WorldWideScience
1

Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

2

Asymmetric fluctuation relaxation paths in FPU models  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent theory by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim predicts a temporal asymmetry in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of certain observables of nonequilibrium systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium. We find temporal asymmetries in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of a form of local heat flow, in the nonequilibrium FPU- ? model of Lepri, Livi and Politi.

Giberti, C.; Rondoni, L.; Vernia, C.

2006-06-01

3

FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis  

OpenAIRE

A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

Zahradnicky?, T.; Lo?rencz, R.

2010-01-01

4

FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

T. Zahradnický

2010-01-01

5

Symmetry and resonance in periodic FPU chains  

OpenAIRE

The symmetry and resonance properties of the Fermi Pasta Ulam chain with periodic boundary conditions are exploited to construct a near-identity transformation bringing this Hamiltonian system into a particularly simple form. This `Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form' retains the symmetries of the original system and we show that in most cases this allows us to view the periodic FPU Hamiltonian as a perturbation of a nondegenerate Liouville integrable Hamiltonian. According to th...

Rink, B.

2000-01-01

6

Asymmetric fluctuation-relaxation paths in FPU models  

CERN Document Server

A recent theory by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim predicts a temporal asymmetry in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of certain observables of nonequilibrium systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium. We find temporal asymmetries in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of a form of local heat flow, in the nonequilibrium FPU-$\\zb$ model of Lepri, Livi and Politi.

Giberti, C; Vernia, C

2005-01-01

7

HW-SW Implementation of a Decoupled FPU for ARM-based Cortex-M1 SoCs in FPGAs  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays industrial monoprocessor and multipro- cessor systems make use of hardware floating-point units (FPUs) to provide software acceleration and better precision due to the necessity to compute complex software applications. This paper presents the design of an IEEE-754 compliant FPU, targeted to be used with ARM Cortex-M1 processor on FPGA SoCs. We face the design of an AMBA-based decoupled FPU in order to avoid changing of the Cortex-M1 ARMv6-M architecture and the ARM compiler, but as ...

Joven Murillo, Jaime; Strid, Per; Castells-rufas, David; Bagdia, Akash; Micheli, Giovanni; Carrabina, Jordi

2011-01-01

8

Temporal asymmetry of fluctuations in the nonequilibrium FPU model  

Science.gov (United States)

The large deviation theory recently developed by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim is meant to extend the Onsager-Machlup theory to nonequilibrium phenomena, and predicts that the fluctuations of densities and currents in certain stochastic processes are not symmetric with respect to the time reversal operation. In this paper, several notions of fluctuations are introduced for deterministic systems, and it is observed that temporally asymmetric (not necessarily large) fluctuations are ubiquitous, even in the context of time reversal invariant dynamics of particle systems, in nonequilibrium states. To illustrate these ideas, the nonequilibrium FPU chain devised by Lepri, Livi and Politi is studied in detail.

Giberti, C.; Rondoni, L.; Vernia, C.

2007-04-01

9

Weak and strong chaos in FPU models and beyond  

CERN Document Server

We briefly review some of the most relevant results that our group obtained in the past, while investigating the dynamics of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) models. A first result is the numerical evidence of the existence of two different kinds of transitions in the dynamics of the FPU models: i) a Stochasticity Threshold (ST), characterized by a value of the energy per degree of freedom below which the overwhelming majority of the phase space trajectories are regular (vanishing Lyapunov exponents). It tends to vanish as the number N of degrees of freedom is increased. ii) a Strong Stochasticity Threshold (SST), characterized by a value of the energy per degree of freedom at which a crossover appears between two different power laws of the energy dependence of the largest Lyapunov exponent, which phenomenologically corresponds to the transition between weakly and strongly chaotic regimes. It is stable with N. A second result is the development of a Riemannian geometric theory to explain the origin of Hamiltonian ...

Pettini, M; Cerruti-Sola, M; Franzosi, R; Cohen, E G D; Pettini, Marco; Casetti, Lapo; Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Franzosi, Roberto

2004-01-01

10

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, t...

Silvio Oliveira Júnior; Cruz, Fla?vio E.

2008-01-01

11

Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

2008-12-01

12

Low-dimensional q-Tori in FPU Lattices: Dynamics and Localization Properties  

CERN Document Server

This is a continuation of our study concerning q-tori, i.e. tori of low dimensionality in the phase space of nonlinear lattice models like the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model. In our previous work we focused on the beta FPU system, and we showed that the dynamical features of the q-tori serve as an interpretational tool to understand phenomena of energy localization in the FPU space of linear normal modes. In the present paper i) we employ the method of Poincare - Lindstedt series, for a fixed set of frequencies, in order to compute an explicit quasi-periodic representation of the trajectories lying on q-tori in the alpha model, and ii) we consider more general types of initial excitations in both the alpha and beta models. Furthermore we turn into questions of physical interest related to the dynamical features of the q-tori. We focus on particular q-tori solutions describing low-frequency `packets' of modes, and excitations of a small set of modes with an arbitrary distribution in q-space. In the former case, ...

Christodoulidi, Helen

2012-01-01

13

Lyapunov exponents from unstable periodic orbits in the FPU-beta model  

CERN Document Server

In the framework of a recently developed theory for Hamiltonian chaos, which makes use of the formulation of Newtonian dynamics in terms of Riemannian differential geometry, we obtained analytic values of the largest Lyapunov exponent for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-beta model (FPU-beta) by computing the time averages of the metric tensor curvature and of its fluctuations along analytically known unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). The agreement between our results and the Lyapunov exponents obtained by means of standard numerical simulations supports the fact that UPOs are reliable probes of a general dynamical property as chaotic instability.

Franzosi, R; Cerruti-Sola, M; Franzosi, Roberto; Poggi, Pietro; Cerruti-Sola, Monica

2004-01-01

14

Weakly nonlinear localization for a 1-D FPU chain with clustering zones  

Science.gov (United States)

We study weakly nonlinear spatially localized solutions of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model describing a unidimensional chain of particles interacting with a number of neighbors that can vary from site to site. The interaction potential contains quadratic and quartic terms, and is derived from a nonlinear elastic network model proposed by Juanico et al. [1]. The FPU model can be also derived for arbitrary dimensions, under a small angular displacement assumption. The variable interaction range is a consequence of the spatial inhomogeneity in the equilibrium particle distribution. We here study some simple one-dimensional examples with only a few, well defined agglomeration regions. These agglomerations are seen to lead to spatially localized linear modes and gaps in the linear spectrum, which in turn imply a normal form that has spatially localized periodic orbits.

Martínez-Farías, F.; Panayotaros, P.; Olvera, A.

2014-12-01

15

Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

16

Non-linear unit root properties of crude oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and unit roots in crude oil production. To realize our objective, this study applies a threshold autoregressive model with an autoregressive unit root to monthly crude oil production for 17 OPEC and non-OPEC countries over the period January 1973 to December 2007. Specifically, first we test for the presence of non-linearities (threshold effects) in the production of crude oil in two regimes. Second, we test for a unit root against a non-linear stationary process in two regimes and a partial unit root process when the unit root is present in one regime only. We find that crude oil production is characterized by threshold effects. We find that for eleven of the countries a unit root was present in both regimes, while for the others a partial unit root was found to be present in either the first regime or second regime

17

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24

18

The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of maple…

Yaple, Charles; And Others

19

Qualification of the GMP compliant FDG production and distribution unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently we installed in our laboratory a GMP-compliant compact combined FDG production and dose distribution unit. This unit, constructed by HWM, Rossendorf, consists of the mini-cell, housing the FDG synthesis module from GE, standing side-by-side with the class A shielded isolator containing remotelly controlled dose distribution module. Use of the isolator technology combined with laminar flow HEPA filtered air inside the dose distribution hot-cell allows to achieve class A environment for the aseptic filing of FDG into the opened sterile vials. Synthesis of FDG and preparation of the mother batch solution is achieved inside the hot-cells providing class C clean room environement. The whole production unit is standing in the class D laboratory. The complete set of IQ-OQ-PQ tests was performed to assure that the FDG production and distribution unit is performing accordingly to GMP requirements and is providing the product of consistent quality. The majour component in the qualification tests are the aseptic procedure validations, which consisted of the procedures recommended by GMP guidelines and adapted for the specificity of the FDG production. As a minimum for the aseptic validation we considered the Mediafil Test, Bioburden Test and test productions. All the test results assure that the FDG production unit allows to produce FDG for central distribution in accordance with the requirements of European pharmacopoeia and GMP guidelines. (author)P guidelines. (author)

20

Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical efficiency of various “mergers” relative to a common reference technology. The approach is radically different from the usual one based on super-efficiency indexes in DEA. We illustrate the mechanics of our method by a series of numerical examples and further demonstrate that our new index inherits all relevant and desirable properties of the Farrell efficiency index upon which it is constructed.

Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

2014-01-01

21

Using Relative Value Units to Measure Faculty Clinical Productivity  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this project was to compare faculty productivity in teaching and nonteaching clinical settings. We hypothesized that teaching activity would have no impact on productivity. A mixed model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze average relative value units (RVUs) billed and to test for differences between clinics. Data were drawn from 4,956 clinical encounters made within a student, resident, and faculty clinic. Average RVUs per visit were similar in the th...

Albritton, T. Andrew; Miller, Max D.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Rahn, Daniel W.

1997-01-01

22

Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

2009-12-31

23

Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

Heydorn, Barbara

1990-01-01

24

Agricultural Productivity and Convergence: Europe and the United States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Abstract: This paper applies the Window Malmquist Index (WMI) approach to measure changes in agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) for the United States and a sample of nine European countries for the period 1973 to 1993. The data set used in this paper is obtained from Ball et al. (2001). The WMI is constructed by combining Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) window analysis with the Malmquist index approach. Furthermore, the “Kruskal and Wallis rank test” is used ...

Rezitis, Anthony N.

2010-01-01

25

Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær

2012-01-01

26

The productivity advantge of one/two unit mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Throughout the 1980s there has been tremendous competition in the coal market. This competition has fueled a relentless search for productivity. The employment census has steadily decreased while the total production has been at record levels. Between 1988 and 1989 production increased by three percent while employment decreased approximately fifteen percent. Where longwalls are not financially feasible to purchase and operate, the method of extraction has evolved predominantly to the one or two section coal mines. Both the large and small companies have adopted this philosophy. This paper provides one operator's opinion on why the one and two section coal mines have distinct advantages over the multiple unit mines. It focuses on the opportunity that the smaller mine affords in the areas of employee relations

27

Continuous semi-solid cultivation for the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei mutants using a polyurethane foam carrier and a liquid medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of cellulase was investigated in semi-solid state culture using the immobilized mycelium of Trichoderma reesei mutants on polyurethane foam impregnated with lactose medium. An extremely high value of about 2.6 FPU/ml was reached after the cultivation of T. reesei D-78085 on a 0.5% lactose medium in continuous culture at a pH medium of 4.0 when a bioreactor with vertical polyurethane foam plates was used. The enzyme yield on lactose was 520 FPU/g of lactose metabolized in comparison with 160 FPU/g using a stirred tank bioreactor. (orig.)

Targonski, Z. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology; Pielecki, J. [Agricultural Univ., Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology

1995-12-31

28

Product-Units neural networks for catchment runoff forecasting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper Product-Units neural networks (PUNNs), which probably have never been used within the field of hydrology, are introduced and applied for catchment runoff forecasting in cold climate zones. This type of neural networks, a subclass of higher order neural networks uses product nodes with inputs raised to exponential weights in one layer and well-known summation nodes in another layer. The present paper empirically shows that PUNNs with unbounded weights are difficult to train and do not perform well for catchment runoff forecasting. However, a very good predictive performance may be achieved when the weights are bounded within [-1, 1] interval. Several variants of optimization methods, mostly Differential Evolution-based algorithms, and a few approaches enabling good generalization capabilities of neural networks are compared in order to select the appropriate technique for PUNNs training. PUNNs with parameters bounded within [-1, 1] interval are shown to outperform Multi-Layer Perceptron neural networks and HBV conceptual model for runoff forecasting case study at Annapolis River, Nova Scotia, Canada. Gradient-based Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and Evolutionary Computation-based Differential Evolution with Global and Local Neighborhood method turn out to be the most successful among the tested training algorithms. Surprisingly, in the case of Product-Units neural networks with weights bounded within [-1, 1] interval using noise injection or early stopping do not improve the results obtained when no method to avoid overfitting is used.

Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaros?aw J.

2012-12-01

29

Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

Roesjorde, Audun

2004-08-01

30

Vegetation Productivity Consequences of Sprawl in the Eastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban, suburban, and exurban areas expanded rapidly in the United States during the 1990s, replacing the rural land that lay outside existing metropolitan areas, cities, and towns. The conversion of rural landscapes to urban infrastructures and land uses has significant consequences for the regional vegetation productivity, but these consequences are not yet fully understood. A previous study in the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSA) in Michigan showed that exurbanization and suburbanization, i.e., development at relatively low densities, occupied four times the area of urbanization (development at the highest densities). While urbanization was associated with a net carbon source from the landscape in this CMSA, exurban development from the previous rural areas enhanced the uptake of carbon on land measured by gross primary production (GPP). In this study, similar research approaches were extended to all areas east of the Mississippi River in the United States. Two research questions were of particular interest: 1) Are patterns of sprawl consistent throughout the various regions that make up the Eastern US? and 2) Are relationships between types of sprawl and changes in GPP retain consistent over a large geographic extent? In this study, development was quantitatively evaluated based on Census housing-unit data collected in 1990 and 2000. Changes in GPP over the same time period were estimated based on satellite-derived land cover and vegetation greenness, climate data, and empirical light-use-efficiency parameters for various land-cover types. Results indicated that patterns of sprawl are regionally distinctive; and that relationships between sprawl and changes in GPP are relatively consistent, except for the effects of exurbanization on GPP, which tend to vary by ecoregion.

Zhao, T.; Brown, D. G.; Fang, H.; Liu, T.; Zhang, T.

2009-12-01

31

Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

1954-09-01

32

Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

Grace, Clyde, Jr.

33

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Products and Publications  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to products and publications of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP). Links are provided to fact sheets arranged by region in the U.S and by global and national areas. There are also links to general information such as bibliographies and publications on general geology, plate tectonics, and tsunamis. A section on information services includes links to email notification services for earthquakes, moment tensors, and seismicity reports; and RSS feeds on the latest earthquakes. There is also an extensive selection of maps, including earthquake maps, fault and landform maps, and seismic hazard and site response maps. Other materials include multimedia items (CD-ROMs and videos); open-file reports, bulletins, and circulars; and a selection of software for earthquake analysis, mapping, and data distribution. Some items are free; others are available for purchase.

34

9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.  

Science.gov (United States)

9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned United...products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

2010-01-01

35

Needs of ergonomic design at control units in production industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decades, an increasing use of innovative technologies in manufacturing areas was monitored. A huge amount of physical workload was replaced by the change from conventional machine tools to computer-controlled units. CNC systems spread in current production processes. Because of this, machine operators today mostly have an observational function. This caused increasing of static work (e.g., standing, sitting) and cognitive demands (e.g., process observation). Machine operators have a high responsibility, because mistakes may lead to human injuries as well as to product losses - and in consequence may lead to high monetary losses (for the company) as well. Being usable often means for a CNC machine being efficient. An intuitive usability and an ergonomic organization of CNC workplaces can be an essential basis to reduce the risk of failures in operation as well as physical complaints (e.g. pain or diseases because of bad body posture during work). In contrast to conventional machines, CNC machines are equipped both with hardware and software. An intuitive and clear-sighted operating of CNC systems is a requirement for quick learning of new systems. Within this study, a survey was carried out among trainees learning the operation of CNC machines. PMID:22316942

Levchuk, I; Schäfer, A; Lang, K-H; Gebhardt, Hj; Klussmann, A

2012-01-01

36

Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems  

OpenAIRE

Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

Lange, Linda L.; Detmer, Sarah

1989-01-01

37

Performance of first-line management functions on productivity of hospital unit personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight management functions influence the productivity of unit personnel differently. Although leadership of the first-line manager is the primary driving force, time and effort expended in operations detract from this unit output. Better use of second-line managers is a choice strategy to enhance productivity. Benner's model of professional development, in combination with the creation of a first-second line shared leadership operational framework, is recommended, with follow-up evaluations on unit productivity effect. PMID:10491664

Fox, R T; Fox, D H; Wells, P J

1999-09-01

38

COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

39

Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ratio of production-to-consumption (?) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ? from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ? also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (?) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ?. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ? using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ? was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ? and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Results from the three case studies show that the population model gives similar estimates to those reported by empirical models in other fish species. This modelling framework allows ? to be related directly to population length- or age-structure and thus has the potential to improve the biological realism of both population and ecosystem models. PMID:25445187

Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

2015-01-21

40

Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

41

Organization of international market introduction: Can cooperation between central units and local product management influence success  

OpenAIRE

When organizing international market introductions multinational companies face coordination problems between the leading central organizational unit and local product management. Based on the assumption that international market introductions are initiated and managed by a central unit we examine the impact of cooperation between the central unit and local product management on success. Our survey of 51 international market introductions reveals that the quality of the cooperation with local...

Baumgarten, Antje; Herstatt, Cornelius; Fantapie? Altobelli, Claudia

2006-01-01

42

Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

Sanjay RODE

2009-06-01

43

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

Rod D. Raehsler

2012-05-01

44

Architecture-Based Unit Testing of the Flight Software Product Line  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software (CFS) product line team at the NASA GSFC. The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and reconunend strategies for improving the existing unit testing infrastructure as well as to capture lessons learned and best practices that can be used by other product line teams for their unit testing. The CFS unit testing framework is designed and implemented as a set of variation points, and thus testing support is built into the product line architecture. The analysis found that the CFS unit testing approach has many practical and good solutions that are worth considering when deciding how to design the testing architecture for a product line, which are documented in this paper along with some suggested innprovennents.

Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Slegel, Steve; Medina, Barbara

2010-01-01

45

Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost  

OpenAIRE

This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level correspond...

Raehsler, Rod D.; Yifan Zhao; Sohng, Soong N.; Yang, Chin W.; Paul Kim; Ken Hung

2012-01-01

46

An FPGA Implementation Of Ieee - 754 Double Precision Floating Point Unit Using Verilog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract- Arithmetic circuits form an important class of circuits in digital systems. With the remarkable progress in the very large scale integration (VLSI circuit technology, many complex circuits, unthinkable yesterday have become easily realizable today. Algorithms that seemed impossible to implement now have attractive implementation possibilities for the future. In this paper an arithmetic unit based on IEEE standard for floating point numbers has been implemented on FPGA Board. Here FPU follows IEEE double precision format. The arithmetic unit implemented has a 64-bit processing unit which allows various arithmetic operations such as, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division on floating point numbers. Each operation can be selected by a particular operation code. We see that the overhead for double precision is less than that for single precision. The unit comprises of rounding and exception unit as specified in format. The FPU design achieved the operating frequency of 107MHz.

Chaitanya A. Kshirsagar

2014-06-01

47

Comparing labour and total factor productivity growth and level in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States over the past century and in recent years  

OpenAIRE

The present study contributes to the analysis of economic growth by comparing labour ant total factor productivity (TFP) in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States in the very long run (since 1890) and in the medium run (since 1980). During the past century, the United States has overtaken the United Kingdom and became the leading world economy. During the last 25 years, productivity growth has also known contrasted developments in the four countries, in particular as a result...

Cette, Gilbert; Kocoglu, Yusuf; Mairesse, Jacques

2009-01-01

48

Sheep Production Unit for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 430/10.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructor's guide for a sheep production unit contains six lessons that are designed to be taught in the Agricultural Science I core curriculum. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references…

Brzozowski, Richard J.; Stewart, Bob R.

49

Productivity Growth in the Transportation Industries in the United States: An Application of the DEA Malmquist Productivity Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviews productivity growth in the five major transportation industries in the United States (airline, truck, rail, pipeline, and water and the pooled transportation industry from 2004 to 2011. We measure the average productivity for these eight years by state in each transportation industry and the annual average productivity by transportation industry. The major findings are that the U.S. transportation industry shows strong and positive productivity growth except that in the years of the global financial crisis in 2007, 2008, and 2010, and among the five transportation industries, the rail and water sectors show the highest productivity growth in 2011.

