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1

Floating production unit to work off Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that Petroleo Brasileiro SA expects by early November to deploy its Petrobras XXIV floating production unit (FPU) in about 900 ft of water in Albacora field off Brazil. The FPU was scheduled to depart Galveston, Tex., this month, following completion of modifications and upgrades under a turnkey contract with Chiles Offshore International Inc. Chiles began modifying Petrobras XXIV about 1 year ago as part of a deal closed in October 1991 in which Chiles Offshore Corp. sold the vessel, then known as Intrepid, to Brasoil, the international subsidiary of Petrobras

1992-10-19

2

SCR (Steel Catenary Risers) installation from a production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A deep water installation method has been developed to self-install Steel Catenary Risers (SCRs) from Floating Production Units (FPUs). Multiple risers can be deployed from an FPU using modular J-lay equipment while the pipe is joined by welding or mechanical connectors. A DP (Dynamically Positioned) work boat pulls the pipeline outward from the FPU as the pipe string is lowered from the J-lay tower. The work boat moves incrementally and maintains an acceptable catenary configuration while sliding the pipeline along the seabed. A pipeline may be pulled to long distances (10 kilometers or more) for sub sea tie-ins to a wellhead or another pipeline. When the pipeline is extended to its final length, the SCR is pulled into its final topside angle and supported in a receptacle on the FPU. This method can be applied to any deep water floating system. Having J-lay equipment onboard an FPU enables riser installation to proceed according to field development schedules, thus avoiding pipeline vessel mobilizations. This results in substantial savings over typical deep water pipeline vessel mobilization, stand-by and day-rate charges, which in turn leads to more economical deep water field developments. The paper will describe the equipment and lay operation of multiple SCRs from a typical FPU. (author)

Pollack, Jack; Riggs, David C.; Guo, Feng [SBM-IMODCO Inc., Houston, TX (UNited States)

2004-07-01

3

FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

T. Zahradnický

2010-01-01

4

Riemann solvers and undercompressive shocks of convex FPU chains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider FPU-type atomic chains with general convex potentials. The naive continuum limit in the hyperbolic space–time scaling is the p-system of mass and momentum conservation. We systematically compare Riemann solutions to the p-system with numerical solutions to discrete Riemann problems in FPU chains, and argue that the latter can be described by modified p-system Riemann solvers. We allow the flux to have a turning point, and observe a third type of elementary wave (conservative shocks) in the atomistic simulations. These waves are heteroclinic travelling waves and correspond to non-classical, undercompressive shocks of the p-system. We analyse such shocks for fluxes with one or more turning points. Depending on the convexity properties of the flux we propose FPU-Riemann solvers. Our numerical simulations confirm that Lax shocks are replaced by so-called dispersive shocks. For convex–concave flux we provide numerical evidence that convex FPU chains follow the p-system in generating conservative shocks that are supersonic. For concave–convex flux, however, the conservative shocks of the p-system are subsonic and do not appear in FPU-Riemann solutions

2010-02-01

5

HW-SW Implementation of a Decoupled FPU for ARM-based Cortex-M1 SoCs in FPGAs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays industrial monoprocessor and multipro- cessor systems make use of hardware floating-point units (FPUs) to provide software acceleration and better precision due to the necessity to compute complex software applications. This paper presents the design of an IEEE-754 compliant FPU, targeted to be used with ARM Cortex-M1 processor on FPGA SoCs. We face the design of an AMBA-based decoupled FPU in order to avoid changing of the Cortex-M1 ARMv6-M architecture and the ARM compiler, but as ...

2011-01-01

6

Chapter 2. The production units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (Constructions and operation of A1 Power Plant - archive video, plant technology, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1982-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant Impact of operation on the environment, Plan of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

1997-06-01

7

Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160 and 180 degrees C, the sugar production with 15 FPU (filter paper unit)/g straw was equally high compared to higher enzyme loadings. For the pretreatments at 170 degrees C an enzyme loading higher...

Panagiotopoulos, I. A.; Lignos, G. D.; Bakker, R. R. C.; Koukios, E. G.

2012-01-01

8

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

2008-01-01

9

Introduction to Crop Production. Unit A-7.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in vocational agriculture for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 20 hours of instruction as an introductory course on the crop industry. It provides a broad background of the industry, including production, marketing, processing, and transportation, with emphasis on identifying major crops…

Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

10

Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), both are nuclear facilities at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), were decommissioned. During the decommissioning activities, all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. And it was also for the help of the understanding of the public peoples on the safety and management of the decommissioning work and radioactive waste control from the decommissioning site. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System), which was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developing of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The unit- work productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Park, J. H.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

11

Are all units created equal? The effect of default units on product evaluations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous research on numerosity effects has shown that people often infer higher quantity from larger numbers (i.e. specified in smaller units). We argue that consumers have default units for many attribute levels. In three studies, we demonstrate that products described in default units generate more positive product evaluations, irrespective of the nominal value of the attribute (Study 1). This default unit effect is eliminated by a misattribution paradigm in which participants attribute th...

Lembregts, Christophe; Pandelaere, Mario

2012-01-01

12

An operational management model for a coal mining production unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is expected from highly technical first line supervisors to manage an underground coal mining production unit and to reach stretched targets when they have very little operational management skills. A myriad of operational management philosophies are available that were not developed for a mining environment as such. These philosophies are focused on company level implementation and not on production unit level. To be used in the mining production unit is therefore necessary to adapt these...

2005-01-01

13

High-resolution ? spectroscopy of the odd-N fission isomer 237fPu  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While so far spectroscopic studies of fission isomers concentrated on even-even nuclei, high-resolution ? spectroscopy of odd-N fission isomers may allow to identify Nilsson orbitals in heavy actinide nuclei. As the first case ever studied for odd-N nuclei, the fission isomer in 237Pu (t1/2 100ns/1.1 ?s) was investigated using the 235(?,2n) reaction with a pulsed ? beam (E? =24 MeV, pulse distance 400 ns) from the Cologne Tandem accelerator. A self-supporting thick metallic 235U target (3.7 mg/cm2) was used, where the 237Pu reaction products were stopped and fission products were emitted in opposite directions. The rare ?-rays from the second potential well in delayed coincidence with fission products were measured with the MINIBALL spectrometer. Due to the small population cross section of about 2 ?b a large solid angle coverage both for the ?-rays as well as for the fission fragments was required. A very compact 4? parallel plate detector array (diameter ca. 15 cm) was used for the fission fragment detection, allowing for a discrimination between the dominant prompt fission products and the rare isomeric fission events. Results, such as the identification of rotational bands, isomeric lifetimes and angular distributions etc., will be presented. (orig.)

2007-03-12

14

Agricultural Productivity in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased productivity is a key to a healthy and thriving economy, Consequently, the trend in productivity, economywide, is one of the most closely watched of our common economic performance indicators. Agriculture, in particular, has been a very successf...

E. Ball J. Yee M. Ahearn R. Nehring

1998-01-01

15

Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases. PMID:19997787

Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

2010-05-01

16

Decomposition of Productivity and Unit Costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Labor productivity (output per hour) in the private business sector is reported to have been rising at an annual rate of about 1-1/4 percent since 1973. At the same time, output per hour in the nonfinancial corporate sector is estimated to have been incre...

L. Slifman C. Corrado

1999-01-01

17

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

18

Comprehensive unit for flame processing of toxic liquid production wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and technological solutions, results of ajustment and industrial tests of a comprehensive unit for combustion of production wastes of caprolactam are presented. Methods are offered for improving the operating efficiency of the unit. Recommendations are made for maintaining the optimal regime parameters. Ways are examined for further improvement in this method of neutralization.

Bernadiner, M.N.; Novosel' tsev, V.N.; Pravkin, V.I.; Yesilevich, B.S.

1980-01-01

19

Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS Production in Distillery Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

SRINIVASAN K

2013-02-01

20

Continuous semi-solid cultivation for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei mutants using a polyurethane foam carrier and a liquid medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of cellulase was investigated in semi-solid state culture using the immobilized mycelium of Trichoderma reesei mutants on polyurethane foam impregnated with lactose medium. An extremely high value of about 2.6 FPU/ml was reached after the cultivation of T. reesei D-78085 on a 0.5% lactose medium in continuous culture at a pH medium of 4.0 when a bioreactor with vertical polyurethane foam plates was used. The enzyme yield on lactose was 520 FPU/g of lactose metabolized in comparison with 160 FPU/g using a stirred tank bioreactor. (orig.)

Targonski, Z. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology; Pielecki, J. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
21

Examining the potential of plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw for enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production. PMID:22415783

Rodriguez-Gomez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Hobley, Timothy John

2012-04-01

22

Unital Full Amalgamated Free Products of MF Algebras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we consider the question whether a unital full free product of MF algebras with amalgamation over a finite dimensional C*-algebra is an MF algebra. First, we show that, under a natural condition, a unital full free product of two separable residually finite dimensional (RFD) C*-algebras with amalgamation over a finite dimensional C*-algebra is again a separable RFD C*-algebra. Applying this result on MF C*-algebras, we show that, under a natual condition, a un...

Li, Qihui; Shen, Junhao

2010-01-01

23

Solvency capital requirement for German unit-linked insurance products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Innovative life insurance products such as unit-linked life insurance, hybrid life insurance, and variable annuities are rapidly gaining popularity and becoming a major part of new business in Germany. However, since traditional life insurance products still dominate the portfolios of life insurance companies, discussions about the standard formula for determining the solvency capital requirement have focused on this type of business. Any detailed discussion on how to calculate the solvency c...

2010-01-01

24

Unit Values, Productivity, and Trade - Determinants of Spanish Export Strength  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we assess the current relevance of different sources of international competitiveness. Relative prices, labor costs, and productivity are evaluated as determinants of a country's international competitiveness at the industry level. Working with detailed data on unit values and with industry data on productivity, we empirically implement a MacDougall-type model for Spanish and French trade to Brazil, China, Japan, and the U.S. The period under study is 1980 to 2001 and we disting...

2009-01-01

25

Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS' off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire auto...

C. H. W. Moura F. M. R. Mendes J. A. P. Silva Filho P. Loureiro

1996-01-01

26

Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

1991-10-14

27

United Arab Emirates expansion curtailed but production still exceeds quota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports that oil and gas activity in the United Arab Emirates has been hit be declining exploration, curtailed development schedules, and the shutdown of production facilities. But despite a mothballing program, production is still running way ahead of the quota set by OPEC for the UAE. According to OPEC's schedule, first half 1987 production should not have exceeded 902,000 b/d. And the increased quotas for the second half of the year would permit output to average 948,000 b/d. But production averaged 1.2 million b/d during the first half of the year, and there is no sign of a significant reduction. Rising output when most other OPEC members are attempting to discipline themselves stems from the failure of Abu Dhabi and Dubai to agree on how the quota should be split. Details are provided on the regions of production activity.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-08-24

28

The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ?in?, ?, ?, ?; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

Jenn-YeuChen

2013-08-01

29

Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

2009-12-31

30

Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

Heydorn, Barbara

1990-01-01

31

The productivity advantge of one/two unit mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Throughout the 1980s there has been tremendous competition in the coal market. This competition has fueled a relentless search for productivity. The employment census has steadily decreased while the total production has been at record levels. Between 1988 and 1989 production increased by three percent while employment decreased approximately fifteen percent. Where longwalls are not financially feasible to purchase and operate, the method of extraction has evolved predominantly to the one or two section coal mines. Both the large and small companies have adopted this philosophy. This paper provides one operator's opinion on why the one and two section coal mines have distinct advantages over the multiple unit mines. It focuses on the opportunity that the smaller mine affords in the areas of employee relations

1991-06-02

32

Gas turbine unit for combined production of electricity and heat and method for operating such unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas turbine unit for combined production of electricity and heat, such as hot water for remote heating networks, is required to fulfill the demands of high electrical and thermal efficiency, high electricity-to-heat relationship, flexibility between electricity and heat production, and insensitivity to variations in the surrounding temperature. These demands are fulfilled by a 2-shaft gas turbine unit of the type comprising a combustion chamber, a high pressure turbine driven by gas from the combustion chamber, a low pressure turbine driven by the exhaust gas from the high pressure turbine, a low pressure compressor driven by the low pressure turbine, a high pressure compressor connected in series with the low pressure compressor and driven by the high pressure turbine for the supply of pressurized air to the combustion chamber, a generator driven by the high pressure turbine, a recuperator for heat exchange between exhaust gas and pressurized air from the compressors, an intermediate cooler between the low- and high-pressure compressors, and an exhaust gas heat exchanger. Electricity is produced by the generator, hot water at 70-120{degree}C is produced in the intermediate cooler and exhaust heat exchanger. The turbine unit of the invention has an electrical efficiency 30-40% better than that of a simple gas turbine operating at a corresponding turbine inlet temperature. Since the heat recovered is utilized for hot water production, a high total efficiency will be obtained. A method of operating the turbine unit of the invention is also provided. 3 figs.

Harboe, H.; Kyrklund, B.

1992-04-07

33

Tobacco product use among adults - United States, 2012-2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite significant declines in cigarette smoking among U.S. adults over the past five decades, progress has slowed in recent years, and the prevalence of use of other tobacco products such as cigars and smokeless tobacco has not changed. Additionally, the prevalence of use of emerging products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), has rapidly increased. This report provides the most recent national estimates of tobacco use among adults aged ?18 years, using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). The findings indicate that 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.2% used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Population-level interventions focused on the diversity of tobacco product use, including tobacco price increases, high-impact antitobacco mass media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting, in conjunction with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States. PMID:24964880

Agaku, Israel T; King, Brian A; Husten, Corinne G; Bunnell, Rebecca; Ambrose, Bridget K; Hu, S Sean; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Day, Hannah R

2014-06-27

34

Product-Units neural networks for catchment runoff forecasting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Product-Units neural networks (PUNNs), which probably have never been used within the field of hydrology, are introduced and applied for catchment runoff forecasting in cold climate zones. This type of neural networks, a subclass of higher order neural networks uses product nodes with inputs raised to exponential weights in one layer and well-known summation nodes in another layer. The present paper empirically shows that PUNNs with unbounded weights are difficult to train and do not perform well for catchment runoff forecasting. However, a very good predictive performance may be achieved when the weights are bounded within [-1, 1] interval. Several variants of optimization methods, mostly Differential Evolution-based algorithms, and a few approaches enabling good generalization capabilities of neural networks are compared in order to select the appropriate technique for PUNNs training. PUNNs with parameters bounded within [-1, 1] interval are shown to outperform Multi-Layer Perceptron neural networks and HBV conceptual model for runoff forecasting case study at Annapolis River, Nova Scotia, Canada. Gradient-based Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and Evolutionary Computation-based Differential Evolution with Global and Local Neighborhood method turn out to be the most successful among the tested training algorithms. Surprisingly, in the case of Product-Units neural networks with weights bounded within [-1, 1] interval using noise injection or early stopping do not improve the results obtained when no method to avoid overfitting is used.

Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaros?aw J.

2012-12-01

35

Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

Roesjorde, Audun

2004-08-01

36

Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

1954-09-01

37

Cellulosic ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis harboring an endoglucanase gene from Enterobacter cloacae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobactercloacae was isolated from the gut of the wood feeding termite, Heterotermes indicola, and a 2.25-kb fragment conferring cellulase activity was cloned in Escherichia coli. The cloned fragment contained a 1083-bp ORF which could encode a protein belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 8. The cellulase gene was introduced into Zymomonas mobilis strain Microbial Type Culture Collection centre (MTCC) on a plasmid and 0.134 filter paper activity unit (FPU)/ml units of cellulase activity was observed with the recombinant bacterium. Using carboxymethyl cellulose and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse as substrates, the recombinant strain produced 5.5% and 4% (V/V) ethanol respectively, which was threefold higher than the amount obtained with the original E.cloacae isolate. The recombinant Z. mobilis strain could be improved further by simultaneous expression of cellulase cocktails before utilizing it for industrial level ethanol production. PMID:20971639

Vasan, P Thirumalai; Piriya, P Sobana; Prabhu, D Immanual Gilwax; Vennison, S John

2011-02-01

38

Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

Grace, Clyde, Jr.

39

High-resolution {gamma} spectroscopy of the odd-N fission isomer {sup 237f}Pu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While so far spectroscopic studies of fission isomers concentrated on even-even nuclei, high-resolution {gamma} spectroscopy of odd-N fission isomers may allow to identify Nilsson orbitals in heavy actinide nuclei. As the first case ever studied for odd-N nuclei, the fission isomer in {sup 237}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 100ns/1.1 {mu}s) was investigated using the {sup 235}({alpha},2n) reaction with a pulsed {alpha} beam (E{sub {alpha}} =24 MeV, pulse distance 400 ns) from the Cologne Tandem accelerator. A self-supporting thick metallic {sup 235}U target (3.7 mg/cm{sup 2}) was used, where the {sup 237}Pu reaction products were stopped and fission products were emitted in opposite directions. The rare {gamma}-rays from the second potential well in delayed coincidence with fission products were measured with the MINIBALL spectrometer. Due to the small population cross section of about 2 {mu}b a large solid angle coverage both for the {gamma}-rays as well as for the fission fragments was required. A very compact 4{pi} parallel plate detector array (diameter ca. 15 cm) was used for the fission fragment detection, allowing for a discrimination between the dominant prompt fission products and the rare isomeric fission events. Results, such as the identification of rotational bands, isomeric lifetimes and angular distributions etc., will be presented. (orig.)

Morgan, T.; Csige, L.; Habs, D.; Maier, H.J.; Schuermann, C.; Schwerdtfeger, W.; Thirolf, P.G.; Wimmer, K. [LMU und Maier-Leibnitz Lab., Muenchen (Germany); Blazhev, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N. [IKP Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

2007-07-01

40

Screening unit for radio-isotope production generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The screening unit for a radio-isotope production generator, comprises a leaden base plate and a vertical leaden mantle placed thereon and provided with a leaden stop which is closable over the place of exit of the isotopes and can be moved in position in the generator, characterised in that the mantle consists of two parts, one part of which is motionless with respect to the baseplate and is provided with an opening of adequate size to pass over the generator, and the other part of which the other part is likewise provided with a through opening to permit the generator to be rotatable about an axis vertical w.r.t. the baseplate so that the opening in the stationary part may be closed. (G.C.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Products and Publications  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to products and publications of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP). Links are provided to fact sheets arranged by region in the U.S and by global and national areas. There are also links to general information such as bibliographies and publications on general geology, plate tectonics, and tsunamis. A section on information services includes links to email notification services for earthquakes, moment tensors, and seismicity reports; and RSS feeds on the latest earthquakes. There is also an extensive selection of maps, including earthquake maps, fault and landform maps, and seismic hazard and site response maps. Other materials include multimedia items (CD-ROMs and videos); open-file reports, bulletins, and circulars; and a selection of software for earthquake analysis, mapping, and data distribution. Some items are free; others are available for purchase.

42

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

43

Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

Lange, Linda L.; Detmer, Sarah

1989-01-01

44

Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

45

Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. Accordin...

Toly Chen

2012-01-01

46

Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

Sanjay RODE

2009-06-01

47

Myriad and its implications for patent protection of isolated natural products in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts and compounds of natural products have potential as alternatives to current Western medicines. However, these products may not be patentable under the statutory requirements because of their naturally-occurring nature. This article analyzes the current patenting practices for natural products in the United States, particularly in light of the recent Supreme Court ruling in Myriad, and suggests an advantageous strategy for patenting these products. Briefly, isolated natural products per se are not patentable in the United States. Therefore, patenting focus should be placed on the modification, formulation, manufacture, and application of natural products. A detailed description of each invention is highly recommended for stronger support and broader coverage of the claims.

