCC gasoline.

R.Dinkov

2008-03-01

302

Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. PMID:24968110

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

2014-09-01

303

A characterization of the modular units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide an exact formula for the complex exponents in the modular product expansion of the modular units, and deduce a characterization of the modular units in terms of the growth of these exponents, answering a question of W. Kohnen.

Folsom, Amanda

2007-01-01

304

Effective Hamiltonian for traveling discrete breathers in the FPU chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, an effective Hamiltonian is constructed, describing the motion of approximate, weakly localized discrete breathers traveling along the chain. The velocity of these moving and localized vibrations can be estimated analytically as the group velocity of the corresponding wave packet. The Peierls-Nabarro barrier is estimated for strongly localized discrete breathers.

Kastner, Michael; Sepulchre, Jacques-alexandre

2003-01-01

305

N-soliton states of the FPU lattices  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice equation that converge to a sum of co-propagating $N$ solitary waves as $t\\to\\infty$ using linear stability property of multi-soliton like solutions in an exponentially weighted space proved by [Mizumachi, arXiv:0906.1320]. Counter-propagating two soliton states have been studied by [Hoffman and Wayne, Asymptotic two-soliton solutions in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model, J. Dynam. Differential Equations 21 (2009), 343-351].

Mizumachi, Tetsu

2010-01-01

306

Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

2009-02-15

307

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

308

The effect of hydrazine dosing on high temperature water chemistry and corrosion product transport in primary circuit of VVER 440 units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the VVER 440 type reactors have started to use hydrazine dosing to primary coolant instead of ammonia, because it has been shown to be efficient in reducing activity transport. On the other hand, some other studies have shown that there is no significant difference between new VVER units using hydrazine dosing and the ones operating with standard potassium/ammonia water chemistry. In this paper the results are presented concerning the out-of-core high temperature water chemistry and in-core redox potential measurements at Rez research reactor in Czech republic during hydrazine/ammonia water chemistries. At Loviisa 1 unit (VVER 440) in Finland the pHT and redox potentials were monitored during standard potassium hydroxide/ammonia operation. (authors). 5 figs., 13 refs

309

Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 16. Changes in forest health and productivity in the United States and Canada. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report reviews available information about forest health problems in the United States and Canada, with special attention to the possible involvement of acidic deposition and associated pollutants. Available information indicates that most forests in the United States and Canada are health. There is no evidence of a general decline of forests due to acidic deposition or any other stress factor. Acidic deposition has not been ruled out as a potential cause of future subregional forest nutrition problems through effects on elemeqnt cycling. There is also experimental evidence that acidic deposition and associated pollutants can alter the resistance of red spruce to winter injury. Through this mechanism, acidic deposition may have contributed to dieback and mortality of red spruce at high elevations in the northern Appalachians. Ozone is an important factor in a decline of pines in southern California and is the pollutant of greatest concern with respect to possible regional scale impacts on North American forests

310

The Unit of Lightning  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past century, scientists have made quantitative measurements of lightning discharges. In the process, they refined the definition of a lightning unit, or basic quantum of lightning, in order to base it on observable parameters. Although many components of a lightning discharge have been identified, lightning usually occur in groups of discharges or pulses that, although complex, can be organized into units of flashes. This unit definition is based mainly on measurements of lightning from electric field, video, and ground flash lightning locating networks. More recent instrumentation with various combinations of high sensitivity, high temporal, or high spatial resolution often measure signals produced by lightning that do not cleanly divide into flashes. The data from these systems indicate the need or a more fundamental unit for lightning. Such a unit would be of benefit for both basic understanding of lightning and comparing lightning information between instruments. Without a common lightning unit definition, intercomparisons are difficult. For an example, the Lightning Detection And Ranging system (LDAR) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have detected ,flash' rates as high as 600 per minute while analysis based on the Advanced Ground Based Field Mill network (AGBFM) detect only 33 "flashes" per minute in the same area and time periods. The satellite based Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) sometimes see single "flashes" that last longer than 10 seconds. Such long duration flashes are not found in electric field records or ground strike location system data sets. The unit of lightning should be based on the fundamental components of the lightning discharge. This should make the unit as generally applicable as possible. For example, studies of NO(x) production by lightning depend on parameters of the individual lightning channels and not the summary flash characteristics. For such studies, the best unit of lightning may be closer to the classical stroke in the electric field data sets, flash in the LDAR data sets, and group in the OTD/LIS data sets. For this type of study, however, more than just the stroke count information is needed. In this paper, we will outline the current definitions of the unit of lightning and propose new basic definitions for the unit of lightning. Since different instruments detect lightning in different ways and different studies may need almost mutually exclusive aspects of the lightning discharge, there may not be a single definition of the unit of lightning that can be applied to all systems and all studies. However, common components can be found since all instrumentation are detecting aspects of the same phenomenon.