Jaesung Choi

2015-01-01

50

Production of short straight sections hits 100 units  

CERN Document Server

The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

2005-01-01

51

Cascade units for neon isotopes production by rectification method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basics of neon separation into isotopes by distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units of the top and bottom column sections at different loads are calculated. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade outlined. A scheme of cryogenic circuit based on the high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity and the technical ability to create the driving difference of pressures between columns of various stages demonstrated.

52

Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland  

Science.gov (United States)

In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

2014-12-01

53

Innovation and productivity in services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

We examine the links between innovation investment, innovation output and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Surveys 2006-2008 in Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom and estimate an augmented structural model which links innovation inputs, innovation outputs and productivity. Our estimates suggest that innovation in service enterprises was linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, amongst the innova...

Peters, Bettina; Riley, Rebecca; Siedschlag, Iulia; Vahter, Priit; Mcquinn, John

2014-01-01

54

Research on Structure Learning of Product Unit Neural Networks by Particle Swarm Optimization  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we put forward a new method to learn structure of Product Unit Neutral Network (PUNN). The technique used in our research is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The technique can optimized collocate network structure and weight of the PUNN at the same time using PSO algorithm through standard data set. Moreover, the number of Hidden Layer units of PUNN is decided by training set, not prefixed by the designer`s prior knowledge. Particles encoding scheme ...

Xian-Hui Wang; Zheng Qin; Xing-Chen Heng; Yu Liu,

2008-01-01

55

Productivity analysis of the United States electric utility industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Using stochastic distance and directional distance functions I assess the efficiency of firms in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry. Further, I compare utilities' marginal control costs for SO2 emissions to prices observed in the SO2 allowance marketplace to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting permit prices. I estimate stochastic distance functions and use them to calculate Malmquist productivity change (PC) indices which I decompose into efficiency change and technical change. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which uses linear programming techniques, has been widely used to compute Malmquist indices as ratios of fitted distances from a convex hull frontier. As an alternative, I develop and estimate a flexible, stochastic distance frontier, using a generalized method of moments strategy. This allows for statistical inference and imposes no restrictions on returns to scale, Finally, comparisons are drawn between the stochastic approach and the less flexible non-parametric and non-stochastic DEA method using a panel of 43 electric utilities over a time period from 1961 to 1992. Applying the same methodology I analyze a panel of 78 firms over the time period from 1988 to 1997. Based on my results I identify the most and least efficient firms in the industry. Further, I develop a methodology to explicitly take into account undesirable outputs. These outputs are produced in conjunction with desirable outputs and are not costlessly disposable. I specify and estimate input and output based stochastic distance and directional distance functions and compare the alternative approaches using panel data on 41 U.S. electric utilities observed in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. I apply the preferred approach, the output directional distance function, to a sample of 56 primarily coal-burning utilities observed in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Of particular interest is the shadow price for the undesirable output. I compare the shadow values to prices from the SO2 allowance market and find that the estimated marginal industry control cost is reasonably close to prices observed in the marketplace.

Honerkamp, Olaf

1999-11-01

56

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

57

78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint...hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.''...

2013-04-24

58

Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

2011-08-10

59

Study of United Kingdom product licence applications containing new active substances, 1987-9.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--To investigate the fate of product licence applications containing new active substances in relation to their degree of innovation and therapeutic category. To assess the numbers of volunteers and patients exposed to a new active substance when marketing autorisation is first sought. DESIGN AND SETTING--Observational study of records for each licence application submitted to the United Kingdom licensing authority for marketing authorisation from 1987 to 1989. SUBJECTS--118 product...

Rawlins, M. D.; Jefferys, D. B.

1991-01-01

60

Two performance indicators for the characterization of the entropy production in a process unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two indicators are presented to compare the Second law performances of different design-variants of the same process unit. The first indicator relates the entropy production to quantities like the total transferred thermal energy and the total chemical conversion. This allows a useful comparison, even in the case of different inlets and outlets. An important aspect of the entropy production in a process unit is its distribution. An even distribution, also known as equipartition of entropy production (EoEP), is related to an optimal design. The second indicator is based on the coefficient of variation of a local entropy production profile and allows one to calculate and compare degrees of equipartition of different designs. Both indicators have been used in a study on the entropy production minimization of a plug-flow reactor. A comparison using the first indicator showed that the optimized reactors perform slightly better than a comparison based on the total entropy production alone would suggest. This shows that the total entropy production is not always a good indicator. The second indicator was found to provide an excellent numerical basis for comparing the degrees of EoEP of the different designs. -- Highlights: ? Tools have been developed to compare in a fair manner the energy efficiency of different process units. ? Such comparisons can be difficult when boundary conditions vary, but this study presents one performance indicator that can handle such a situation, using the specific entropy production. ? The other indicator measures the deviation from an ideal state of uniform entropy production (equipartition of entropy production), which in certain cases is the state of minimum energy dissipation.

61

Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

62

Catacol, a low cost reactive distillation technology for ether production and for revamping existing units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the advantages of Catacol (tm) and describes this new technology. Some applications of Catacol (tm) such as debottlenecking of existing etherification units are developed. Technological considerations for the production of ETBE are also provided in this paper and the conversion of MTBE plants to ETBE manufacture is addressed. (author). 3 figs.

Nocca, J.L.; Travers, P.; Koskas, A.

1996-12-31

63

Productivity, Efficiency, and Managerial Performance Regress and Gains in United States Universities: A Data Envelopment Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis to investigate the extent to which universities in the United States have undergone productivity and efficiency changes, partly due to managerial performance, during the 2005-09 academic years. Using panel data for 133 research and doctoral universities, the focus is on the primary drivers of U.S. publicly controlled higher education. DEA efficiency and returns to scale estimates are provided. In addition, university total factor productivity changes via the Malmquist index are decomposed into component parts. Results suggest that U.S. universities experienced average productivity regress. On an annual basis such was present prior to the global financial crisis. However, productivity gains appeared in concert with the crisis. Managerial efficiency tended to hamper productivity gains but, on the positive side, showed slight improvements over time. Decreasing returns to scale prevailed but from a policy perspective a return to economy wide growth may automatically correct some over production.

G. Thomas Sav

2012-08-01

64

19 CFR 12.142 - Entry of softwood lumber and softwood lumber products from any country into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...softwood lumber product, as described...into by that country and the United...softwood lumber products for which a Certificate of Origin has been issued...the person's knowledge and belief...granted by the country of export;...

2010-04-01

65

9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590...AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

2010-01-01

66

Selection of the optimum stage number in pipelined floating-point units  

OpenAIRE

In this work the pipeline theory applied to computing systems is reviewed. The effects of the stage delay, overhead stage delay, equalization factor and number of stages on the pipeline system performance are analyzed. A pipeline design method to identify the optimum number of stages is proposed. This method makes use of a trade-off expression that considers speed factor and hardware cost. The procedure is applied to turn a sequential Floating Point Unit (FPU) into a Pipelined Floating Point ...

Balliriain, Eduardo; Falco?n Faya, Marti?n Ignacio; Slavkin, Pablo; Lerendegui, Norberto M.

2003-01-01

67

The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. PMID:24803646

Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

2014-05-01

68

Potential by-product uranium production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When evaluating uranium resources, one must not overlook the possibilities of recovering uranium as a by-product of other industries. The technology for recovering by-product uranium from phosphoric acid has been known for many years, but only recently have market conditions encouraged production. Even with recent improvements in process technology, many problems are still encountered in scale-up from laboratory and pilot plant operation to commercial production. Some of these problems are discussed in this review of the process technology. A recent USDOE study shows a total capital cost of US $12 million for a by-product uranium plant designed to recover 40 to 60 t U/a from 30% P2O5 acid provided by a phosphoric acid plant with a capacity of 155,000 t P2O5/a. Operating costs were estimated at US $50 to 65/kg U ($20-25/lb U3O8), assuming the phosphoric acid contains 120 to 160 mg U/l and a raffinate of 13 mg U/l. The quantity of uranium recovered and the operating costs are highly sensitive to the uranium content of the acid. Constraints to by-product uranium production, besides low uranium content of the acid are small-size phosphoric acid plants and high strength (>40% P2O5) acid. Similarly the technology for recovery of uranium from copper waste dump leach liquors has been known for several years. It was developed in the mid-1960s by the US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with K US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with Kennecott Copper Corporation at its Bingham Canyon mine near Salt Lake City, Utah. Commercial application was first realized when an ion-exchange plant to recover about 55 t U/a commenced operation in 1978. (author)

69

Research on Structure Learning of Product Unit Neural Networks by Particle Swarm Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we put forward a new method to learn structure of Product Unit Neutral Network (PUNN. The technique used in our research is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. The technique can optimized collocate network structure and weight of the PUNN at the same time using PSO algorithm through standard data set. Moreover, the number of Hidden Layer units of PUNN is decided by training set, not prefixed by the designer`s prior knowledge. Particles encoding scheme is simple and effective. The design of fitness function considers not only the mean square error between networks output and desired output, but also the number of hidden layer units. Therefore, the resulting network can alleviate the problem of over-fitting. The results of the experiment indicate that PSPUNN algorithm can achieve rational architecture for PUNN relying on standard data set and the resulting networks hence obtain strong generalization abilities.

Xian-Hui Wang

2008-01-01

70

Decreasing Prevalence of ?-Lactamase Production among Respiratory Tract Isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States  

OpenAIRE

A total of 986 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with respiratory tract infections in 45 United States medical centers were characterized during the winter of 2002-2003. ?-Lactamase production was noted with 26.2% of isolates; 14.6% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents was extremely uncommon. In comparison to the results of four previous national surveys conducted since 1994, the prevalence of ?-lactamase productio...

Heilmann, Kris P.; Rice, Cassie L.; Miller, Ashley L.; Miller, Norma J.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Richter, Sandra S.; Doern, Gary V.

2005-01-01

71

The secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States market evolution and product valuation  

OpenAIRE

In this work we discuss the secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States of America. First, we give an overview of the life settlement market: how it came into existence, its growth prospects and the ethical issues it arises. Secondly, we discuss the characteristics of the different life insurance products present in the market and describe how life settlements are originated. Life settlement transactions tend to be long and complex transactions that require the involvem...

Unti, Marco

2010-01-01

72

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

73

Evaluation of dose area product vs. patient dose in diagnostic X-ray units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dose Area Product (DAP) meters which measure in units of [Gy*m(2)], are widely used in radiology, fluoroscopy and interventional cardiology X-ray units. However, assessment of the radiological hazard to the patient undergoing a given diagnostic procedure cannot be readily obtained from the measured value of DAP. We also developed simple relationships between Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and the DAP value measured in air, for different collimator field sizes and patient thickness. To establish these relationships, measurements were performed in a water phantom using high-sensitive thermoluminescent detectors (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) calibrated in terms of Kerma in water. Using these relationships developed for a given X-ray unit, calculations of ESD (in mGy) could be performed on the basis of DAP by the X-Ray unit software itself, if the X-ray unit could also evaluate the Focus-to-Skin Distance (FID), e.g. by ultra-sound techniques. PMID:20674429

Kisielewicz, K; Truszkiewicz, A; Wach, S; Wasilewska-Radwa?ska, M

2011-04-01

74

How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

75

Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

2010-07-01

76

Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States of America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mohair from Angora goats has been produced in the United States since the introduction of these animals from Turkey in 1849. Cashmere on Texas meat goats was reported in 1973, but domestic interest in commercial production did not occur until the mid-1980s. Since 1982, the average prices of U.S.-produced mohair and cashmere (de-haired) have ranged from $1.81 to $9.48/kg and approximately $55 to $200/kg, respectively. However, return to producers from mohair has been relatively constant, averaging $10.21/kg, due to the federal incentive program. Because this program is scheduled to terminate with final payment in 1996, the future of mohair profitability is questionable. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States are influenced by numerous interacting factors and potential constraints. These include the prospect that the goat and textile industries may no longer be profitable in the absence of clear government policies. Although selection may have slightly increased fiber production by Angoras (long term) and domestic meat goats (short term), availability of genetic resources may prove to be a constraint to increased fiber production by cashmere goats and improved meat production by both types of goat. Land resources are plentiful unless new government policies prohibit goats from vast tracts of rangeland and forest because of environmental concerns. Future demand is an unknown, but with increasing world population and affluence, prospects for long-term improved demand for luxury fibers seem good. Competition from foreign cashmere growers is expected, whereas, in the short term, mohair production overseas is declining. However, increased processing of cashmere in its country of origin is expected to result in shortages of raw materials for European and U.S. processors. The amount of scouring, worsted, and woolen equipment in the United States is adequate to accommodate major increases in domestic processing of goat fibers. However, the absence of specific processing knowledge and skills may be constraints. Similarly, the absence of acceptable small-scale dehairing equipment for cashmere will limit cashmere processing on a cottage industry scale. Purely practical considerations such as the effects of predation and cost of fencing could become major constraints to expanding the goat fiber industry. Likewise the success (or lack thereof) of industry promotion of fiber and goat meat could be an overriding factor. To emerge from the uncertainty of erratic raw material prices and to better control profitability, domestic goat-fiber producers are encouraged to consider innovative, cooperative, retained ownership business ventures that will permit them to profit-share up to the retail level. PMID:8726750

Lupton, C J

1996-05-01

77

Design and simulation of a power gateway controller for connecting small scale electricity production units to the distribution network  

OpenAIRE

Electricity markets have been opening up for more local production units, due to large transportation costs and large daily and seasonal load fluctuations. Even small scale producers are gradually getting permission to deliver to the power markets. In some countries, there are electricity consumers who have the possibility for small industrial purposes. Such customers could install electricity production units on their premises, and they could produce excess electricity to sell if they were g...

Mawire, Margrate

2006-01-01

78

Valuing Preferences for Environmental Sustainability in Fruit Production by United Kingdom and Japanese Consumers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reduction of carbon intensity of high volume grocery products is potentially a major contributor in meeting climate targets. In a choice experiment concerning fruit purchase decisions in the United Kingdom and Japan, this study estimates consumer willingness to pay for sustainability attributes of production alongside vitamin content, including water use efficiency, waste and packaging, and carbon emissions. Results indicate that sustainability attributes significantly influence consumers’ fruit purchase decisions. Preferences are found to be very similar between countries, with reduction of carbon emissions the most valued sustainability attribute by both UK and Japanese consumers and increased vitamin content the least. This study’s findings provide implications for carbon emission labeling development in the context of international food supply chains, and primary sector strategy encouraging initiatives to improve environmental performance domestically.

Peter R. Tait

2015-02-01

79

Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

M. R. Bakhshi

2011-12-01

80

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C. W.

2010-10-01

81

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

82

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C W, E-mail: careyking@mail.utexas.edu [Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1100, Austin, TX 78712-0254 (United States)

2010-10-15

83

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

Di Onofrio Valeria

2010-10-01

84

Small Ruminant Production System Efficiency under Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Arid Land Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sheep and goat production systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE operate under scarce natural resource constraints. A cross-sectional survey that covered 661 mixed farms, including major sheep and goat production, was conducted in the three regions of Abu Dhabi Emirate (Al-Ain, Western Region and Abu Dhabi city during 2012. A Cobb-Douglas, double-logarithmic stochastic frontier production function and maximum likelihood estimation were applied to estimate important economic derivatives and the associated risk of small ruminant production in this arid area. The highest impact of an input on the output level was found to be labor for raising sheep and alfalfa grass for raising goats. Both labor and alfalfa variables were found to be overutilized for sheep and goat production, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that average technical efficiency is 0.62 for raising sheep and only 0.34 for raising goats in the study area. Technical efficiency analysis included measuring the frequency of farms at each level of estimated technical efficiency in the range between zero and one. Zero for the technical efficiency coefficient indicates a lack of technical efficiency in resource use. The results of this study indicated that only 1% of the sheep farms show a technical efficiency coefficient of 0.25 or less; the same can be said for 41% of goat producers. However, these technical efficiencies were found to be more than 0.75 for 12% and 5% of the sheep and goat farms, respectively. Overall, goat farming in the UAE was found to be less efficient than sheep production. The results also indicated that flock size and type of breed were the most influential factors relative to other factors, and both show a positive relationship with technical efficiency. Other than flock size, factors, such as owners’ years of experience and management practices, were found to be more influential on goat farming system efficiency relative to sheep farming.

Eihab Fathelrahman

2014-12-01

85

Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for ?oating-point computations, and for this reason, ?oating-point operators consume a signi?cant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

2013-05-01

86

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. This chemistry also substantially reduces the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 6% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that heterogeneous production of ClNO2 can further increase O3 and reduce TNO3 if elevated particulate-chloride levels are present in the atmosphere.

G. Sarwar

2012-07-01

87

Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

G. Sarwar

2012-02-01

88

Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

Peter, Danchev.

89

Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification  

CERN Document Server

This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

2012-01-01

90

The products on the unit sphere and even-dimension spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution [delta](k)(r-1) focused on the unit sphere [Omega] of Rm is defined by where [phi] is Schwartz testing function. We apply the expansion formula to evaluate the product of f(r) and [delta](k)(r-1) on [Omega]. Furthermore, utilizing the Laurent series of r[lambda] and the residue of at the singular point [lambda]=-m-2k, we derive that [delta]2(x)=0 on even-dimension space. Finally, we are able to imply [Delta]k(r2k-mlnr)[dot operator][delta](x)=0 based on the fact that r2k-mlnr is an elementary solution of partial differential equation [Delta]kE=[delta](x) by using the generalized Fourier transform.

Li, C. K.

2005-05-01

91

Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

1978-01-01

92

Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Production on Reservoir Fisheries in the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research into the environmental effects of hydroelectric power production in the United States has focused increasingly on resident and migratory fish populations. Hydropower dams and reservoirs can block fish movements in both upstream and downstream directions. These movements are essential for important stocks of anadromous and catadromous fish. In addition, some strictly freshwater fish may move long distances within a river during their life cycle.A dam can pose an impassable barrier for fish trying to move upstream unless mitigation measures in the form of ladders or lifts are provided. Fish moving downstream to the sea may become disoriented when they encounter static water within a reservoir. Both resident and migratory fish may be injured or killed by passing through the turbine or over the spillway. In the United States, a variety of organizations conduct applied research and development of measures to (1) enhance fish passage, (2) reduce the numbers of fish that are drawn into the turbine intakes, and (3) reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish that pass through the turbines. Examples of these efforts from a variety of river systems and hydroelectric power plants are described.

Cada, G. F.

1997-09-08

93

Productivity, employment and industrial relations in coal mines: three case studies from Australia, United Kingdom, United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examines productivity, employment and industrial relations using three case studies: the Gunnedah coal company, Australia (by B. Pragnell); the UK coal mining industry (by J. Winterton and R. Winterton); and the Meigs Division of the Southern Ohio Coal Company (by E. Smith and T. Humphrey). The studies illustrate the different driving forces and methods used to obtain sustainable increases in productivity and the results that have been achieved. 2 figs., 12 tabs.

Jennings, N.S. [ed.

1994-12-31

94

Chill unit accumulation and necessity of rest breaking agents in South African table grape production regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cultivation of table grapes in warm regions of South Africa is complicated by problems associated with delayed and uneven bud break. Rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied to overcome these problems. The chill unit accumulation of the five major table grape production regions in South Africa was compared with the minimum chilling required to obtain a high bud break percentage (>80% and even bud break, defined as 200 hours between 0 and 10??C, or 400 hours at 3??C. The effect of chilling accumulation (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 hours at 3??C on bud break of dormant cuttings of three table grape cultivars was investigated in controlled studies in a glass house over a three year period. Cuttings used in the study were collected from commercial vineyards in Saron in the Berg River Valley (representing a warm region and the Hex River Valley (representing a cool region. Sultanina and Sugraone cuttings from Saron required at least 200 hours at 3??C to obtain a final bud break % of 80%+. A final bud break % of 80%+ was obtained with all Sultanina cuttings from Hex River Valley. Treatments receiving 400 and 800 hours at 3??C, showed the most rapid rate of bud break. Prime cuttings collected from Saron, receiving 0, 50, 100 and 400 hours at 3??C, showed a more rapid bud break process, as well as a higher final bud break % compared to Sugraone and Sultanina. It seems as if Prime has a lower chilling requirement than the other two cultivars. The model of Dokoozlian for quantifying chilling status is applicable to Saron and the Hex River Valley. The necessity of using rest breaking chemicals in the Saron area, for obtaining a high bud break % and even bud break, was confirmed. The Hex River Valley receives sufficient chilling temperatures to obtain a high bud break %, but rest breaking chemicals can be used to obtain more even bud break. The use of hydrogen cyanamide for improved and even bud break is a general practice in regions that receive less than 400 chill units. In regions receiving more than 400 chill units, several producers still use hydrogen cyanamide for even bud break. It is recommended that the chilling requirement of economic important cultivars should be determined simultaneously in field trials and glass house trials for the major table grape production regions of South Africa, to verify the necessity of using rest breaking chemicals for specific cultivars in specific regions.