2014-01-01

48

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

49

Short-run forecasting of United States coal production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on short-range modelling and forecasting of aggregate US monthly coal production. The 1976-83 times-series data suggest a multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to replicate national level monthly coal production. The identified model required 12-month seasonal differencing and has an autoregressive component of lag 1 and a moving average component of lag 12. Model predictions for 1984 were very reasonable when compared with actual production: cyclical patterns were correctly replicated and the deterministic increasing trend was properly identified. Intervention analysis was used to determine the impact of labour negotiations in coal production. The estimated model was enhanced by updating it with data for 1984. Information relative to the identified ARIMA model was then used to model the intervening event of labour negotiations. Intervention modelling produced forecasts for 1984 superior to those identified by the ARIMA model. The mean predicted 1984 US monthly coal production of 1976-84 ARIMA and intervention models were 96.05 and 99.65% of the observed value of 74 178 thousand short tons per month, respectively. Simplicity of the ARIMA and intervention models, the reliability of their predictions, and the ease of updating make them very attractive when compared with large scale econometric models for use in short-term coal production forecasting. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Vaziri, M.; Hutchinson, J.

1987-12-01

50

Production of short straight sections hits 100 units  

CERN Multimedia

The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

2005-01-01

51

Seasonal Unit Root: An Application to Turkish Industrial Production Series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal patterns of five Turkish manufacturing industry series which have the main characteristics of Turkish economy during the1977:1-2008:4 periods. Many economic time series are often subject to systematic fluctuations within the year such as seasonal movements. All the studies concerning time series methods are useful only when the series do not show seasonal patterns or the methods that care of seasonal patterns used. For this reason, it is important to investigate the seasonal patterns of the series when working with economic time series data. The analysis is conducted using the HEGY approach developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990. It is important to determine what kind of seasonality is present in the data. For this reason, we search for the seasonal unit root with five different models that concern, trends, constant and seasonal dummies. We provide evidence on the presence of seasonal unit roots in the Turkish manufacturing industry series. The main finding is that there are both deterministic and non-stationary stochastic seasonality in the series.

Sinem Pinar Gürel,

52

Comparing labour and total factor productivity growth and level in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States over the past century and in recent years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study contributes to the analysis of economic growth by comparing labour ant total factor productivity (TFP) in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States in the very long run (since 1890) and in the medium run (since 1980). During the past century, the United States has overtaken the United Kingdom and became the leading world economy. During the last 25 years, productivity growth has also known contrasted developments in the four countries, in particular as a result...

Cette, Gilbert; Kocoglu, Yusuf; Mairesse, Jacques

2009-01-01

53

Neutron activation analysis of petroleum feeds and products of a catalytic cracking unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Na, Al, S, Cl, V, Mn, Ni, As, Br, I, La, Eu and Dy were determined in 2 feeds and 5 products of a catalytic cracking unit. Catalysts used in this unit were also analyzed and 18 elements were measured in this matrix. The overall mass balance of the unit was calculated and it was shown that the concentrations of most elements are reduced during cracking but the concentrations of some others (Al, Dy, Eu and La) are increased. (author)

1980-01-01

54

76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers...Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain...

2011-06-13

55

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

56

Pediatric eye injuries related to consumer products in the United States, 1997–2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines which consumer products are most commonly associated with pediatric eye injuries that are treated in emergency departments in the United States. The results demonstrate that, overall, boys experienced proportionally more consumer product–related eye injuries than girls, but eye injuries from specific product categories are more likely to be associated with one sex than the other. Age-specific patterns also revealed that certain product categories are more likely to be as...

Cross, Jennifer Moren; Griffin, Russell; Owsley, Cynthia; Mcgwin, Gerald

2008-01-01

57

Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.  

Science.gov (United States)

These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production; types of…

Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

58

The Petrobras XVIII project: The deepest 100,000 BOPD floating production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the PETROBRAS experience in the management of a ``turn key`` contract covering the design, procurement, construction, commissioning, testing, pre-operation and start-up of the PETROBRAS 18 Floating Production Unit. It provides specifications and capacities of this production platform and how each phase of the planning and installation of the facility was accomplished.

Maselli, A.S.S.; Arcadier, A.S.; Lima, J.A.S.; Alencar, M.F. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-31

59

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

60

Research on Structure Learning of Product Unit Neural Networks by Particle Swarm Optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we put forward a new method to learn structure of Product Unit Neutral Network (PUNN). The technique used in our research is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The technique can optimized collocate network structure and weight of the PUNN at the same time using PSO algorithm through standard data set. Moreover, the number of Hidden Layer units of PUNN is decided by training set, not prefixed by the designer`s prior knowledge. Particles encoding scheme ...

Xian-Hui Wang; Zheng Qin; Xing-Chen Heng; Yu Liu

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Future production costs of baseload units. Toekomstige produktiekosten van basislasteenheden. Opgesteld op verzoek van de AER  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study has been made on the title subject with nuclear-, coal- or gas-based units. Two different coal-fired plants were analysed. One is a conventional coal unit in compliance with today's emission standards, the other is a cleaner but more expensive coal gasification/combined cycle (KV/STEG) plant which should be available in the year 2010. In the cost analysis three levels were used for each of the following parameters: international fuel prices, exchange rate from US-dollar to Dutch guilders, interest rate and capacity utilization. For nuclear plants investment costs were also varied. The production costs of the four options were determined for all possible combinations of parameter values. In addition to the analysis on a unit-level calculations have been made for a public power system to determine total costs and emissions. In this way it is possible to establish a relationship between restrictions on total emission of all electricity production, the chosen type of the units and the level of kWh-costs. The calculations were made for simplified power systems, in which for baseload electricity a choice was made out of a number of available, more or less clean, coal- or gas-fired baseload units or nuclear power. For non-baseload electricity three different, more or less clean, gas-fired plants could be chosen. Finally the effects of the new Dutch gas-pricing policy on the costs of baseload production have been analysed. It is now possible to get gas for electricity production for a price that will result in the same production costs for a gas- and a coal unit. For all parameter values, which determine the costs of coal-based production, the new gas price is calculated. With the parameter values used in this study the new gas price will be lower than the gas price coupled to fuel oil prices in almost every case.

Boonekamp, P.G.M.

1989-07-01

62

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

63

Study of United Kingdom product licence applications containing new active substances, 1987-9.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To investigate the fate of product licence applications containing new active substances in relation to their degree of innovation and therapeutic category. To assess the numbers of volunteers and patients exposed to a new active substance when marketing autorisation is first sought. DESIGN AND SETTING--Observational study of records for each licence application submitted to the United Kingdom licensing authority for marketing authorisation from 1987 to 1989. SUBJECTS--118 product...

Rawlins, M. D.; Jefferys, D. B.

1991-01-01

64

Unit labor cost and productivity recovery under non neutral technical change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document proposes a new decomposition of unit labor cost changes (ULC) in terms of efficiency, technical progress and capital deepening. This decomposition is applied to data for western European countries and the US. Results show that sustained growth rates of labor compensation and poor labor productivity gains lead to large losses in cost competitiveness. The poor productivity performance is explained by low technical progress and even technical regress. In addition, it is shown that ...

Dimaria, Charles-henri; Peroni, Chiara

2012-01-01

65

27 CFR 26.201a - Production in the Virgin Islands for tax-free shipment to the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Production in the Virgin Islands for tax-free shipment to the United...ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.201a Production in the...

2010-04-01

66

Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

2009-01-01

67

Two performance indicators for the characterization of the entropy production in a process unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two indicators are presented to compare the Second law performances of different design-variants of the same process unit. The first indicator relates the entropy production to quantities like the total transferred thermal energy and the total chemical conversion. This allows a useful comparison, even in the case of different inlets and outlets. An important aspect of the entropy production in a process unit is its distribution. An even distribution, also known as equipartition of entropy production (EoEP), is related to an optimal design. The second indicator is based on the coefficient of variation of a local entropy production profile and allows one to calculate and compare degrees of equipartition of different designs. Both indicators have been used in a study on the entropy production minimization of a plug-flow reactor. A comparison using the first indicator showed that the optimized reactors perform slightly better than a comparison based on the total entropy production alone would suggest. This shows that the total entropy production is not always a good indicator. The second indicator was found to provide an excellent numerical basis for comparing the degrees of EoEP of the different designs. -- Highlights: ? Tools have been developed to compare in a fair manner the energy efficiency of different process units. ? Such comparisons can be difficult when boundary conditions vary, but this study presents one performance indicator that can handle such a situation, using the specific entropy production. ? The other indicator measures the deviation from an ideal state of uniform entropy production (equipartition of entropy production), which in certain cases is the state of minimum energy dissipation.

2011-06-01

68

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

69

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

1997-06-01

70

Potential by-product uranium production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating uranium resources, one must not overlook the possibilities of recovering uranium as a by-product of other industries. The technology for recovering by-product uranium from phosphoric acid has been known for many years, but only recently have market conditions encouraged production. Even with recent improvements in process technology, many problems are still encountered in scale-up from laboratory and pilot plant operation to commercial production. Some of these problems are discussed in this review of the process technology. A recent USDOE study shows a total capital cost of US $12 million for a by-product uranium plant designed to recover 40 to 60 t U/a from 30% P_2O_5 acid provided by a phosphoric acid plant with a capacity of 155,000 t P_2O_5/a. Operating costs were estimated at US $50 to 65/kg U ($20-25/lb U_3O_8), assuming the phosphoric acid contains 120 to 160 mg U/l and a raffinate of 13 mg U/l. The quantity of uranium recovered and the operating costs are highly sensitive to the uranium content of the acid. Constraints to by-product uranium production, besides low uranium content of the acid are small-size phosphoric acid plants and high strength (>40% P_2O_5) acid. Similarly the technology for recovery of uranium from copper waste dump leach liquors has been known for several years. It was developed in the mid-1960s by the US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with Kennecott Copper Corporation at its Bingham Canyon mine near Salt Lake City, Utah. Commercial application was first realized when an ion-exchange plant to recover about 55 t U/a commenced operation in 1978. (author)

1979-10-04

71

Automatic speed control of conventional beam pumping units in heavy oil production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems inherent in the production of heavy oil are not found in the production of higher gravity crude. A great deal of time and resources has been expended researching various methods of both reservoir stimulation and production, with somewhat limited success. Modern Production Services, Inc. (MPS) of Fort Worth, Texas, has been heavily involved in research and development of technology in the production of heavy oil for nearly three years. The resultant ACCU DRIVE 4140 control system for conventional beam pumping units has shown dramatic results in increasing production while simultaneously reducing maintenance problems. By working closely with several oil companies, MPS has developed a completely automatic control system that varies the pumping rate within a stroke in such a manner as to optimize oil production. In addition, as well conditions change, the system changes pump rates to continue maximum production. Five wells are presently being produced by Maraven that had heretofore posed such problems as to be not economical. Other wells have shown marked increases in production and reductions in component stress. The reduction of problems commonly encountered and the increase of production by automatically varying pump rates within a stroke is the subject of this paper.

Best, L. [Modern Production Services, Inc., Roanoke, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

72

A versatile floating production unit: the DP FPSO for Brazilian waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in drilling and completion techniques have resulted in improved well system design and completion reliability. Extended reach wells, multi-laterals, smart wells producing from multiple pay-zones and a range of completion methods provide high well production rates and significant recoverable reserves per well. During the initial phase of a field development, limited or no data may be available concerning the hydrocarbon reservoir. An extended well test facility or early production facility can provide additional high-quality production data related to properties of the recovered hydrocarbons, reservoir drive mechanism, reservoir pressure and temperature, etc. By obtaining critical reservoir and production data during the initial project phase, technical and commercial risks can be further quantified and a possible field development plan optimized. With exploration and production operations in deeper water, the cost for traditional (passive) station keeping systems of floating offshore structures has increased accordingly. Hardware and offshore installation costs associated with a passive mooring system of a floating offshore facilities can be significant, especially in case of operations in remote deep water areas and with frequent relocations. A DP system provides a cost-effective and proven means of station keeping and has been extensively applied to deep water drilling units. Operating as a first-stage field development unit, the DP-FPSO will enable a cost-effective means to gain valuable reservoir and production data, while generating early sales revenues. (author)

Cann, Bram Van; Poldervaart, Leen [SBM Inc., Marly (Switzerland); Beenen, Marco [Gusto Engineering B.V. (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

73

Effect of upwelling on phytoplankton productivity of the outer southeastern United States continental shelf  

Science.gov (United States)

Gulf Stream frontal disturbances cause nutrient-rich waters to frequently upwell and intrude onto the southeastern United States continental shelf between Cape Canaveral, Florida and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Phytoplankton response in upwelled waters was determined with three interdisciplinary studies conducted during April 1979 and 1980, and in summer 1978. The results show that when shelf waters are not stratified, upwelling causes productive phytoplankton (diatom) blooms on the outer shelf. Phytoplankton production averages about 2 g C m -2 d -1 during upwelling events, and 'new' production is 50% or more of the total. When shelf waters are stratified, upwelled waters penetrate well onto the shelf as a subsurface intrusion in which phytoplankton production averages about fives times higher than the nutrient-depleted overlying mixed layer. Phytoplankton within the intrusion deplete upwelled NO 3 in about 7 to 10 days, at which point no further net increase in phytoplankton biomass occurs. Current meter records show that upwelling occurs roughly 50% of the time on the outer shelf during November to April (shelf not stratified), and we estimate that seasonal primary production in upwelled waters is 175 g C m -2 6 months -1 of which at least 50% is 'new' production. More than 90% of outer shelf primary and 'new' production occurs during upwelling and thus upwelling is the dominant process affecting primary productivity of the outer shelf. Our seasonal estimates of outer shelf primary and 'new' production are, respectively, three and ten times higher than previous estimates that did not account for upwelling.

Yoder, James A.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Stephen Bishop, S.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lee, Thomas N.

1983-04-01

74

Research on Structure Learning of Product Unit Neural Networks by Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we put forward a new method to learn structure of Product Unit Neutral Network (PUNN. The technique used in our research is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. The technique can optimized collocate network structure and weight of the PUNN at the same time using PSO algorithm through standard data set. Moreover, the number of Hidden Layer units of PUNN is decided by training set, not prefixed by the designer`s prior knowledge. Particles encoding scheme is simple and effective. The design of fitness function considers not only the mean square error between networks output and desired output, but also the number of hidden layer units. Therefore, the resulting network can alleviate the problem of over-fitting. The results of the experiment indicate that PSPUNN algorithm can achieve rational architecture for PUNN relying on standard data set and the resulting networks hence obtain strong generalization abilities.

Xian-Hui Wang

2008-01-01

75

Maximising methane production in stressed fermentation systems for swine production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For economic reasons, digestion systems must be designed to allow the most compact plant. This forces heavy organic loading and relatively short detention times. Consequently, the digestion system is operating in the region approaching instability. An investigation into the effects on methane productivity of the method used to load anaerobic digesters has shown that when operating in regions approaching stress the method of loading plays a major role in maximising energy output. Since the digestion system is designed for steady-state loading, while the actual operating conditions are dynamic, the loading of the system actually varies greatly and is never at steady state. In loading the digestion system, two methods are available. Either Volatile Solids (VS) loading concentration will vary and loading volume remain constant or loading volume will vary and VS loading concentration remain constant. The choice of which operational method is used in a digestion system already operating under heavy loading greatly affects methane productivity. The internal energy usage of the plant also is affected. Results indicate that gross methane production is approximately 33% higher and VS reduction is increased by 28% for the fermentation plant operating with a varying detention time when compared to operating the same plant with a varying loading concentration. (Refs. 14).

Hill, D.T.

1984-01-01

76

Floating production, storage and off-loading unit of LNG; Kaijo futaishiki LNG seisan setsubi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are a floating production, storage and off-loading unit for LNG (LNG FPSO) and the SPB LNG tank used therein. The tank for an LNG FPSO unit must meet several basic conditions simultaneously. First of all, it must be free from sloshing-related problems at an intermediate liquid level, because the liquid level varies during the production process. It must provide a wide area for the plant on the deck. The tank must be easily maintained and inspected on the spot. The SPB tank, being square, easily meets the above conditions, when used for an FPSO unit. In particular, it can efficiently prevent sloshing at an intermediate liquid level while the tank is rolling, because it is plate-structured with partitions inside, making it operable over a wide liquid level range. The floating natural gas liquefaction plant is expected to find wide use towards the 21st. century, not only for FPSO units but also for floating terminals and storage systems, and for LPG and refining facilities. 3 refs., 6 figs.

Fujitani, T.; Mori, M.; Aoki, E. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-30

77

Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co., SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

78

Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

2010-10-01

79

Successful production of the engineering development unit (EDU) primary mirror segment and flight unit tertiary mirror for JWST  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2009, Tinsley finished most of the Configuration 1 pre-cryo test Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) operations on the James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror segments and in mid-2009 we began the Configuration 2 post-cryo test CCOS operations. After completing the grinding and polishing operations, including final figuring to a cryo-null target, we delivered the finished Engineering Development Unit (EDU) to Ball Aerospace Technology Corporation on 4 December 2009. Achieving fabrication and metrology conditions to meet the specifications for this off-axis ~1.5 m hexagonal point-to-point segmented mirror required special methods. Achieving repeatable and accurate interferometric alignment of the off-axis aspherical mirror surface and stable thermal gradient control of the beryllium substructure during tests required rigorous component and system-level validation. Final optical wavefront measurements over the various spatial frequency ranges have demonstrated that all of the requirements are met. This success has validated our processes of fabrication and metrology and allows us to proceed with the production of the 18 flight mirror segments. The first finished flight mirror, the Tertiary Mirror, was shipped to BATC on 24 February, 2010. Performance of that mirror is reported here also.

Arneson, Andrea; Alongi, Chris; Bernier, Rob; Boese, Ed; Daniel, Jay; Dettmann, Lee; Garfield, Robert; Glatzel, Holger; Kincade, John; Johnson, Patrick; Lee, Allen; Magruder, Adam; Patel, Ankit; Seilonen, Martin; Surges, Gary; Bergeland, Mark; Brown, Robert J.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Cohen, Lester M.

2010-07-01

80

An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

The secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States market evolution and product valuation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we discuss the secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States of America. First, we give an overview of the life settlement market: how it came into existence, its growth prospects and the ethical issues it arises. Secondly, we discuss the characteristics of the \tdifferent life insurance products present in the market and describe how life settlements are originated. Life settlement transactions tend to be long and complex transactions that require the invol...

Unti, Marco

2010-01-01

82

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 16...

2011-01-01

83

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

84

Potential bioenergy production and climate change mitigation in marginal lands of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing feedstocks from marginal lands is becoming an increasingly attractive choice for producing biofuel as an alternative energy to fossil fuels. Here we used a biogeochemical model to estimate bioenergy potential and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from bioenergy crops grown on marginal lands in the United States. Two broadly tested cellulosic crops, switchgrass and Miscanthus, were assumed to be grown on the abandoned land and mixed crop-vegetation land with marginal productivity. Production of biomass and biofuel as well as net carbon exchange and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated in a spatially explicit manner. We found that, cellulosic crops, especially Miscanthus, could produce a considerable amount of biomass, thus ethanol on these marginal lands. For every hectare of marginal land, switchgrass and Miscanthus could produce 1.4-2.3 kL and 4.1-6.9 kL ethanol, respectively. The actual amount of ethanol production depends on nitrogen fertilization rate and biofuel conversion efficiency. Switchgrass has high global warming intensity (100-190 g CO2eq L-1 ethanol), in terms of GHG emissions per unit ethanol produced. Miscanthus, however, emits only 21-36 g CO2eq to produce every liter of ethanol. To reach the mandated cellulosic ethanol target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 in the United States, growing Miscanthus on the marginal lands could save a large amount of land and reduce GHG emissions in comparison to growing switchgrass.