Mach, Douglas M.; Boeck, William L.; Christian, Hugh J.

1999-01-01

311

31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...suited for use in those industries, such as oilfield services equipment, but also goods and technology for use in products, such as computers, office equipment, construction equipment, or building materials, which are...

2010-07-01

312

Inclusion systems and amalgamated products of product systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here we generalize the concept of spatial tensor product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. This new notion is called amalgamated tensor product of product systems, and now the amalgamation can be done using a contractive morphism. Index of amalgamation product (when done through units) adds up for normalized units but for non-normalized units, the index is one more than the sum. We define inclusion systems and use it as a tool for ...

Bhat, B. V. Rajarama; Mukherjee, Mithun

2009-01-01

313

Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an ...

Euzebio Beli; Gilberto José Hussar; Débora Helena Hussar

2010-01-01

314

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ? Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production.a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

315

Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

2013-03-01

316

Multimode FPGA with Flexible Embedded FPUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Performance of field-programmable gate arrays used for Floating-point applications are poor due to complexity of floating-point arithmetic. Implementing floating-point units on FPGAs consume a large amount of resources. This makes FPGAs less attractive for use in floating-point intensive applications. There is a need for embedded FPUs in FPGAs. We proposed a flexible multimode embedded FPU for FPGAs that can be configured to perform a wide range of operations. The floatingpoint adder and multiplier in embedded FPU can be configured to perform one double-precision operation or two single-precision operations in parallel. To increase flexibility, access to large integer multiplier, adder and shifters in the FPU is provided. Benchmark circuits were implemented on both a standard Xilinx Virtex-V FPGA and FPGA with embedded FPU blocks. We design modified to allow an unrounded product to be fed to the floating-point adder to minimize rounding error, like in a dedicated floatingpoint MAC unit

G.Murugaboopathi

2012-11-01

317

Improvement of FK506 Production in Streptomyces tsukubaensis by Genetic Enhancement of the Supply of Unusual Polyketide Extender Units via Utilization of Two Distinct Site-Specific Recombination Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

FK506 is a potent immunosuppressant that has a wide range of clinical applications. Its 23-member macrocyclic scaffold, mainly with a polyketide origin, features two methoxy groups at C-13 and C-15 and one allyl side chain at C-21, due to the region-specific incorporation of two unusual extender units derived from methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), respectively. Whether their intracellular formations can be a bottleneck for FK506 production remains el...

Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qinglin; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan; Liu, Wen

2012-01-01

318

United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Find out everything you might need (or want) to know about the states in the U.S. Students, You have been assigned two states to research as part of our United States history studies this year. Now it is time to learn about your states! Your final project/mobile should include: 1. IMPORTANT FACTS - population - capital - area - state ...

Mrs. Glover

2008-09-10

319

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1997-01-01

320

Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-indicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. The indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a previously established level of sustainability.

Raimundo Nonato da Silveira Ribeiro

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Application of geothermal energy for heating and fresh water production in a brackish water greenhouse desalination unit. A case study from Algeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper was to outline a proposed a new brackish water greenhouse desalination unit powered by geothermal energy for the development of arid and relatively cold regions, using Algeria as a case study. Countries which have abundant sea/brackish water resources and good geothermal conditions are ideal candidates for producing fresh water from sea/brackish water. The establishment of human habitats in these arid areas strongly depends on availability of fresh water. The main advantage of using geothermal energy to power brackish water greenhouse desalination units is that this renewable energy source can provide power 24 h a day. This resource is generally invariant with less intermittence problems compared to other renewable resources such as solar or wind energy. Geothermal resources can both be used to heat the greenhouses and to provide fresh water needed for irrigation of the crops cultivated inside the greenhouses. A review of the geothermal potential in the case study country is also outlined. (author)