Avenant Eunice

2014-01-01

95

Autohydrolysis pretreatment of waste wheat straw for cellulosic ethanol production in a co-located straw pulp mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste wheat straw (WWS) is the waste product from feedstock preparation process in a straw pulp mill. It has a significant annual production rate and no commercial value has been explored on this material. In this study, waste wheat straw was pretreated using an autohydrolysis process followed by mechanical refining, and the pretreated materials were further enzymatically hydrolyzed to evaluate the total sugar recovery for bioethanol production. Results show that autohydrolysis at 170 °C for 40 min followed by 6000 revolution PFI refining provided the best result in this study, where a total sugar recovery (total sugars in autohydrolysis filtrate and enzymatic hydrolyzate over total carbohydrates on raw WWS) of 70 % at 4 filter paper unit per oven dry gram (FPU/OD g) substrate enzyme charge could be obtained. The economic evaluation of this biorefinery process indicates that cellulosic ethanol production from autohydrolysis of WWS is a very profitable business, with 28.4 % of internal rate of return can be achieved based on current ethanol wholesale price in China. PMID:25374142

Han, Qiang; Jin, Yanbin; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Park, Sunkyu

2015-01-01

96

Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

97

Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

2014-06-01

98

Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served theusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

99

EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

R. Dinkov

2007-12-01

100

Work styles, attitudes, and productivity of scientists in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A comparison by gender  

OpenAIRE

With scientific research growing increasingly multidisciplinary in nature, team playing and communication skills have become critical in the achievement of scientific breakthroughs. This study adds valuable evidence to the oft-cited 'productivity puzzle' in the sciences by comparing the work styles, attitudes, and productivity of female and male scientists. The application of t-test analysis to data on scientists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands indicates that women report relative...

Woerdeman, Dara L.; Rodgers, Yana Meulen

2006-01-01

101

77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers  

Science.gov (United States)

...includes a 105 Liter tank with alcohol concentrations of 104.3 to...Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers (Manufacturer and...2\\ Infra-red (IR) and fuel cell breath testers may be...Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol...

2012-10-22

102

48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in the United States at fair and reasonable prices from domestic sources. (b) Use by the Food and Nutrition Service . Commodities and the...in the United States at fair and reasonable prices from domestic sources. (c) Commingled...

2010-10-01

103

Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180 degrees Celsius for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor-to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium sulfite (w/w of wood). The recoveries of total saccharides (hexoses and pentoses) were 87.9% (SPORL) and 56.7% (DA), while those of cellulose were 92.5% (SPORL) and 77.7% (DA). The total of known inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and formic, acetic and levulinic acids) formed in SPORL were only 35% of those formed in DA pretreatment. SPORL pretreatment dissolved approximately 32% of the lignin as lignosulfonate, which is a potential high-value co-product. With an enzyme loading of 15 FPU (filter paper units) per gram of cellulose, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields were 91% at 24h for the SPORL substrate and 55% at 48 h for the DA substrate, respectively. PMID:20061141

Shuai, L; Yang, Q; Zhu, J Y; Lu, F C; Weimer, P J; Ralph, J; Pan, X J

2010-05-01

104

Satellite observations of vegetation productivity provide new insight into United States bioenergy targets  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States (U.S.) currently supplies roughly half the world's biofuel, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) specifying an additional three-fold increase in annual production by 2022. Implicit in such energy targets is an associated increase in biomass demand from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 exajoules (EJ; 1018 joules) annually. However, many of the factors used to estimate future biomass availability are relatively unresolved, bringing into question EISA's ambitious future targets. Here, we estimate the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. using satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data as the most geographically-explicit measure of current vegetation growth capacity. We show that the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. realistically ranges from approximately 5.9 (± 1.4) to 22.2 (± 4.4) EJ annually, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents current harvest residuals, an attractive potential energy source since no additional harvest land is required. In contrast, the high end represents an annual harvest over 75% of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S. While we identify EISA energy targets as achievable, our results indicate that meeting such targets using current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current U.S. croplands or the conversion of 60% of total U.S. rangelands. Our results are unique in that we apply high resolution, satellite-derived NPP as an upper-envelope constraint on bioenergy potential, which removes the need for extrapolation of plot-level observed yields over large spatial areas. Effective incorporation of biofuel into the U.S. energy portfolio will depend on our ability to accurately quantify the availability of biomass as a resource.

Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

2012-12-01

105

Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa and temperature (about 100C. The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

M. Reza Mogadam

2011-01-01

106

Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium. PMID:10100674

Miner, J R

1999-02-01

107

Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

2011-11-01

108

Ozone vegetation damage effects on gross primary productivity in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

We apply an off-line process-based vegetation model (the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere model) to assess the impacts of ozone (O3) vegetation damage on gross primary productivity (GPP) in the United States during the past decade (1998-2007). The model's GPP simulation is evaluated at 40 sites of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) synthesis. The ecosystem-scale model version reproduces interannual variability and seasonality of GPP at most sites, especially in croplands. Inclusion of the O3 damage impact decreases biases of simulated GPP at most of the NACP sites. The simulation with the O3 damage effect reproduces 64% of the observed variance in summer GPP and 42% on the annual average. Based on a regional gridded simulation over the US, summertime average O3-free GPP is 6.1 g C m-2 day-1 (9.5 g C m-2 day-1 in the east of 95° W and 3.9 g C m-2 day-1 in the west). O3 damage decreases GPP by 4-8% on average in the eastern US and leads to significant decreases of 11-17% in east coast hot spots. Sensitivity simulations show that a 25% decrease in surface O3 concentration halves the average GPP damage to only 2-4%, suggesting the substantial co-benefits to ecosystem health that may be achieved via O3 air pollution control.

Yue, X.; Unger, N.

2014-09-01

109

The main WWER 1000 MW production unit of the Temelin nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main production unit consists of the reactor building, the engine room, the heat exchange plant, diesel generator stations and of the related infrastructures. The foundation slab under the reactor building is of a size of 68.2x68.2x2.4 m. The controlled areas are provided with washable epoxy paints. The floors of the technological boxes are covered with carbon steel for stainless steel sheets. The main entrance to the reactor building consists of a hermetic transport corridor that will be used for fuel charging. A boron tank, some technological boxes and the computer and control room are built below the hermetic ceiling. The actual hermetic containment consists of a prestressed reinforced concrete structure with an inner steel lining. The inner diameter is 45 m, the height 38 m and wall thickness 1.2 m. The walls consist of cells of reinforced concrete and of steel. The process of assembly is briefly described. The engine room is a steel hall 42x128 m in size and 42.3 m in height, housing a turbine generator. The poor quality of the Soviet project design documentation is criticised. (M.D.)

110

Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

1981-01-01

111

USDA-Kentucky Report: Forage-Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) Investigations: Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Toxicosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Forage-Animal Production Research Unit is involved in several research projects addressing the problem of Tall Fescue toxicosis. This is a toxic situation in grazing cattle and other animals as they consume tall fescue grass which is infected with a fungus. Cattle will grow poorly and in sever...

112

75 FR 52453 - Entry Requirements for Certain Softwood Lumber Products Exported From Any Country Into the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

This document adopts as a final rule the interim amendments to title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR) that prescribe special entry and documentation requirements applicable to certain softwood lumber and softwood lumber products exported from any country into the United States. This final rule implements Title VIII (``Softwood Lumber Act of 2008'') of the Tariff Act of 1930, as......

2010-08-26

113

Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

Xiang Li

2013-10-01

114

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

115

Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

116

76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate. In the...specific processed agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate and other...for processed agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate?...

2011-03-15

117

76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

2011-07-14

118

Isotope production at department of energy sites in the United States of America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) provides both stable and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many domestic and foreign research, development,and/or commercial applications. The materials and services are available through the Isotope Distribution Program established by the USDOE at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is operated by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc. The materials and services are provided on a full-cost recovery basis and are limited to those materials and services that are not commercially available. Many USDOE sites, including the ORNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL), Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), are utilized in meeting the user community needs for specific materials and/or services. Stable isotopes are provided by the ORNL through the use of the electromagnetic separation process. Distribution of enriched stable isotopes through the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program began in 1954 and presently includes a total of approximately 350 specific isotopic enichments of 50 different materials. These materials are avilable in various compound forms and specific configurations to meet a wide variety of research, development, and commercial applications. The radioisotopes provided by the varius USDOE sites (ORNL, LANL, BNL, HEDL, INEL, SRL, and ANL) are used in a multitude of applications that include basic research, remote power sources, medical applications, radiography, radiation processing, remote light sources, and neutron dosimetry. The stable and radioisotope production and/or processing capabilities at various USDOE sites and the availability of the materials and services throght the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program are described in detail. (author)

119

First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ?1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ?1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exis Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

120

Integrated production and utility system approach for optimizing industrial unit operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet utility demands some industrial units use onsite utility system. Traditionally, the management of such type of industrial units is carried out in three sequential steps: scheduling of the manufacturing unit by minimizing inventory, estimating the utility needs of manufacturing unit and finally operation planning of the utility system. This article demonstrates the value of an integrated approach which couples the scheduling of manufacturing unit with operational planning of the utility system. A discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is developed to compare traditional and integrated approaches. Results indicate that the integrated approach leads to significant reduction in energy costs and at the same time decreases the emissions of harmful gases. (author)

Agha, Mujtaba H.; Thery, Raphaele; Hetreux, Gilles; Le Lann, Jean Marc [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (ENSIACET-INPT), 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 44362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Hait, Alain [Universite de Toulouse, Institut Superieur de l' Aeronautique et de l' Espace, 10 av. E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

2010-02-15

121

12 CFR 7.4005 - Combination of loan production office, deposit production office, and remote service unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

...location at which a national bank operates a loan production office (LPO), a deposit production office (DPO), and a remote service...U.S.C. 36(j) by virtue of that combination. Since an LPO, DPO, or RSU is not, individually, a branch under 12...

2010-01-01

122

Investigation of environmental and exergetic performance for coal-preparation units in cement production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of the present study are to perform energy and exergy analyses of a coal-preparation unit in a cement plant and investigate the effect of varying dead state (ambient) temperatures on exergy efficiency. This is the first study conducted on a coal-preparation unit located in a cement plant with respect to the perspective of exergy. The consumption of exergy, the potential improvement of the unit and the effects of CO2 emission by the unit are also examined in terms of the chosen type of fuel. Based on the results of the analyses, the mean values of energy and exergy efficiencies of the unit are found to be 74.03% and 21.36%, respectively while the average potential improvement of the unit is calculated as 78.24%. The analyses demonstrate that the exergy destruction ratio affects the CO2 emission rate of the unit. Consequently, the present technique is proposed as a useful tool for purposes of developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures, especially concerning similar types of industrial processes.

123

Business Plan for Peloton: A Software Product Firm Focused on the Credit Union Industry in the United States  

OpenAIRE

This business plan proposes a new software firm, Peloton Software Inc., the product of which will meet an evident need of credit unions with 30-200 employees based in the United States. The hosted software product, based on Microsoft SharePoint, will improve top-down communication and horizontal collaboration. The firm will be composed of a development office in Vancouver, BC and a sales office in Los Angeles, CA, and will sell to credit unions and their credit union service organizations in ...

Flippance, Daniel

2012-01-01

124

A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

Estrella Alonso

2012-04-01

125

Pharmacists’ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists’ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula.Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a struc...

Sa, Fahmy; Abdu S; Abuelkhair M

2010-01-01

126

75 FR 27614 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR...Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding...available on the Web site of the World Trade Organization,...

2010-05-17

127

75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR...Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding...available on the Web site of the World Trade Organization,...

2010-08-16

128

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

129

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

2008-06-03

130

Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

2013-01-01

131

In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISght work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur through addition of a carbon source such as acetate or molasses to augment the natural bacterial population which can induce simultaneous reduction and precipitation of uranium in solution. Bioremediation experiments are presently being conducted at U.S. Department of Energy sites in western states. Monitored natural attenuation suggest that groundwater flow that created the deposit moved from an oxidized zone through the orebody to a reduced zone. Re-establishment of ground-water flow after mining should move contaminants from the mined orebody into the reduced zone where natural processes can reduce the contaminants and remove them from the ground water. Questions: 1) Is current ground-water hydrology suitable? 2) What is the reducing capacity of the reduced zone? 3) Do kinetics of reduction reactions in the reducing zone vs. speed of ground water flow? 4) Effects of heterogeneity in mining zone and reducing zone? 5) Can all analytes of concern be attenuated? 6) Monitored attenuation- can the limited time frame preferred by operators be achieved? (author)

132

Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

133

A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

134

Multiple treatment meta-analysis of products evaluated for control of fire blight in the eastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this analysis was to estimate the effect sizes and consistency of products evaluated for fire blight control in the eastern United States over the last decade. Because only 3% of the 69 studies published from 2000 to 2008 explicitly presented a measure of within-study variability, a method for estimating the least significant difference (LSD) and, hence the sampling variance, for studies with at least two significant mean separations in the presented mean multiple comparisons was developed. Lin's concordance analysis indicated that the estimated LSD was an accurate predictor of the actual LSD based on 35 studies in a calibration evaluation (?(c) = 0.997). Separate multi-treatment random-effects meta-analyses were performed for three control categories: antibiotics, biological control, and plant defense-activating products and mean log response ratios relative to the nontreated controls ([Formula: see text]) were computed for each treatment and then back-transformed to obtain the mean percent disease control. None of the products evaluated performed as well as streptomycin, the standard product for fire blight control, for which the mean disease control was 68.6%. As a group, experimental antibiotics provided the best fire blight control with mean effect sizes ranging from 59.7 to 61.7%. Among the biological controls, the best control was noted for treatments combining the antibiotic streptomycin with a product based on Pantoea agglomerans (55.0% mean disease reduction) or Bacillus subtilis (53.9%). Mean disease control was 31.9, 25.7, and 22.6%, respectively, for products based on B. subtilis, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens without an antibiotic, suggesting that the higher efficacy of the combination treatments was due to the antibiotic. Among the plant defense-activating products, prohexadione calcium had the highest and most consistent effect size (50.7% control), while other products provided modest mean disease control of between 6.1 and 25.8%. Percent control values were significantly moderated by study location and cultivar used in the study, and were smaller, but more variable, when products were tested under high disease intensity compared with low disease intensity. Results indicate that wide-scale use of biological control and plant defense-activating products in the eastern United States is likely to remain low. PMID:21244224

Ngugi, H K; Lehman, B L; Madden, L V

2011-05-01

135

High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59g/L, 0.68g/g stover, and 1.63g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers. PMID:25704098

Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

2015-04-01

136

Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut-downs and periods of high power demand resulted in 3375 hours of separate operation over the year, giving an average bioethanol energy cost of 0.56 Euro/L. The results suggest that the polygeneration system cannot produce lignocellulosic bioethanol competitively under the given conditions, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity.

Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

137

Energetic and exergetic performance evaluation of the quadruple-effect evaporator unit in tomato paste production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quadruple-effect evaporator units are commonly used in food focus area in sector is evaporative unit. It consumes about 60% of total energy input. The present study evaluates the performance of quadruple-effect evaporator unit (QEEU) by using exergy analysis based on actual operational data. A tomato paste factory is chosen for the analysis. The highest exergy destruction/loss occurs in the first effect with 158.2 kW, 52.7% of exergy input in first effect. Steam temperature should be decreased in order to decrease exergy destruction in first effect. Also, third effect achieves the highest exergy efficiency with 93.3%. Exergetic improvement potential of each effect varies between 0.3 kW and 83.6 kW. The highest and lowest exergetic improvement potential occurs in first and third effect of QEEU system, respectively. Exergetic improvement potential is equals to 52.80%, 11.10%, 6.73% and 69.8% of exergy loss/destruction from the first effect to the last effect, respectively. Total exergetic improvement potential is achieved as 128 kW (55% of total exergy loss/destruction) in QEEU system. It is expected that analyses result provide important information for designer and/or resources of multiple effect evaporator unit. (author)

Sogut, Z. [Technical Sciences Department, Army Academy, Ankara (Turkey); Ilten, N.; Oktay, Z. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, 10110 Balikesir (Turkey)

2010-09-15

138

Employment Opportunities and Training Needs in Agribusiness. Competencies for Cotton Production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The competencies necessary for entry and advancement in cotton production were determined by surveying people in the cotton production industry from nine of the ten leading cotton producing states. A preliminary listing of competencies was developed from a review of the literature and from a survey of specialized personnel in soil and crop…

Holcomb, John W.; And Others

139

The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

140

Synthesis of natural products containing cyclohexane units utilizing the Ferrier carbocyclization reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ferrier carbocyclization reaction is one of the most powerful transformations of carbohydrates. This reaction provides enantiomerically pure cyclohexanone derivatives from aldohexoses, and is particularly useful in the chiral pool synthesis of cyclohexane-containing natural products from carbohydrates. We have investigated the synthesis of natural products utilizing the Ferrier carbocyclization reaction. This account provides a brief overview of the Ferrier carbocyclization and its application to natural product synthesis. The utility and versatility of the Ferrier carbocyclization reaction are showcased with the syntheses of hygromycin A, lycoricidine, actinobolin, galanthamine, and morphine starting from carbohydrates. PMID:25044763

Chida, Noritaka; Sato, Takaaki

2014-08-01

141

Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc. PMID:23525887

Song, Eunjung; Rajesh, Thangamani; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-jung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

2013-08-01

142

ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research. PMID:18791137

Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

2009-01-01

143

Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added, 58-67% and 80-83% of the cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the waste were converted into monomeric sugars. The cellulose conversion efficiency during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) assay at 10% DM was 79% for the highest enzyme loading (25 FPU g(-1) DM) while 69% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids mainly (total carboxylic acids = 3.1-7.4% on DM basis).

Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.

2004-01-01

144

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production between the United States and Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author believes that the current struggle with the development of a cohesive long-term energy policy is caused by recent changes in energy availability and the traditional practice of American politics. It is concluded that the incentives to stimulate hydro and nuclear energy by the United States and Japan are remarkably similar, but the incentives for coal energy appear to be quite different. 2 refs

145

Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development  

Science.gov (United States)

Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that the theoretical model developed by this research may be used to provide a predictive equation for each major oil and gas state so that a net present value to undiscounted net cash flow ratio might be calculated in order to establish an investment signal for profit maximizers. This equation inferred how production decisions were influenced by exogenous factors, such as price, and how policies performed which lead to recommendations regarding effective policies and prudent planning.

Williams, Charles William

146

Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth: Firm-Level Evidence from the United States  

OpenAIRE

We estimate international technology spillovers to U.S. manufacturing firms via imports and foreign direct investment (FDI) between the years of 1987 and 1996. In contrast to earlier work, our results suggest that FDI leads to significant productivity gains for domestic firms. The size of FDI spillovers is economically important, accounting for about 14% of productivity growth in U.S. firms between 1987 and 1996. In addition, there is some evidence for imports-related spillovers, but it is we...

Keller, Wolfgang; Yeaple, Stephen R.

2004-01-01

147

Primary productivity and the prospects for biofuels in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of land use and plant productivity are combined to predict total annual primary production in the UK as 252 million tonnes dry matter (10.5 t ha-1yr-1). Annual above ground production is predicted to be 165 Mt (6.9 t ha-1yr-1). Within these totals, intensive agriculture contributes 60%, productive woodland 8%, natural vegetation 26% and urban vegetation 5%. However, only 25% of total plant production is cropped by man and animals, and most of this is subsequently discarded as wastes and residues. 2112 PJ of organic material is available for fuel without reducing food or fibre production, but since much of this could not be economically collected, 859 PJ is calculated as a more realistic biofuel contribution by the year 2000. After deducting 50% conversion losses, this could save P1 billion (1979 prices) in oil imports. Short rotation energy plantations, forest residues, coppice woodlands, animal and crop wastes, industrial and domestic wastes, catch crops, natural vegetation and urban vegetation all have immediate or short term potential as biofuel sources. Sensitive planning is required to reduce environmental impact, but in some cases more diverse wildlife habitats may be created.