Qin, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

2013-12-01

85

Commercial testing of a unit for high-temperature removal of corrosion products from water coolant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently interest has been shown in the Soviet and foreign nuclear power industries in the removal of corrosion products from hot (150-300C) flows of water coolant. This interest is explained by the need to increase the efficiency of removal of corrosion products from the loops of an atomic power plant in order to lower the rate of formation of deposits of such corrosion products on the in-loop surfaces, especially the heat-transfer surfaces. Filter materials - heat-resistant titanium-based inorganic sorbents - have been developed and investigated for removal of corrosion products from hot flows of water coolant at atomic power plants. The basic regularities underlying the process of filtration on sorbent beds have been studied. The efficiency of removal from water of corrosion products and radionuclides produced by corrosion is 50-95% for total iron, 80-85% for 51Cr, 90% for 54Mn, 99% for 56Mn, 90% for 59Fe, 50-70% for 60Co, 95% for 95Nb, and 95% for 95Zr. Technologies for sorbent regeneration and hydraulic reloading, a design for a high-temperature filter, and the layout of a treatment system have been developed. The information amassed to date served as the basis for the creation of the high-temperature treatment unit at the Beloyarsk Atomic Power Plant. This paper presents the results of the testing of a commercial unit for high-temperature treatment of water coolant. Such units have been included in the plans for a number of atomic power plants and heat-and-electric generating plants. The testing therefore was conducted to gain experience in their operation

1990-01-01

86

Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as how those initiatives might affect various aspects of the sustainability of egg production. PMID:21177465

Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

2011-01-01

87

Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their AI programs with a high degree of success. In the United States, slow adoption rates of these technologies may result in a future loss of international market share of beef products as other nations take advantage not only of the additional kilogram of beef that can be produced but also the improved quality of beef that can be realized through incorporation of reproductive technologies and resultant genetic improvement. However, current difficulties the US producers have with the incorporation of applied reproductive technologies, such as TAI, MOET, and sex semen, must not be the reason to overlook and incorporate more traditional reproductive technologies such as castration, breeding season management, or weaning. In many cases, beef producers in the United States fail to incorporate these more traditional technologies, which results in a reduction in production efficiency of the US beef industry. This chapter will focus on both traditional and more developed reproductive technologies that will play a role in enhancing future production efficiencies of the US beef cattle production system. PMID:24170356

Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

2014-01-01

88

Effect of upwelling on phytoplankton productivity of the outer southeastern United States continental shelf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gulf Stream frontal disturbances cause nutrient-rich waters to frequently upwell and intrude onto the southeastern United States continental shelf between Cape Canaveral, Florida and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Phytoplankton response in upwelled waters was determined with three interdisciplinary studies conducted during April 1979 and 1980, and in summer 1978. The results show that when shelf waters are not stratified, upwelling causes productive phytoplankton (diatom) blooms on the outer shelf. Phytoplankton production averages about 2 g Cm/sup -2/ d/sup -1/ during upwelling events, and new production is 50% or more of the total. When shelf waters are stratified, upwelled waters penetrate well onto the shelf as a subsurface intrusion in which phytoplankton production averages about fives times higher than the nutrient-depleted overlying mixed layer. Phytoplankton within the intrusion deplete upwelled NO/sub 3/ in about 7 to 10 days, at which point no further net increase in phytoplankton biomass occurs. Current meter records show that upwelling occurs roughly 50% of the time on the outer shelf during November to April (shelf not stratified), and the authors estimate that seasonal primary production in upwelled waters is 175 g C m/sup -2/ 6 months/sup -1/ of which at least 50% is new production. More than 90% of outer shelf primary and new production occurs during upwelling and thus upwelling is the dominant process affecting primary productivity of the outer shelf. Seasonal estimates of outer shelf primary and new production are respectively, three and ten times higher than previous estimates that did not account for upwelling. 12 figures, 2 tables.

Yoder, J.A.; Atkinson, L.P.; Bishop, S.S.; Hofmann, E.E.; Lee, T.N.

1983-01-01

89

Laboratory and field tests of a hassock fan-ion generator radon decay product removal unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory tests in a radon chamber of a hassock fan-ion generator unit, developed for reducing airborne radon decay product concentrations inside buildings, produced reductions in potential alpha energy concentrations (PAECs) ranging from 83% to 86%. Similar reductions were observed in rooms in a home with relatively high radon concentrations. Reductions in a home with relatively low radon concentrations ranged from 76% to 79%. The time required for the removal unit to reach the point of maximum reduction was 6 to 8 h. A major share of the reduction occurred within the first 3 to 4 h. The speed of the fan, which was variable, had little effect on the ultimate removal efficiency. Reductions in the dose equivalent to the lungs, estimated on the basis of laboratory studies utilising several lung dosimetric models, were only slightly less than the observed reductions in PAECs. (author)

1987-12-07

90

Computer-controlled radiochemical synthesis: a chemistry process control unit for the automated production of radiochemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer-controlled general purpose chemistry process control unit (CPCU) suitable for the automated production of radiochemicals has been developed. This valve-and-tubing synthesis system can be user programmed to accommodate a variety of chemical processes. In a practical demonstration of its utility, the CPCU has been configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) using aqueous [18F]fluoride ion. The unit has been similarly configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-mannose (48% EOB), 3-(2'-[18F]fluoroethyl)spiperone (29% EOB), and [18F]fluoroacetate (66% EOB) from aqueous [18F]-fluoride ion, and 2-[18F]FDG from gaseous acetyl hypo[18F]fluorite (20% EOB). (author)

1989-01-01

91

Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production  

Science.gov (United States)

This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits. I describe how biofuel governance focuses on scientific practices that legitimize biofuel production for their capacity to marginally reduce greenhouse gas emissions, despite biofuels' agroecological consequences outside this regulatory purview. These consequences include pressure on conservation and agrienvironmental practice, which could be better supported through existing, highly effective, place-based, democratic institutions dedicated to stewarding the resources upon which agricultural livelihoods depend.

Gillon, Sean Thomas

92

Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA)

1986-01-21

93

Tobacco product use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011 and 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco product use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2012, the prevalence of current tobacco product use among middle and high school students was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product, with prevalence of use at 2.8% and 12.6%, respectively. From 2011 to 2012, electronic cigarette use increased significantly among middle school (0.6% to 1.1%) and high school (1.5% to 2.8%) students, and hookah use increased among high school students (4.1% to 5.4%). During the same period, significant decreases occurred in bidi and kretek use among middle and high school students, and in dissolvable tobacco use among high school students. A substantial proportion of youth tobacco use occurs with products other than cigarettes, so monitoring and prevention of youth tobacco use needs to incorporate other products, including new and emerging products. Implementing evidence-based interventions can prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. In addition, implementation of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, also is critical to addressing this health risk behavior. PMID:24226625

2013-11-15

94

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C. W.

2010-10-01

95

Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

M. R. Bakhshi

2011-12-01

96

Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

2014-07-01

97

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. This chemistry also substantially reduces the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 6% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that heterogeneous production of ClNO2 can further increase O3 and reduce TNO3 if elevated particulate-chloride levels are present in the atmosphere.

G. Sarwar

2012-07-01

98

Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over the eastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the first regional-scale assessment of aerosol effects on plant productivity and surface energy fluxes over the eastern United States. Analysis is conducted using an established modeling framework, which is composed of a regional land surface model, regional daily aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates, and meteorological forcings. The sensitivity experiments were conducted from May to September in 2000 and 2001 over the eastern United States with and without the aerosol light scattering effect. Results show that the aerosol light scattering effect results in enhanced productivity for high-LAI and optimum temperature environments under cloudless-sky conditions around noon, while it results in least productive for low-LAI, low-temperature environments under cloud-sky conditions in early morning or late afternoon. As a result, domain-averaged plant productivities, measured as net primarily production, are changed by -0.71 g C m-2 (-0.09%) in 2000 and +5.00 g C m-2 (+0.5%) in 2001. These responses of plant productivity and photosynthesis to the aerosol light scattering effect uniquely modulate the surface flux as follows. The aerosol light scattering effect reduces the surface downwelling solar radiation (14.9 W m-2 in 2000 and 16.0 W m-2 in 2001) and net radiation in vegetation canopy, but simultaneously increases the photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Consequently, surface latent heat flux (transpiration and evaporation) is reduced by a small amount particularly over the forests, while aerosol loading often results in larger reduction in the sensible heat flux. For the whole domain, latent heat flux is changed by -3.10 W m-2 (-2.1%) in 2000 and -3.12 W m-2 (-2.1%) in 2001, sensible heat flux is changed by -7.57 W m-2 (-12.9%) in 2000 and -8.36 W m-2 (-11.3%) in 2001, and surface skin temperature is changed by -0.25 K (-0.1%) in 2000 and -0.27 K (-0.1%) in 2001.

Matsui, Toshihisa; BeltráN-Przekurat, Adriana; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger A.; Coughenour, Michael

2008-07-01

99

Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals. PMID:22324295

Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

2012-03-01

100

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

G. Sarwar

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw and ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulase, Tween 80, and ?-glucosidase loading were studied and optimized by response surface methodology to improve saccharification. Microwave alkali-pretreated rice straw used as substrate for onsite enzyme production by Aspergillus heteromorphus and Trichoderma reesei. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis (84%) was obtained from rice straw at crude enzyme loading of 10 FPU/gds of cellulase, 0.15% Tween 80, and 100 international unit/g dry solids of ?-glucosidase activities. Enzymatic hydrolyzate of pretreated rice straw was used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scheffersomyces stipitis, and by co-culture of both. The yield of ethanol was 0.50, 0.47, and 0.48 g(p)/g(s) by S. cerevisiae, S. stipitis, and by co-culture, respectively, using pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate. The co-culture of S. cerevisiae and S. stipitis produced 25% more ethanol than S. cerevisiae alone and 31% more ethanol than S. stipitis alone. During anaerobic fermentation 65.08, 36.45, and 50.31 ?mol/ml CO(2) released by S. cerevisiae, S. stipitis, and by co-culture, respectively. The data indicated that saccharification efficiency using optimized crude enzyme cocktail was good, and enzymatic hydrolyzate could be fermented to produce ethanol. PMID:22249725

Singh, Anita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

2012-02-01

102

Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification  

CERN Document Server

This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

2012-01-01

103

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

Danchev, Peter.

104

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent results due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006 and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011.Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y recientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006 and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011.

Peter Danchev

2012-01-01

105

An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m3/s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

1991-06-01

106

Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

D. P. Turner

2007-04-01

107

Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

D. P. Turner

2007-08-01

108

Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 10"9 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 10"1"2 of I-131. (author)

1990-01-01

109

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

1993-12-31

110

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

1993-08-16

111

Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (? = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (? = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

2014-07-15

112

New products formed due to interaction of fuel and construction materials in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of damages in the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP are given. Regions of localization of released fuel are indicated and its modifications are characterized. Correlation of location and routes of sample selection for one of typical products of fuel interaction with structural materials of the unit - 'elephant's foot' - are presented. Results of physochemical an radiochemical analyses are produced. Certain assumptions are made as to possible scenario of accident in the south-east guadrant of the reactor vault

1990-01-01

113

Returns and determinants of technical efficiency in small-scale Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stochastic frontier production function was employed to measure technical efficiency and its determinants in smallholder Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India. Data were obtained from 100 goat farmers in northern Kerala, selected using multistage random sampling. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Cost and return analysis showed that the major expenditure was feed and fodder, and veterinary expenses were secondary. The chief returns were the sale of live animals, milk and manure. Individual farm technical efficiency ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.88. The study found herd size (number of animal units) and centre (locality of farm) significantly affected technical efficiency, but sex of farmer, education, land size and family size did not. Technical efficiency decreased as herd size increased; half the units with five or more adult animals had technical efficiency below 60 %. PMID:23666514

Alex, Rani; Kunniyoor Cheemani, Raghavan; Thomas, Naicy

2013-11-01

114

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

115

Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

1982-09-13

116

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

R. Dinkov

2007-12-01

117

Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-07-01

118

Medical costs and productivity losses of cancer survivors - United States, 2008-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of persons in the United States with a history of cancer has increased from 3 million in 1971 to approximately 13.4 million in 2012, representing 4.6% of the population. Given the advances in early detection and treatment of cancer and the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cancer survivors is projected to increase by >30% during the next decade, to approximately 18 million. Cancer survivors face many challenges with medical care follow-up, managing the long-term and late effects of treatments, monitoring for recurrence, and an increased risk for additional cancers. These survivors also face economic challenges, including limitations in work and daily activities, obtaining health insurance coverage and accessing health care, and increasing medical care costs. To estimate annual medical costs and productivity losses among male and female cancer survivors and persons without a cancer history, CDC, along with other organizations, analyzed data from the 2008-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The results indicate that the economic burden of cancer survivorship is substantial among all survivors. For male cancer survivors, during 2008-2011, average annual medical costs and productivity losses resulting from health problems per person and adjusted to 2011 dollars were significantly higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, by $4,187 and $1,459, respectively; for females, the estimated annual costs per person were $3,293 and $1,330 higher among cancer survivors than among persons without a cancer history, respectively. These findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate health and employment intervention programs aimed at improving outcomes for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:24918485

Ekwueme, Donatus U; Yabroff, K Robin; Guy, Gery P; Banegas, Matthew P; de Moor, Janet S; Li, Chunyu; Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Soni, Anita; Davidoff, Amy; Rechis, Ruth; Virgo, Katherine S

2014-06-13

119

Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu2O, CuO, Cu(OH)2)-water (H2O)-gas (H2, O2)-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu2O and Cu(OH)2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10-2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

1989-06-20

120

Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Californium-252 source production in the United Kingdom the first five years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1970 the USAEC announced that they were going to offer their new nuclide, californium-252, for sale but that sealed sources could only be purchased from commercial encapsulators. Since that time a number of firms in the USA have developed the necessary expertise in source production. In Europe, CEA (France) and the Radiochemical Center (UK) have established themselves as suppliers of californium-252 sources. Although 252Cf is available from Savannah River in the form of wire, pellets, or oxide, the United Kingdom practice has been to prefer the use of oxide. Using this material the encapsulator is able to produce sources of widely differing activities and physical shapes from one batch of starting material. By use of solution sub-division techniques carried out in shielded cells, large numbers of sources with activities ranging from 0.001 ?g (2 x 103 n/sec) to 1.7 mg (4 x 109 n/sec) have been produced. These sources have been used for research, medical, and industrial applications

1976-04-28

122

Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

1991-01-01

123

Expert system for maintenance/troubleshooting of final product unit (unit-18) Heavy Water Plant - Tuticorin (Paper No. 3.8)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An EXPERT system has been developed at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin to allow quick operator detection and diagnose incipient failures. The EXPERT system can monitor the input data and try to diagnose the root cause of the failure and suggest the maintenance personnel correct mode of approach to solve the problem. Initial development steps include writing the program fault tree and failure modes and its effect on the operation of the process. Fault tree models display the logical relationship between critical events and possible ways in which the events can occur. As a developmental effort, unit 18 (final product unit) process loop instrumentation of heavy water plant is taken as prototype for trying the EXPERT system. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

1992-02-01

124

Work styles, attitudes, and productivity of scientists in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A comparison by gender  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With scientific research growing increasingly multidisciplinary in nature, team playing and communication skills have become critical in the achievement of scientific breakthroughs. This study adds valuable evidence to the oft-cited 'productivity puzzle' in the sciences by comparing the work styles, attitudes, and productivity of female and male scientists. The application of t-test analysis to data on scientists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands indicates that women report relative...

2006-01-01

125

Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

1999-07-01

126

Method of increasing productivity of sucker-rod deep-pump unit by adding a viscoelastic liquid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of the effect of adding a viscoelastic liquid on the operation of a piston pump. A design was created for adding the viscoelastic fluid in order to increase productivity of the sucker-rod deep-pump unit.

Abaydulin, Sh.A.

1983-01-01

127

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

2012-01-01

128

Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

2011-01-01

129

Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 420/00.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructor's guide for an advanced beef unit contains 15 lessons that build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references and materials for the…

Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

130

Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

131

The Way of Establishing a Relative Position for Some Production Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The CRAFT Method was at the basis of the development of the heuris-tic commuting models, in which one starts from an initial emplacement of units that is successively improved, through the successive commuting of units among them on the basis of some criteria. In the present paper we have resolved to the Facility Location and Layout module of the WinQSB program that uses the CRAFT Method in solving problems of the Functional Layout type.

Olga Ioana Amariei

2010-01-01

132

Event selector on the two-dimensional analysis programmable unit basis for separation of proton cumulative production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A triggering system on the basis of two-dimensional analysis programmable units provides separation of proton cumulative production processes at the SIGMA-AYaKS installation. Protons and pions mass selection are realized on the basis of analysis of particle time-of-flight and kinetic energy. To suppress the accidental triggering noise, a unit, analyzing particle time-of-flight for two scintillation counters, positioned at different distances from the target. The use of two-dimensional programmable units based on fast-response analog-to-digital converters has permitted to realize the second-level trigger function during about 110ns and reduce the number of start-ups of the installation 5-10 times

1989-01-01

133

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

2009-01-01

134

Changes in value-added wood product manufacturer perceptions about certification in the United States from 2002 to 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Certification is a voluntary mechanism which involves assessing either forest management practices or chain-of-custody tracking through supply chains against a set of standards. Certification is becoming an important market requirement particularly in value-added wood product sectors such as furniture, flooring and millwork. In 2002 and 2008 we conducted national studies in the United States to identify value-added wood industry perspectives and participation in certification and to see what ...

2009-01-01

135

Vitrification of fission product wastes: industrial experience and construction of the new vitrification units at La Hague  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first industrial-scale unit for vitrification of fission product wastes was commissioned at Marcoule in France in 1978. Operating experience has been applied in design and construction of the R7 and T7 units at La Hague for vitrification of fission product solutions from the new UP2-800 and UP3 reprocessing plants, (annual capacity of 1,600 tonnes of LWR spent fuel). After outlining the vitrification process, this paper presents the sustained throughput performances achieved during 9 years operation of the continuous vitrification line at Marcoule, plus information concerning technologies, maintenance, process effluents and safety. It then describes the new R7 and T7 units with their six 25 kg/hour glass production lines. Emphasis is placed on the process-related and technological changes, layout optimizations and main innovations decided to improve operation and achieve economies of scale in extrapolating from the 15 kg/hour line at Marcoule. Storage facility design for vitrified waste containers is briefly presented

1987-01-01

136

Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción / Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de [...] vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from [...] the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

Edgar, Chacón; Isabel, Besembel; Dulce M, Rivero; Juan, Cardillo.

137

Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

1995-01-01

138

Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

2013-01-01

139

Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy-wide impacts of the current ethanol production with a government subsidy and the LCF-to-ethanol production using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process. The model is innovative in three ways. First, a production subsidy is explicitly included in the model. Second, co-products are explicitly accounted for in ethanol production. Third, ethanol and gasoline are treated as perfect demand substitutes, as are the co-products and the manufacturing sector's output. The CGE model shows that current ethanol production expands grain crop production by creating an additional demand. In contrast, LCF-to-ethanol production has adverse impacts on grain crop production because Biomass feedstocks substitute for grain in the production of ethanol. The LCF-to-ethanol production also discourages the manufacturing industry because co-products displace a part of intermediate input demand for manufacturing outputs. It is also found that, even though ethanol production using TVA's conversion technology with MSW is economically viable, it is not favorable to the economy. Finally, the results suggest that ethanol production from Biomass feedstocks using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process is beneficial to the U.S. economy.

Choi, Youn-Sang

140

Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telep...

Fix Brian V; O'Connor Richard J; Fong Geoffrey T; Borland Ron; Cummings K M; Hyland Andrew

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

2014-02-01

142

Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security  

Science.gov (United States)

Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

2012-04-01

143

Regulation of biotechnology products in the global pharmaceutical market: the case of the European community and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biotechnology represents an opportunity for innovative products, new markets, or capital investments, depending on one's perspective. A primary consideration in regulating this industry is to ensure that innovation is not stifled yet the public is protected from potentially unsafe or ineffective products. We compared the regulatory requirements and procedures for obtaining marketing approval for biotechnology products in the European Community (EC) and the United States and identified key concerns of the biotechnology industry regarding the regulatory aspects of these products. The methodology consisted of a secondary literature review and mail survey. Biotechnology products are approved faster in the EC than the US. Both the EC and the US use advisory or expert committees in their respective approval procedures, although the EC does so more regularly. Market exclusivity provisions for biotechnology products range from 6 to 10 years in the EC compared with 7 years for "orphan" biotechnology products in the US. Regulatory affairs managers of the biotechnology industry were most concerned about application review time periods, communication with regulatory agencies, consistency in implementing regulations, and public policy changes. These concerns provide insight into the deficiencies that exist in regulatory processes and are valuable in identifying problems and implementing improvements. PMID:8519050

Hakim, Z; Kucukarslan, S

1993-01-01

144

A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

2009-05-10

145

Child death in the United States: productivity and the economic burden of parental grief.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the economic consequences associated with the death of a child. The economic costs (funeral and medical expenses and productivity losses) of child death 6 months following the death were estimated based on 213 parents who had experienced the death of a child (usually unexpectedly and predominantly mothers). Findings suggest that productivity losses associated with child death comprise most of the costs and that the economic effects are substantial. Costs associated with on-the-job productivity losses ("presenteeism") outweigh the costs associated with absenteeism. To date, no research has empirically measured both absenteeism and presenteeism following bereavement. PMID:24588841

Fox, Melanie; Cacciatore, Joanne; Lacasse, Jeffrey R

2014-10-01

146

Characterization of products containing mercury in municipal solid waste in the United States, 1970 to 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the report is to identify the products in municipal solid waste that may contain mercury and to quantify, to the extent that data are available, the mercury present in these products. Since the data are presented in a time trend (1970 to 1989), the report helps to identify which products in MSW are making declining contributions of mercury and which are increasing. The information in the report can thus be used to identify opportunities for source reduction and removal of mercury from the municipal solid waste stream.