Mahmoudi, Hacene [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria); Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Spahis, Nawel [Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F. [Office of Research and Graduate Studies, Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman); Drouiche, Nadjib [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399, Algiers (Algeria); Ouagued, Abdellah [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria)

2010-01-15

322

Agricultural Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

323

Future of Saudi Arabian oil production. A staff report to the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, first session April 1979  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intensive study of the technical and financial considerations likely to play a formative role in determining the levels of production that can be expected from the Saudi Arabian oil fields in the remaining decades of this century was conducted. Saudi Arabia, as the holder of the world's largest reserves of oil, plays a pivotal role in world energy calculations. The staff investigation and this report concentrate on essentially technical, conservationist, and financial considerations affecting Saudi Arabian production. These considerations have had a significant effect on the plans to reduce the levels of present and future production and capacity of the Saudi Arabian fields. The facts uncovered by the staff investigation and set forth in this report demonstrate that there are significant technical and other considerations which indicate that the optimistic and highly expansive predictions respecting the levels of production from Saudi Arabia are problematic at best and cannot with any measure of prudence be relied upon as an element in the formulation of United States energy policy over the next two decades.

1979-01-01

324

Water electrolysis plants for hydrogen and oxygen production. Shipped to Tsuruga Power Station Unit No.1, and Tokai No.2 power station, the Japan Atomic Power Co  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ebara's water electrolysis plants have been shipped to Tsuruga Power Station Unit No.1, (H2 generation rate: 11 Nm3/h), and Tokai No.2 Power Station (H2 generation rate: 36 Nm3/h), Japan Atomic Power Co. An outcome of a business agreement between Nissho Iwai Corporation and Norsk Hydro Electrolysers (Norway), this was the first time that such water electrolysis plants were equipped in Japanese boiling water reactor power stations. Each plant included an electrolyser (for generating hydrogen and oxygen), an electric power supply, a gas compression system, a dehumidifier system, an instrumentation and control system, and an auxiliary system. The plant has been operating almost continuously, with excellent feedback, since March 1997. (author)

325

Contribution to the pre-sizing and the control of power electric production units in isolated site using renewable energies : Application to Senegal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The energy crisis characterized by the oil products price rising and the imperatives of sustainable development do that renewable energies are an alternative today witch attract the interest of several research teams. Senegal, sub-Saharan country, not oil producer is not spared by this crisis. The consequence of this is a low coverage of the country (especially rural areas) by the national grid. For solving this, the new orientation of the energy policy focuses on the use of renewable energy ...

Ke?be?, Abdoulaye

2013-01-01

326

Regional Differences in Production of Aflatoxin B1 and Cyclopiazonic Acid by Soil Isolates of Aspergillus flavus along a Transect within the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members ...

Horn, B. W.; Dorner, J. W.

1999-01-01

327

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15

328

Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas (3He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

329

Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave the most accurate predictions (<3%) for cellulose loss.

Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

330

An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

Bain, Addison

1990-01-01

331

A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

2009-06-03

332

Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

Euzebio Beli

2010-04-01

333

Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

P. Lee

2012-01-01

334

Pretreatment solution recycling and high-concentration output for economical production of bioethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to enhance the economic efficiency of producing bioethanol. Pretreatment solution recycling is expected to increase economic efficiency by reducing the cost of pretreatment and the amount of wastewater. In addition, the production of high-concentration bioethanol could increase economic efficiency by reducing the energy cost of distillation. The pretreatment conditions were 95 °C, 0.72 M NaOH, 80 rpm twin-screw speed, and flow rate of 90 mL/min at 18 g/min of raw biomass feeding for pretreatment solution recycling. The pretreatment with NaOH solution recycling was conducted five times. All of the components and the pretreatment efficiency were similar, despite reuse. In addition, we developed a continuous biomass feeding system for production of high-concentration bioethanol. Using this reactor, the bioethanol productivity was investigated using various pretreated biomass feeding rates in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The maximum ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 74.5 g/L, 89.5%, and 1.4 g/L h, respectively, at a pretreated biomass loading of approximately 25% (w/v) with an enzyme dosage of 30 FPU g/cellulose. The results presented here constitute an important contribution toward the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus. PMID:24794172