Lawson, G. J.; Callaghan, T. V.

1983-09-01

148

The release and transport of fission product cesium in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island-Unit 2) accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 55% of the fission product cesium was released from the overheated UO2 fuel in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island-Unit 2) accident and was transported mainly to a water pool that formed in the basement of the containment structure. Steam that boiled away from a pool in the bottom of the reactor vessel transported the released fission products throughout the Reactor Coolant System (RCS). Some fission products passed directly through a leaking valve, but most deposited on dry surfaces before being dissolved or resuspended when the RCS was refilled with water. Laboratory test with non-TMI deposits of fission product cesium gave leach rates that were in good agreement with the TMI scenario. It was necessary to develop a TMI fission product transport model since the measurements at TMI occurred after most of the deposition, resolution, and liquid purging had taken place. The transport model confirms results being obtained with complex models used in studies of severe light water reactor accidents

149

Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under

Paul Liu

2012-05-01

150

Introduction to the Unified Synthesis Product (USP), Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The USP provides in plain language a synthesis of our current understanding of global climate change impacts in the United States. It does this by addressing special issues facing a variety of sectors and regions across the United States. In the process of synthesizing this information across a large number of recently completed assessments and new research since, the USP provides some new insights about climate change impacts in the United States. Highlights include: 1. Climate-related changes already have been observed globally and in the United States. These include increases in air and water temperatures, reduced frost days, increased frequency and intensity of heavy downpours, a rise in sea level, and reduced snow cover, glaciers, and sea ice. A longer ice-free period on lakes and rivers, lengthening of the growing season, and increased water vapor in the atmosphere has also been observed. 2. These changes are expected to increase and will impact human health, water supply, agriculture, coastal areas, and many other aspects of society and the natural environment. Some changes are likely for the United States and surrounding coastal waters including more intense hurricanes and related increases in wind, rain, and storm surges (but not necessarily an increase in the number of storms that make landfall), as well as drier conditions in the Southwest and Caribbean. 3. Society and ecosystems are generally adapted to a stable climate. For this reason, the projected rapid rate and large amount of climate change over this century will challenge the ability of society and natural systems to adjust. 4. In projecting future conditions, there is always some level of uncertainty. For example, there is a high degree of confidence in projections of future temperature increases that are greatest nearer the poles and in the middle of continents. For precipitation, there is high confidence in continued increases in the Arctic and sub-Arctic (including Alaska) and decreases in the tropical regions, but the precise location of the transition zone between these is less certain. On smaller time and space scales, natural climate variations can be relatively large and can temporarily mask the progressive nature of global climate change. 5. Unanticipated impacts of climate change have already occurred and more are likely in the future. These future impacts might stem from unforeseen changes in the climate system such as major alterations in oceans, ice, or storms; and unpredicted consequences of ecological changes, such as massive dislocations of species or pest outbreaks.

Karl, T. R.

2009-05-01

151

Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ? Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ? SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ? Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ? Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ? Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

152

Pharmacists’ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists’ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE. The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula.Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire.Results: Pharmacists’ use of herbal products is high in the UAE, as they have a high belief on the effectiveness of herbal products, and only age was found to be the most predominant variable that was influencing pharmacists’ personal use of herbal products (p-value=0.0171. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on the uses/indications of herbal products (47% rather than on other areas. Knowledge of the dispensing mode (prescription only or over the counter medicines mandated by the Ministry of Health was quite good, however, it is to be noted that the source of information on the dispensing mode was provided by medical representatives (48%. Knowledge of dispensing mode of herbal products was found to be significantly influenced by the place of work with more knowledge of the dispensing mode by pharmacists working in the private sector (p-value 0.0007. The results from the study also underscores the need for including herbal medicine as a separate topic in pharmacy college curriculum and to provide for more seminars and continuing pharmacy education programs targeting pharmacists in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.Conclusions: Pharmacists need to be informed on indications, drug interactions, adverse events and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their efforts to incorporate relevant topics on herbal medicine in the pharmacy students’ curriculum.

Fahmy SA

2010-06-01

153

THE EFFECT OF REDUCTION CONCENTRATIONS OF THE BROILER CHICKENS PER UNIT AREA ON THE FINAL LIVE WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION ECONOMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the present study was a mathematical and statistical assessment for the effect of concentration of broiler chickens per unit area to the final live weight and production economics. Cobb 500 chickens were fattening for 42 days in a hall on deep litter. During the two experiments the chickens were divided to two groups according to concentration per unit area and it was about 30 and 25 kg/m2. The experiments had been complied with recommended  nutritional  requirements  for  breeding  and  final fattening type of chickens Cobb500. The average final weight of broiler chickens in the first experiment were 2.14 and 2.17 kg for concentrations of 29.41 and 25.76 kg/m2 respectively, and for the second experiment  were 2.01 and 2.02 kg for concentrations of 29.33 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively. According to statistical analysis (P?0.05, the average final live weight of broiler chickens was not affected by concentrations.  The calculated production total live weight of broiler chickens across the halls were 48526.5, 48 394.5, 42504.0 and 39435.0 kg at a concentrations of 29.41, 29.33, 25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 respectively.  By reducing the concentration of birds in the hall from 29.41 to  29.33 kg/m2 and from 25.76 to 23.9 kg/m2   the total production of broiler chickens was decreased by 6022.5 and  8959.5 kg live weight respectively. The concentration of birds per unit area of ??25.76 and 23.90 kg/m2 lead to lower the  price of the product of broiler chickens by 4745.73 and 7060.09 € respectively, compared with  the price for the product of the concentrations of 29.41and  29.33 kg/m2 respectively.doi:10.5219/198

Martin Kliment

2012-04-01

154

Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

155

Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses, considering both average values and standard deviations.

Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

156

The Haverstraw experience: the first tobacco product display ban in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2012, the village of Haverstraw, New York, passed the first tobacco retail display ban in the United States. Community groups funded by the New York State Department of Health Tobacco Control Program mobilized community members to support an initiative to protect youths in their area from tobacco marketing via methods consistent with a community transformation framework. The law was soon rescinded after 7 tobacco companies and the New York Association of Convenience Stores filed a federal lawsuit against the village that challenged the law's constitutionality. We discuss lessons learned and next steps for adoption of local point-of-sale policies. PMID:24825238

Curry, Laurel E; Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan

2014-06-01

157

Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and alternative models of higher education.

Gustavo Gregorutti

2010-12-01

158

Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures - article no. 044006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

King, C.W. [University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

2010-10-15

159

Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

2014-02-01

160

Methyl Chloride Synthesis in a Microreactor-Development of a Small Scale Production Unit.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Budapest : Budapest University of Technology and Economics , 2014, s. 57-58. ISBN 978-963-05-9518-6. [International Conference on Micro reactor Technology IMRET /13./. Budapest (HU), 23.06.2014-25.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : methyl chloride * chloromethane * on-site production Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

Schmidt, S.A.; Wärnå, J.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kumar, N.; Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Yu.; Salmi, T.

161

Woody biomass production costs in the United States: An economic summary of commercial Populus plantation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production costs for commercial-sized Populus plantations were developed from a series of research programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Populus hybrid planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2,100 cuttings ha-1 was projected to yield an average of 16 ovendry metric tons of biomass per hectare per year (Mg (OD) ha-1yr-1). A discounted cash flow analysis of multiple rotations showed production costs of $17 (US) Mg-1 (OD). Site preparation and planting were 30% of this cost, with annual management and maintenance contributing another 28%. Land rent and property taxes were major expenses, representing 42% of the total

162

Method for the production of cotton somatic embryos. United States Patent Application  

OpenAIRE

The present invention provides Inter alia, a method for the production of cotton somatic embryos comprising (a) isolating a totipotent stomatal cell-containing epidermal explant from leaf material excised from a cotton plant; and (b) culturing said explant in a basal medium which comprises an embryogenic callus-inducing quantity of an auxin and a cytokinin under an embryogenic callus inducing intensity of light until embryogenic callus is formed; and (c) sub-culturing said embryogenic callus ...

Dunwell, J. M.; Keith, D. J.; Nobre, J. M. P.

2003-01-01

163

Total Production of Uranium Concentrate in the United States as of December 31, 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

From the US Energy Information Administration, this page contains data on the total production of uranium concentrate in the US for the first to fourth quarters from 1996 through 1999. The data are in graph and table format, broken down into pounds produced each quarter, and a table shows the number of operating uranium mills and plants in the US. Contacts are provided for further information.

164

Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan co...

Di Onofrio Valeria; Negrone Mario; Gallè Francesca; Bagattini Maria; Liguori Giorgio; Triassi Maria

2010-01-01

165

Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using ?-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

166

Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity

167

Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities, in contrast to the other fungi where lower activities were found. The culture filtrates were concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. After enzyme concentration, the highest enzyme activities (1.34 FPU/ml) were found in the culture broth originating from P. brasilianum. Enzymatic hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass) using either enzyme mixtures the glucose yield from cellulose was in the range of 77-79% (w/w).

Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.

2003-01-01

168

Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

Kenneth M. Casebeer

2012-05-01

169

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

Haas, Kevin

2013-09-15

170

An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditint is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

171

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01

172

Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small cold bridge effect.The measurements were carried out in 1996.

Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa HØjgaard

1997-01-01

173

Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

2014-04-01

174

[Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending. PMID:25739195

Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

2014-10-01

175

Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

2014-05-01

176

Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Peischl, J.; Petron, G.; Schnell, R. C.; Tsai, T.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

2013-12-01

177

United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

Sean, Gillon.

178

Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

179

Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety :an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States  

OpenAIRE

The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement about product saf...

Domke, Laura

2008-01-01

180

Butt-welded constructional unit of austenitic steel pipes and method for its production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the ends of the pipes of stainless austenitic steel 304 spool pieces of steel 316 are butt-welded. This welding is done on the production site where the subsequent solution heat-treatment can be performed. The welding of two pipes is done at the construction place, for example at the reactor-place. To avoid stress crack corrosion, the ends of the spool pieces are collar-shaped reinforced and at the front ends they are flattened in the form of a cone frustum. Between two pipes a hollow is formed, in which a welding bead of 308L welding metal is butt-welded. The spool pieces may consist of different steels like 316L, 316LN, 304L, 304LN, 347L or 321L. (RW)

181

The Effect of Lightning NOx Production on Surface Ozone in the Continental United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Lightning NO(x) emissions calculated using the US National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NO(x) emissions for July August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NO(x) production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NO(x) emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NO(x) were less than 2 ppbv in 71 % of the cases with a maximum of 10 ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42 ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3 , though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1 st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the US). Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NO(z) curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NO(x) suggest that while North American lightning production of NO(x) can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Russell, A. G.; Choi, Y.; Wang, Y.

2008-01-01

182

Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01

183

A nationwide production analysis of state park attendance in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the production of U.S. states' park visits from 1984 to 2010 by state. In specifying the production equation in terms of the influences of the states' parklands, labor, and capital investments on the annual attendances, we found that state governments will experience an ongoing need for more labor to maintain their parklands if attendance is to increase in the future. Results also indicated that more capital expenditures are not likely to increase park utilization rates. Post-estimation procedures involved the application of the response residuals to identify the capacity utilization rates of the states' park systems over the past 27 years. Past utilization rates revealed operators met or exceeded capacity utilization expectations from 1984 through 1990. However, beginning in 1991, the annual mean utilization rate for the nation's supply of states' parks signaled a trend toward excess capacity. Our forecast revealed the mean utilizations over the next three years will vary between 90% and 95%. Post-estimation procedures also examined the relationship between state park management orientations (towards either public-lands preservation or recreational development) and projected annual capacity utilization rates. Results indicate that the quantity of added facilities to broaden their appeal to the public (i.e., a recreation orientation) was not important in explaining utilization capacities. However, an orientation toward public-lands preservation related significantly to greater utilization rates. In our view, the public will continue to accept current cost structures for continued operations of the states' parks on the compelling need for access to outdoor recreation to contribute to the visitor well-being. PMID:22306082

Siderelis, Christos; Moore, Roger L; Leung, Yu-Fai; Smith, Jordan W

2012-05-30

184

The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

Y. Choi

2008-03-01

185

Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots of environmental impacts that could be subject to mitigation. PMID:22184424

Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

2012-01-01

186

Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots of environmental impacts that could be subject to mitigation. PMID:22184425

Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

2012-01-01

187

Mild coal gasification: Product separation, pilot-unit support, twin screw heat transfer, and H sub 2 S evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. Our efforts this year have been in four main areas. A new thrust has been to identify and develop efficient processes to separate the vapor product stream into particulate-free liquid and mist-free gas. We continued work aimed at predicting heat transfer rates (hence throughput) in externally-heated twin-screw pyrolyzers. We sought to provide technical support for the design, installation, startup, and operation of the DOE-sponsored 500 kg/hr twin-screw mild gasification unit at Coal Technology Corporation (CTC). A smaller laboratory effort had the objective of identifying and testing the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species during coal pyrolysis. Detailed subproject objectives are given in their respective sections. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Camp, D.W.; Wallman, P.H.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-08-09

188

Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

Stockmann Keith D

2012-01-01

189

Site specific nematode management-development and success in cotton production in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton. PMID:25580023

Overstreet, C; McGawley, E C; Khalilian, A; Kirkpatrick, T L; Monfort, W S; Henderson, W; Mueller, J D

2014-12-01

190

Site Specific Nematode Management—Development and Success in Cotton Production in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton. PMID:25580023

Overstreet, C.; McGawley, E. C.; Khalilian, A.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Monfort, W. S.; Henderson, W.; Mueller, J. D.

2014-01-01

191

Health, United States, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

... Urban Chartbook NCHS Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States, 2013 Health, United States is an annual report ... selected indicators 2013 Special Feature Prescription Drugs Health, United States, 2013 data on selected topics American Indian or ...

192

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16

193

Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

None

1996-02-01

194

Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

195

Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

196

Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

197

Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

Vesela Veleva

2009-02-01

198

Viable adenovirus vaccine prototypes: high-level production of a papillomavirus capsid antigen from the major late transcriptional unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe, effective, orally delivered, live adenovirus vaccines have been in use for three decades. Recombinant derivatives of the live adenovirus vaccines may prove an economical alternative to current vaccines for a variety of diseases. To explore that possibility, we constructed a series of recombinants that express the major capsid protein (L1) of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), a model for mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of recombinant HPV L1 completely prevents persistent HPV infection [Koutsky, L. A., Ault, K. A., Wheeler, C. M., Brown, D. R., Barr, E., Alvarez, F. B., Chiacchierini, L. M. & Jansen, K. U. (2002) N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 1645-1651], suggesting that L1 expressed from recombinant adenoviruses might provide protective immunity. In our recombinants, COPV L1 is incorporated into adenovirus late region 5 (Ad L5) and is expressed as a member of the adenoviral major late transcriptional unit (MLTU). COPV L1 production by the most prolific recombinant is comparable to that of the most abundant adenoviral protein, hexon. COPV L1 production by recombinants is influenced by Ad L5 gene order, the specific mRNA processing signals associated with COPV L1, and the state of a putative splicing inhibitor in the COPV L1 gene. Recombinant COPV L1 protein assembles into VLPs that react with an antibody specific for conformational epitopes on native COPV L1 protein that correlate with protection in vivo. The designs of these recombinants can be applied directly to the production of recombinants appropriate for assessing immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models and in human trials. PMID:15767581

Berg, Michael; Difatta, Julie; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Schlegel, Richard; Ketner, Gary

2005-03-22

199

Muscle-tendon unit stiffness does not independently affect voluntary explosive force production or muscle intrinsic contractile properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relationship of muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness and explosive force production during voluntary and evoked contractions of the knee extensors. Thirty-four untrained participants performed a series of explosive voluntary and electrically evoked (octets (8 pulses, 300 Hz) via femoral nerve stimulation) isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary force (MVF) was assessed during maximum voluntary contractions. Explosive force production was assessed as the time taken, from force onset (0 N), to achieve specific levels of absolute (25-300 N) and relative force (5%-75% MVF) during the explosive contractions. Ultrasonic images of the vastus lateralis were recorded during 10-s ramp contractions to assess MTU stiffness, which was expressed in absolute (N·mm(-1)) and relative (to MVF and resting tendon-aponeurosis length) terms. Bivariate correlations suggested that absolute MTU stiffness was associated with voluntary explosive force (time to achieve 150-300 N: r = -0.35 to -0.54, P < 0.05). However, no relationships between stiffness and voluntary explosive force were observed when the influence of MVF was removed, either via partial correlations of absolute values (P ? 0.49) or considering relative values (P ? 0.14). Similarly, absolute MTU stiffness was related to explosive force during evoked octet contractions (r = -0.41 to -0.64, P < 0.05), but these correlations were no longer present when accounting for the influence of MVF (P ? 0.15). Therefore, once maximum strength was considered, MTU stiffness had no independent relationship with voluntary explosive force production or the evoked capacity for explosive force. PMID:25494973

Hannah, Ricci; Folland, Jonathan P

2015-01-01

200

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

OpenAIRE

Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops ...

Mangan, Francis X.; Mendonc?a, Raquel U.; Maria Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio Nunes; Finger, Fernando L.; Zoraia de Jesus Barros; Hilton Galvão; Almeida, Gustavo C.; An, Rachel Silva; Anderson, Molly D.

2008-01-01

201

Tipología de unidades de producción de nuez de castilla en sistema de producción tradicional / Typology of walnut production units in traditional production systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En México, el sistema de producción familiar de nuez de Castilla es generador de ingresos complementarios para las familias y de tradiciones culinarias; como el chile en nogada. En el sur de México se desarrolla un sistema de producción tradicional-familiar, intercalado con cultivos anuales y perenn [...] es en condiciones socioeconómicas muy similares a las condiciones socio-económicas de las unidades de producción en estudio. A pesar de su importancia, poco se conoce sobre el sistema de cultivo y las características de sus unidades de producción (UP); lo que ha limitado el desarrollo de la actividad. El análisis de las UP se realizó por muestreo aleatorio simple con una confiabilidad de 95 %. Se entrevistó a 167 productores en su domicilio particular. Para la construcción de la tipología se utilizó análisis multivariado con variables categóricas. Se identificaron tres tipos de UP diferenciadas por región de producción, manejo poscosecha y mano de obra contratada. Las variables culturales no discriminaron productores, pero contribuyeron a entender la lógica de funcionamiento del cultivo. Se concluye que variables del factor espacial, en términos de las relaciones de mercado, diferencian UP de nuez de Castilla periurbanas de la región Sierra Nevada. Abstract in english In México, the walnut family production system generates complementary income for families as well as culinary traditions such as chile en nogada. In the south of México, a traditional-family production system is practiced, interspersed with annual and perennial crops in very similar socioeconomic c [...] onditions. In spite of its importance, little is known about the cultivation system and the characteristics of its production units (PU), limiting the development of the activity. The analysis of PUs was carried out by simple random sampling with a reliability of 95 %. Interviews were done with 167 producers in their homes. For the construction of the typology, a multivariate analysis with categorical variables was used. Three types of different PUs were identified based on production region, post-harvest management and hired workforce. The cultural variables did not discriminate producers, but they did contribute to understand the logic of the crop functioning. It is concluded that variables of the spatial factor, in terms of the market relationships, differentiate peri-urban walnut PUs in the Sierra Nevada region.

Naxeai, Luna-Méndez; José L., Jaramillo-Villanueva; Javier, Ramírez-Juárez; Sergio, Escobedo-Garrido; Ángel, Bustamante-González; Guillermo, Campos-Ríos.

2013-09-01

202

Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acider peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

203

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

OpenAIRE

Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm) on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1) and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1) was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation r...

Mashitah, M. D.; Fadzilah, K.

2010-01-01

204

9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

...adulterated or misbranded poultry products are not...sanitary handling of poultry products; (G...establishment; (H) A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as set...for importation of poultry products into...