1992-03-01

147

Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut-downs and periods of high power demand resulted in 3375 hours of separate operation over the year, giving an average bioethanol energy cost of 0.56 Euro/L. The results suggest that the polygeneration system cannot produce lignocellulosic bioethanol competitively under the given conditions, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity.

Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

148

Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as qu...

Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Dormann, B.; Decker, C.; Guerrier, Patrick

2010-01-01

149

A new MILP based approach for unit commitment in power production planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a complete, quadratic programming formulation of the standard thermal unit commitment problem in power generation planning, together with a novel iterative optimisation algorithm for its solution. The algorithm, based on a mixed-integer formulation of the problem, considers piecewise linear approximations of the quadratic fuel cost function that are dynamically updated in an iterative way, converging to the optimum; this avoids the requirement of resorting to quad...

Viana, Ana; Pedroso, J. P.

2013-01-01

150

Primary production and biovolume of various phototrophic plankton size fractions in three southeastern United States reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plankton size classes of < 3 ..mu..m consisting largely of unicellular cyanobacteria accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary production and generally represented < 5% of the total phototrophic plankton biovolume in three South Carolina reservoirs.

Tison, D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY); Wilde, E.W.

1981-04-01

151

United-atom K x-ray production in nuclear reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

The probability for compound-nucleus x-ray production P cnx in atomic collisions where long-lived compound nuclei are formed is calculated using the second-order distorted wave Born Approximation. The results are compared with a semi-classical formula which relates P cnx to the product of the K-vacancy decay rate ? K , the compound-nucleus lifetime ?, the probability of creating a K vacancy on the incoming part of the collision, and the fraction of reaction products r cn that have formed a compound nucleus. For an isolated resonance, we find that ? is just the inverse of the resonance width qG, and for the compound-nucleus reactions involving many unresolved resonances, ? is the inverse of the Erison correlation width ? C . For isobaric analog resonances ? C is expected to be larger on resonance than off resonance. The fraction of reaction products r cn is given in terms of squares of complex reaction amplitudes.

Anholt, R.

1982-12-01

152

The relationship between farmers' attitude and behaviour towards calves, and productivity of veal units  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although veal production is highly standardised, there still remains variability in productivity between farms, which might be due to the farmers' behaviour towards their animals, which in turn depends on their attitude towards animals. Fifty farms affiliated with the same veal company were studied. The farmers' behaviour with the calves was observed during one morning meal. The farmers were then asked to fill in questionnaires designed to measure their attitude towards calves, and to obtain ...

2000-01-01

153

Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under

Paul Liu

2012-05-01

154

Determination of the Desirable Size of Range Units through the Use of Aggregate Index of Productivity of Factors of Production, A Case Study in the Province of Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper utilization of ranges and their destruction have always constituted a major concern of policymakers and planners of the natural resource sector in Iran. In this article, an attempt has been made to use the aggregate index of productivity of factors of production and to present a suitable econometric model for determining the economically correct size of range management projects in the ranges of the province of Mazandaran and to specify factors influencing this size. In this study, the economically suitable size of pasture units was estimated to be 165 hectares, which is much smaller than the size of rangeland turned over to those engaged in range management in the province of Mazandaran. Moreover, results obtained showed that the number of livestock kept in ranges exceeds the economically desirable number. In other words, the suitable balance is not maintained between the size of the range and the number of Livestock kept on it. For this very reason an increase in the size of the range unit managed by each range manager and a reduction in the number of livestock kept on it constitute effective measures in increasing the productivity of ranges and in preventing farther destruction of rangeland, and it is recommended that. These measures are carried out meticulously.

Abed Vahedi

2011-06-01

155

Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ? Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ? SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ? Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ? Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ? Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

2012-11-01

156

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs) to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency). We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year) while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years). Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management). For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

2013-06-01

157

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products. We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency. We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years. Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management. For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

M. Kummu

2013-06-01

158

ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research. PMID:18791137

Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

2009-01-01

159

Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A newly developed μ-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses, considering both average values and standard deviations.

Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

160

The haverstraw experience: the first tobacco product display ban in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2012, the village of Haverstraw, New York, passed the first tobacco retail display ban in the United States. Community groups funded by the New York State Department of Health Tobacco Control Program mobilized community members to support an initiative to protect youths in their area from tobacco marketing via methods consistent with a community transformation framework. The law was soon rescinded after 7 tobacco companies and the New York Association of Convenience Stores filed a federal lawsuit against the village that challenged the law's constitutionality. We discuss lessons learned and next steps for adoption of local point-of-sale policies. PMID:24825238

Curry, Laurel E; Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Exploring the potential of Eucalyptus for energy production in the Southern United States: Financial analysis of delivered biomass. Part I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern United States offer a viable feedstock for renewable bioenergy. Delivered cost of eucalypt biomass to a bioenergy facility was simulated in order to understand how key variables affect biomass delivered cost. Three production rates (16.8, 22.4 and 28.0 Mg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, dry weight basis) in two investment scenarios were compared in terms of financial analysis, to evaluate the effect of productivity and land investment on the financial indicators of the project. Delivered cost of biomass was simulated to range from 55.1 to 66.1 per delivered Mg (with freight distance of 48.3 km from plantation to biorefinery) depending on site productivity (without considering land investment) at 6% IRR. When land investment was included in the analysis, delivered biomass cost increased to range from 65.0 to 79.4 per delivered Mg depending on site productivity at 6% IRR. Conversion into cellulosic ethanol might be promising with biomass delivered cost lower than 66 Mg{sup -1}. These delivered costs and investment analysis show that Eucalyptus plantations are a potential biomass source for bioenergy production for Southern U.S. (author)

Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Wright, J.; Saloni, D.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H. [Wood and Paper Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Abt, R. [Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

2011-02-15

162

Use and Production of Digital Information and Knowledge in Technical University Education - Co-operation of Faculty and Support Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rapidly changing educational landscape is of increasing importance in university teaching. Universities in Finland are responsible for research and education based on research. Traditionally information and support services related to using and producing knowledge, support research, and education has mostly been seen purely from the students´ perspective. Teaching in universities is still a hidden individual activity, and, as such, challenges the support units to reach and interact with the academic community. This paper will review the aspects influencing the use and production of digital information and knowledge in technical university education; examples illustrating the experiences will be given.

Anna-Kaarina Kairamo

2004-12-01

163

The Department of Energy perspective on energy perspective on isotope production in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy will continue to deliver isotope goods and services that contribute to health, well-being, and quality of life. In cooperation with its customers, stakeholders, and the public, the department has established an isotope policy that addresses the two distinct parallel needs associated with isotope availability: the need to support the research and development community with isotopes for which there are no other reliable supplies; and the need to assure a reliable and competitive supply of isotopes for which a infrastructure and market have been developed. In the face of many challenges the department's isotope program is actively pursing a course which will provide isotope customers a reliable supply at the least cost. Operating efficiency is being improved though process improvement initiatives, upgrading facilities, dual site production, and seeking to remove the uncertainty from production costs. These factors may cause some upward impact on isotope costs, but will provide better products and services to the customers

1995-11-01

164

Developments in the use of dose-area product meters in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence from national surveys have shown wide variations in exposure for the same type of examination. Such a wide variability led the Royal College of Radiologists and the National Radiological Protection Board to recomment, that regular patient dose monitoring should be an essential component of quality assurance. Consequently the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine collaborated with NRPB and the College of Radiographers to draw up a National Protocol for Patient dose Measurements in Diagnostic Radiology. Two methods for measuring dose are recommended: (a) entrance dose for individual radiographs measured by TLD, (b) dose-area-product for complete examinations with a dose-area product meter. Reference doses, presented in the paper should be used as investigation levels. Future developments should greatly increase the usefulnes of dose-area product measurements and encourage the more widespread application. (orig.)

1995-01-01

165

Climate change impacts on crop productivity in the United States: an uncertainty analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

As the recent drought direly affected crop yields in the U.S., food production declined. Uncertainty about climate change raises further concerns over food security. This study estimates the impact of climate change on rainfed and irrigated crop yields by the end of the century, ...

166

National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929-94. Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this two-volume publication, the Bureau of Economic Analysis presents the revised estimates of the national income and product accounts (NIPA's) for 1929-94 that reflect the most recent comprehensive and annual revisions of the NIPA's. The results of t...

1998-01-01

167

United-atom K X-ray production in nuclear reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The probability for compound-nucleus X-ray production Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) in atomic collisions where long-lived compound nuclei are formed is calculated using the second-order distorted wave Born Approximation. The results are compared with a semi-classical formula which relates Psub(c)sub(n)sub(x) to the product of the K-vacancy decay rate GAMMAsub(K), the compound-nucleus lifetime tau, the probability of creating a K vacancy on the incoming part of the collision, and the fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) that have formed a compound nucleus. For an isolated resonance, we find that tau is just the inverse of the resonance with GAMMA, and for the compound-nucleus reactions involving many unresolved resonances, tau is the inverse of the Erison correlation with GAMMAsub(C). For isobaric analog resonances GAMMAsub(C) is expected to be larger on resonance than off resonance. The fraction of reaction products rsub(c)sub(n) is given in terms of squares of complex reaction amplitudes.

Anholt, R.

168

Geography of the United States uranium supply: resources, production, and institutions. [Glossary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium resources and production in the US are reviewed. The time frame extends from the early development of domestic uranium in the 1940's, through 1976. The role of the Federal government is discussed. A glossary and a selected bibliography (40 references) are included. (DLC)

Mabray, J.

1981-01-01

169

Geography of the United States uranium supply: resources, production, and institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium resources and production in the US are reviewed. The time frame extends from the early development of domestic uranium in the 1940's, through 1976. The role of the Federal government is discussed. A glossary and a selected bibliography (40 references) are included

1981-01-01

170

75 FR 27614 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...written comments from the public concerning the issues...by USTR. ADDRESSES: Public comments should be submitted...provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco...other things, the Act bans the production or sale...Articles 2 and 12. Public Comment:...

2010-05-17

171

Electricity: the spearhead of the decline in the contents of total primary energy per units of gross national product  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The key point of this analysis is its definition and quantification of the notion of ''subtitution coefficient'' which records the ratio of the number of heat units of fossil sources which can be displaced by the heat equivalence of one kilowatt-hour. The break-even ratio is 2,5 to 1, but the very conservative average of a large number of substitution coefficients, some of which range as high as 100, has resulted in a ''prudent'' weighted value of 7.5, i.e. productivity coefificient of 3 to 1. Such productivity coefficients abundantly explain the starting results commmented upon throughout the article such as: ''The more electricity is used in industry, the less total primary energy is used and this reduced total includes the energy used to generate this additional electricity''.

Felix, F.

1985-01-01

172

Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results...

M. L. Imhoff C. J. Tucker W. T. Lawrence D. Stutzer R. Rusin

2000-01-01

173

The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We re-examine the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output, as well as employment, in the United States using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach developed by Pesaran and Pesaran [Pesaran, M.H., Pesaran, B., 1997. Working with Microfit 4.0. Camfit Data Ltd, Cambridge] and Pesaran, Shin and Smith [Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., Smith, R.J., 2001. Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics 16; 289-326] In particular, we focus attention on the following energy consumption variables: coal, fossil fuels, conventional hydroelectric power, solar energy, wind energy, natural gas, wood, and waste. The sample period covers 2001:1-2005:6. Our results imply that real output and employment are long run forcing variables for nearly all measures of disaggregate energy consumption. (author)

Sari, Ramazan [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Economics, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Texas Tech Univ., Rawls College of Business, Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States); Soytas, Ugur [Middle East Technical University, Department of Bus. Admin., 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2008-09-15

174

Investigating solid waste production and associated management practices in private dental units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the municipality of Thessaloniki in 2006 mercury-bearing dental wastes were not managed properly by 80% of dentists and metal-bearing waste was handled in accordance with internationally established best management practices by less than 50% of dentists. Those results were documented through a biennial field-based research study that took place in private dental units within the Thessaloniki Urban Area. For quantifying the waste produced, structured questionnaires were used and interviews with dentists were performed. In the present work, results of this survey are presented; critical parameters and factors affecting the quantity and quality of the dental waste stream are reported together with the analysis and classification of dominant conditions and needs of the dental sector in the waste management field

2008-01-01

175

Production of reformulated gasoline in the FCC unit. Effect of feedstock type on gasoline composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FCC gasoline is a major component in the total gasoline pool produced in an integrated refinery, but it contains many compounds (olefins, sulfur and aromatics) which lead to harmful automobile emissions. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of feedstock quality on gasoline composition in a range of operating variables with a constant type of catalyst. The work was carried out in an FCC pilot plant constructed and operated in CPERI. The FCC gasoline was fully analyzed in a system of GC/MS. Ten different feedstocks were used in the unit in order to investigate the feedstock physical properties which affect the gasoline yield and composition, the feed conversion and the coke yield as well. The gasoline components were measured as total hydrocarbon groups: aromatics, normal and branched olefins, normal and isoparaffins and naphthenes but special emphasis was given, in this study, for the aromatic and olefinic content of gasoline. The main conclusion of the work is that feed conversion, coke yield and gasoline yield and composition are strongly influenced by the type of FCC feedstock. It was shown that a paraffinic and an aromatic FCC feedstock produce, respectively, an olefinic or an aromatic gasoline. The hydrotreating process plays also an important role in the gasoline composition. For these feed effects detailed qualitative and quantitative information is given in the paper. Moreover, short form models were proposed for the prediction of conversion coke yield and gasoline composition as a function of the main feedstock properties. Analytical forms of these models are presented for gasoline aromatics and olefins and total conversion as well. The predictions of the models were satisfactory for all hydrocarbon groups. The models were also validated with experiments using two additional feedstocks in the pilot unit under a wide range of experimental conditions

Lappas, Angelos A.; Iatridis, Dimitris K.; Vasalos, Iacovos A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute CPERI and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Thessaloniki, PO Box 361, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece)

1999-04-06

176

Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

1988-04-24

177

Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To describe cause specific mortality and site specific cancer morbidity among workers employed in factories that produce polyurethane foams, and to determine if any part of the experience may be due to occupation, and in particular to exposure to diisocyanates. DESIGN--Historical prospective cohort study. SETTING--11 factories in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--8288 male and female production employees with some employment in the period 1958-79, and with a minimum period of employment...

Sorahan, T.; Pope, D.

1993-01-01

178

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized...

2010-01-01

179

Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well...

Wu, Gen-fu; Liu, Xiao-hua

2007-01-01

180

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2) which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Both chlorine and NO2 affect atm...

Sarwar, G.; Simon, H.; Bhave, P.; Yarwood, G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

A novel hydrogen production unit producing hydrogen under pressure without the use of a hydrogen compressor or asbestos membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was believed that the art of producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water was well established many years ago. It was apparently so well established that nobody had examined the process and kept it up to date. There where two drawbacks with the traditional systems that made them non-acceptable for the oil industry: the use of asbestos in the electrolysis cell partition membranes and the problem with delivering hydrogen under pressure without the use of a hydrogen compressor. For our first work with deoxygenating injection water we used a commercially available hydrogen generator, which proved to be a complete disaster. Aside from the asbestos membranes that the oil companies would not accept, the compressor proved very unreliable. A check with established suppliers showed no interest in delivering or developing a unit that could meet the stringent oil offshore requirements. This left us with the task of developing it ourselves, alone or in cooperation with other interested parties. As a result a cooperative effort was initiated between Elwatec, a German company specializing in electrolyzer cells for different purposes and Norsk Process, utilizing the cell in a complete system. The cell is described later in this paper. Referring to the P and ID, the hydrogen production unit (HPU) can conveniently be divided into 3 parts: The make up water treatment and supply system, the product separation and purifying system and the electrolysis cell.

Grimsrud, L. [Norsk Process AS, Oslo (Norway); Wenske, M. [Elwatec GmbH, Grimma (Germany)

1998-07-01

182

Comparison of ionisation chamber and semiconductor detector devices for measurement of the dose-width product for panoramic dental units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Doses for panoramic dental radiography are assessed in terms of the dose-width product (DWP) or dose-area product, which gives a measure of the radiation through a whole exposure. The DWP can be measured using a pencil ionisation chamber (IC) similar to that used for computed tomography dose assessment. However, ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all directions and so backscatter from the image receptor may increase the recorded dose. This study compares measurements performed using four options: a pencil IC mounted straight on the image receptor, the IC mounted with a steel plate to the rear to standardise scatter conditions, the IC mounted with a steel plate and lead collimators in front to minimise the effect of extra-focal radiation, and a Quart Dido employing a one square centimetre semiconductor detector (SD) designed for panoramic measurements. The results indicate that modification of the current method by incorporating a steel plate reduced the measurement dose by 7% on average, but the reduction was greater for units with semiconductor imaging plates. The measurements with the SD agree more closely with the IC with the steel plate to the rear. An IC with a backing plate to standardise scatter or a suitable SD is recommended for measurement on panoramic dental units. PMID:23482401

Mitchell, S A; Martin, C J

2013-06-01

183

Comparison of ionisation chamber and semiconductor detector devices for measurement of the dose–width product for panoramic dental units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses for panoramic dental radiography are assessed in terms of the dose–width product (DWP) or dose–area product, which gives a measure of the radiation through a whole exposure. The DWP can be measured using a pencil ionisation chamber (IC) similar to that used for computed tomography dose assessment. However, ICs are sensitive to radiation incident from all directions and so backscatter from the image receptor may increase the recorded dose. This study compares measurements performed using four options: a pencil IC mounted straight on the image receptor, the IC mounted with a steel plate to the rear to standardise scatter conditions, the IC mounted with a steel plate and lead collimators in front to minimise the effect of extra-focal radiation, and a Quart Dido employing a one square centimetre semiconductor detector (SD) designed for panoramic measurements. The results indicate that modification of the current method by incorporating a steel plate reduced the measurement dose by 7% on average, but the reduction was greater for units with semiconductor imaging plates. The measurements with the SD agree more closely with the IC with the steel plate to the rear. An IC with a backing plate to standardise scatter or a suitable SD is recommended for measurement on panoramic dental units. (paper)

2013-06-01

184

Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity

1980-01-01

185

Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99"mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K_2 "9"9Mo0_4) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 10"1"2 n/cm"2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi"9"9Mo/g MoO_3 to 6.25 mCi "9"9Mo/g MoO_3. However, the specific activity of "9"9Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for "9"9"mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using ?-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

1986-10-22

186

Review of upwelling off the southeastern United States and its effect on continental-shelf nutrient concentrations and primary productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gulf Stream induced upwelling occurs along the length of the southeastern United States continental shelf break. Upwelling events are produced by northward propagating Gulf Stream frontal meanders and eddies and travel northwards with these features. Meanders and eddies occur throughout the year in a period band of 2-14 days; however, resultant upwellings can affect the shelf quite differently. During fall, winter, and spring, upwelling is restricted to the outer shelf by cross-shelf density distributions, but in the summer upwelled water may penetrate across as a subsurface intrusion if aided by upwelling-favorable winds. If water does penetrate across the shelf, it may become stranded, detached from its deep-water Gulf Stream source, and may reside on the shelf for many weeks. The mass of nitrate within stranded water masses has been observed to be over 2500 metric tons nitrate-nitrogen covering an area of 2500 km/sup 2/. Gulf Stream upwelling-induced nutrient inputs dominate all other sources to the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and have a profound effect on phytoplankton production. During the fall, winter, and spring, high phytoplankton coincides with outer shelf upwelling, while in the summer production also occurs in the lower layer over the inner and middle shelf. Over one-half the phytoplankton production is considered new production. 15 references, 7 figures.