Han, Minhee; Moon, Se-Kwon; Choi, Gi-Wook

2014-11-01

335

Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

2007-01-01

336

Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

337

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

338

Global Warming Can Negate the Expected CO2 Stimulation in Photosynthesis and Productivity for Soybean Grown in the Midwestern United States1[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 ?mol mol?1) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops. PMID:23512883

Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Siebers, Matthew; Gray, Sharon B.; Drag, David W.; Rosenthal, David M.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.; Bernacchi, Carl J.

2013-01-01

339

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

1982-01-01

340

Estimation of quality and yields of products from the process of future national oils indelayed coking units; Estimativa da qualidade e dos rendimentos de produtos de coqueamento a partir do processamento de petroleos nacionais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the importance of the delayed coking process increases in the Brazilian refinery scenario, it is necessary to perform a more detailed evaluation of vacuum residues potential on this kind of process. This work compares the performance of future produced and exported oils residues with those which are references nowadays as delayed coking feeding. This information is essential for the prediction of the future quality and yield of the products generated by this process, and for the determination of the oils value for exportation. For this purpose, a process simulator was used considering the operational conditions of a real delayed coking unit. The carbon residue and asphaltenes ratio from the residues were also evaluated. This simulation demonstrated that most of the future oils will produce a high quality coke from the point of view of crystallinity and metals content, and it will present high contents of both volatile matter and sulphur. The exported oils residues are likely to show good crystallinity. (author)

Filipakis, Sofia D.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Guimaraes, Regina C.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

NONE

1996-01-01

342

Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o'clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course

343

Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

Musel, Annabella [Institute of Social Ecology, Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt - Graz - Wien, Schottenfeldgasse 29, 1070 Vienna (Austria)

2009-12-15

344

The Calculation and Application of Productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article states that productivity has showed the ability of study and production for human being. Laborer’s productivity is the basic unit of productivity. The level value of the basic unit is defined by the technical value, functional value and efficiency. According to these values we can calculate the level and speed for the development of the productivity and determine the reason. In production, the basic unit of management values and the performers of the basic unit have a positive r...

Wang, Tao

2011-01-01

345

Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system 'corrosion products (MenOm; Me(OH)k)) - water (H2O) - gas (H2, O2) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction' in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear 'post-transitional' process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

346

Regional differences in production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by soil isolates of aspergillus flavus along a transect within the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil isolates of Aspergillus flavus from a transect extending from eastern New Mexico through Georgia to eastern Virginia were examined for production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid in a liquid medium. Peanut fields from major peanut-growing regions (western Texas; central Texas; Georgia and Alabama; and Virginia and North Carolina) were sampled, and fields with other crops were sampled in regions where peanuts are not commonly grown. The A. flavus isolates were identified as members of either the L strain (n = 774), which produces sclerotia that are >400 micrometer in diameter, or the S strain (n = 309), which produces numerous small sclerotia that are Alabama, 62 to 94% of the isolates produced >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml. The percentages of isolates producing >10 microgram of aflatoxin B1 per ml ranged from 0 to 52% in the remaining regions of the transect; other isolates were often nonaflatoxigenic. A total of 53 of the 126 L-strain isolates that did not produce aflatoxin B1 or cyclopiazonic acid were placed in 17 vegetative compatibility groups. Several of these groups contained isolates from widely separated regions of the transect. PMID:10103234

Horn, B W; Dorner, J W

1999-04-01

347

Unit for air decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

348

Termination unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

2014-01-07

349

Distributed output units within the new organisation of the electricity industry. The case of gas micro-turbines in the United States; Les unites de production distribuee dans la nouvelle organisation de l'industrie electrique. Le cas des microturbines a gaz aux Etats-Unis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between innovation and industrial organization in electric power industry. With the de-regulatory reforms, the influence of new generating technologies on the current evolution of the power sector seems to be relevant to study. Recent technological advances have resulted in the emergence of so-called distributed power generation system. One of latest option of decentralized generation units is the gas micro-turbine which might transform the whole American electric power industry. (author)

Meritet, S. [Paris-9 Univ., Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, 75 (France)

1999-12-01

350

7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.  