2010-01-01

205

STUDY CONCERNING PRODUCTION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES IN SOLID STATE CULTURES OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrolysis of the lignocelluloses to fermentable sugars seems to be the main reason for the high producing cost of ethanol from lignocelluloses. The objective of this work is to test two strains of Trichoderma in liquid state and solid state cultures for cellulase production, and to compare the productivity and efficiency of the two systems of fermentation. Submerged liquid cultures (SLC and solid state cultures (SSC were carried out to compare the productivity of the two strains of Trichoderma. Comparing the productions of cellulases in the systems applied in this study, data indicate the system of solid state culture with flushing as the most efficient (660% more efficient in T. viride ATCC 13.631 SSC+f than in SLC and 455% more efficient in T. viride CMGB1 SSC+f than in SLC. Still, T. viride CMGB1 show a higher production (2160 FPU in SSC+f than T. viride ATCC 13.631 (1880 FPU in SSC+fm in laboratory conditions. These results recommend solid state cultures as systems for producing cellulases at lower price than liquid state cultures. These low cost cellulases can lower the price of ethanol produces from lignocellulosic biomass.

T. VINTIL?

2013-12-01

206

A trial production of the image slicer unit for next generation infrared instruments and the assembly of the evaluation system of the pseudo slit image quality  

Science.gov (United States)

We have carried out the trial production of small format (n=5) image slicer aiming to obtain the technical verification of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) that can be equipped to the next generation infrared instruments such as TMT/MICHI and SPICA/SMI. Our goal is to achieve stable pseudo slit image with high efficiency. Here we report the results of the assembly of the image slicer unit and the non-cryogenic evaluation system of the pseudo slit image quality in the infrared.

Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Tokoro, Hitoshi; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kirino, Okiharu; Mitsui, Kenji; Okada, Norio

2014-08-01

207

NICU Notes: A Palm OS® and Windows® Database Software Product and Process to Facilitate Patient Care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit  

OpenAIRE

This is a database software application for information a neonatologist routinely considers in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Users enter data at the point of care on a handheld device that also encrypts the data. Data management follows synchronization via an ODBC DSN to a secure Microsoft® Access application. User feedback guides software modification over time. The poster illustrates the data model, the software user interface, and data management products.

Schulman, Joseph

2003-01-01

208

75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...in two separate product markets--bonded...prices, lower quality, less customer service, and less innovation...trade names, service marks, service names, technical...Divested Portec Product Lines, quality assurance and...

2010-12-20

209

Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States  

OpenAIRE

This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctor...

Gustavo Gregorutti

2010-01-01

210

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 187 - Fees for Production Certification-Related Services Performed Outside the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production certification-related service means a service...production approval holder and supplier surveillance; designee...witnessing of tests. Supplier facility means a place...production certification-related services provided outside...writing of the estimated cost and schedule to...

2010-01-01

211

Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

1982-03-01

212

Do outliers and unobserved heterogeneity explain the exporter productivity premium? Evidence from France, Germany and the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

A stylized fact from the literature on the Micro-econometrics of International Trade and a central implication of the heterogeneous firm models from the New New Trade Theory is that exporters are more productive than non-exporters. It is argued that this exporter productivity premium is due to extra costs of exporting that can be covered only by more productive firms. However, in recent papers that control for extreme observations and unobserved firm heterogeneity by applying a highly robust ...

Temouri, Yama; Wagner, Joachim

2013-01-01

213

Chemicals of emerging concern in household products: a case study on the disposal of cosmetics in the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

Household products may contain chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) and their use and disposal can contribute to CECs being released to the environment with the potential to cause concern. Cosmetic products were used to exemplify the source-pathway-effect relationship for CECs, by investigating the use of cosmetics as a prospective pollutant source, their disposal, as a pathway for environmental contamination and, the potential need for effective management of CECs in products. Emphasis was p...

Dhaniram, Danelle

2012-01-01

214

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Petroleum Products Corporation Site, Operable Unit 1, Pembroke Park, Broward County, FL. (First remedial action), October 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Petroleum Products site is an inactive oil processing plant in Pembroke Park, Broward County, Florida. The area surrounding the site is highly developed with industrial, commercial, and residential properties. The Petroleum Products (PPC) site lies within the radius of two major municipal wellfields. Current site features include an industrial warehouse complex, a fenced area with several dozen drums of investigation - derived waste, a french drain system, and several monitoring and abandoned storm drainage wells. Subsequent sampling identified that the groundwater had been contaminated by oils, VOCs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the first operable unit (OU1), enhancement of the free product recovery system as an interim remedy. A future ROD will address source control and ground water treatment. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals, including chromium and lead; and oils. The selected remedial action for the site is included

215

A comparison of individual annual doses for unit releases of activation products over a period of 50 years into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The off-site individual annual doses to the public from unit releases over a period of 50 years of activation products from a planned fusion reactor into the aquatic environment are assessed within the framework of the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP). A comparison is made for two different site options: a large inland lake-river water system and a seashore-sited brackish water system. Continuous unit releases (1 Bq/year for 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, which gives the annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) integrated over 50 years. The results of this study show that individual annual doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides into the lake-river water system become 1.3-60 times smaller than the doses obtained for the brackish water system. The Niobium isotopes, however, give a 2.5-4.8 higher dose. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the dilution in the lake-river water system chosen here is higher than in the brackish water system. Another reason is that the bioaccumulation factor for a nuclide can vary considerably between fresh water and marine water. If collective doses were to be compared, the result could be completely different since many more people are exposed to the activity if it is released into an inland lake-river system. (orig.)

216

Pathogen testing of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1990 to 1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted microbiological testing programs for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products produced at approximately 1,800 federally inspected establishments. All samples were collected at production facilities and not at retail. We report results here for the years 1990 through 1999. Prevalence data for Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or staphylococcal enterotoxins in nine different categories of RTE meat and poultry products are presented and discussed. The prevalence data have certain limitations that restrict statistical inferences, because these RTE product-testing programs are strictly regulatory in nature and not statistically designed. The cumulative 10-year Salmonella prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.31%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 0.10%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 0.07%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 0.20%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 0.22%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 0.05%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 0.22%. The cumulative 3-year Salmonella prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 1.43%. The cumulative 10-year L. monocytogenes prevalences were as follows: jerky, 0.52%; cooked, uncured poultry products, 2.12%; large-diameter cooked sausages, 1.31%; small-diameter cooked sausages, 3.56%; cooked beef, roast beef, and cooked corned beef, 3.09%; salads, spreads, and pâtés, 3.03%; and sliced ham and luncheon meat, 5.16%. The cumulative 3-year L. monocytogenes prevalence for dry and semidry fermented sausages was 3.25%. None of the RTE products tested for E. coli O157:H7 or staphylococcal enterotoxins was positive. Although FSIS and the industry have made progress in reducing pathogens in these products, additional efforts are ongoing to continually improve the safety of all RTE meat and poultry products manufactured in federally inspected establishments in the United States. PMID:11510658

Levine, P; Rose, B; Green, S; Ransom, G; Hill, W

2001-08-01

217

Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

2010-01-01

218

Acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water of the United States, 1993-2003  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1993 through 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground and surface water. As part of these studies, approximately 5,100 water samples were collected and analyzed for the acetamide parent herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, and metolachlor and their degradation products ethanesulfonic acid, oxanilic acid, and sulfinyl acetic acid. During this period, various analytical methods were developed to detect and measure concentrations of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in ground water and surface water. Results showed that the degradation products of acetamide herbicides in ground water were detected more frequently and occurred at higher concentrations than their parent compounds. Further study showed that the acetamide herbicides and their degradation products were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. In general, the parent compounds were detected at similar or greater frequencies than the degradation products in surface water. The developed methods and data were valuable for acquiring information about the occurrence, fate, and transport of the herbicides and their degradation products and the importance of analyzing for both parent compounds and their degradate products in water-quality studies.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, Michael

2004-01-01

219

Ethanol production from sunflower meal biomass by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lignocellulosic materials are considered promising renewable resources for ethanol production, but improvements in the processes should be studied to reduce operating costs. Thus, the appropriate enzyme loading for cellulose saccharification is critical for process economics. This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of cellulase and ?-glucosidase in the production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sunflower meal biomass. The sunflower biomass was pretreated with 6% H2SO4 (w/v), at 121 °C, for 20 min, for hemicellulose removal and delignificated with 1% NaOH. SSF was performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907, at 38 °C, 150 rpm, for 72 h, with different enzyme concentrations (Cellulase Complex NS22086-10, 15 and 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-Glucosidase NS22118, with a cellulase to ?-glucosidase ratio of 1.5:1; 2:1 and 3:1). The best condition for ethanol production was cellulase 20 FPU/gsubstrate and ?-glucosidase 13.3 CBU/gsubstrate, resulting in 27.88 g/L ethanol, yield of 0.47 g/g and productivity of 0.38 g/L h. Under this condition the highest enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose was attained (87.06%). PMID:24794173

Camargo, Danielle; Gomes, Simone D; Sene, Luciane

2014-11-01

220

Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity  

Science.gov (United States)

Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere).

Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

221

Comparison of Four Global Satellite Rainfall Data Products over the United States against WSR-88D Radar Rainfall Data  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the multi-dimensional uncertainty structure of four pseudo-real time and publicly available quasi- global satellite rainfall products overland at spatial scales of 0.04 and 0.25 degrees. These four products were: 1) NASA's Infrared Rainfall (IR) product 3B41RT; 2) NASA's Merged Microwave Rainfall product 3B42RT; 3) NOAA CPC Passive Microwave Rainfall product CMORPH, and 4) PERSIANN produced by University of California (Irvine). Each of these products adopts a distinct physical scheme (such as the use of Lagrangian or Eulerian frame of reference) and calibration strategy (such as neural networks or the use of TRMM-PR) in the rainfall estimation process. Analysis was performed over two regions in the US known to have a distinct hydro- climatology - i) Mid-western US (a semi-arid zone), and ii) Florida (sub-tropical zone modulated by coastal effects). Uncertainty was assessed using WSR-88D rainfall as reference for ground validation data. Nine hydrologically relevant error metrics were computed for each product according to a multi-dimensional error modeling scheme that decomposes the marginal error in three major dimensions: 1) temporal dimension (how does the error vary in time?); ii) spatial dimension (how does the error vary in space?) and iii) retrieval dimension (how 'off' is each rainfall estimate from the true value over rainy areas?).

Anagnostou, E.; Hossain, F.

2007-12-01

222

Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

223

Bioethanol production from wheat straw via enzymatic route employing Penicillium janthinellum cellulases.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study concerns in-house development of cellulases from a mutant Penicillium janthinellum EMS-UV-8 and its application in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes for bioethanol production from pre-treated wheat straw. In a 5L fermentor, the above strain could produce cellulases having activity of 3.1 FPU/mL and a specific activity of 0.83 FPU/mg of protein. In-house developed cellulase worked more efficiently in case of SSF as ethanol concentration of 21.6g/L and yield of 54.4% were obtained which were higher in comparison to SHF (ethanol concentration 12 g/L and 30.2% yield). This enzyme preparation when compared with commercial cellulase for hydrolysis of pre-treated wheat straw was found competitive. This study demonstrates that P. janthinellum EMS-UV-8 is a potential fungus for future large-scale production of cellulases. PMID:25086433

Singhania, Reeta Rani; Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Adsul, Mukund; Mathur, Anshu; Gupta, Ravi; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

2014-10-01

224

Aqueous ammonia pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation evaluation of oil palm fronds for ethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm fronds are the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Malaysia. In this study, fronds were tested as the potential renewable biomass for ethanol production. The soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment was applied, and the fermentability of pretreated fronds was evaluated using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The optimal pretreatment conditions were 7 % (w/w) ammonia, 80 °C, 20 h of pretreatment, and 1:12 S/L ratio, where the enzymatic digestibility was 41.4 % with cellulase of 60 FPU/g-glucan. When increasing the cellulase loading in the hydrolysis of pretreated fronds, the enzymatic digestibility increased until the enzyme loading reached 60 FPU/g-glucan. With 3 % glucan loading in the SSF of pretreated fronds, the ethanol concentration and yield based on the theoretical maximum after 12 and 48 h of the SSF were 7.5 and 9.7 g/L and 43.8 and 56.8 %, respectively. The ethanol productivities found at 12 and 24 h from pretreated fronds were 0.62 and 0.36 g/L/h, respectively. PMID:22644062

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Seung, Doyoung; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-11-01

225

A large scale manual production of [18F]FDG using a synthetic unit made of sterile disposable components and operated by a master slave manipulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self contained, Master Slave Manipulator operated and largely disposable apparatus for the large scale production of [18F]FDG using nucleophilic fluorination methodology has been developed. The synthetic unit consists of readily available sterile disposable components and is easy to assemble. Operation of the synthetic unit is carried out in a hot cell under a closed system to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Recovery of [18O]water by direct distillation from the reaction vial makes the system even more attractive. Normal production runs yield 25-150 mCi of [18F]FDG. Since no manual handling of radioactivity is involved, a scaled up production is feasible by this procedure. We have avoided the use of any permanent electrical liquid transfer devices in our system, thereby eliminating the possibility of pyrogen build up. An in-house radiopharmaceutical program to check the sterility and apyrogenicity of the short-lived radiopharmaceuticals is an added convenience at our institution. (author)

226

Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning  

OpenAIRE

The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summariz...

Smith, James E.; Hoover, Coeli M.

2012-01-01

227

The ica operon and biofilm production in coagulase-negative Staphylococci associated with carriage and disease in a neonatal intensive care unit.  

OpenAIRE

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a major cause of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We evaluated the hypothesis that the ica operon and biofilm production are associated with CoNS disease in this setting. CoNS associated with bacteremia or blood culture contamination and from the skin of infants with CoNS bacteremia or healthy controls were obtained during a prospective case-control study on a busy NICU. A total of 180 strains were identified, of which 122 (68%) we...

Silva, Gd; Kantzanou, M.; Justice, A.; Massey, RC; Wilkinson, Ar; Day, Np; Peacock, Sj

2002-01-01

228

Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

2013-01-01

229

Productivity growth and the role of ICT in the United Kingdom: an industry view, 1970-2000  

OpenAIRE

We use a new industry-level dataset to quantify the role of ICT in explaining productivity growth in the UK, 1970-2000. The dataset is for 34 industries covering the whole economy (31 in the market sector). Using growth accounting, we find that ICT capital played an increasingly important, and in the 1990s the dominant, role in accounting for labour productivity growth in the market sector. Econometric evidence also supports an important role for ICT. We also find econometric evidence that a ...

Oulton, Nicholas; Srinivasan, Sylaja

2005-01-01

230

The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

2009-02-01

231

Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement. PMID:20837557

Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

2011-06-01

232

Proximate Units in Word Production: Phonological Encoding Begins with Syllables in Mandarin Chinese but with Segments in English  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mandarin Chinese, speakers benefit from fore-knowledge of what the first syllable but not of what the first phonemic segment of a disyllabic word will be (Chen, Chen, & Dell, 2002), contrasting with findings in English, Dutch, and other Indo-European languages, and challenging the generality of current theories of word production. In this…

O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Train-Min

2010-01-01

233

Detección de Salmonella spp. en melón Cantaloupe en unidades de producción y unidad de empaque / Detection of Salmonella spp. on Cantaloupe melon production units and packaging facility  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El melón Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) grupo reticulatus precortado, proveniente del estado de Guerrero, México, se ha asociado con brotes de salmonelosis en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá, por lo que las exportaciones de melón, a estos países, se suspendieron en 2001. En este trabajo se evaluó l [...] a condición sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe, con la detección e identificación de Salmonella, en dos unidades de producción y una unidad de empaque en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. Se analizaron 100 melones Cantaloupe (50 de las unidades de producción y 50 de la unidad de empaque), recolectados en enero y abril de 2005, mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales y el crecimiento en medios selectivos para la detección de Salmonella, como indicador de contaminación fecal. La proporción de melones con presencia de Salmonella spp. fue 4%, en una de las unidades de producción y 20% en la unidad de empaque. Salmonella se detectó en frutos irrigados con agua de río filtrada pero no clorada y manejados por trabajadores con poca higiene. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de seis cepas presuntivas de Salmonella dieron amplificaciones positivas con el par de iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4 e invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras cuatro, solo dieron amplificación positiva con invA-1 e invA-2. Estos resultados sugieren que en la región de Zirándaro de los Chávez se tiene más de un serotipo de Salmonella y evidencian la importancia de implementar programas preventivos para asegurar la calidad sanitaria del melón Cantaloupe. Abstract in english Fresh Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) group reticulatus coming from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, have been associated with outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States of America and Canada. These countries suspended the importations of Cantaloupe melon from Mexico due to the outbreaks in 2 [...] 001. This study evaluated the food safety quality of Cantaloupe melon, with the detection and identification of Salmonella in two production units and a packing facility unit in Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero. 100 Cantaloupe melons (50 of the production units and 50 of the packaging unit), collected in January and April 2005, were analyzed by conventional bacteriological methods and growth in selective media for detection of Salmonella, as an indicator of fecal contamination. The proportion of melons with presence of Salmonella was 4%, in one of the field production units and 20% in the packing unit. Salmonella was detected in fruits irrigated with filtered but not chlorinated river water and handled by workers with poor hygiene. Characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that, two of six strains of presumptive Salmonella gave positive amplifications with the pair of primers Sal-3 and Sal-4 as with invA-1and invA-2. For four other isolates only two were observed with invA-1 and invA-2. These results suggest that in the region of Zirándaro de los Chávez there are more than one serotype of Salmonella, and demonstrate the importance of implementing prevention programs to ensure the sanitary quality of Cantaloupe melon.

Lucía, Morales-Hernández; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, V. Suslow.

2009-06-01

234

A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ?40% of rinse-off products and ?60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 ?g per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 ?g/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 ?g/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP. PMID:24261694

Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-12-17

235

United States Food and Drug Administration and Department of Defense shelf-life extension program of pharmaceutical products: progress and promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Department of Defense (DoD)-United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shelf-life extension program (SLEP) was established in 1986 through an intra-agency agreement between the DoD and the FDA to extend the shelf life of product nearing expiry. During the early stages of development, special attention was paid to program operation, labeling requirements, and the cost benefits associated with this program. In addition to the substantial cost benefits, the program also provides the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research with significant scientific understanding and pharmaceutical resource. As a result of this unique resource, numerous regulatory research opportunities to improve public health present themselves from this distinctive scientific database, which includes examples of products shelf life, their long-term stability issues, and various physical and chemical tests to identify such failures. The database also serves as a scientific resource for mechanistic understanding and identification of test failures leading to the development of new formulations or more robust packaging. It has been recognized that SLEP is very important in maintaining both national security and public welfare by confirming that the stockpiled pharmaceutical products meet quality standards after the "expiration date" assigned by the sponsor. SLEP research is an example of regulatory science that is needed to best ensure product performance past the original shelf life. The objective of this article is to provide a brief history and background and most importantly the public health benefits of the SLEP. PMID:24623105

Khan, Saeed R; Kona, Ravikanth; Faustino, Patrick J; Gupta, Abhay; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Khan, Mansoor

2014-05-01

236

Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged increases in public investment spending on economic and social infrastructure have a positive and significant effect on the rate of labor productivity growth. In addition, the model is estimated for a shorter period (1970-2010 to capture the impact of inward FDI flows. The estimates suggest that (lagged inward FDI flows have a positive and significant impact on labor productivity growth, while increases in the labor force have a negative effect. From a policy standpoint, the findings call into question the politically expedient policy in many Latin American countries, including Argentina during the 1990s and early 2000s, of disproportionately reducing public capital expenditures to meet reducetions in the fiscal deficit as a proportion of GDP. The results give further support to progrowth policies designed to promote public investment spending and attract inward FDI flows.

Miguel D. Ramirez

2012-10-01

237

Design workshops of the world :the production and integration of industrial design expertise into the product development and manufacturing process in Norway and the United Kingdom  

OpenAIRE

To gain competitive advantage an increasing proportion of companies incorporate design into the product development process; it has become a critical determinant of competitive success. Design expertise is either provided internally or externally. Thus, in common with management consultancy, independent firms are increasingly providing design expertise to clients. Over the last ten years the British and Norwegian governments have emphasised the contribution made by industrial design to nation...