Atkinson, L.P.; Yoder, J.A.; Lee, T.N.

1984-01-01

187

Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

Kenneth M. Casebeer

2012-05-01

188

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

Haas, Kevin

2013-09-15

189

Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

Mirko C.P.

2005-01-01

190

Contact diagnostics of combustion products of rocket engines, their units, and systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is devoted to a new block-module device used in the diagnostics of condensed combustion products of rocket engines during research and development with liquid-propellant rocket engines (Glushko NPO Energomash; engines RD-171, RD-180, and RD-191) and solid-propellant rocket motors. Soot samplings from the supersonic high-temperature jet of a high-power liquid-propellant rocket engine were taken by the given device for the first time in practice for closed-exhaust lines. A large quantity of significant results was also obtained during a combustion investigation of solid propellants within solid-propellant rocket motors.

Ivanov, N. N.; Ivanov, A. N.

2013-12-01

191

The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert

2000-01-01

192

An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

2010-12-01

193

Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012.

Ackom, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

194

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Y. Choi

2008-03-01

195

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10 ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42 ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the US. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Y. Choi

2008-09-01

196

Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01

197

United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

Sean, Gillon.

198

Production and Adaptation Assessments of Agricultural Crops under Climate Change in Southeastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

We use multiple Global Climate Models (GCMs) data from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) in a point based crop simulation model, Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT), to investigate the impact of climate variability and change on crop yields in the southeastern United States. The input data consists of maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation at daily time-scale, covering 30 years (1975-2004) in the baseline period, and 90 years (2010-2100) in the future period under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. The DSSAT model is run for 1009 counties of 10 southeastern states, representing the study area. Default DSSAT crop and biophysical process parameter values are used with some minor adjustments based on suggestions from scientific literature. For the analyses of projected changes, we divide the 21st century into the near-term (2010-2039), mid-term (2040-2069) and long-term (2070-2100) periods and investigate the effect of changes in mean and extreme hydro-meteorological characteristics on crop yields by using future temperature, precipitation and CO2 data. We conduct two sets of experiments; the first set of experiments isolates the effect of temperature and precipitation on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation data from each of the three future periods while keeping CO2 at the baseline level (380ppm). The second set of experiments isolates the effect of CO2 on crop yields by using temperature and precipitation from the baseline period and using CO2 level as an average of the last 10 years in each of the three future periods (467ppm, 636ppm and 886ppm). Given the projected changes in the crop yields in the future, we focus on the adaptation strategies at the local level based on the optimal management practices such as irrigation, fertilization and planting date that will be needed to adapt to regional climate variability and change.

Absar, M.; Touma, D. E.; Mei, R.; Rastogi, D.; Surendran Nair, S.; Ahmed, K. F.; Wu, W.; Preston, B. L.; Ashfaq, M.

2013-12-01

199

Model for United States arms development and production in the nuclear - space age era  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Government and industry interorganizational policy implementation in US high technology defense projects is examined using case studies and comparative analysis as a basis for theory development. Four contemporary US defense-system engineering development and production projects are studied in order to ascertain the major contributors to their successes or failures and to determine whether differences exist in the public and private role relationships. Defense policies and procedures related to the planning, structure, and implementation of these four projects are analyzed. All the other ostensive procedures and attributes of the four projects were found to be nearly identical. The administrative project management, legal, and contractual approaches were superficially the same. Two identical government industry organizational teams were used for each closely allied pair of projects. Two the projects were direct successors of earlier successful projects. Therefore, it was expected that these projects would be as successful as their predecessors in view of project paradigm parallels. However, the results among the projects in terms of performance, user acceptance, cost, and schedule were decidedly different.

Cohen, A.R.

1986-01-01

200

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

 
 
 
 
201

Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

Stockmann Keith D

2012-01-01

202

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the actually operational effects of these parameters on the performance of MBR-SO process. As a consequence, the ratio of flow-rate draining to ozonation unit (q) to influent wastewater flow-rate (Q) was the mainly operational parameter, which was significantly affected by the sludge lysing ratio in ozonation unit (xi), produced COD per unit mass lysed MLSS (eta), observed sludge yield coefficient for wastewater (Y(obs)) and intrinsic yield coefficient for COD produced by lysed sludge (Y(2)). To keep the mixed liquid suspended solid concentration (MLSS) in MBR around 8,000 mg/L, the ratio of q/Q and xi for each batch ozonation was set at 0.0067 and 0.72, respectively. The generated EAS was continuously drained into ozonation unit at a frequency of 2 batch/d for lysing cells, and almost constant MLSS concentration with zero observed sludge yield coefficient (Y(obs)) and excellent effluent quality could be achieved in MBR except for TP concentration (only approximately 3.62% TP removal efficiency rate obtained in Test stage). The calculation of sludge disintegration number (SDN) and the maximum SDN (SDN(max)) indicated that the higher xi could reduce apparently the sludge amount needed for ozonation. The low input ozone gas concentration and high flow-rate could enhance the sludge lysing effects at same ozone dosage, and therefore lower energy consumption of 0.041Yuan (USD 0.0053)/m(3) wastewater was obtained. Overall, mass balance showed that the preset value of operation parameters listed in mathematical models matched well with trends of sludge reduction found in this experimental result. PMID:18642157

Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bao Z; Jiang, Yi F; Liu, Shuo

2008-09-01

203

Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

204

Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

2003-04-01

205

Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

Vesela Veleva

2009-02-01

206

Trends in incidence of AIDS associated with transfusion of blood and blood products in Europe and the United States, 1985-93.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To quantify patterns and trends in incidence of AIDS associated with transfusion of blood and its products in 14 European countries and the United States. DESIGN--Data were derived from the World Health Organisation's European non-aggregate AIDS dataset and, for the United States, from the Centers for Disease Control AIDS public information dataset. Rates were standardised by using the world standard populations and adjusted for reporting delays in each country. SUBJECTS--Cases of ...

1995-01-01

207

Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

208

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops ...

Mangan, Francis X.; Mendonc?a, Raquel U.; Maria Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio Nunes; Finger, Fernando L.; Zoraia de Jesus Barros; Hilton Galvão; Almeida, Gustavo C.; An, Rachel Silva; Anderson, Molly D.

2008-01-01

209

Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a relatively low cellulase loading of 15FPU/g glucan and simultaneously fermented without detoxification using Saccharomyces cerevisiae of YRH400. An ethanol yield of 217L/tonne EFB was achieved at titer of 32g/L. Compared with literature studies, SPORL produced high ethanol yield and titer with much lower cellulase loading without detoxification. PMID:24874873

Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, J Y; Jeffries, Thomas W

2014-07-01

210

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this purpose, was conducted an exploratory and qualitative researched operationalized by case study. Among the main results, it was noted collaboration between locals marketing and engineering with the R & D centers, important role of senior management in the Brazilian unit to communicate outcomes of the strategic planning of products and technologies established by the headquarters to the subsidiary, the adoption of technological and information mechanisms and the application of methods such as technology roadmap.

Daniel Jugend

2012-04-01

211

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions of each of three previous non-US incentives volumes and the conclusions of the comparisons volume which looks at incentives in four countries including the United States are summarized. Summaries of the patterns of incentive actions in France, West Germany, and Japan are presented first, followed by a summary of the four-country comparisons volume itself. Suggestions for solar policy which are based on the comparison of incentive actions in the four countries are presented. The definitions and methods used in each of the single-country studies are explained in detail in those volumes. A brief explanation of the procedures is offered. Each volume was divided into three parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; a view of the energy incentive landscape for one particular year; and an analysis of the major energy forms (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along the path from exploration to waste management, including the costs of incentives at each step in constant national currency. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: taxation, disbursements, requirements traditional services, nontraditional services, and market activities.

Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-06-01

212

A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of PCP categories or between China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ?OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ?BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 ?g/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 ?g/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics. PMID:24639116

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

213

Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

214

Use of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate–Containing Medical Products and Urinary Levels of Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Infants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in medical products made with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and may be toxic to humans. DEHP is lipophilic and binds non-covalently to PVC, allowing it to leach from these products. Medical devices containing DEHP are used extensively in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Among neonates in NICUs, we studied exposure to DEHP-containing medical devices in relation to urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), ...

Green, Ronald; Calafat, Antonia M.; Schettler, Ted; Huttner, Kenneth; Hu, Howard; Hauser, Russ B.; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Ringer, Steven Alan

2005-01-01

215

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews) unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged) increases in public invest...

Ramirez, Miguel D.

2012-01-01

216

The Impact of Migraine and the Effect of Migraine Treatment on Workplace Productivity in the United States and Suggestions for Future Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence suggests that migraine is associated with decreased productivity. This article describes the results of a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed publications that measured the impact of migraine on workplace productivity in the United States and provides recommendations for future research. A MEDLINE search was conducted from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2008. Articles were included if the results were from a prospective or retrospective study that reported work-specific produc...

Burton, Wayne N.; Landy, Stephen H.; Downs, Kristen E.; Runken, M. Chris

2009-01-01

217

Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-11-01

218

Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

2009-01-01

219

Application of digital soil mapping in traditional soil survey - an approach used for the production of the national soil map of the United Arab  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital soil maps are essential part of the soil assessment framework which supports soil-related decisions and policy-making and therefore it is of crucial importance that they are of known quality. Digital soil mapping is perhaps the next great advancement in soil survey information. Traditional soil survey has always struggled with the collection of data. The amount of soil data and information required to justify the mapping product, how to interpolate date to similar areas, and how to incorporate older data are all challenges that need further exploration. The present study used digital soil mapping to develop a generalized national soil map of the United Arab Emirates with available recent traditional soil survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate (2006-2009) and Northern Emirates (2010-2012), together with limited data from Dubai Emirate, an important part of the country. The map was developed by joining, generalizing, and correlating the information contained in the Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate, the Soil map of Dubai with limited data, and the Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates. Because the soil surveys were completed at different times and with different standards and procedures, the original map lines and soil classifications had to be modified in order to integrate the three original maps and legends into this single national level map. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 was used to guide line placement of the map units. It was especially helpful for the Torripsamments units which are separated based on local landscape relief characteristics. A generalized soil map of the United Arab Emirates is produced, which consists of fifteen map units, twelve are named for the soil great group that dominants each unit. Three are named "Rock outcrop", "Mountains", or "Miscellaneous units". Statistical details are also presented. Soil great groups are appropriate taxa to use for soil classification at a small scale, such as this national map. The map unit descriptions provide information about the general range of important soil properties of the soil great group. The overall extent of each soil map unit in the United Arab Emirates is presented, as well as the percentage of the map unit that occurs within each emirate. The general soil map provides an overview of the kinds of soils making up the United Arab Emirates and their general location.

Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C.

2012-04-01

220

High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-08-15

 
 
 
 
221

High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event

1991-12-01

222

Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere).

Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

223

Effect of sampling procedures of release testing on drug release and scale-up production feasibility of multiple-unit dextromethorphan resinate tablets: A technical note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In conclusion, multiple-unit DMP resinate tablets showed a good feasibility for scale-up production for industrial manufacturing. Good physical properties and continuous drug release of the resinate tablets in simulated GI conditions were obtained. Moreover, the variation of drug release from the resinate tablets can be accepted. This study also suggests that a high level of sampling volume and frequency should be conducted in the sampling procedure when using a fixed-volume dissolution appar...

2007-01-01

224

Aligning clinical compensation with clinical productivity: design and implementation of the financial value unit (FVU) system in an academic department of internal medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new metric was developed and implemented at the University of Kansas School of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, the financial value unit (FVU). This metric analyzes faculty clinical compensation compared with clinical work productivity as a transparent means to decrease the physician compensation variability and compensate faculty equitably for clinical work.The FVU is the ratio of individual faculty clinical compensation compared with their total work relative value units (wRVUs) generated divided by Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) salary to wRVUs of a similar MGMA physician.The closer the FVU ratio is to 1.0, the closer clinical compensation is to that of an MGMA physician with similar clinical productivity. Using FVU metrics to calculate a faculty salary gap compared with MGMA median salary and wRVU productivity, a divisional production payment was established annually.From FY 2006 to FY 2011, both total faculty numbers and overall clinical activity increased. With the implementation of the FVU, both clinical productivity and compensation increased while, at the same time, physician retention rates remained high. Variability in physician compensation decreased. Dramatic clinical growth was associated with the alignment of clinical work and clinical compensation in a transparent and equable process. PMID:23702532

Stites, Steven; Steffen, Patrick; Turner, Scott; Pingleton, Susan

2013-07-01

225

Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

1982-03-01

226

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU mlâ??1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3â??6 g lâ??1) and glutamate (3.6 g lâ??1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU mlâ??1) were also much greater (8â??150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

227

Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

2009-11-15

228

Development of a product series of high pressure pump unit sets (SIMP-UNITs) for extraction of multiphase mixtures (petroleum, petroleum gas and seawater) in offshore areas. Final report; Entwicklung einer Baureihe von Hochdruckpumpenaggregaten (SIMP-UNITs) fuer die Foerderung von Multiphasen-Gemischen (Erdoel, Erdoelgas und Seewasser) in Offshore-Gebieten. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project aims at the development of a product series of screw pumps as so-called SIMP UNITS (Subsea Installed Multiphase Pump Units) for extracting from the seabed multiphase mixtures consisting of petroleum, petroleum gas and seawater and containing impurities in the form of solids. Such SIMP Units are to permit in the medium term to dispense with offshore platforms and to exploit also minor oil fields. The following aspects are particularly important in operating such units: operating safety, non-polluting operation, economy of operation. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens ist die Entwicklung einer Baureihe von Schraubenspindelpumpen als sog. SIMP-UNITS (Subsea Installed Multiphase Pump Units) zur Foerderung von mehrphasigen Gemischen auf dem Meeresboden, die aus Erdoel, Erdoelgas und Seewasser zusammengesetzt sind und als Verunreinigungen Feststoffe enthalten. Mit Hilfe solcher SIMP-Units soll mittelfristig auf Offshore-Foerderplattformen verzichtet werden, wodurch auch Erdoelfelder geringeren Vorkommens wirtschaftlich genutzt werden koennen. Fuer den Betrieb solcher Foerdereinheiten haben folgende Punkte besondere Bedeutung: Betriebssicherheit, umweltneutraler Betrieb, Wirtschaftlichkeit. (orig./HS)

NONE

1994-12-31

229

Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

2010-01-01

230

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m?2 bar?1. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ? Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ? Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ? Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ? Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ? The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

2012-05-01

231

75 FR 52453 - Entry Requirements for Certain Softwood Lumber Products Exported From Any Country Into the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...interim amendments to title 19 of the Code of Federal...softwood lumber products exported from any country into...final rule implements Title VIII (``Softwood Lumber...softwood lumber products exported from any country into...new Sec. 12.142 of title 19 of the Code of...

2010-08-26

232

Launching a new food product or dietary supplement in the United States: industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions. PMID:24850389

Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James

2014-07-17

233

Production of L-lactic acid and oligomeric compounds from apple pomace by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: a response surface methodology assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of apple pomace for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was evaluated. The effects of the cellulase to solid ratio (CSR), the liquor to solid ratio (LSR), and the beta-glucosidase to cellulase ratio (BCR) on the kinetics of lactic acid generation were assessed, and a set of mathematical models was developed to reproduce and predict the lactic acid concentration of fermentation broths. Operating at low cellulase and cellobiase charges (1 FPU/g and 0.25 IU/FPU, respectively) and short reaction times (10 h), SSF media containing 27.8 g of lactic acid/L were obtained with a volumetric productivity of 2.78 g/Lh. Material balances showed that the SSF processing of 100 kg of dry apple pomace results in the production of 36.6 kg of lactic acid, 18.3 kg of oligomeric carbohydrates (which can be used as ingredients for functional foods), 8.4 kg of microbial biomass, and 8 kg uronic acids. PMID:17567032

Gullón, Beatriz; Garrote, Gil; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, J C

2007-07-11

234

Determination of the Desirable Size of Range Units through the Use of Aggregate Index of Productivity of Factors of Production, A Case Study in the Province of Mazandaran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Improper utilization of ranges and their destruction have always constituted a major concern of policymakers and planners of the natural resource sector in Iran. In this article, an attempt has been made to use the aggregate index of productivity of factors of production and to present a suitable econometric model for determining the economically correct size of range management projects in the ranges of the province of Mazandaran and to specify factors influencing this size. In this...

Abed Vahedi; Sadegh Khalilian; Esmaeil Yasari

2011-01-01

235

75 FR 81650 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-United Negro...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Cooperative Research and Production...Special Programs Research and Development Consortium (``UNCFSP-RDC...The general area of UNCFSP-RDC's...a) conduct research and development...Government, the Consortium and other...

2010-12-28

236

Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles substitutes at a higher rate for soybean meal, oil replacement requirements intensify and positively feedback to elevate estimates of land usage. Conclusions Accounting for anticipated technological changes in the corn ethanol system is important for understanding the associated land base ascribed, and may aid in calibrating parameters for land use models in biofuel life-cycle analyses.

2014-01-01

237

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-01

238

Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was to evaluate the use of the social media site Facebook in recruitment. In this cross-sectional study, 145 English-speaking adult patients and caregivers of children with haemophilia A were recruited through two state-based haemophilia organizations in the United States (US) and one national organization in Canada for a web-based survey assessing demographics and FVIII product ordering, usage, and storage practices. Of the 101 individuals who completed the survey, 60% resided in Canada; 57% were recruited through Facebook. Caregivers and patients responded similarly to questions about ordering practices and product usage, with some distinction between groups in storage practices. Two-thirds of participants noted challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population. PMID:24870350

DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R

2014-07-01

239

A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research would guide the additional parameter refinement required for the MOD16 and SSEBop algorithms in order to further improve their accuracy and performance for agro-hydrologic applications.

Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

2013-01-01

240

Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Final Prototypes, First Pre-series Units and Steps Towards Series Production of the LHC Main Dipoles  

CERN Document Server

The LHC, a 7 TeV proton collider presently under construction at CERN, requires 1232 superconducting dipole magnets, featuring a nominal field of 8.33 T inside a cold bore tube of 50 mm inner diameter and a magnetic length of 14.3 m. This paper summarises the results of the program of the six LHC main dipole final prototypes and presents the performance measurements of the first magnets of the 90 pre-series units currently under manufacture by industry. Results of geometric and magnetic measurements are given and discussed. Finally, the major milestones towards the dipole magnets series manufacture are given and commented.

Modena, M; Bottura, L; Buzio, M; Fessia, P; Pagano, O; Perini, D; Pugnat, P; Sanfilippo, S; Savary, F; Scandale, Walter; Siemko, A; Spigo, G; Todesco, Ezio; Vanenkov, I; Vlogaert, J; Wyss, C

2001-01-01

242

PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective. Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos.

Joel González Castillo

2012-08-01

243

Productivity growth and the role of ICT in the United Kingdom: an industry view, 1970-2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use a new industry-level dataset to quantify the role of ICT in explaining productivity growth in the UK, 1970-2000. The dataset is for 34 industries covering the whole economy (31 in the market sector). Using growth accounting, we find that ICT capital played an increasingly important, and in the 1990s the dominant, role in accounting for labour productivity growth in the market sector. Econometric evidence also supports an important role for ICT. We also find econometric evidence that a ...

Oulton, Nicholas; Srinivasan, Sylaja

2005-01-01

244

Proximate Units in Word Production: Phonological Encoding Begins with Syllables in Mandarin Chinese but with Segments in English  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mandarin Chinese, speakers benefit from fore-knowledge of what the first syllable but not of what the first phonemic segment of a disyllabic word will be (Chen, Chen, & Dell, 2002), contrasting with findings in English, Dutch, and other Indo-European languages, and challenging the generality of current theories of word production. In this…

O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Train-Min

2010-01-01

245

Acetamide Herbicides and Their Degradation Products in Ground Water and Surface Water of the United States, 1993-2003.  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies...