Science.gov (United States)

...payable units for only their ethanol production from eligible inputs that...determined by CCC, the extra ethanol production from eligible inputs will... (1) When producers move production from one plant to another between...

2010-01-01

351

Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

1982-01-01

352

Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska

353

Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead metabolism was studied in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) of Wistar rats during the genesis of developmental abnormalities and embryonic death. Female rats were injected iv with tracer 210Pb(NO3)2, alone or in combination with 5 or 25 mg Pb(NO3)2/kg, at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). The distribution of lead and its effects were determined in the FPUs during the ensuing 30-h period and at 20 dg. Hemorrhage of the egg cylinder was noted as early as 6 h postinjection of 25 mg/kg at 9 dg. By 20 dg, fetuses exhibited characteristic stunting and external malformations (gastrochisis and severe skeletal defects). Administration of this dose at 15 dg produced petechial hemorrhage in fetal brain within 90 min; more massive hemorrhage was a consistent observation by 24 h. At 20 dg, embryo mortality was 44% in rats injected with 25 mg/kg at 9 dg and 100% in those injected at 15 dg. At 90 min after injection, lead content of 15-dg FPUs was 10 times that of the 9-dg FPUs, but the weights of the 15-dg FPUs were 16 times greater. Values remained relatively constant in 15-dg FPUs for 30 h, but early clearance was observed after injection at 9 dg, with a return to 90-min values by 20 dg. In the 15-dg FPUs, placental clearance was followed by fetal lead incorporation, which reached a maximum at 6 h. Fetal lead values were constant from 6 to 30 h after injection at tracer and 5-mg/kg dose levels, but values increased progressivel levels, but values increased progressively at 25 mg/kg. Both temporal and quantitative relationships of fetal lead metabolism were disrupted by the 25-mg/kg dose, but the nature of the effect was determined by the stage of fetal development at exposure

354

Television Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

355

On production costs in vertical differentiation models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

Bre?card, Dorothe?e

2009-01-01

356

An Inpatient Vocational Rehabilitation Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the Cleveland Veterans Administration inpatient Vocational Rehabilitation Unit (VRU), an intensive vocational assessment and counseling program designed to maximize the self-reliance and productivity of patients. The VRU is presented as a minimal care, 3-month maximum treatment program in which patients work on incentive pay…

Bielefeld, Martin

357

Crude unit corrosion and corrosion control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the petroleum refining process, the Crude Unit is the initial stage of distillation of the crude oil into useable fractions, either as end products or feed to downstream units. The major pieces of equipment found on units will vary depending on factors such as the assay of the design crude, the age of the refinery, and other downstream units. The unit discussed in this paper has all of the major pieces of equipment found on crude units including double desalting, a preflash section, an atmospheric section, a vacuum section, and a stabilization section. This paper reviews fundamental corrosion issues concerning the Crude Unit process. It is, in concise form, a description of the process and major equipment found in the Crude Unit; types of corrosion and where they occur; corrosion monitoring and inspection advice; and a list of related references for further reading. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Bagdasarian, A. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Feather, J.; Hull, B.; Stephenson, R.; Strong, R.

1996-08-01

358

Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of combinations and ratios between different enzymes has been investigated in order to assess the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (the solids named CAB-AHP). The separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes were evaluated in the ethanol production. The enzymatic hydrolysis conducted with cellulase complex and ?-glucosidase in a ratio of 0.61:0.39, enzyme loading of 30FPU/gCAB-AHP and 66CBU/gCAB-AHP, respectively, using 4% cellulose from CAB-AHP, turned out to be the most effective conditions, with glucose and xylose yields of 511.68mg/gCAB-AHP and 237.8mg/gCAB-AHP, respectively. Fermentation of the pure hydrolysate by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 led to an ethanol yield of 61.8kg/tonCAB, corresponding to 15g/L ethanol and productivity of 3.75g/(Lh). The ethanol production obtained for SSF process using K. marxianus ATCC 36907 was 18g/L corresponding to 80% yield and 74.2kg/tonCAB. PMID:25545094

da Costa, Jessyca Aline; Marques, José Edvan; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte

2015-03-01

359

Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

2014-01-01

360

Short Note on Units: Planetary Units  

Science.gov (United States)

While the emphasis on SI units in introductory physics textbooks has mercifully eliminated the use of English units, the exclusion of other systems of units is not necessary. For years physicists have simplified calculations by doing things like setting [h-bar] = c = 1. We could not imagine putting 4[pi][epsilon][subscript 0] into the formulas for…

Huggins, Elisha

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Inclusion systems and amalgamated products of product systems  

CERN Document Server

Here we generalize the concept of spatial tensor product, introduced by Skeide, of two product systems via a pair of normalized units. This new notion is called amalgamated tensor product of product systems, and now the amalgamation can be done using a contractive morphism. Index of amalgamation product (when done through units) adds up for normalized units but for non-normalized units, the index is one more than the sum. We define inclusion systems and use it as a tool for index computations. It is expected that this notion will have other uses.

Bhat, B V Rajarama

2009-01-01

362

Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States Are Safe  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Basics Metrics Watch: FDA Basics Videos FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ... How FDA Evaluates Regulated Products: Cosmetics FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ...

363

Units for the Laboratory of Industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This institute focused on manufacturing industries for junior high industrial arts. It was attended by 20 teachers from 14 states who worked in four groups to develop pairs of instructional units titled "Introduction to Technology and Industrial Arts." Each of these units covers personnel management, engineering, production, finance, and marketing…

Gorham State Coll., ME.

364

Ethanol production from horticultural waste treated by a modified organosolv method.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the use of horticultural waste (HW) collected in Singapore as a renewable raw material for bioethanol production. A modified organosolv method using ethanol cooking under mild conditions followed by H(2)O(2) post-treatment was investigated for HW pretreatment. It was found that the addition of acid catalysts in the pretreatment process was not critical and post-treatment using H(2)O(2) was essential for the enhancement of HW digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the organosolv pretreated HW with 17.5% solid content, enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g HW of filter paper cellulase, and 80 CBU/g HW of ?-glucosidase resulted in a HW hydrolysate containing 26.9 g/L reducing sugar after 72 h. Fermentation of the above hydrolysate medium produced 11.69 g/L ethanol at 8h using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It proved that horticultural waste was a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production and organosolv pretreatment method developed in this study was effective. PMID:22101074

Geng, Anli; Xin, Fengxue; Ip, Jun-yu

2012-01-01

365

7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

...GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions...agricultural commodities, peanuts, ginseng, pecans, and macadamia nuts: from products produced in the United...

2010-01-01

366

Creating Thematic Units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses getting started, organizing a thematic unit, developing a unit around classroom concerns, and skills students need. Discusses creating a thematic unit in American literature focused on Henry David Thoreau. Presents a series of nine questions for teachers to ask themselves when selecting a novel for use in a thematic unit with middle or…

Mitchell, Diana; Young, Linda Payne

1997-01-01

367

Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California / Economic rent of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Fisheries Typical Production Units in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empr [...] esas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas cala-mareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades representativas de producción (URP): una que opera en BCS con 10 embarcaciones menores, recibe anualmente $2722,000.00 pesos por la venta de calamar, invierte el 68% en pago de mano de obra y obtuvo una razón beneficio-costo de 1.74. La otra trabaja con 5 barcos desde puertos en SON, recibe $4027,000.00 pesos de ingresos totales anuales (54% del camarón, 18% del calamar y 22% del subsidio al diesel); el costo del combustible representa el 52% de los egresos y la razón beneficio-costo en 2008 fue de 0.93. Abstract in english The jumbo squid fishery in Mexico is mainly performed off the Baja California Sur (BCS) and Sonora (SON) coasts in the Gulf of California by cooperatives and private firms which operate outboard boats (pangas) or shrimp trawlers. The differences in economic returns of each type of fleet were estimat [...] ed through the characterization of typical production units (TPU). The TPU of BCS, with 10 pangas, obtains Mexican pesos $2722,000.00 annually from squid sales and pays 68% of it in salaries. The TPU in SON, with 5 shrimp trawlers, earns Mexican pesos $4027,000.00 annually (54% from shrimp sales, 18% from squid and, additionally receives 22% from the government for diesel subsidies); diesel costs represent 52% of the total income.