Bryson, John R.; Daniels, Peter W.; Rusten, Grete

2004-01-01

238

A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

239

Response surface optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of narrow-leaf cattail for bioethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The cellulose of pretreated sample was higher than untreated sample. • Lower hemicellulose and lignin were enhanced of hydrolyzed cellulose to sugar. • The predicted result of enzymatic hydrolysis process was fitted by quadratic model. • Predicted data was good agreement with the experimental data; with 95% confidence. - Abstract: Narrow-leaf cattail was employed as lignocellulosic biomass substrate for the investigation of the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic ethanol. Cellulose saccharification into a high yield of fermentable sugar is an important step in ethanol production. Response surface methodology was utilized in the study of variables affecting enzymatic hydrolysis on the released glucose and xylose. Five levels (?2, ?1, 0, +1, +2) of independent variable factors; cellulase (5–25 FPU/g substrate), ?-glucosidase (0–20 U/g substrate), hydrolysis temperature (30–50 °C), and hydrolysis time (24–96 h), were randomly setup by using the Design of Experiment program. The significance of the regression model was high; with 95% confidence interval (less than 5% error). The predicted result after optimization was also in good agreement with the experimental data. An optimal condition; 13.50 FPU/g substrate, 16.50 U/g substrate, 50 °C and 24 h, was obtained, yielding a released glucose of 552.9 mg/g substrate (75.6% saccharification) and a released xylose of 74.0 mg/g substrate (45.6% saccharification)

240

Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse by enzymatic hydrolysis after autohydrolysis and mechanical refining.  

Science.gov (United States)

The autohydrolysis process has been considered a simple, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for generation of sugars from biomass. In order to improve accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis as well as to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate, the sugarcane bagasse was pretreated using autohydrolysis followed by a mechanical refining process. The autohydrolysis was carried out in three different conditions. Autohydrolysis at 190°C for 10min provided the highest overall sugar (19.2/100g raw bagasse) in prehydrolyzate. The enzymatic hydrolysis step was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 5 and 10FPU/g for 96h. A total of 84.4% of sugar can be recovered from sugarcane bagasse at 180°C for 20min with 5 FPU/g enzyme charge. The economic analysis for the proposed method showed that the bioethanol production can have a financial return larger than 12%. PMID:25590426

Batalha, Larisse Aparecida Ribas; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Borges Gomes, Fernando José

2015-03-01

241

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml(-1)) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3-6 g l(-1)) and glutamate (3.6 g l(-1)). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml(-1)) were also much greater (8-150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions. PMID:23712479

Rodriguez-Gomez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-11-01

242

Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

2009-11-15

243

Optimization of ethanol production from microfluidized wheat straw by response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, wheat straw was pretreated with a microfluidizer to improve its enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields. The pretreatment was performed at various pressures (500, 1000, and 1500 bar) and solid loadings (1, 2, and 3%). The microfluidized biomass was then subjected to hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) experiments at different enzyme loadings (5, 10, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw) using a mutant yeast. The results indicated that the microfluidization method alters the structure of biomass and leads to a reduction in lignin content. The samples pretreated at 1% solid loading contained the minimum lignin concentration and provided the maximum sugar and ethanol yields. These results signified that the microfluidization method is more effective on biomass at low solid loadings. The process conditions were optimized for higher ethanol and sugar yields using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum pressure and solid and enzyme loadings were found as 1500 bar, 1%, and 15 FPU/g dry wheat straw, respectively. The yields obtained at this condition were 82%, 94%, and 65% for glucose, xylose, and ethanol, respectively. High sugar yields implied that microfluidization is an effective pretreatment method for cellulosic ethanol production. On the other hand, low ethanol yield may indicate that the microorganism was sensitive to inhibitory compounds present in the fermentation medium. PMID:25181638

Turhan, Ozge; Isci, Asli; Mert, Behic; Sakiyan, Ozge; Donmez, Sedat

2015-01-01

244

Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml?1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l?1) and glutamate (3.6 g l?1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml?1) were also much greater (8–150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

245

Societal Context and the Production of Immigrant Status Based Health Inequalities: A Comparative Study of the United States and Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We compare disparities in health status between first generation immigrants and others in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We used data from the Joint Canada-United States Survey of Health. Regression models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health insurance (U.S.). Results In both nations, the health advantage belonged to immigrants. Fewer disparities between immigrants and those native-born were seen in Canada versus the U.S. Canadians of every immigrant/race group fared better than American native-born whites. Discussion Fewer disparities in Canada and better overall health of all Canadians suggest societal context may create differences in access to the resources, environments and experiences that shape health and health behaviors. PMID:23447028

Siddiqi, Arjumand; Ornelas, India J.; Quinn, Kelly; Zuberi, Dan; Nguyen, Quynh C.

2013-01-01

246

Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

247

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Us...

Kalyan (Kal) Chakraborty

2011-01-01

248

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States  

OpenAIRE

Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse wood...

Homyack, Jessica A.; Kroll, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

249

Update: recall of dry dog and cat food products associated with human Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections--United States, 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 16, 2008, CDC reported on a 2006-2007 multistate outbreak of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund that was associated with dry dog food. At the time of that report, a total of 70 cases had been reported from 19 states, with the last case identified on October 1, 2007. Subsequently, an additional case was identified on December 29, 2007. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations have suggested the source of the outbreak was dry pet food produced by one manufacturer, Mars Petcare US. This report updates the previous CDC report, provides additional epidemiologic findings, and describes additional actions taken by public health agencies and the manufacturer. In 2008, eight more cases have been reported, bringing the total number of cases in the outbreak to 79. On September 12, 2008, the company announced a nationwide voluntary recall of all dry dog and cat food products produced during a 5-month period at one Pennsylvania plant. Dry pet food has a 1-year shelf life. Contaminated products identified in recalls might still be in the homes of purchasers and could cause illness. Persons who have these products should not use them to feed their pets but should discard them or return them to the store. PMID:18987615

2008-11-01

250

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to gain access to this market it is important to understand the distribution system used for fresh produce in the United States.Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cad

Francis X Mangan

2008-03-01

251

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of ?-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of ?-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

Minhee Han Mail

2011-04-01

252

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09

253

Energy balance of on-farm production and extraction of vegetable oil for fuel in the United States inland northwest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper (1) presents a comprehensive method for calculating the energy required to produce vegetable oil fuels on the farm and (2) determines the balance between energy inputs and outputs per area for vegetable oil produced from sunflower, safflower, and winter rape. The energy required for on-farm extraction of vegetable oils was estimated and the energy inputs apportioned between the oil and meal co-products, based on University of Idaho analysis of expeller-extracted materials. All three oilseeds yielded positive energy balances. (Refs. 16).

McIntosh, C.; Smith, S.M.; Withers, R.V.

1984-10-01

254

Presence of organoarsenicals used in cotton production in agricultural water and soil of the Southern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenicals have been used extensively in agriculture in the United States as insecticides and herbicides. Mono- and disodium methylarsonate and dimethylarsinic acid are organoarsenicals used to control weeds in cotton fields and as defoliation agents applied prior to cotton harvesting. Because the toxicity of most organoarsenicals is less than that of inorganic arsenic species, the introduction of these compounds into the environment might seem benign. However, biotic and abiotic degradation reactions can produce more problematic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. This study investigates the occurrences of these compounds in samples of soil and associated surface and groundwaters. Preliminary results show that surface water samples from cotton-producing areas have elevated concentrations of methylarsenic species (>10 ??g of As/L) compared to background areas (arsenic. The data indicate that point sources of arsenic related to agriculture might be responsible for increased arsenic concentrations in local irrigation wells, although the elevated concentrations did not exceed the new (2002) arsenic maximum contaminant level of 10 ??g/L in any of the wells sampled thus far.

Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

2002-01-01

255

Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources, as well as transportation and utility infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and strains of the order Sphaeropleales. A total of 64,000 sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively applied screening criteria and tracked their impact on the number of potential sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrated maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Sphaeropleales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Results were driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low-salinity freshwater (<400 mg L(-1)) constrained Sphaeropleales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species like Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements. PMID:24559117

Venteris, Erik R; McBride, Robert C; Coleman, Andre M; Skaggs, Richard L; Wigmosta, Mark S

2014-03-18

256

Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

Morales, D

2006-07-15

257

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

2012-01-01

258

Methane production, oxidation and emission in United Kingdom peatlands and the effect of anions from acid rain  

Science.gov (United States)

The production, oxidation and emission of methane in UK peatlands was investigated. The main field study site was Ellergower Moss, Dumfriesshire where the peat was characterised by hollows (water-filled depressions) and hummocks (raised vegetative areas). The pathways of carbon flow in peat under hummocks and hollows were determined and compared on a seasonal basis. Methane emissions were significantly greater from hollows than hummocks (0.88 mols and 0.07 mols CH4 m-2 y-1 respectively). Methane emission rates varied seasonally e.g. for hollows were 0.04 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for January and 2.3 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for June. Methane emissions were modulated by biological methane oxidation by 0% of methane produced in the winter months, increasing during spring until 97% of methane produced was oxidised in the summer months. Both methane oxidation and methanogenesis were strongly temperature dependant with Q10 values of 2.2 and 16, respectively. Rates of methane oxidation potential (MOP) were greatest between 4-8 cm depths below the level of the water table, and were located above the most active zone of methanogenesis (8-16 cm depths below the water table levels). This enabled vertically diffusing methane to be utilised by methanotrophic bacteria, providing a very efficient filter for methane. Methanogenesis was limited by hydrogen availability in the peat, but not by acetate, suggesting that methane was produced by hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria (MB), rather than acetate utilising MB. Acid rain pollutants were found to significantly affect carbon flow, with sulphate deposition causing a seasonal inhibition in methanogenesis. Carbon flow predominated through sulphate reduction in the winter and spring months (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio was 1008 and 189, for hummocks and hollows respectively) when sulphate was freely available and when temperatures were low. During the summer when temperatures increased and sulphate became limited carbon flow through methanogenesis predominated (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio 0.39 and 0.07, for hummocks and hollows respectively). The examination of two other peatlands-Great Dun Fell and Caithness which received higher and lower sulphate loadings than Ellergower respectively, did not show a consistent effect of sulphate inhibition on methanogenesis. The methane oxidation kinetics were used in a mathematical model to examine the effect of plant roots on increasing the vertical transport rate of methane out, and oxygen into the peat, by gas phase transport through the roots. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Watson, Andrea

259

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables

260

Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Using survey data from the US consumers this study finds that mandatory labeling for hormone (bST induced milk would increase the economic benefit to the society raising the consumer and producer surpluses and provides the right to choose in the hands of the consumers. 

Kalyan (Kal Chakraborty

2011-04-01

261

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

262

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

263

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

1994-09-01

264

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

NONE

1995-05-01

265

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wastepaper.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the development of high sugar production by optimization of an enzymatic hydrolysis process using both conventional and statistical methods, as well as the production of ethanol by the selected wastepaper source. Among four sources of pretreated wastepaper including office paper, newspaper, handbills and cardboard, office paper gave the highest values of cellulose (87.12%) and holocelluloses (89.07%). The effects of the amount of wastepaper, the pretreatment method and the type of enzyme on reducing sugar production from office paper were studied using conventional methods. The highest reducing sugar production (1851.28?µg?L(-1); 37.03% conversion of glucose) was obtained from the optimal condition containing 40?mg of office paper, pretreated with stream explosion and hydrolysed with the combination of cellulase from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride at the fixed loading rate of 20?FPU?g(-1) sample. The effects of interaction of wastepaper amount and enzyme concentration as well as incubation time were studied by a statistical method using central composite design. The optimal medium composition consisted of 43.97?µg?L(-1), 28.14?FPU?g(-1) sample and 53.73?h of wastepaper, enzyme concentration and incubation time, respectively, and gave the highest amount of sugar production (2184.22?µg?L(-1)) and percentage conversion of glucose (43.68%). The ethanol production from pretreated office paper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was 21.02?g?L(-1) after 36?h of cultivation, corresponding to an ethanol volumetric production rate of 0.58?g?ethanol?L(-1)?h(-1). PMID:21242181

Sangkharak, Kanokphorn

2011-11-01

266

Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

267

Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) whiof fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

268

Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

269

A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

2010-03-01

270

Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including damage from caterpillars, bark beetles, ice storms, hail and wind storms, and wildfire. The MODIS forest disturbance products compared well with reference data (e.g., Landsat, aerial sketch maps, and news accounts). These products have been useful in aiding development of the forest threat EWS. Information on location and extent of regional forest disturbance is important to Federal, State, and private sector forest managers. The 2-date RGB product for 2009 was also processed into a classification of forest disturbance for the Colorado Front Range. Validation of this classification is underway. Regional forest disturbance classifications in conjunction with available CONUS forest biomass products could be useful for assessing carbon impacts from biotic threats such as mountain pine beetle and from abiotic threats related to climate change. The latency of the NRT eMODIS products addresses an important need of the USFS EWS.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

2009-12-01

271

Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

272

Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

1981-09-01

273

Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

Jessica A. Homyack

2014-11-01

274

Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

Mostahsine S.

2012-09-01

275

United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

276

The cost of muscle power production: muscle oxygen consumption per unit work increases at low temperatures in Xenopus laevis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic energy (ATP) supply to muscle is essential to support activity and behaviour. It is expected, therefore, that there is strong selection to maximise muscle power output for a given rate of ATP use. However, the viscosity and stiffness of muscle increases with a decrease in temperature, which means that more ATP may be required to achieve a given work output. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP use increases at lower temperatures for a given power output in Xenopus laevis. To account for temperature variation at different time scales, we considered the interaction between acclimation for 4 weeks (to 15 or 25°C) and acute exposure to these temperatures. Cold-acclimated frogs had greater sprint speed at 15°C than warm-acclimated animals. However, acclimation temperature did not affect isolated gastrocnemius muscle biomechanics. Isolated muscle produced greater tetanus force, and faster isometric force generation and relaxation, and generated more work loop power at 25°C than at 15°C acute test temperature. Oxygen consumption of isolated muscle at rest did not change with test temperature, but oxygen consumption while muscle was performing work was significantly higher at 15°C than at 25°C, regardless of acclimation conditions. Muscle therefore consumed significantly more oxygen at 15°C for a given work output than at 25°C, and plastic responses did not modify this thermodynamic effect. The metabolic cost of muscle performance and activity therefore increased with a decrease in temperature. To maintain activity across a range of temperature, animals must increase ATP production or face an allocation trade-off at lower temperatures. Our data demonstrate the potential energetic benefits of warming up muscle before activity, which is seen in diverse groups of animals such as bees, which warm flight muscle before take-off, and humans performing warm ups before exercise. PMID:24625645

Seebacher, Frank; Tallis, Jason A; James, Rob S

2014-06-01

277

Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

2014-05-06

278

Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States / Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos [...] e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural [...] products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural p

Francis X, Mangan; Raquel U de, Mendonça; Maria, Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio, Nunes; Fernando L, Finger; Zoraia de Jesus, Barros; Hilton, Galvão; Gustavo C, Almeida; Rachel AN, Silva; Molly D, Anderson.

2008-03-01

279

Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

2009-01-01

280

Influence of delignification efficiency with alkaline peroxide on the digestibility of furfural residues for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furfural residues (FR), the abundant lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production, were delignified with alkaline peroxide process and then taken as substrates for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). It was apparent that the delignification efficiency was increased with higher chemical addition and temperature, reaching the maximum removal (73.5%) of lignin. The widespread accessible-cellulose in FR favored the enzymatic hydrolysis and achieved the considerable bioconversion (75.7% with 5 FPU+10 IU/g substrate). The delignification process increased the relative glucose content and then the bioconversion efficiency, closely relating to the increased specific surface area. As the cellulose contents were higher than 60%, the final conversions conversely fell to around 75%, probably due to the insufficient utilization of all active cellulose with low enzyme cocktails addition. Although the SSF bioconversion slightly decreased as the elevated amount of fermentable cellulose, the maximum of ethanol concentration (16.9 g/L) was expectedly obtained. PMID:23934337

Wang, Kun; Yang, Haiyan; Chen, Qian; Sun, Run-cang

2013-10-01

281

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part I: Composition and hydration of the clinkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, low SO3 and P2m', high SO3). The chemical composition of the clinkers was determined by X-ray fluorescence, ICP analysis, titration (free lime) and ion selective electrode measurements (F). Observed clinker parameters (LSF, SR, AR, R, wt.% MgO, F, SO3, free lime): P1 (0.96, 2.72, 1.27, 1.04, 0.78, 0.06, 0.64, 0.71); P1m (1.03, 2.21, 1.58, 2.18, 0.87, 0.23, 1.95, 0.69); P2 (1.00, 2.66, 1.72, 0.75, 4.06, 0.20, 1.38, 1.51); P2m (1.01, 2.91, 1.96, 0.90, 3.21, 0.39, 1.72, 2.06); P2m' (0.97, 2.70, 1.84, 1.15, 3.86, 0.42, 2.48, 0.89). The qualitative and quantitative phase compositions were characterised using X-ray powder diffraction, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping, plus optical reflection microscopy. Phases observed in all clinkers were: alite, ?-belite, cubic aluminate, ferrite and free lime. Additional phases observed were: aphthitalite (P1, P2, P2m, P2m'), calcium langbeinite (P1m) and periclase (P2, P2m, P2m'). The clinker composition and texture differ more between the two plants, than between ordinary and mineralised clinker from the same production unit. Laboratory cements were prepared by mixing ground clinker with CaSO4·2H2O. The cements were hydrated in an isothermal calorimeter at 20 deg. C (water/cement weight ratio=0.5) during 33 h. After 12 h, the laboratory cement based on P1m reached a higher level of reaction than the one based on P1. The P2m and P2m' laboratory cements had a slower reaction than the P2 cement

282

Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from 'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

NONE

2005-03-15

283

Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States Health, United States, 2013 Men's Health On this Page Access and ... among adults aged 18-64, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual, selected years 1993-1994 through 2011- ...

284

Grau de acabamento e unidades equivalentes de produção: uma abordagem conceitual e empírica / Finishing level and equivalent production units: an empirical and conceptual approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objeto de estudo o problema da determinação do grau de acabamento utilizado no processo de cálculo das unidades equivalentes de produção no sistema de custeio por processo contínuo. Foi estabelecida a hipótese que a teoria da contabilidade de custos não oferece uma solução objet [...] iva para o cálculo do grau de acabamento e, dessa forma, as empresas não adotam os conceitos teóricos fundamentais definidos pela teoria, no que diz respeito à valorização do estoque de produtos em processo e valorização dos produtos acabados em indústriais de produção contínua A revisão da literatura, considerando-se um grupo de obras de autores clássicos da contabilidade de custos, constatou que não existe indicação objetiva da forma de cálculo do grau de acabamento. Este trabalho apresenta um método para cálculo do grau de acabamento e um estudo exploratório desenvolvido com a finalidade de se obter um conhecimento pragmático sobre a realidade das empresas quanto ao tema em questão. As pesquisas bibliográfica e empírica indicam a validade da hipótese estabelecida. Abstract in english This paper focuses on how to determine the finishing level used in calculating the equivalent production units in the continuous process costing system. The hypothesis was established that cost accounting theory does not offer an objective solution for the calculation of the finishing level and, con [...] sequently, enterprises do not adopt the fundamental theoretical concepts about the inventory evaluation of goods in process and finished goods in continuous production industries. A collection of classic cost accounting works was revised¹ , which revealed that there does not exist any objective indication about how to measure the finishing level. In this paper, a method for finishing level measurement is presented and an exploratory study is developed, which aims at obtaining practical knowledge about the reality of the enterprises in relation to the subject discussed in this paper. The bibliographical and empirical researches indicate the validity of the hypothesis established.

Reinaldo, Guerreiro; Edgard Bruno, Cornachione Jr; Armando, Catelli.