E. A. Scribner E. M. Thurman J. E. Dietze

2004-01-01

246

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-12-17

247

Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2013-01-01

248

Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

2012-05-01

249

Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement. PMID:20837557

Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

2011-06-01

250

Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

2010-01-01

251

Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research. PMID:8882838

Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

1996-01-01

252

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kal...

2012-01-01

253

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil produce...

2012-01-01

254

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the...

Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Russell, A. G.; Choi, Y.; Wang, Y.

2008-01-01

255

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Commu...

Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Russell, A. G.; Choi, Y.; Wang, Y.

2008-01-01

256

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the m...

Kalyan (Kal) Chakraborty

2011-01-01

257

PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si [...] el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos. Abstract in english This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective [...] . Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.

González Castillo, Joel.

258

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Graham, William D.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-01-01

259

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged increases in public investment spending on economic and social infrastructure have a positive and significant effect on the rate of labor productivity growth. In addition, the model is estimated for a shorter period (1970-2010 to capture the impact of inward FDI flows. The estimates suggest that (lagged inward FDI flows have a positive and significant impact on labor productivity growth, while increases in the labor force have a negative effect. From a policy standpoint, the findings call into question the politically expedient policy in many Latin American countries, including Argentina during the 1990s and early 2000s, of disproportionately reducing public capital expenditures to meet reducetions in the fiscal deficit as a proportion of GDP. The results give further support to progrowth policies designed to promote public investment spending and attract inward FDI flows.

Miguel D. Ramirez

2012-10-01

260

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
261

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09

262

INTEGRATION OF THE ACTIVITY BASED COSTING AND THE UNITS OF PRODUCTION METHOD: A CASE STUDY INTEGRAÇÃO DO CUSTEIO ABC COM O MÉTODO UP: UM ESTUDO DE CASO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A competitive environment suggests changes in the form of costs management to able the company to remain in the market. Within this perspective, the objective of this article is to describe the integration of the activity based costing (ABC and the units of production (UP method in a food plant. The former is used for an appropriation of administrative and commercial expenses as a perfected form of allocating operational expenses; the latter, for the allocation of production variable expenses, marginal cost and fixed costs of production. This research methodology consists of an exploratory study, accomplished through a case study with a quantitative approach. The results of the research have demonstrated that the UP method considers a single measure to calculate production efforts, contemplating exclusively the transformation costs. In turn, by the application of the ABC to allocate operational expenses, the vision of processes and activities expands. It has been concluded that, in spite of different degrees of emphasis, the integration of the two costing methodologies increases quality of information, providing subsidies to the management to improve the classification of activities and the measurement of productivity. Keywords: Integration. The Activity Based Costing. The Units of Production Method. O ambiente competitivo sugere mudanças na forma de administrar os custos para possibilitar a continuidade da empresa no mercado. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever a integração do custeio baseado em atividades com o método das unidades de produção em uma indústria do setor de alimentos. O primeiro, usado para apropriação das despesas administrativas e despesas comerciais, como uma forma mais acurada de alocar as despesas operacionais. O segundo, para alocação dos gastos variáveis de fabricação, custo marginal e custos fixos de fabricação. A metodologia da pesquisa consubstancia-se de um estudo exploratório, realizado por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o método das unidades de produção considera uma única medida para mensurar os esforços de produção, contemplando exclusivamente os custos de transformação. Por sua vez, a aplicação do custeio baseado em atividades para alocação das despesas operacionais expande a visão de processos e atividades. Concluiu-se que, mesmo com diferentes ênfases, a integração das duas metodologias de custeio adicionam maior qualidade na informação, fornecendo subsídios à gestão para melhorar a classificação das atividades e a medição de produtividade. Palavras chave: Integração. Custeio baseado em atividades. Método das unidades de produção.

Anderson Léo Sabadin

2007-07-01

263

Environmental impacts of the production and use of nuclear energy. A summary of the United Nations Environment Programme Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to assess the environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the document considers the various operations involved in the nuclear power industry. These operations are the mining and milling of uranium, enrichment, fabrication of fuel elements, reactor operation, reprocessing of irradiated fuels (in the case of the recycle option), the management of radioactive wastes produced in all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and transport of radioactive materials. The environmental impacts of the various operations have been normalized to the net production of one gigawatt-year (GWy)

1980-01-01

264

Short interspike intervals and double discharges of anconeus motor unit action potentials for the production of dynamic elbow extensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidence of double discharges (DDs; >100 Hz) and short interspike intervals (ISIs; >50 to ISI. The number of short ISIs shared no variance with MU recruitment threshold (R(2) = 0.02), but their distribution was skewed toward higher peak velocities (G = -1.26) and a main effect of peak elbow extension velocity was observed (P < 0.05). Although a greater number of short ISIs was observed with increasing velocity, the low incidence of DDs and short ISIs in the anconeus muscle is likely related to the function of the anconeus as a stabilizer rather than voluntary elbow extensor torque and velocity production. PMID:24554783

Harwood, B; Rice, C L

2014-05-15

265

Mortality study of workers in the man-made mineral fiber production industry in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The workforces of two factories in the United Kingdom have been followed up to the end of 1984 as part of the collaborative European study of the health of workers in the man-made mineral fiber industry. In the cohort from an English glass-wool plant there was no suggestion of any excess mortality compared to national or local rates, except for lung cancer among men in comparison to the national level. However, the data indicate that the workers were largely local persons by place of birth, occupation, and death, and they therefore suggest that the national comparison was inappropriate. Lung cancer mortality showed little relationship to length of employment, duration of time since first exposure, occupational classification, or level of exposure. In the cohort from a continuous-filament plant in Northern Ireland no excess mortality from cancer was found. There were, however, raised death rates from violent causes and cardiovascular disease, but these rates were not exceptional for the area of the country in which the factory was located. No deaths from mesothelioma were reported in either cohort. PMID:3798059

Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Simpson, M J; Hamilton, C; Acheson, E D

1986-01-01

266

An Assessment of Land Availability and Price in the Coterminous United States for Conversion to Algal Biofuel Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Realistic economic assessment of land-intensive alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) requires information on land availability and price. Accordingly, we created a comprehensive, national-scale model of these parameters for the United States. For algae-based biofuel, a minimum of 1.04E+05 km2 of land is needed to meet the 2022 EISA target of 2.1E+10 gallons year-1. We locate and quantify land types best converted. A data-driven model calculates the incentive to sell and a fair compensation value (real estate and lost future income). 1.02E+6 km2 of low slope, non-protected land is relatively available including croplands, pasture/ grazing, and forests. Within this total there is 2.64E+5 km2 of shrub and barren land available. The Federal government has 7.68E+4 km2 available for lease. Targeting unproductive lands minimizes land costs and impacts to existing industries. However, shrub and barren lands are limited by resources (water) and logistics, so land conversion requires careful consideration.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2012-12-01

267

Study of cracking FCC naphtha in a secondary riser of the FCC unit for maximum propylene production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To satisfy the increasing propylene demand, reprocessing FCC naphtha in a secondary riser of the FCC unit was investigated. To this aim, a full range FCC naphtha was cracked over a mixture of two kinds of commercial equilibrium FCC catalysts, which contained 95 t.% Y zeolite-based catalyst and 5 wt.% ZSM-5 zeolite-based additive. The effects of operating parameters such as reaction temperature (temperature of the riser outlet), catalyst-to-oil ratio and residence time on FCC naphtha cracking were studied in a continuous pilot plant. This work demonstrates that FCC naphtha requires high operating severities to crack, and approximately 12-19 wt.% FCC naphtha can be transformed into propylene. The conversion and yield of propylene showed a rapid increase with increasing reaction temperature, and the increase of catalyst-to-oil ratio also enhanced FCC naphtha cracking, even at high reaction temperature. However, at high catalyst-to-oil reactions, hydrogen-transfer reactions constrain further increases in light olefin yields. At these high operating severities, shortening residence time is an appropriate way to obtain high yields of propylene combined with (i) lower yields of dry gas and (ii) a lower apparent hydrogen-transfer coefficient. (author)

Wang, Gang; Xu, Chunming; Gao, Jinsen [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249 (China)

2008-09-15

268

1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the United States of America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy's leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

2012-05-01

269

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

Laura Del Coco

2012-05-01

270

Ethanol production from oil palm trunks treated with aqueous ammonia and cellulase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm trunks are a possible lignocellulosic source for ethanol production. Low enzymatic digestibility of this type of material (11.9% of the theoretical glucose yield) makes pretreatment necessary. An enzymatic digestibility of 95.4% with insoluble solids recovery of 49.8% was achieved after soaking shredded oil palm trunks in ammonia under optimum conditions (80°C, 1:12 solid-to-liquid ratio, 8h and 7% (w/w) ammonia solution). Treatment with 60 FPU of commercial cellulase (Accellerase 1000) per gram of glucan and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D(5)A resulted in an ethanol concentration of 13.3g/L and an ethanol yield of 78.3% (based on the theoretical maximum) after 96 h. These results indicate that oil palm trunks are a biomass feedstock that can be used for bioethanol production. PMID:21616661

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Jae Jin; Oh, Kyeong Keun; Han, Jong-In; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-08-01

271

Outbreaks attributed to cheese: differences between outbreaks caused by unpasteurized and pasteurized dairy products, United States, 1998-2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Introduction: The interstate commerce of unpasteurized fluid milk, also known as raw milk, is illegal in the United States, and intrastate sales are regulated independently by each state. However, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations allow the interstate sale of certain types of cheeses made from unpasteurized milk if specific aging requirements are met. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized or unpasteurized milk. Methods: We reviewed reports of outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1998-2011 in which cheese was implicated as the vehicle. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized versus unpasteurized milk. Results: During 1998-2011, 90 outbreaks attributed to cheese were reported; 38 (42%) were due to cheese made with unpasteurized milk, 44 (49%) to cheese made with pasteurized milk, and the pasteurization status was not reported for the other eight (9%). The most common cheese-pathogen pairs were unpasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Salmonella (10 outbreaks), and pasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Listeria (6 outbreaks). The cheese was imported from Mexico in 38% of outbreaks caused by cheese made with unpasteurized milk. In at least five outbreaks, all due to cheese made from unpasteurized milk, the outbreak report noted that the cheese was produced or sold illegally. Outbreaks caused by cheese made from pasteurized milk occurred most commonly (64%) in restaurant, delis, or banquet settings where cross-contamination was the most common contributing factor. Conclusions: In addition to using pasteurized milk to make cheese, interventions to improve the safety of cheese include limiting illegal importation of cheese, strict sanitation and microbiologic monitoring in cheese-making facilities, and controls to limit food worker contamination. PMID:24750119

Gould, L Hannah; Mungai, Elisabeth; Barton Behravesh, Casey

2014-07-01

272

Radon suppression in storage silos at the United States Department of Energy Feed Material Production Center, Fernald, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two silos at the Department of Energy Feed Material Production Facility in Fernald, Ohio, contain an estimated 8800 metric tons of high-grade pitchblende ore residue solids, which contain approximately 3,300 curies (Ci) of radium and 1810 Ci of thorium. These silos are the subject of an on-going CERCLA RI/F Program. Fugitive radon emissions from the silos exceed EPA limits. In addition, structural analyses have revealed that the silos have little credible remaining design life. While pursuing final remediation, a removal action is being taken to address the current situation. The removal action entails the emplacement of a covering layer of bentonite slurry inside the silos. The bentonite will reduce the fugitive emissions to EPA limits and mitigate the effects of dome structural failure, while presenting minimum impact on potential final remedial action alternatives for the silos. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Land, R.R. (Bechtel National, Inc. (USA)); Biancheria, A. (Westinghouse Materials Co., Fernald, OH (USA)); Craig, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01

273

Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

274

Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

Morales, D

2006-07-15

275

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2014-02-21

276

L-lactic acid production from apple pomace by sequential hydrolysis and fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of apple pomace (a solid waste from cider and apple juice making factories) as a source of sugars and other compounds for fermentation was evaluated. The effect of the cellulase-to-solid ratio (CSR) and the liquor-to-solid ratio (LSR) on the kinetics of glucose and total monosaccharide generation was studied. Mathematical models suitable for reproducing and predicting the hydrolyzate composition were developed. When samples of apple pomace were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose and fructose present in the raw material as free monosaccharides were extracted at the beginning of the process. Using low cellulase and cellobiase charges (8.5 FPU/g-solid and 8.5 IU/g-solid, respectively), 79% of total glucan was saccharified after 12 h, leading to solutions containing up to 43.8 g monosaccharides/L (glucose, 22.8 g/L; fructose, 14.8 g/L; xylose+mannose+galactose, 2.5 g/L; arabinose+rhamnose, 2.8g/L). These results correspond to a monosaccharide/cellulase ratio of 0.06 g/FPU and to a volumetric productivity of 3.65 g of monosaccharides/L h. Liquors obtained under these conditions were used for fermentative lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT-288, leading to media containing up to 32.5 g/L of L-lactic acid after 6 h (volumetric productivity=5.41 g/L h, product yield=0.88 g/g). PMID:17321133

Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, J C

2008-01-01

277

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

1994-01-01

278

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

NONE

1995-05-01

279

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

1995-01-01

280

Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01

282

Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

2006-01-01

283

Breed differences over time and heritability estimates for production and reproduction traits of dairy goats in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

To aid in improvement of breeding programs for production and reproduction traits of US dairy goats, breed differences over time were documented and genetic parameters were estimated. Data were from herds with ?2 breeds (Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Oberhasli, Saanen, or Toggenburg), but only purebred data were analyzed. Three kidding periods were examined: 1976 through 1984, 1985 through 1994, and 1995 through 2005. Univariate repeatability mixed models were used to estimate least squares means by kidding period-breed and genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yields, combined fat and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, protein:fat ratio, age at first kidding, and kidding interval. Trends across kidding periods were favorable for most yield traits for all breeds but generally unfavorable for reproduction traits. Saanens had the highest milk (1,063 to 1,125 kg) and protein yields (31 to 33 kg). Nubians had the highest fat yields (37 to 40 kg) and lowest milk yields (791 to 851 kg). Oberhaslis had the lowest fat (31 to 33 kg) and protein (23 to 27 kg) yields. Alpines had the largest increase in milk yield (7.4%); Oberhaslis had the largest increase in protein (17.4%) and combined fat and protein (13.2%) yields. Combined fat and protein yield was higher for Nubians, Saanens, and Alpines (65 to 72 kg) than for LaManchas, Toggenburgs, and Oberhaslis (53 to 67 kg). Nubians had the highest fat (4.7 to 4.8%) and protein (3.6 to 3.8%) percentages. Only Nubians increased in fat percentage (2.1%); protein percentage increased most for Toggenburgs (7.4%) and Alpines (7.1%). Protein:fat ratio was highest for Toggenburgs (0.84 to 0.89) and lowest for Nubians (0.76 to 0.81), but Nubians had the largest increase in protein:fat ratio (6.6%). Saanens were oldest at first kidding (509 to 589 d), and Toggenburgs and LaManchas generally were youngest (435 to 545 d); age at first kidding increased most for Alpines (21.8%) and LaManchas (21.6%). Kidding intervals generally were shorter for Oberhaslis, LaManchas, and Nubians (350 to 377 d) than for Toggenburgs, Alpines, and Saanens (373 to 387 d). Kidding interval increased most for Nubians (3.9%) and Saanens (3.8%) and decreased only for Oberhaslis (5.4%). Heritability estimates across breeds were 0.35 for milk and fat yields, 0.37 for protein yield and protein:fat ratio, 0.36 for combined fat and protein yield, 0.52 for fat percentage, 0.54 for protein percentage, 0.23 for age at first kidding, and 0.05 for kidding interval. Genetic selection within breed is feasible for production and reproduction traits of US dairy goats. PMID:22541500

García-Peniche, T B; Montaldo, H H; Valencia-Posadas, M; Wiggans, G R; Hubbard, S M; Torres-Vázquez, J A; Shepard, L

2012-05-01

284

The cost of muscle power production: muscle oxygen consumption per unit work increases at low temperatures in Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic energy (ATP) supply to muscle is essential to support activity and behaviour. It is expected, therefore, that there is strong selection to maximise muscle power output for a given rate of ATP use. However, the viscosity and stiffness of muscle increases with a decrease in temperature, which means that more ATP may be required to achieve a given work output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP use increases at lower temperatures for a given power output in Xenopus laevis. To account for temperature variation at different time scales, we considered the interaction between acclimation for 4 weeks (to 15 or 25°C) and acute exposure to these temperatures. Cold-acclimated frogs had greater sprint speed at 15°C than warm-acclimated animals. However, acclimation temperature did not affect isolated gastrocnemius muscle biomechanics. Isolated muscle produced greater tetanus force, and faster isometric force generation and relaxation, and generated more work loop power at 25°C than at 15°C acute test temperature. Oxygen consumption of isolated muscle at rest did not change with test temperature, but oxygen consumption while muscle was performing work was significantly higher at 15°C than at 25°C, regardless of acclimation conditions. Muscle therefore consumed significantly more oxygen at 15°C for a given work output than at 25°C, and plastic responses did not modify this thermodynamic effect. The metabolic cost of muscle performance and activity therefore increased with a decrease in temperature. To maintain activity across a range of temperature, animals must increase ATP production or face an allocation trade-off at lower temperatures. Our data demonstrate the potential energetic benefits of warming up muscle before activity, which is seen in diverse groups of animals such as bees, which warm flight muscle before take-off, and humans performing warm ups before exercise. PMID:24625645

Seebacher, Frank; Tallis, Jason A; James, Rob S

2014-06-01

285

Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

2009-12-15

286

Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

Mostahsine S.

2012-09-01

287

Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

2013-08-01

288

Inventory dynamic management applied to supply offshore production units; Gerenciamento dinamico da localizacao de armazens e alocacao de estoques aplicado ao abastecimento de unidades de producao offshore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery of large reserves in the region called the pre-salt, significantly changed the environment of oil production in Brazil, as well as the entire chain involved in these activities. From the standpoint of logistics network linked to exploration and production of oil, located further down the coast at greater depths and in a place with no infrastructure in place, new and challenging problems arise: tighter restrictions need to address the problem at different levels hierarchical, requiring consideration of risks and uncertainties in addressing problems and decision making. The correct dimensioning of the network of support facilities, the allocation and sizing of inventory of supplies and spare parts illustrate a series of decisions ranging from strategic decisions to operational planning. In terms of specific operations involved in oil production in offshore platforms, with severe space constraints and high costs of storage and transport these issues are of particular interest. The objective of this work is to develop a model of inventory management, aiming to supply equipment for the extraction of oil at sea, usually called Production Units (UPs), which considers: effects of consolidating inventory, potential alternatives to location of these inventories and time variation of both the location of the UPs, and their demand patterns. For this purpose we developed a nonlinear mathematical programming model whose objective is to minimize the fixed costs of installation of warehouses and variable costs of transportation and storage. Different scenarios are analyzed to understand how the incorporation of the cycle and safety stocks affects the decision to locate one or more warehouses, and also the effects related to the main inventory allocation policies. (author)

Silva, Thiago Castilho Moreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

289

Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the timing and amount of precipitation suggest three considerations for large mammal conservation in the Southwest. First, being tied to June NDVI, mule deer distribution is likely to track areas defined by relatively early growing seasons, whereas elk abundance is likely to increase in response to enhanced summer precipitation. Second, in mesic environments bighorn sheep are both poor competitors and susceptible to predation. To the extent that bighorn sheep are forced to share ranges with deer or elk, they may be adversely affected by changing climate. Lastly, shifts in ungulate abundance may lead cougars to switch prey in some localities, or contract from the drier portions of their current range as energetic costs rise beyond threshold values.

Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

2013-12-01

290

Microbiological evaluation of a range of disinfectant products to control mixed-species biofilm contamination in a laboratory model of a dental unit water system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible biofilms were developed in the model over 14 days; decontamination was assessed using total viable counts (TVC) and microscopic-image analysis techniques to view the inner surface of tubing. Flushing did not reduce the biofilm coverage or TVC. Combizyme and ozone did not completely eliminate the viable bacteria (70 and 65% reduction in biofilm TVC, respectively), nor did they remove the biofilm (45 and 57% reduction in biofilm coverage, respectively). Chlorhexidine and Bio2000 (active agent: ethanol and chlorhexidine), Tegodor and Gigasept Rapid (aldehyde based), and Grotanol (hydroxide based) completely eliminated the TVC but did not completely remove biofilm (31, 53 33, 34, and 64.9% reduction of biofilm coverage, respectively). Other products including Grotanol Flussig (phenol based), Betadine (povidone-iodine based), Alpron (chlorite based), and the hydroxide-containing products Sporklenz, Sterilex Ultra, Dialox, Sterilox, Sanosil, Oxigenal, and Grotanat Bohrerbad resulted in a 100% reduction in the biofilm TVC and a >95% reduction in biofilm coverage. The study demonstrated that while many disinfectants achieve a sufficient reduction in TVC they may not necessarily remove unwanted biofilm from the tubing surfaces as tested in this laboratory-controlled biofilm model. PMID:12788733

Walker, J T; Bradshaw, D J; Fulford, M R; Marsh, P D

2003-06-01

291

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strainâ??s promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solidâ??liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose

Luo, Jianquan

2014-01-01

292

Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

2014-05-06

293

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

294

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States / Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos [...] e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural [...] products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural p

Mangan, Francis X; Mendonça, Raquel U de; Moreira, Maria; Nunes, Samanta del Vecchio; Finger, Fernando L; Barros, Zoraia de Jesus; Galvão, Hilton; Almeida, Gustavo C; Silva, Rachel AN; Anderson, Molly D.

295

Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

2009-01-01

296

Units for the production of biocoal from small-piece biomass as well as for further processing of biocoal into briquets and for activated carbon. Karbonisierungsanlage fuer kleinstueckige Biomasse mit angeschlossenen Produktionsanlagen fuer Biokohle-Briketts und Aktivkohle; Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of R + D Project were the process development, the construction and test of units for the production of biocoal from small-piece biomass as well as for further processing of biocoal into briquets for household/industry and for activated carbon. Following equipment techniques were successfully tested: - production of biocoal with paddle screw conveyor system, - production of biocoal-briquets with double screw extruder press, - production of activated carbon with shaft kiln. Process and construction of equipment are especially designed for implementation in developing countries. (orig.)

1993-08-17

297

Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from 'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

NONE

2005-03-15

298

Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

2009-07-01

299

Letter Report. Independent Confirmatory Survey Results Of Soils Associated With The Argyle Street Sewer Line At The United Nuclear Corporation Naval Products Site, New Haven, Connecticut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated

2012-01-01

300

Cooperation between the United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Mayak Production Association for enhancements to material protection control and accounting systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Agreement Between the Department of Defense of the United States and The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) Concerning Control, Accounting, and Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, as well as a subsequent amendment to that agreement and a joint statement signed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and MINATOM, resulted in the selection of the Mayak Production Association (MPA) as one of the Russian enterprises that would participate with DOE Laboratories in expanded cooperation aimed at enhancing Material protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. This paper describes the nature and scope of the expanded cooperation involving MPA and six DOE laboratories at an operating civilian, spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant designated RT-1. RT-1 produces, among other materials, reactor-grade plutonium dioxide, a direct-use material that is stored within the boundaries of this plant. Initial efforts at expanded cooperation will focus on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at MPA`s RT-1 plant.

Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M. [Mayak Production Association (Russia); James, L.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ehinger, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Manatt, D.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Olinger, C.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Runyon, L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Suda, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

LETTER REPORT. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS OF SOILS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ARGYLE STREET SEWER LINE AT THE UNITED NUCLEAR CORPORATION NAVAL PRODUCTS SITE, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated.

Adams, Wade C.

2012-01-24

302

Evidence for a role for the gumB and gumC gene products in the formation of xanthan from its pentasaccharide repeating unit by Xanthomonas campestris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is directed by a cluster of 12 genes, gumB-gumM. Several xanthan-deficient mutants of the wild-type strain 8004 have previously been described which carry Tn5 insertions in this region of the chromosome. Here it is shown that the transposon insertion in one of these mutants, strain 8397, is located 15 bp upstream of the translational start site of the gumB gene. EDTA-treated cells of strain 8397 were able to synthesize the lipid-linked pentasaccharide repeating unit of xanthan from the three nucleotide sugar donors (UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose and UDP-glucuronic acid) but were unable to polymerize the pentasaccharide into mature xanthan. A subclone of the gum gene cluster carrying gumB and gumC restored xanthan production to strain 8397 to levels approximately 28% of the wild-type. In contrast, subclones carrying gumB or gumC alone were not effective. These results are discussed with reference to previous speculations, based on computer analysis, that gumB and gumC are both involved in the translocation of xanthan across the bacterial membranes. PMID:9639919

Vojnov, A A; Zorreguieta, A; Dow, J M; Daniels, M J; Dankert, M A

1998-06-01

303

EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEASON ON THE BODY WEIGHT, SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND LIBIDO IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS MAINTAINED AT THE SEMEN PRODUCTION UNIT, QADIRARAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate effects of age and season on body weight, scrotal circumference and libido in 18 Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad. Depending on age, these bulls were divided into three equal groups viz. young (3-4 years of age, adult (5-8 years of age and old (12-15 years of age. Body weight and scrotal measurements were made at monthly intervals while libido of each bull was assessed weekly during the low (May to July and the peak (September to November breeding seasons. The results indicated that the body weight of adult and old bulls was higher (P<0.05 than young bulls. Similarly. The body weight was higher during peak than low breeding season. Scrotal circumference was higher in adult and old bulls than young bulls and during peak than low breeding season (P<0.05. The libido of the adult bulls was higher than young or old bulls, and during the peak than the low breeding season. It was concluded that body weight, scrotal circumference and libido of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls were significantly affected by age of the bull and season of the year.

M. Younis, H.A. Samad, N. Ahmad and I. Ahmad

2003-04-01

304

Pressure based leak detection for pipelines, implemented at business unit of production and exploration of Petrobras in Rio Grande Do Norte and Ceara  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2000, the Petrobras Business Unit installed a pipeline leak detection system on high priority pipelines following an accidental pipeline leak that remained undetected, resulting in the pollution of Guanabara Bay in Brazil. The installation involved nine multiphase oil pipelines that link a series of production facilities together over a distance of 450 km. Petrobras installed the Pressure Point Analysis (PPA) system developed by EFA Technologies Inc. This sophisticated statistical method for leak detection uses simple field instrumentation to facilitate installation and maintenance. The pressure methodology statistically evaluates the normal background noise found within the pressure and flow inputs. It can operate in both wet and multiphase environments because it evaluates each instrument individually for relational changes rather than combining the absolute values for an end to end calculation. The system also depends on a fast, reliable supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for long distance communication. This paper presented the key operations of the software, the required instrumentation and a description of the SCADA system that supplies the needed field data to the software for leak detection. The start-up activities of the system were also described along with the difficulties associated with tuning and the corrective actions taken. The system was shown to be an attractive alternative for cases where conventional mass balance leak detection systems are not suitable. Undesirable false alarms can be avoided by understanding how the pipeline is operated. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

Hovey, D.J. [EFA Technologies, CA (United States)]|[Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, A.A. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

305

Federal Statistical Office. Special series 4: Production. Series 6. 4. Power generation units in mine works and processing plants. Annual report 1993. Statistisches Bundesamt. Fachserie 4: Produzierendes Gewerbe. Reihe 6. 4. Stromerzeugungsanlagen der Betriebe im Bergbau und im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. Jahresbericht 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual brochure contains data on power generation units in mineral works and processing plants (according to industries and countries), the production and supply figures of these power generation units, and data on fuel consumption for electric power generation. (orig.)

1994-09-01

306

Antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from an intensive care Unit of a hospital in Kerman, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter spp. has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs of hospitals. To assess the sensitivity of Acinetobacter isolates to antibiotics routinely used in ICUs, we investigated antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the ICU of a university hospital in Kerman, Iran. Methods Fifteen isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were recovered from one hundred clinical specimens collected from the ICU of Afzalipoor Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from October 2010 to June 2011. Preliminary antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using the disk-diffusion breakpoint assay, and MICs of different antibiotics were determined using the E-test. ESBL production was detected by a double-disk synergy test and confirmed by a phenotypic confirmatory test. Substrate hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the following inhibitors was carried out using the rapid fixed-time method: para-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and NaCl. Results Overall, 73.3% of the isolates were resistant to imipenem (MIC range 240-128 µg/mL and 66% to ciprofloxacin (MIC range 240-64 ± 0.08 µg/mL. All of the isolates were fully resistant (MIC 240 µg/mL to piperacillin, while 93.3%, 53.3%, and 93.3% were resistant to piperacillin + tazobactam (MIC 240 µg/mL, amikacin (MIC range 128-16 µg/mL, and cefepime (MIC range 240-60 µg/mL, respectively. The isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline: MICs of these two agents were ? 240 µg/mL. The test for ESBL production was positive for only three isolates (nos. 1, 10, and 15. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was highest in the presence of p-CMB (80.2 ± 0.02 and lowest in the presence of NaCl (2.1 ± 0.01 (P ? 0.05. Conclusions Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp. are resistant to almost all antibiotics routinely used in the ICU of our hospital, including imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin + tazobactam. Three isolates were ESBL producers. The other isolates exhibited high resistance to ?-lactams, but they did not produce any ESBL enzymes.

Shakibaie Mohammad

2012-01-01

307

Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, multilevel logistic models which take into account the multilevel structure of multi-site pig production were used to estimate the variances between pigs produced in Danish multi-site pig production facilities regarding seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 (Ap2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from 429 litters reared in 36 batches at six Danish multi-site farms chronically infected with the agents. At the farms, weaning age was 3-4.5 weeks, after which batches of pigs were reared using all-in/all-out management by room. Blood samples were collected shortly before: weaning, transfer from weaning-site to finishing-site, and sending the first pigs in the batch for slaughter (third sampling). Few pigs seroconverted at the weaning-sites, whereas considerable variation in seroconversion was observed at the finishing-sites. Multilevel logistic models (initially including four levels: farm, batch, litter, pig) were used to decompose the variation in seroconversion at the finishing-site. However, there was essentially no clustering at the litter level-leading to the use of three-level models. In the case of Ap2, clustering within batch was so high that the data eventually were reduced to two levels (farm, batch). For seroconversion to Ap2, ICC between pigs within batches was similar to90%, whereas the ICC between pigs within batches for Mh was similar to40%. This indicates that the possibility for Mh to spread between pigs within batches is lower than for Ap2. The diversity in seroconversion between batches within the same farm was large for Ap2 (ICC similar to 10%), whereas there was a relative strongly ICC (similar to50%) between batches for Mh. This indicates that the transmission of Mh is more consistent within a farm, whereas the presence of Ap2 varies between batches within a farm.

Vigre, HÃ¥kan

2004-01-01

308

Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated cashew apple bagasse with alkali and diluted sulfuric Acid for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cashew apple bagasse (CAB) after diluted acid (CAB-H) and alkali pretreatment (CAB-OH), and to evaluate its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose conversion of 82 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H and 730 +/- 20 mg/g CAB-OH was obtained when 2% (w/v) of solid and 30 FPU/g bagasse was used during hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, 2-fold higher than when using 15 FPU/g bagasse, 44 +/- 2 mg/g CAB-H, and 450 +/- 50 mg/g CAB-OH, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, achieved after 6 h of fermentation, were 20.0 +/- 0.2 g L(-1) and 3.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, when using CAB-OH hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 52.4 g L(-1)). For CAB-H hydrolyzate (initial glucose concentration of 17.4 g L(-1)), ethanol concentration and productivity were 8.2 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) and 2.7 g L(-1) h(-1) in 3 h, respectively. Hydrolyzates fermentation resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.38 and 0.47 g/g glucose with pretreated CAB-OH and CAB-H, respectively. Ethanol concentration and productivity, obtained using CAB-OH hydrolyzate, were close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice or sugar cane juice. PMID:19031051

Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

2009-05-01

309

S. 1228: A Bill to impose sanctions on foreign persons exporting petroleum products, natural gas, or related technology to Iran. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document contains S.1228, a Bill to impose sanctions on foreign persons exporting petroleum products, natural gas, or related technology to Iran. This bill was introduced in the Senate of the United States, 104th Congress, First session, September 8, 1995.

NONE

1995-12-31

310

Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376g/L, 129.50g/L, 56.03g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. PMID:24968110

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

2014-09-01

311

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

312

Research on the production performances achieved by pig bloodlines used within a swine intensive husbandry unit in the NE of Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Through this paper, we proposed to establish the production performances of breeder lines belonging to one of the most important providers of genetic material in Romania, respectively the Pig Improvement Company (P.I.C.), exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. The researches goal was to study the reproduction performances (sperm volume, spermatozoids concentration in sperm, the amount of spermatozoids and of produced doses, etc.). There have been analysed the reproduction performances achieved by three PIC boars lines (PIC 1075, PIC 402, PIC 408). The insemination material, issued from the 1075 boars, is used to artificially inseminate the PIC 1050 sows from the hybridisation farm of the unit. The insemination material, issued from the boars of PIC 408 and PIC 402 lines, is used to artificially inseminate the Camborough sows, resulting piglets exclusively designed for slaughtering. Both boars and sows used as biological material have been examined from the reproductive life onset toward their culling. Ejaculate volume at the three bloodlines of boars we studied, was comprised within the limits specified in the references. It reached values between 224 and 235 ml during 8-12 months old, between 310 and 366 ml during 13-24 months old, between 330 and 348 ml between 25-36 months old and between 304 and 404 ml during 37-42 months old. Significant and distinguished significant values occurred both between boars and age periods. The level of sperm concentration, as influenced by boars' age, was found high, in all lines, during the 25-36 months old period, the differences compared to the other periods being statistically significant. Comparing the values achieved in each boar line, we could find differences between PIC 1075 (372 x spermatozoids / ml =100%) and PIC 402 (311.5 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 16.28%, or compared to PIC 408 (302.3 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 18.76%. The average spermatozoids mobility within the crude semen had mean values comprised between 76.92 % and 79.4%, but not significantly influenced by boar's age. Expressed in relative values, the differences between the average level observed in PIC 402 line (79.4%=100) and those found in the other lines, were comprised between 3.13% (comp. to the PIC 1075 line) and 0.57% (comp. to PIC 408 line). The amount of doses per ejaculate subscribed to the trend presented in the last field researches. The maximum amount of doses/ejaculate has been achieved in both bloodlines during 25-36 months old period, while the poor amount during the reproduction activity onset (8-12 months old period). The highest doses amount (21.12) has been produced by the PIC 402 line. No significant differences occurred between groups. Expressed as relative values, the differences were of 3.17 % (compared to PIC 1075 line), respectively of 7.20 % (compared to PIC 408 line). It could be stated, basing on the researches we carried on, that, due to the high sperm concentration, meaning high spermatozoids amounts per ejaculate during the whole exploitation period, the reproduction usage intensity of studied PIC boars could be improved. Thus, the period between two ejaculates could be shortened to 3 or 4 d, compared to the actual used interval, of 5 d. In the studied PIC boars, the sperm production level allows the exploitation of a reduced amount of males, generating thus favourable financial and zootechnic consequences. (author)

2009-06-08

313

SEARCH FOR MICROORGANISMS IN UTENSILS, MILK AND CHEESE OF THE CRAFT PRODUCTION IN SMALL UNITS OF PRODUCTION IN SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO PESQUISA DE MICRORGANISMOS EM UTENSÍLIOS, LEITE E QUEIJOS DE PRODUÇÃO ARTESANAL EM UNIDADES DE PRODUÇÃO FAMILIAR NO MUNICÍPIO DE SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work was performed in order to evaluate the hygienical and sanitary features of homemade production of “Minas Frescal” cheese in small units of production in Seropédica, RJ. Samples of subclinical and clinical mastitic cows milk, production stuffs and cheese were analyzed. Several microorganisms were detected in 100% of the samples, including Salmonella spp. in a sample of cheese. The main isolated agents were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi coagul...

2009-01-01

314

Unit Conversions  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource is a digital tool for performing unit conversions. It provides the additional feature of displaying cancellation of terms, enabling users to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical processes involved in converting units. Users can convert among 25 quantities, including units such as force, temperature, energy, and current. Also available are less commonly used units, such as illuminance and magnetic flux. In addition, the calculations respect the number of significant figures. It is part of Web-Based Computer Aided Instruction, a set of free resources for teachers and learners.

Mzoughi, Taha

315

Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

2009-02-15

316

Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná / Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305) de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de in [...] teração genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39) foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23) para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57). As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná. Abstract in english It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305) of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holstei [...] ns cows between dairy production units in the state of Paraná using the Bayesian inference. All animals were officially controlled by the Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, between January/1992 and December/2003. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using one and multiple-trait analysis, where MY305 of each dairy production unit was considered as a different variable. Means and standard deviations for MY305 (kg) for dairy production units of Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte and Oeste, were 8,414 ± 1,825; 8,481 ± 2,010; 7,636 ± 1,594; 7,850 ± 1,795; 8,617 ± 2,050; 7,401 ± 1,809 and 7,336 ± 2,456, respectively. The highest heritability estimated was obtained for the Oeste unit (0.39) while Carambeí unit presented the lowest value (0.23). Genetic correlations were low (0.09 to 0.57) between dairy production units. Pearson and Spearman correlations were lower for the Oeste unit, when compared with other dairy production units, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.41, and from 0.37 to 0.49, respectively. These results show the presence of genotype × environment interaction between dairy production units in the state of Paraná.

Meiby Carneiro de, Paula; Elias Nunes, Martins; Luiz Otávio Campos da, Silva; Carlos Antonio Lopes de, Oliveira; Altair Antônio, Valotto; Newton Pohl, Ribas.

317

Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

2009-12-01

318

Strategic Plan to Minimize the Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Soybean Rust on Soybean Production in the United States: Soybean Rust 'Phakopsora pachyrhizi, P. meibomiae'.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is intended for use as guidance in planning for the eventual introduction and establishment of Asian Soybean Rust (ASBR), Phakopsora pachyrhizi, in the continental United States. This plan provides information for federal, state and private ...

2004-01-01

319

Photosynthetic units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf tissues of aurea mutants of tobacco and Lespedeza have been shown to have higher photosynthetic capacity per molecule of chlorophyll, a higher saturation intensity, a simpler lamellar structure, and the same quantum yield as their dark green parents. Here we report on the values of photosynthetic units for both types of plants and some algae. The unit has been assumed to be about as uniform and steady in the plant world as the quantum efficiency. The number on which all theoretical discussions have been based so far is 2400 per O(2) evolved or CO(2) reduced. With dark green plants and algae our determinations of units by means of 40 microsec flashes superimposed on a steady rate of background photosynthesis at 900 ergs cm(-2) sec(-1) of red light yielded mostly numbers between 2000 and 2700. However, the photosynthetic unit turned out to be very variable, even in these objects. In aurea mutants the unit was distinctly smaller, averaging 600 chl/CO(2). By choosing the right combination of colors for flash and background light, units as low as 300 chl/CO(2) or 40 chl/e(-) could be measured consistently. We found five well-defined groups of units composed of multiples of its smallest member. These new findings are discussed in terms of structural entities that double or divide under the influence of far-red light. PMID:5672002

Schmid, G H; Gaffron, H

1968-08-01

320

Trial production of ceramic heat storage unit and study on thermal properties and thermal characteristics of the heat storage unit. Mixed salts of Na_2CO_3, MgCl_2 and CaCl_2 as heat storage medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat storage technique of high temperature and high density latent heat can be applied to an accumulator of heat generated by nuclear power plant in the night and to a thermal load absorber. For the practical use of the heat storage technique, it is important to improve heat exchange characteristics between heat storage medium, such as molten salts, and heat transfer fluid because of low thermal conductivity of the molten salts, to improve durability among molten salt and structure materials and to develop the molten salt with stable thermal properties for a long period. Considering the possibility for the improvement of heat exchange characteristics of phase change heat storage system by absorbing molten salt in porous ceramics with high thermal conductivity, high temperature proof and high resistance to corrosion, several samples of the ceramics heat storage unit were made. Basic characteristics of the samples (strength, thermal properties, temperature characteristics during phase change) were measured experimentally and analytically to study the utility and applicability of the samples for the heat storage system. The results show that the heat storage unit should be used in inactive gas condition because water in the air absorbed in the molten salts would yield degeneration of properties and deterioration of strength and that operation temperature should be confined near fusion temperature because some molten salts would be vaporized and mass would be decreased in considerable high temperature. The results also show that when atmospheric temperature changes around the melting temperature, change in ceramic temperature becomes small. This result suggests the possibility that ceramic heat storage unit could be used as thermal load absorber. (J.P.N.)