Víctor, Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán, Ponce-Díaz; Luis, Almendarez-Hernández.

368

Spreadsheets simplify oil field unitization calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Linear programming, now available with most spreadsheet programs, allows companies involved in unitizing oil producing properties to determine their minimum and maximum interest. With spreadsheets, even the smallest companies can do linear programming or optimization techniques without having to know much about the process involved. If each company can easily determine its and the competition's optimum parameter weight, then reasonable compromise and unitization are more likely. When suspicion and lack of knowledge prevail, parties are less likely to cooperate and form production units. Unit participation formulas vary greatly, even if units have similar reservoir characteristics. This paper reviews an example of linear programming to determine the interests of four different oil companies operating in the same production zones

369

trituration units, ?Maasra?, in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Olive oil production in Morocco is carried out at traditional trituration units called ?maasras?. The thermophilic mycobiota present in these places was studied, from which strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were identifi ed by classical and molecular methods (ITS region from the rDNA. Selected strains of A. fumigatus were tested for fumagillin production using a quantitative analysis by HPLC. More than 700 thermophilic strains were obtained from ?maasras? studied. The predominant species was A. fumigatus (31%. Eleven strains (50%, out of 22, of A. fumigatus were capable of producing fumagillin ranging from 4.55-46.48 ng/g of wheat dry weight.

K. Lamrani

2008-01-01

370

Proyección económica de unidades representativas de producción en caprinos en la Comarca Lagunera, México / Economic projection of representative production units of caprine cattle in the Comarca Lagunera region, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La caprinocultura en México es importante por la cantidad de familias rurales que dependen de ésta, estimada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía en 250 mil. Sin embargo, por tradición, para apoyar la actividad, el gobierno mexicano a través de Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, P [...] esca y Alimentación, considera que todos los productores dedicados a las cabras tienen condiciones tecnológicas iguales, y que todos se dedican a producir lo mismo. La realidad es que los productores son diferentes entre sí, por regiones, entidades y al interior mismo de una localidad, por lo que el tipo de apoyos que se canalice debe ser acorde a sus necesidades y características. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la proyección de la viabilidad económica y financiera de una Unidad Representativa de Producción (URP) productora de leche y cabrito bajo un sistema de producción extensivo para el periodo 2008-2018 en el municipio de Lerdo Durango, ubicado en la región Comarca Lagunera, tomando como año base el comportamiento económico de las URP en 2008 y a partir de ello identificar qué componentes tecnológicos deben apoyarse para incrementar la rentabilidad de éste tipo de sistema productivo. Los datos necesarios para llevar a cabo este estudio y formar la URP productora de leche y cabrito surgieron de paneles de productores realizados en el ejido La Loma, Durango. El análisis económico y de simulación se llevó a cabo en el modelo de simulación agroeconómica MexSim, cuyos resultados muestran un comportamiento futuro positivo a los productores dedicados a esta actividad que cuenten con un hato de 100 vientres y produzcan leche y cabrito. Abstract in english In México, caprine cattle breeding is important due to the families living in rural areas who depend on the activity; according to estimations made by the National Institute for Statistics and Geography, there are about 250 thousand animals in México. Nevertheless, traditionally and so as to show su [...] pport for this activity, the Mexican government, represented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Stockbreeding, Fishing and Food, considers that all the producers who breed goats have access to the same technology, and that all of them produce the same thing. In reality, producers have differences according to the region, entity and even within the same township, and so the type of support they receive must be according to their needs and characteristics. The objective of this paper is to present the economic and financial feasibility projection for a Representative Production Unit (URP, in Spanish), which would produce milk and kid, under an extensive production system for the period that goes from 2008-2018, in the municipality of Lerdo, Durango, located in the region known as Comarca Lagunera, taking as baseline year the economic behavior shown by the URPs in 2008, and deriving from it the identification of the technologic components which need support in order to increase the profitability of this kind of productive system. The data required to undertake this study and establish the milk and kid producing URP, came from panel s of producers presented at the common land of La Loma, state of Durango. The economic and simulation analysis was realized within the agro-economic simulation model MexSim, which results show a positive behavior in the future for the producers focused in