2000-12-01

285

Widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type UV light filters in personal care products from China and the United States: an assessment of human exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a sunscreen agent used in a variety of personal care products (PCPs) for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Concerns have been raised over exposure of humans to BP-3, owing to the estrogenic potential of this compound. Nevertheless, the levels and profiles of BP-3 in PCPs and sources of exposure of humans to this estrogenic compound are not well-known. In this study, concentrations of BP-3 were determined in seven categories of 231 PCPs collected from several cities in China (n = 117) and the United States (U.S.) (n = 114), using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BP-3 was found in the majority (81%) of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 0.148%. The highest BP-3 concentrations (geometric mean [GM]: 548; median: 530 ng/g) were found in skin lotions (including sunscreen lotions), followed by makeup products (284; 221 ng/g). PCPs collected from the U.S. contained higher concentrations of BP-3 than those collected from China. On the basis of the concentrations measured and daily usage rates of PCPs, we estimated the daily intake of BP-3 through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs. The GM and 95th percentile exposure doses to BP-3 were 0.978 and 25.5 ?g/day, respectively, for adult women in China, which were 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found for adult women in the U.S. (24.4 and 5160 ?g/day). Skin lotions and face creams contributed to the preponderance of daily BP-3 exposures (>80%). PMID:24588714

Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-04-01

286

Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

2009-07-01

287

Letter Report. Independent Confirmatory Survey Results Of Soils Associated With The Argyle Street Sewer Line At The United Nuclear Corporation Naval Products Site, New Haven, Connecticut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated

288

A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part II: Characteristics of the calcium silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated in order to determine the effects of mineralisation on alite and belite; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF2+CaSO4 (P2m, P2m'). The polymorphism of alite was studied using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), wavelength 1.5227 A, and electron diffraction (ED) in a transmission electron microscope. The substitutions of minor elements in alite and belite were determined using electron microprobe analysis. Clinkers P1 and P1m both contained apparent rhombohedral alite (XRD) with an incommensurately modulated structure (ED), while clinkers P2, P2m, and P2m' all contained monoclinic alite (XRD). The addition of mineralisers in the process caused increased content of fluoride in alite and increased substitution of Si(4+) by Al(3+) and S(6+) in both calcium silicates. The latter effect was most pronounced in clinker P1m due to its high molar SO3 to alkali oxide ratio (R=2.18). The improved hydraulic activity of P1m compared to P1 was caused by substitutions rather than a change in symmetry. The decreased hydraulic activity of P2m and P2m' compared to P2 was explained by the high levels of fluorine, which had a retarding effect on the hydration

289

Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz / International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar [...] la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo mediante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relation [...] ship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

José A. Melquíades, Hernández-Solabac; Martha E., Nava-Tablada; Salvador, Díaz-Cárdenas; Emiliano, Pérez-Portilla; Esteban, Escamilla-Prado.

2011-12-01

290

Antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from an intensive care Unit of a hospital in Kerman, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The global increase in multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter spp. has created widespread problems in the treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs of hospitals. To assess the sensitivity of Acinetobacter isolates to antibiotics routinely used in ICUs, we investigated antibiotic resistance patterns and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL production among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the ICU of a university hospital in Kerman, Iran. Methods Fifteen isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were recovered from one hundred clinical specimens collected from the ICU of Afzalipoor Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from October 2010 to June 2011. Preliminary antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out using the disk-diffusion breakpoint assay, and MICs of different antibiotics were determined using the E-test. ESBL production was detected by a double-disk synergy test and confirmed by a phenotypic confirmatory test. Substrate hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the following inhibitors was carried out using the rapid fixed-time method: para-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and NaCl. Results Overall, 73.3% of the isolates were resistant to imipenem (MIC range 240-128 µg/mL and 66% to ciprofloxacin (MIC range 240-64 ± 0.08 µg/mL. All of the isolates were fully resistant (MIC 240 µg/mL to piperacillin, while 93.3%, 53.3%, and 93.3% were resistant to piperacillin + tazobactam (MIC 240 µg/mL, amikacin (MIC range 128-16 µg/mL, and cefepime (MIC range 240-60 µg/mL, respectively. The isolates were also resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline: MICs of these two agents were ? 240 µg/mL. The test for ESBL production was positive for only three isolates (nos. 1, 10, and 15. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was highest in the presence of p-CMB (80.2 ± 0.02 and lowest in the presence of NaCl (2.1 ± 0.01 (P ? 0.05. Conclusions Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp. are resistant to almost all antibiotics routinely used in the ICU of our hospital, including imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin + tazobactam. Three isolates were ESBL producers. The other isolates exhibited high resistance to ?-lactams, but they did not produce any ESBL enzymes.

Shakibaie Mohammad

2012-01-01

291

Research on the production performances achieved by pig bloodlines used within a swine intensive husbandry unit in the NE of Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Through this paper, we proposed to establish the production performances of breeder lines belonging to one of the most important providers of genetic material in Romania, respectively the Pig Improvement Company (P.I.C.), exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. The researches goal was to study the reproduction performances (sperm volume, spermatozoids concentration in sperm, the amount of spermatozoids and of produced doses, etc.). There have been analysed the reproduction performances achieved by three PIC boars lines (PIC 1075, PIC 402, PIC 408). The insemination material, issued from the 1075 boars, is used to artificially inseminate the PIC 1050 sows from the hybridisation farm of the unit. The insemination material, issued from the boars of PIC 408 and PIC 402 lines, is used to artificially inseminate the Camborough sows, resulting piglets exclusively designed for slaughtering. Both boars and sows used as biological material have been examined from the reproductive life onset toward their culling. Ejaculate volume at the three bloodlines of boars we studied, was comprised within the limits specified in the references. It reached values between 224 and 235 ml during 8-12 months old, between 310 and 366 ml during 13-24 months old, between 330 and 348 ml between 25-36 months old and between 304 and 404 ml during 37-42 months old. Significant and distinguished significant values occurred both between boars and at values occurred both between boars and age periods. The level of sperm concentration, as influenced by boars' age, was found high, in all lines, during the 25-36 months old period, the differences compared to the other periods being statistically significant. Comparing the values achieved in each boar line, we could find differences between PIC 1075 (372 x spermatozoids / ml =100%) and PIC 402 (311.5 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 16.28%, or compared to PIC 408 (302.3 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 18.76%. The average spermatozoids mobility within the crude semen had mean values comprised between 76.92 % and 79.4%, but not significantly influenced by boar's age. Expressed in relative values, the differences between the average level observed in PIC 402 line (79.4%=100) and those found in the other lines, were comprised between 3.13% (comp. to the PIC 1075 line) and 0.57% (comp. to PIC 408 line). The amount of doses per ejaculate subscribed to the trend presented in the last field researches. The maximum amount of doses/ejaculate has been achieved in both bloodlines during 25-36 months old period, while the poor amount during the reproduction activity onset (8-12 months old period). The highest doses amount (21.12) has been produced by the PIC 402 line. No significant differences occurred between groups. Expressed as relative values, the differences were of 3.17 % (compared to PIC 1075 line), respectively of 7.20 % (compared to PIC 408 line). It could be stated, basing on the researches we carried on, that, due to the high sperm concentration, meaning high spermatozoids amounts per ejaculate during the whole exploitation period, the reproduction usage intensity of studied PIC boars could be improved. Thus, the period between two ejaculates could be shortened to 3 or 4 d, compared to the actual used interval, of 5 d. In the studied PIC boars, the sperm production level allows the exploitation of a reduced amount of males, generating thus favourable financial and zootechnic consequences. (author)

292

Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

2012-06-01

293

An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain’s promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose

Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong

2014-01-01

294

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

295

Experience in the development and introduction of a full scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit at Mosenergo TETs-27 heat and electric power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a description of experience in the development and introduction of a full-scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit of station No. 3 at the TETs-27 heat and electric power station of JSC 'Mosenergo' based on the latest, fourth generation program package SPPA-T3000, which is being used for the first time in Russia for steam-gas units. The fundamental technical solutions for the structure of the process control system are described, along with the features of the algorithms for control of the main engineering equipment in electric power plants based on the PGU-450

296

GROWTH AND NUT PRODUCTION OF BLACK WALNUT IN RELATION TO SITE, GENOTYPE AND STAND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH-EASTERN UNITED STATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a prime tree species for agroforestry practices in the United States providing highly prized wood and nuts for human consumption and wildlife. In 54 black walnut stands in south central United States, the site index (i.e., mean dominant height [DH], at age 25 years) ...

297

Cellulolytic enzymes production by utilizing agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation and its application for biohydrogen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated for cellulase and hemicellulase production using various agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. Optimization of various environmental factors, type of substrate, and medium composition was systematically investigated to maximize the production of enzyme complex. Using grass powder as a carbon substrate, maximum activities of endoglucanase (188.66 U/gds), exoglucanase (24.22 U/gds), cellobiase (244.60 U/gds), filter paperase (FPU) (30.22 U/gds), glucoamylase (505.0 U/gds), and xylanase (427.0 U/gds) were produced under optimized conditions. The produced crude enzyme complex was employed for hydrolysis of untreated and mild acid pretreated rice husk. The maximum amount of reducing sugar released from enzyme treated rice husk was 485 mg/g of the substrate. Finally, the hydrolysates of rice husk were used for hydrogen production by Clostridium beijerinckii. The maximum cumulative H2 production and H2 yield were 237.97 mL and 2.93 mmoL H2/g of reducing sugar, (or 2.63 mmoL H2/g of cellulose), respectively. Biohydrogen production performance obtained from this work is better than most of the reported results from relevant studies. The present study revealed the cost-effective process combining cellulolytic enzymes production under solid state fermentation (SSF) and the conversion of agro-industrial residues into renewable energy resources. PMID:25374139

Saratale, Ganesh D; Kshirsagar, Siddheshwar D; Sampange, Vilas T; Saratale, Rijuta G; Oh, Sang-Eun; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-12-01

298

Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (?37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (?8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (?14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (?5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

299

Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

2013-12-01

300

Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

2009-12-01

301

Response surface optimization for enhanced production of cellulases with improved functional characteristics by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi isolated from partially decayed wood log samples showing characteristic diversity for spore colour, colony morphology and arrangement of spores were assessed for cellulolytic enzyme production. Isolates showing a cellulolytic index of ?2.0 were assayed for filter paper (FP) cellulase and ?-glucosidase (BGL) production. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of the selected cellulolytic isolate as a strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger HN-2). Addition of 2 % (w/v) urea enhanced FP and BGL activity by about 20 and 60 %, respectively. Validation studies conducted at parameters (29 °C, pH 5.4, moisture content 72 % and 66 h) optimized through response surface methodology in a solid-state static tray fermentation resulted in FP, BGL, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), endoglucanase (EG), xylanase activity and protein content of 25.3 FPU/g ds, 750 IU/g ds, 13.2 IU/g ds, 190 IU/g ds, 2890 IU/g ds and 0.9 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, A. niger N402 which is a model organism for growth and development studies, produced significantly lower FP, BGL, CBHI, EG, xylanase activity and protein content of 10.0 FPU/g ds, 100 IU/g ds, 2.3 IU/g ds, 50 IU/g ds, 500 IU/g ds and 0.75 mg/ml, respectively under the same process conditions as were used for A. niger HN-2. Process optimization led to nearly 1.8- and 2.2-fold increase in FP and BGL activity, respectively showing promise for cellulase production by A. niger HN-2 at a higher scale of operation. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms each for EG and cellobiohydrolase and three isoforms for BGL. Crude cellulase complex produced by A. niger HN-2 exhibited thermostability under acidic conditions showing potential for use in biofuel industry. PMID:24158534

Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Rawat, Rekha; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

2014-01-01

302

Enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentation of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse and rice straw for bioethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alkaline wet oxidation was used as pretreatment method of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice straw (RS) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At high enzyme loadings, the enzymatic hydrolysis of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse (SBWO) resulted in the highest degree of saccharification compared to wet oxidized rice straw (RSWO). However, at enzyme concentrations below 10 FPU/g-cellulose, wet oxidized rice straw showed faster hydrolysis and higher levels of saccharification. Incomplete hydrolysis was found for both biomass suspensions with maximum yields of 73% and 62% (of theoretical) for SBWO and RSWO, respectively. Ethanol yields from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were similar to what would be expected from the enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on this, it was concluded that the results of enzymatic hydrolysis was not affected by feed-back inhibition of the enzymes. The maximum ethanol yields from SSF of SBWO and RSWO were 0.39 g-ethanol/g-glucose and 0.31 g-ethanol/g-glucose, respectively. Similar ethanol yields of SBWO and RSWO was seen at enzyme loadings of 25 FPU/g-cellulose when separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was applied. However, SHF of SBWO resulted in a specific ethanol yield (222 l-ethanol/t-SB) that was 19% higher than that of RSWO (186 l-ethanol/t-RS). The specific ethanol yields obtained correspond to 89% and 87% of the theoretical yield based on the cellulose content of SB an RS, respectively. The results indicate that alkaline wet oxidation is a promising technology for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in bioethanol production. (au)

Haagensen, F.; Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum- DTU, Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Group, Lyngby (Denmark)

2005-06-01

303

Efficient production of bioethanol from corn stover by pretreatment with a combination of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corn stover is the most abundant agricultural residue in China and a valuable reservoir for bioethanol production. In this study, we proposed a process for producing bioethanol from corn stover; the pretreatment prior to presaccharification, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by using a flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, was optimized. Pretreatment with acid-alkali combination (1% H2SO4, 150 °C, 10 min, followed by 1% NaOH, 80°C, 60 min) resulted in efficient lignin removal and excellent recovery of xylose and glucose. A glucose recovery efficiency of 92.3% was obtained by enzymatic saccharification, when the pretreated solid load was 15%. SSF was carried out at 35 °C for 36 hr after presaccharification at 50 °C for 24 hr, and an ethanol yield of 88.2% was achieved at a solid load of 15% and an enzyme dosage of 15 FPU/g pretreated corn stover. PMID:23768113

Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Nishimura, Hiroto; Takei, Shouta; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

2013-01-01

304

Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. PMID:24968110

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

2014-09-01

305

N-soliton states of the FPU lattices  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice equation that converge to a sum of co-propagating $N$ solitary waves as $t\\to\\infty$ using linear stability property of multi-soliton like solutions in an exponentially weighted space proved by [Mizumachi, arXiv:0906.1320]. Counter-propagating two soliton states have been studied by [Hoffman and Wayne, Asymptotic two-soliton solutions in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model, J. Dynam. Differential Equations 21 (2009), 343-351].

Mizumachi, Tetsu

2010-01-01

306

UNIT, PETROLOGY.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

307

Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

2004-02-01

308

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn's geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbance patches of multiple pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2012-12-01

309

Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn s geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbances affecting multiple MODIS pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

2012-01-01

310

Science and Product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines incremental product development and discusses how this style of innovation effects technology industries. Cites examples of Japanese competition which emphasizes quality and speed in product development. Makes recommendations for the improvement of product development in the United States. (CW)

Gomory, Ralph E.; Schmitt, Roland W.

1988-01-01

311

Freight transport, food production and consumption in the United States of America and in Europe: Or how far can you ship a bunch of onions in the United States?  

OpenAIRE

CO2-emissions from traffic - increasingly from freight transport - are growing, es-pecially in the highly developed industrialized countries. The answers to thisenvironmentally problematical development are technical ones mainly: Admi-nistrators and scientists try to improve engines, transportation modes and logisticstrategies. Freight transport is influenced by production, consumption, land-usepatterns and life-styles. But these fundamental determinants of increasing trafficare rarely given ...

Bo?ge, Stefanie

1996-01-01

312

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. / Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevist [...] a con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios. Abstract in english With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structure [...] s centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E, Ludovic; N, Rincón; L, Huerta; R, Rincón.

2005-07-01

313

Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevista con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios.With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P, in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structures centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

E Ludovic

2005-07-01

314

Multimode FPGA with Flexible Embedded FPUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Performance of field-programmable gate arrays used for Floating-point applications are poor due to complexity of floating-point arithmetic. Implementing floating-point units on FPGAs consume a large amount of resources. This makes FPGAs less attractive for use in floating-point intensive applications. There is a need for embedded FPUs in FPGAs. We proposed a flexible multimode embedded FPU for FPGAs that can be configured to perform a wide range of operations. The floatingpoint adder and multiplier in embedded FPU can be configured to perform one double-precision operation or two single-precision operations in parallel. To increase flexibility, access to large integer multiplier, adder and shifters in the FPU is provided. Benchmark circuits were implemented on both a standard Xilinx Virtex-V FPGA and FPGA with embedded FPU blocks. We design modified to allow an unrounded product to be fed to the floating-point adder to minimize rounding error, like in a dedicated floatingpoint MAC unit

G.Murugaboopathi

2012-11-01

315

Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order te and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work in all aspects of the field of alternative energy. The Consortium's primary objectives are to find ways to: - Include minorities in the development and ownership of infrastructure in the alternative energy industry; - Promote research and education programs to inform the public about risks and benefits of various forms of alternative energy; - Build a Mentor/Protege Program between HBCU/MSIs and industry leaders to enhance minority participation in ownership and career success in alternative energy production and distribution. The Consortium will work together to create a process whereby minorities and low income individuals will be recruited, educated, and mentored to maximize alternative energy ownership and job opportunities. Industry specialists and government representatives will work with academicians and others to: 1. research areas and methods where minorities and rural communities can engage in the industry; 2. invest in minorities by serving as mentors to minority serving institutions by offering hands-on experience through apprenticeships; 3. work to identify ownership opportunities for minorities; and 4. work to develop legislation that supports economic development and participation for minorities and rural communities in the industry. To accomplish this goal, the Consortium has set out a three-phase plan. Phase I organized a meeting of professionals to discuss the concept, explore the fundamentals, identify key players, and draft next steps. The group took a critical look at the energy industry: 1) trends, 2) economics, 3) limited number of minorities; and 4) infrastructure. Through that process the group identified four areas that would greatly impact economic development for minorities and rural communities: I Energy; II Broadband Communications; III Education; IV Labor Resources. Phase II presented a roundtable panel discussion that continued to refine the Consortium. The goal of these discussions is to produce a well-balanced Consortium committed to working together to produce effective solutions that

316

The effect of hydrazine dosing on high temperature water chemistry and corrosion product transport in primary circuit of VVER 440 units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the VVER 440 type reactors have started to use hydrazine dosing to primary coolant instead of ammonia, because it has been shown to be efficient in reducing activity transport. On the other hand, some other studies have shown that there is no significant difference between new VVER units using hydrazine dosing and the ones operating with standard potassium/ammonia water chemistry. In this paper the results are presented concerning the out-of-core high temperature water chemistry and in-core redox potential measurements at Rez research reactor in Czech republic during hydrazine/ammonia water chemistries. At Loviisa 1 unit (VVER 440) in Finland the pHT and redox potentials were monitored during standard potassium hydroxide/ammonia operation. (authors). 5 figs., 13 refs

317

Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 16. Changes in forest health and productivity in the United States and Canada. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report reviews available information about forest health problems in the United States and Canada, with special attention to the possible involvement of acidic deposition and associated pollutants. Available information indicates that most forests in the United States and Canada are health. There is no evidence of a general decline of forests due to acidic deposition or any other stress factor. Acidic deposition has not been ruled out as a potential cause of future subregional forest nutrition problems through effects on elemeqnt cycling. There is also experimental evidence that acidic deposition and associated pollutants can alter the resistance of red spruce to winter injury. Through this mechanism, acidic deposition may have contributed to dieback and mortality of red spruce at high elevations in the northern Appalachians. Ozone is an important factor in a decline of pines in southern California and is the pollutant of greatest concern with respect to possible regional scale impacts on North American forests

318

United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

NONE

1997-04-01

319

Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

2013-03-01

320

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ? Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production.a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

321

Association between colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage expression of Ia-like (HLA-DR) antigen and control of granulocyte and macrophage production. A new role for prostaglandin E.  

OpenAIRE

The expression of Ia-like antigens on human colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) is related to S-phase of the cell cycle, and associated with the control of normal granulocyte and macrophage production by prostaglandin E and acidic isoferritins in vitro. Ia-antigen expression by CFU-GM is lost within 3-6 h of culture at 37 degrees C and occurs simultaneously with loss of responsiveness to inhibition by these factors. Culture of bone marrow CFU-GM in a limited exposure suspensi...

Pelus, L. M.

1982-01-01

322

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1997-01-01

323

Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-indicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. The indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a previously established level of sustainability.