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of satellite-derived ozone production sensitivity and land use types over the Continental United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To show how remote-sensing products can be used to classify the entire CONUS domain into "geographical regions" and "chemical regimes", we analyzed the results of simulation from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS) for August 2009. In addition, we observe how these classifications capture the weekly cycles of ground-level nitrogen oxide (NOx) and ozone (O3) at US EPA Air Quality Syste...

Choi, Y.; Kim, H.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.

2012-01-01

322

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT). FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC) and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC). The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas...

2008-01-01

323

Improvements and simplifications of staged gasification unit for CHP production. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Forbedringer og forenklinger af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. In this subproject the Castor plant has been used to develop and test improvements to the cogeneration system at the following points: 1) Optimization of process design of the gas generator within the existing framework; 2) Establishment of a heating system to start up the gas generator; 3) Automation of switching the gas engine to operate on produced gas; 4) Simplification of the gas generator's fuel feeding system; 5) Improving the control options for the supply of gasification air. The introduced changes have led to the operation of the total gasification-cogeneration system becoming more convenient and easier to operate for non specialists. Operational testing of the plant during the project has covered approx. 2,300 hours of operation of cogeneration. It has identified the periodic maintenance tasks on the demonstration plant. Through further development of plant components that may happen in the subsequent development versions, it will be possible to eliminate some of the regular maintenance tasks and reduce the frequency of others. The optimization of the process design was completed with an experiment with the addition of extra air in the middle of the lower coke zone. Observations during the experiment gave the impression that both the amount and size of charcoal pieces are reduced. Because of the gas generator's section-wise construction, it will be relatively easy to construct and install a new subsection to it and thereby install the system permanently. It is estimated that with a proper design of any such additional process step, an almost complete conversion of the charcoal quantity to ashes will be within reach. (ln)

Houmann Jakobsen, H.

2010-08-15

324

United Kingdom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The chapter provides a history of the development of financial reporting in the United Kingdom, covering the impact of regulation through law and accounting standards. An extensive list of further reading is provided.

2010-01-01

325

Magnetic rotating units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hermetically sealed apparatus operating at pressure 6.4 MPa temperature 200 C with mixers at 1500-3000 rpm has been developed to deal with the problem of hermetic sealing in production. The magnetic rotating units (hermetic drives) type UVM have been designed, and parameters, weight, drive, the torques, and units are given. The rotating unit consists of base magnetic, synchronous, screened coupling and drive mechanism. The magnetic coupling demonstrates the contact-free transmission of rotation through a screen, that is, absolute hermetic sealing. The high efficiency of these units, now being produced, compared to drives with stuffing box or terminal seals, the elimination of stoppages, the cutdown of repairs, recommend them for use.

Sigov, I.V.; Kondrashov, Yu.D.; Krut' ko, A.A.; Veruga, V.F.

1983-03-01

326

Simulation, exergy analysis and application of diabatic distillation to a tertiary amyl methyl ether production unit of a crude oil refinery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a detailed exergy analysis of a tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) unit of a crude oil refinery and the application of diabatic distillation to the depentanizer tower of the unit. Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is not only supplied to the reboiler and extracted from the condenser [as in a conventional (adiabatic) distillation column], but is also transferred inside the column. The process enables operation to approach equilibrium conditions, thus reducing exergy losses and increasing exergy effectiveness. In a TAME unit of a refinery, isoamylenes are converted to TAME. Before transforming the isoamylenes in the reactors, it is necessary to recover them from a catalytic gasoline stream by a depentanization process. The exergy losses of this depentanization process represent about 70% of the total exergy losses of the unit. The results of the exergy analysis of the TAME unit are presented and a detailed exergy analysis of the conventional adiabatic depentanizer column is conducted for comparison purposes. Then, the application of diabatic distillation to the system is evaluated by using cooling water circulating in series from tray to tray in the rectification section and by making the steam emanating from the reboiler circulate in series from tray to tray in the stripping section. The results in terms of the reduction of exergy losses, heating and cooling media flow rates, and cost effectiveness of the diabatic option for the depentanizer section of the plant are compared to the original adiabatic system, and the effect of the diabatization on the overall exergy performance parameters of the depentanizer section and on the whole TAME unit, are presented in this paper

2004-03-01

327

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT. FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC. The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas the high octane high boiling components are mainlyaromatics. The raise of ROT leads to increase of ratio of ?-cracking relative to hydrogen transfer which results inenhancement of the lower molecular hydrocarbon content in the FCC gasoline.

R.Dinkov

2008-03-01

328

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn's geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbance patches of multiple pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2012-12-01

329

Order of 4 August 1989 on licensing liquid radioactive effluent releases from the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of liquid radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible

1989-08-04

330

A process for enhancing sulphur yield from an acid gas containing H sub 2 S in a sulphur production plant composed of a sulphur plant, an oxidation and hydrolysis unit and a purification unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is presented for enhancing sulphur yield in a sulphur production plant by ensuring a quasi-complete recovery of the COS and CS2 compounds in the form of sulphur; the content of sulphur compounds released in the atmosphere is thus lowered and the quality of the effluent, without COS and CS2, is improved. The process is based on a hydrolysis of the residual gas and an oxidation of H{sub 2}S in the acid gas

Kvasnikoff, G.; Nougayrede, J.; Philippe, A.

1991-04-26

331

Freight transport, food production and consumption in the United States of America and in Europe: Or how far can you ship a bunch of onions in the United States?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CO2-emissions from traffic - increasingly from freight transport - are growing, es-pecially in the highly developed industrialized countries. The answers to thisenvironmentally problematical development are technical ones mainly: Admi-nistrators and scientists try to improve engines, transportation modes and logisticstrategies. Freight transport is influenced by production, consumption, land-usepatterns and life-styles. But these fundamental determinants of increasing trafficare rarely given ...

Bo?ge, Stefanie

1996-01-01

332

Drilling unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A drilling unit is suggested which contains a derrick with block and tackle cable, base on which the rotor and drilling post are arranged with remote control of the winch bracke, and winches, power units and pumps arranged under the foundation. In order to improve the reliable operation of the device by guaranteeing possible efficient distribution of loads on the derrick, the unit is equipped with a deviating block installed on the foundation made in the form of a pulley with slipping bearings installed on the axis secured to the base. The deviating blocks installed with the possibility of movement along the drum axis to a distance equal to the width of the cable winding, while the deviating block and the dead end of the block and tackle cable are equally distant from the load center on the rig.

Val' kovskiy, Yu.D.; Kalugin, Ye.Ya.; Potashin, Ye.S.; Vedernikov, V.A.

1980-12-15

333

Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work in all aspects of the field of alternative energy. The Consortium's primary objectives are to find ways to: - Include minorities in the development and ownership of infrastructure in the alternative energy industry; - Promote research and education programs to inform the public about risks and benefits of various forms of alternative energy; - Build a Mentor/Protege Program between HBCU/MSIs and industry leaders to enhance minority participation in ownership and career success in alternative energy production and distribution. The Consortium will work together to create a process whereby minorities and low income individuals will be recruited, educated, and mentored to maximize alternative energy ownership and job opportunities. Industry specialists and government representatives will work with academicians and others to: 1. research areas and methods where minorities and rural communities can engage in the industry; 2. invest in minorities by serving as mentors to minority serving institutions by offering hands-on experience through apprenticeships; 3. work to identify ownership opportunities for minorities; and 4. work to develop legislation that supports economic development and participation for minorities and rural communities in the industry. To accomplish this goal, the Consortium has set out a three-phase plan. Phase I organized a meeting of professionals to discuss the concept, explore the fundamentals, identify key players, and draft next steps. The group took a critical look at the energy industry: 1) trends, 2) economics, 3) limited number of minorities; and 4) infrastructure. Through that process the group identified four areas that would greatly impact economic development for minorities and rural communities: I Energy; II Broadband Communications; III Education; IV Labor Resources. Phase II presented a roundtable panel discussion that continued to refine the Consortium. The goal of these discussions is to produce a well-balanced Consortium committed to working together to produce effective solutions that bridge the gap between alternative energy

2008-02-24

334

Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 16. Changes in forest health and productivity in the United States and Canada. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report reviews available information about forest health problems in the United States and Canada, with special attention to the possible involvement of acidic deposition and associated pollutants. Available information indicates that most forests in the United States and Canada are health. There is no evidence of a general decline of forests due to acidic deposition or any other stress factor. Acidic deposition has not been ruled out as a potential cause of future subregional forest nutrition problems through effects on elemeqnt cycling. There is also experimental evidence that acidic deposition and associated pollutants can alter the resistance of red spruce to winter injury. Through this mechanism, acidic deposition may have contributed to dieback and mortality of red spruce at high elevations in the northern Appalachians. Ozone is an important factor in a decline of pines in southern California and is the pollutant of greatest concern with respect to possible regional scale impacts on North American forests

1990-01-01

335

Microbiological Evaluation of a Range of Disinfectant Products To Control Mixed-Species Biofilm Contamination in a Laboratory Model of a Dental Unit Water System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible biofilms were developed in the model over 14 days; decontamination was assessed using total viable counts (TVC) and microscopic-image anal...

Walker, J. T.; Bradshaw, D. J.; Fulford, M. R.; Marsh, P. D.

2003-01-01

336

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevista con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios.With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P, in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structures centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E Ludovic

2005-07-01

337

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. / Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevist [...] a con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios. Abstract in english With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structure [...] s centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E, Ludovic; N, Rincón; L, Huerta; R, Rincón.

338

Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and...

E. A. Scribner M. T. Meyer R. J. Gilliom W. A. Battaglin

2007-01-01

339

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ? Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

2012-03-01

340

Feed and livestock model of the United States with an application to the possible effects on US agriculture of large-scale corn alcohol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models of the three major crops, corn ethanol production and the livestock economy are specfied and estimated. The models are simulated under various scenarios to determine the possible short-term and long-term effects on the US agriculture economy in the event the US engages in large-scale production of fermentation ethanol from corn. Such production would be the result of price incentives caused by a rapid increase in the price of crude oil. The ethanol would be used as octane booster in premium unleaded gasoline. In this analysis the author found that limiting the use of alcohol as blender to boost octane ratings of premium unleaded gasoline would have only minor effects on the crop and livestock economies of the US agricultural sector. He does feel, however, that expansion of its use into the broader gasohol market might result in a much larger impact on both the crops and livestock sectors of the US agricultural economy. He also analyzed the effects on the byproduct feed markets of the alcohol production and found that byproduct prices would probably remain sufficiently strong to make such production economically feasible.

Silver, S.J.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Updated estimates (as of year-end 1981) are presented for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also included for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth rates of energy consumption. Proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 207 trillion CF in the US and 2180-2521 TCF world-wide; the total remaining recoverable, however, could be as high as 1153 TCF in the US and 8590 TCF worldwide

1983-01-01

342

Application of method of operational research (DEA in the performance evaluation of production units for area vocational education Aplicação de método de pesquisa operacional (DEA na avaliação de desempenho de unidades produtivas para área de educação profissional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Data Envelopment Analysis (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA has been extensively used as management support, in estimating the relative performance of production units similar. Particularly has been applied to companies that work using multiple inputs to produce multiple products, for which it is difficult to assign prices or weights. The study is an exploratory, descriptive and evaluative. The techniques of data collection were observation, document analysis and literature review. The information collected is treated in a qualitative and quantitative. This paper presents a case study of applying this method to a nonprofit corporation, the area of professional education and technical and technological services (SENAI, the National Service of Industrial Learning. It studies the replacement of existing procedures for evaluating performance of production units, including operational aspects, financial and management. Assesses the performance of 21 operating units of SENAI two perspectives: financial and quality. The DEA model chosen is variable returns to scale -oriented product (CCB. The results show that 33.3% of the units are efficient in the financial perspective, 42.8% are from the perspective of quality, and 19, 0% of total units are effective from both perspectives. We conclude that the DEA model is appropriate for performance evaluation of the operational units of SENAI provides valuable results for the managers of the institution such as setting goals and identifying benchmarks for the inefficient units.A Análise Envoltória de Dados (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA tem sido extensivamente utilizada como apoio à gestão, na estimativa do desempenho relativo de unidades produtivas semelhantes entre si. Particularmente, vem sendo aplicada a empresas que trabalham utilizando múltiplos insumos para a produção de múltiplos produtos, p ara os quais é difícil designar preços ou pesos. O estudo é do tipo exploratório, descritivo e avaliativo. As técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação, a análise documental e a pesquisa bibliográfica. As informações coletadasforam tratadas de forma qualitativa e quantitativa. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso de aplicação do método DEA a uma empresa sem fins lucrativos, da área de educação profissional e serviços técnicos e tecnológicos (o SENAI, Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial. Estudou-se a substituição de procedimentos já existentes de avaliação de desempenho de unidades produtivas, incluindo aspectos operacionais, financeiros e de gestão. Avaliou-se o desempenho de 21 unidades operacionais do SENAI segundo duas perspectivas: financeira e de qualidade. O modelo DEA escolhido é o de retornos variáveis à escala orientados a produto (BCC. Os resultados mostram que 33,3% das unidades são eficientes sob a perspectiva financeira, 42,8% o são sob aperspectiva da qualidade, e 19,0% do total das unidades são eficientes sob ambas as perspectivas. Conclui-se que o modelo DEA é apropriado à avaliação de desempenho das unidades operacionais do SENAI, pois fornece resultados valiosos aos gestores da instituição, tais como o estabelecimento de metas e a identificação de benchmarks para as unidades ineficientes.

João Roberto Lorenzett

2010-10-01

343

Solar unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar unit is described. It contains a concentrator with central opening, counter reflector and heat motor located behind the concentrator. In order to simplify the design, the counter reflector is rotating, and the heat motor is made in the form of two cylinders with pistons located in them on a common rod. The rod is connected to the counter reflector by a kinematic linkage.

Shumuyko, V.I.

1981-01-01

344

The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control. PMID:20836805

Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

2009-06-01

345

Leaching of radionuclides out of some novelly formed products extracted from the reactor zone of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on leaching of radionuclides from two samples of glass-like products (brown and gree glass) by 0.01 mol/l solution of sodium chloride. The level and rate of radionuclide leaching are determined. It is ascertained that green glass features a higher resistance to leaching

1991-01-01

346

Unit Value Bias Reconsidered  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper explores, both theoretically and empirically, the bias of unit value indices as opposed to genuine price indices in foreign trade. An analysis of German data reveals conceptual and methodological differences, and their impact on economic indicators, namely imported inflation, terms of trade and gross domestic product, is quantified. By introducing a formal theory, the sources of the discrepancy can be attributed to a Laspeyres effect and a structural component, both strongly...

Von Lippe, Peter; Mehrhoff, Jens

2010-01-01

347

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1997-01-01

348

Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature.

Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

349

Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife...

Jorgenson, J. L.

2001-01-01

350

The macrocycle of leinamycin imparts hydrolytic stability to the thiol-sensing 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide unit of the natural product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reaction of cellular thiols with the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide moiety of leinamycin triggers the generation of DNA-damaging reactive intermediates. Studies with small, synthetic analogues of leinamycin reveal that the macrocyclic portion of the natural product imparts remarkable hydrolytic stability to the 1,2-dithiolan-3-one 1-oxide heterocycle without substantially compromising its thiol-sensing property.

2012-01-01

351

Glycogen Phosphorylase, the Product of the glgP Gene, Catalyzes Glycogen Breakdown by Removing Glucose Units from the Nonreducing Ends in Escherichia coli†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the biological function of bacterial glycogen phosphorylase (GlgP), we have produced and characterized Escherichia coli cells with null or altered glgP expression. glgP deletion mutants (?glgP) totally lacked glycogen phosphorylase activity, indicating that all the enzymatic activity is dependent upon the glgP product. Moderate increases of glycogen phosphorylase activity were accompanied by marked reductions of the intracellular glycogen levels in cells cultured in the presenc...

2006-01-01

352

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15

353

Cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles are outlined of cogeneration, i.e. of combined generation of electricity and heat. The assets of this approach include a decrease in the consumption of primary sources, and lower air pollution. Replacement of 1000 MWe brown coal fired power sources by cogeneration units in the Czech Republic would imply the shutdown of 3 to 4 brown coal fired power plants, bringing about a reduction in SO2, NOx and particulate emissions by 13.4%, 7%, and 4.3%, respectively. (J.B.)

1994-02-01

354

Solar unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar unit is described which contains a cavity radiation receiver, parabolic-cylindrical concentrator, and reflector arranged between the radiation receiver and the concentrator symmetrically in relation to the optical plane of the latter. In order to expand the range of use, it contains a pair of flat mirrors with 2 working surfaces installed at an angle and symmetrically to the optical plane of the parabolic cylindrical concentrator between them and the reflector, while the latter is made in the form of 2 flat mirrors installed at an angle on the cavity radiation receiver.

Volodin, V.P.; Vorovyev, N.I.

1982-01-01

355

Small sized hydraulic drilling units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes a number of small sized drilling units produced in various European countries for mining in thin seams, drilling surveying entries etc. These units have a chassis with pneumatic tires and a hydraulic drilling head. Technical specifications are given for 3 French units - the CMM 500HE Microdrill (Equipment Miner), the ATH-12-1F (Secoma) and the Minipantophore and Micropantophore (Montabert), 1 Finnish unit - the Micromatic H102F, and 3 units produced by Atlas Copco. A table gives comparative data for hydraulic drilling heads produced by Atlas Copco, Boart, Montabert, Equipment Miner, Torgue Tension, ZIG, Sullivan Machinery, Victor Products, Gardner Denver, Krupp and Tamrock. These units weigh between 3 and 7.5 t (drilling heads 25-80 kg) and are designed to mechanize the drivage of roadways 4-10 m/sup 2/ in cross section.

Tsiferblat, V.L.; Shevchenko, A.I.

1987-10-01

356

An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

Bain, A.

1990-07-01

357

An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

Bain, Addison

1990-01-01

358

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Cand [...] ida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Regina Helena, Pires; Jaime Maia dos, Santos; José Eduardo, Zaia; Carlos Henrique Gomes, Martins; Maria José Soares, Mendes-Giannini.

359

Different process schemes for converting light straight run and fluid catalytic cracking naphthas in a FCC unit for maximum propylene production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light straight run (LSR) and fluid catalytic cracking (FCCN) naphthas were cracked in a transported bed reactor (MicroDowner) and in a fixed bed reactor (MAT) over a commercial Y zeolite based catalyst, over a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite based additive, and over a mixture of both at selected conditions. Based on the mechanisms through which naphtha hydrocarbons are converted, we evaluated the best alternatives for processing these streams to produce light olefins and/or to reduce olefins content in commercial gasoline. The experimental set-up allowed us to simulate the cracking behaviour of the different naphtha streams in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit by different processing schemes. Results indicate that LSR only cracks at high severity, yielding large amounts of dry gas. Despite its high olefins content, FCCN practically does not crack when it is fed together with gas oil feed. When cracking FCCN alone at typical gas oil cracking conditions, olefins are transformed preferentially into naphtha-range isoparaffins and aromatics, and when cracking FCCN at high severity, olefins are transformed preferentially into propylene and butylenes. Finally, cracking naphtha in the stripper produces some propylene and increases the aromatics in the remaining gasoline.

Corma, Avelino; Melo, FranciscoV.; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Ortega, F.J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avenida de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

2004-07-08

360

Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54?±?0.70% and 33.80?±?1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21?±?0.35%, 12.05?±?0.37%, and 38.11?±?0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372?±?12 and 355?±?37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g?L(-1) and 1.41 g?L(-1) h(-1), respectively. PMID:21302146

Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

P. Lee

2012-01-01

363

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T. [and others

1997-11-01

364

Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

2007-01-01

365

Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BC