Raimundo Nonato da Silveira Ribeiro

2004-09-01

324

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Updated estimates (as of year-end 1981) are presented for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also included for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth rates of energy consumption. Proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 207 trillion CF in the US and 2180-2521 TCF world-wide; the total remaining recoverable, however, could be as high as 1153 TCF in the US and 8590 TCF worldwide

325

Ethanol and lignin production from Brazilian empty fruit bunch biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil Government is promoting palm plantations to use degraded land for biofuels. Palm production is expected to increase 35 per cent in future and there would be profuse biomass available that needs to be handled efficiently. Therefore, in this study the potential of EFB from Brazil as raw material for biorefinery was explored by compositional analysis and pretreatment conditions optimization to produce ethanol and co-products. EFB from Brazil contains significant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and low ash content. The optimized dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment conditions for efficient cellulose and hemicellulose separation were 160°C temperature, 1.025% v/v acid concentration, 10.5min and 20% solid loading. Under optimum pretreatment process conditions, low enzyme loading (10FPU, 20IU cellulase and glucosidase enzyme/g glucan) and 15% solid loading, 51.1g ethanol, 344.1g solid residue (65% lignin and 24.87MJ/kg LHV) and 3.7l xylose rich liquid could be produced per kg dry EFB. PMID:25265328

Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

2014-11-01

326

Testing for Salmonella in raw meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1998 through 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule (the PR/HACCP rule) on 25 July 1996. To verify that industry PR/HACCP systems are effective in controlling the contamination of raw meat and poultry products with human disease-causing bacteria, this rule sets product-specific Salmonella performance standards that must be met by slaughter establishments and establishments producing raw ground products. These performance standards are based on the prevalence of Salmonella as determined from the FSIS's nationwide microbial baseline studies and are expressed in terms of the maximum number of Salmonella-positive samples that are allowed in a given sample set. From 26 January 1998 through 31 December 2000, federal inspectors collected 98,204 samples and 1,502 completed sample sets for Salmonella analysis from large, small, and very small establishments that produced at least one of seven raw meat and poultry products: broilers, market hogs, cows and bulls, steers and heifers, ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey. Salmonella prevalence in most of the product categories was lower after the implementation of PR/HACCP than in pre-PR/HACCP baseline studies and surveys conducted by the FSIS. The results of 3 years of testing at establishments of all sizes combined show that >80% of the sample sets met the following Salmonella prevalence performance standards: 20.0% for broilers, 8.7% for market hogs, 2.7% for cows and bulls, 1.0% for steers and heifers, 7.5% for ground beef, 44.6% for ground chicken, and 49.9% for ground turkey. The decreased Salmonella prevalences may partly reflect industry improvements, such as improved process control, incorporation of antimicrobial interventions, and increased microbial-process control monitoring, in conjunction with PR/HACCP implementation. PMID:12092726

Rose, Bonnie E; Hill, Walter E; Umholtz, Robert; Ransom, Gerri M; James, William O

2002-06-01

327

Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave the most accurate predictions (<3%) for cellulose loss.

Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

328

Epithermal gold-siver deposits in the western United States: time-space products of evolving plutonic, volcanic and tectonic environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The western United States has been the locus of considerable subaerial volcanic and plutonic igneous activity since the mid-Mesozoic. After the destruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc-trench system, subduction was re-established in the Late Mesozoic with low-angle underthrusting of the oceanic plate beneath western North America. This resulted in crustal shortening during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary and removal of the mantle lithosphere west of the Rocky Mountains. Commencing in the Eocene, flat subduction ceased, the volcanic arc began to re-establish itself along the continental margin, and the hingeline along the steepening subducting plate migrated from east to west. The crust east of the migrating hingeline was exposed to hot asthenosphere, and widespread tectonics and volcanic activity resulted. Hydrothermal activity accompanied the volcanism resulting in numerous epithermal gold-silver deposits. The temporal and spatial distributions of epithermal deposits in the region are therefore systematic and can be subdivided into discrete time intervals which are related to widespread changes in magmatic activity. Time intervals selected for discussion are Pre-Cenozoic, 66-55 Ma, 54-43 Ma, 42-34 Ma, 33-24 Ma, 23-17 Ma, and <17 Ma. Many of these intervals contain both sedimentary-rock and two varieties of volcanic-rock hosted deposits (adularia-sericite and alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite). Continental rifting is important to the formation of deposits, and, within any given region, it is at the initiation of deep rifting that alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite type epithermal deposits are formed. Adularia-sericite type deposits are most common, being related to all compositions and styles of volcanic activity. Therefore, the volcano-tectonic context of the western United States provides a unified framework in which to understand and explore for epithermal type deposits. ?? 1990.

Berger, B.R.; Bonham, H.F., Jr.

1990-01-01

329

Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas (3He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

330

Analysis of loss of product specification and loss of operational continuity in the REDUC (Refinaria de Duque de Caxias) propene separation unit; Analises de perda de especificacao do produto e de continuidade operacional da unidade de separacao de propeno da REDUC - U-3100  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper contains the results of two reliability analysis using fault trees for the REDUC C{sub 3} Splitter Unit. Two fault trees were made to evaluate the unit unavailability related to loss of product specification and to loss of operational continuity. The first analysis evaluated the fraction of time in which the unit produces propylene out of specification and delivers it to the consumer (product quality). The second determined the fraction of time in which the unit does not produce propylene either because it fails to produce according to specifications directing the product to LPG storage or because it is down due to operational problems (operational continuity). In each analysis the main contributors to the unavailability were identified, being evaluated some suggestions for the unavailability reduction. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Lopes, Joao Carlos Galvao; Araujo e Lima, Julio Cesar de; Silva, CArlos Alberto Bezerra da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas; Amaral Netto, Joaquim Domingues; Lima, Jaime Eduardo Pinto [Principia Engenharia de Confiabilidade e Informatica Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1992-12-31

331

An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

Bain, Addison

1990-01-01

332

Approximate Analysis of Production Systems  

OpenAIRE

In this paper complex production systems are studied where a single product is manufactured and where each production unit stores its output in at most one buffer and receives its input from at most one buffer. The production units and the buffers may be connected nearly arbitrarily. The buffers are supposed to be of finite capacity and the goods flow is continuous. For such netwroks it is possible to estimate the throughput by applying repeated aggregation over the production units. The appr...

Koster, M. B. M.

1988-01-01

333

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Regina Helena Pires

2011-09-01

334

A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

2009-06-03

335

Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Cand [...] ida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

Regina Helena, Pires; Jaime Maia dos, Santos; José Eduardo, Zaia; Carlos Henrique Gomes, Martins; Maria José Soares, Mendes-Giannini.

2011-09-01

336

Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

337

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

338

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two plants that are operated by Mayak and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

339

Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

2007-01-01

340

Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

341

Microcontroller Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

342

Cogeneration units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles are outlined of cogeneration, i.e. of combined generation of electricity and heat. The assets of this approach include a decrease in the consumption of primary sources, and lower air pollution. Replacement of 1000 MWe brown coal fired power sources by cogeneration units in the Czech Republic would imply the shutdown of 3 to 4 brown coal fired power plants, bringing about a reduction in SO2, NOx and particulate emissions by 13.4%, 7%, and 4.3%, respectively. (J.B.)

343

Estimation of quality and yields of products from the process of future national oils indelayed coking units; Estimativa da qualidade e dos rendimentos de produtos de coqueamento a partir do processamento de petroleos nacionais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the importance of the delayed coking process increases in the Brazilian refinery scenario, it is necessary to perform a more detailed evaluation of vacuum residues potential on this kind of process. This work compares the performance of future produced and exported oils residues with those which are references nowadays as delayed coking feeding. This information is essential for the prediction of the future quality and yield of the products generated by this process, and for the determination of the oils value for exportation. For this purpose, a process simulator was used considering the operational conditions of a real delayed coking unit. The carbon residue and asphaltenes ratio from the residues were also evaluated. This simulation demonstrated that most of the future oils will produce a high quality coke from the point of view of crystallinity and metals content, and it will present high contents of both volatile matter and sulphur. The exported oils residues are likely to show good crystallinity. (author)

Filipakis, Sofia D.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Guimaraes, Regina C.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

344

Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o'clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course

345

Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

NONE

1996-01-01

346

Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature.

Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

2011-01-01

347

MANCHESTER UNITED’S IPO (2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A practice quite rarely used in the competition industry, the Initial Public Offering (IPO of a sporting entity can have as a goal the procurement of financial resources in order to invest in productive assets or to adjust the economic image of the club. The listing on the Stock Exchange in 2012 of one of the most valuable football clubs in the world, Manchester United, was an atypical one within the sporting area, both in terms of the motivation behind it and of the technical considerations. This analysis aims to provide a general perspective on the stock exchange index in this niche area and its relevance, focusing on the details of the English club’s listing and analyzing a set of indicators relevant to the dynamics of its economic evolution and popularity. After more than two years from the club’s listing on the Stock Exchange, the stocks have a value close to the initial one, the stock price following an oscillating trend, marked by a couple of stages of significant growth too. The research emphasizes the opposing effects of certain indicators: the brand value experiences a negative growth, while the income from current activities, especially the one from commercial activities follows a rising trend. So, it is still premature to deem the listing of Manchester United on the Stock Exchange a success or a failure, but the scientific debate is worth continuing.

TEODOR DIMA

2015-03-01

348

On production costs in vertical differentiation models  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we analyse the effects of the introduction of a unit production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. Thanks to an original methodology, we show that a low unit cost tends to reduce product differentiation and thus prices, whereas a high unit cost leads to widen product differentiation and to increase prices

Bre?card, Dorothe?e

2009-01-01

349

Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

1982-01-01

350

Characterization of Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae biomass composition and its potential for biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae, harvested from Persian Gulf, was chemically characterized and employed for the production of ethanol, seaweed extract, alginic acid, and biogas. In order to improve the products yields, the biomass was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and hot water. The pretreated and untreated biomasses were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase (15FPU/g) and ?-glucosidase (30IU/g). Hydrolysis yield of glucan was 29.8, 82.5, and 72.7g/kg for the untreated, hot-water pretreated, and acid pretreated biomass, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomycescerevisiae resulted in the maximum ethanol yield of 34.6g/kg of the dried biomass. A seaweed extract containing mannitol and a solid residue containing alginic acid were recovered as the main byproducts of the ethanol production. On the other hand, the biogas yield from the biomass was increased from 170 to 200m(3) per ton of dried algae biomass by hot water pretreatment. PMID:25461003

Yazdani, Parviz; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2015-01-01

351

Bioethanol production from pretreated Melaleuca leucadendron shedding bark--simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high solid loading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol production from the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (Paper-bark Tree, PBT) was studied using subcritical water (SCW) pretreatment at various severities (So). High ethanol production was attained by implementing a factorial design on three parameters (So, solid loading and enzyme loading) in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode. Ethanol concentration of 63.2 g L(-1) corresponding to ethanol yield of 80.9% were achieved from pretreated biomass (So=2.37) at 0.25 g mL(-1) solid and 16 FPU g(-1) glucan enzyme loadings. Similarly at 0.15 g mL(-1) solid loadings both high ethanol concentration (43.7 g L(-1)) and high ethanol yield (91.25%) were achieved. Regression analysis of experimental results shows that all process parameters had significant role on maximum ethanol production, glucose solubility, ethanol yield and ethanol volumetric productivity. SSF of SCW treated PBT biomass is economically feasible for production of bioethanol. PMID:23570711

Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Nguyen, Phuong Lan Tran; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

2013-05-01

352

United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom currently has ten operational nuclear power plants with another nine undergoing decommissioning. The operation and decommissioning of the Magnox Reactors is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority whilst the day-to-day operation is currently run by the two Parent Body Organizations Magnox North (Oldbury, Yr Wylfa, Hunsterton A, Chapecross and Trawsfynydd) and Magnox South (Bradwell, Berkeley, Dungeness A, Hinkley Point A and Sizewell A). Oldbury was scheduled to cease generation at the end of 2008 and Yr Wylfa by the end of 2010 but Oldbury continues to operate and a lifetime extensions is possible for Yr Wylfa. The AGRs and the PWR at Sizewell B are operated by British Energy. The ten operational reactors generate approximately 11 GW to the UK electricity mix, which is about 15% of the total UK requirement, down from a peak of 26% in 1997. Following an announcement early in 2008 by the government, with support from the main opposition party, it is expected that new nuclear plants will be built in the UK as soon as possible. Two new designs, the Westinghouse AP1000 and the Areva EPR, are currently undergoing a Generic Design Assessment by the UK regulator, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Decommissioning of the Magnox NPPs is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). They also own the liability of Capenhurst Fuel Enrichment Plant, Springfields Fuel Manufacturing Plant, the research reactor sites aturing Plant, the research reactor sites at Harwell and Winfrith, the fusion research centre at Culham, the Fast Reactor research centre at Dounreay and Sellafield. Privatization of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA) and the subsequent closure of many national laboratories, together with the transfer of the liability for the decommissioning of the Magnox sites from BNFL to the NDA resulted in the re-organization of BNFL. The BNFL Research and Technology division was rebranded as Nexia Solutions which in 2008 became the National Nuclear Laboratory. Reorganization has also taken place within government. The Office for Nuclear Development was established in early 2008 with a remit to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK and advise the Secretary of State on the exercise of his regulatory and policy functions in relation to the nuclear industry. In October 2008 the Department of Energy and Climate Change was created bringing together energy policy (previously with BERR - the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform) with climate change mitigation policy (previously with Defra - the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). The UK has also had a long involvement with nuclear fusion based at the Culham site in Oxfordshire. Currently operational are the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). JET is run as collaboration between all European fusion organizations and the participation of scientists from around the globe. MAST is collaboration between EURATOM and the UKAEA Fusion Association. The UK is also involved in the ITER project which builds on much of the work accomplished with JET which is currently the world's largest tokamak

353

77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins AGENCY: United States...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for products featuring $1 coins, as...

2012-01-06

354

Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States Are Safe  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Basics Metrics Watch: FDA Basics Videos FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ... How FDA Evaluates Regulated Products: Cosmetics FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ...

355

Ethanol production from horticultural waste treated by a modified organosolv method.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the use of horticultural waste (HW) collected in Singapore as a renewable raw material for bioethanol production. A modified organosolv method using ethanol cooking under mild conditions followed by H(2)O(2) post-treatment was investigated for HW pretreatment. It was found that the addition of acid catalysts in the pretreatment process was not critical and post-treatment using H(2)O(2) was essential for the enhancement of HW digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the organosolv pretreated HW with 17.5% solid content, enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g HW of filter paper cellulase, and 80 CBU/g HW of ?-glucosidase resulted in a HW hydrolysate containing 26.9 g/L reducing sugar after 72 h. Fermentation of the above hydrolysate medium produced 11.69 g/L ethanol at 8h using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It proved that horticultural waste was a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production and organosolv pretreatment method developed in this study was effective. PMID:22101074

Geng, Anli; Xin, Fengxue; Ip, Jun-yu

2012-01-01

356

Multipurpose fermentation unit (mfu) in Israel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multipurpose fermentation unit (MFU) is able to operate both in bench (or laboratory) and pilot plant scale and can carry out research, process development and production of different microorganisms and fermentation products. A MFU, operating under joint sponsorship of government (or industry) and university, can serve as a bridge between scientists with relevant knowledge and engineers with the skill to apply that knowledge. The fermentation Unit in Israel is described in detail.

Goldberg, I.

1980-02-01

357

Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

358

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arransses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques

359

Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California / Economic rent of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Fisheries Typical Production Units in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empr [...] esas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas cala-mareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades representativas de producción (URP): una que opera en BCS con 10 embarcaciones menores, recibe anualmente $2722,000.00 pesos por la venta de calamar, invierte el 68% en pago de mano de obra y obtuvo una razón beneficio-costo de 1.74. La otra trabaja con 5 barcos desde puertos en SON, recibe $4027,000.00 pesos de ingresos totales anuales (54% del camarón, 18% del calamar y 22% del subsidio al diesel); el costo del combustible representa el 52% de los egresos y la razón beneficio-costo en 2008 fue de 0.93. Abstract in english The jumbo squid fishery in Mexico is mainly performed off the Baja California Sur (BCS) and Sonora (SON) coasts in the Gulf of California by cooperatives and private firms which operate outboard boats (pangas) or shrimp trawlers. The differences in economic returns of each type of fleet were estimat [...] ed through the characterization of typical production units (TPU). The TPU of BCS, with 10 pangas, obtains Mexican pesos $2722,000.00 annually from squid sales and pays 68% of it in salaries. The TPU in SON, with 5 shrimp trawlers, earns Mexican pesos $4027,000.00 annually (54% from shrimp sales, 18% from squid and, additionally receives 22% from the government for diesel subsidies); diesel costs represent 52% of the total income.

Víctor, Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán, Ponce-Díaz; Luis, Almendarez-Hernández.

360

Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and national sovereignty: An appraisal of United States-measures affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absen [...] ce of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes) have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

TV, Warikandwa; PC, Osode.

1263-12-01

361

PET radiopharmaceuticals production facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indications of PET tomography are described. the different units of a PET radiopharmaceuticals production facility are mentioned: cyclotron or proton accelerator, radiopharmaceutical synthesis and radiopharmaceutical lab. The design criteria for complying with God Manufacturing Practice are discussed. (Author)

362

Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

Jamal I. Daoud

2010-01-01

363

Statistical Optimization for Application of Nonionic Surfactants in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Palm Fiber for Ethanol Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm fiber is a lignocellulosic material, which is available in large quantity from oil palm industry. Due to its cellulosic structure, it is considered as a highly potential alternative material for ethanol production. Thus, the palm fiber is utilized as a raw material in this study. The palm fiber is obtained from local industry and mechanically ground to reduce the size in the range of 0.417-1 mm. Then, it is pretreated with 10% sodium hydroxide. Then, it is further utilized in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The commercial cellulase enzyme (Trichoderma reesei is employed in this study. The nonionic surfactant (Tween80 is applied to enhance the conversion of cellulose to sugar. In the experiment, the effects of enzyme loading, surfactant concentration, and hydrolysis time on sugar yield are investigated at 50 ?C and pH 5. By employing the response surface methodology, optimum sugar yield was obtained at as high as 67.65 % from palm fiber at 107 h hydrolysis time, 20 FPU/g substrate enzyme loading, and 7.39 g/L surfactant concentration

Jatuporn Parnthong

2014-02-01

364

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover. PMID:24114460

Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

2014-05-01

365

Proyección económica de unidades representativas de producción en caprinos en la Comarca Lagunera, México / Economic projection of representative production units of caprine cattle in the Comarca Lagunera region, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La caprinocultura en México es importante por la cantidad de familias rurales que dependen de ésta, estimada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía en 250 mil. Sin embargo, por tradición, para apoyar la actividad, el gobierno mexicano a través de Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, P [...] esca y Alimentación, considera que todos los productores dedicados a las cabras tienen condiciones tecnológicas iguales, y que todos se dedican a producir lo mismo. La realidad es que los productores son diferentes entre sí, por regiones, entidades y al interior mismo de una localidad, por lo que el tipo de apoyos que se canalice debe ser acorde a sus necesidades y características. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la proyección de la viabilidad económica y financiera de una Unidad Representativa de Producción (URP) productora de leche y cabrito bajo un sistema de producción extensivo para el periodo 2008-2018 en el municipio de Lerdo Durango, ubicado en la región Comarca Lagunera, tomando como año base el comportamiento económico de las URP en 2008 y a partir de ello identificar qué componentes tecnológicos deben apoyarse para incrementar la rentabilidad de éste tipo de sistema productivo. Los datos necesarios para llevar a cabo este estudio y formar la URP productora de leche y cabrito surgieron de paneles de productores realizados en el ejido La Loma, Durango. El análisis económico y de simulación se llevó a cabo en el modelo de simulación agroeconómica MexSim, cuyos resultados muestran un comportamiento futuro positivo a los productores dedicados a esta actividad que cuenten con un hato de 100 vientres y produzcan leche y cabrito. Abstract in english In México, caprine cattle breeding is important due to the families living in rural areas who depend on the activity; according to estimations made by the National Institute for Statistics and Geography, there are about 250 thousand animals in México. Nevertheless, traditionally and so as to show su [...] pport for this activity, the Mexican government, represented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Stockbreeding, Fishing and Food, considers that all the producers who breed goats have access to the same technology, and that all of them produce the same thing. In reality, producers have differences according to the region, entity and even within the same township, and so the type of support they receive must be according to their needs and characteristics. The objective of this paper is to present the economic and financial feasibility projection for a Representative Production Unit (URP, in Spanish), which would produce milk and kid, under an extensive production system for the period that goes from 2008-2018, in the municipality of Lerdo, Durango, located in the region known as Comarca Lagunera, taking as baseline year the economic behavior shown by the URPs in 2008, and deriving from it the identification of the technologic components which need support in order to increase the profitability of this kind of productive system. The data required to undertake this study and establish the milk and kid producing URP, came from panel s of producers presented at the common land of La Loma, state of Durango. The economic and simulation analysis was realized within the agro-economic simulation model MexSim, which results show a positive behavior in the future for the producers focused in this activity, who own a herd of 100 breeding stock, and produce milk and kid.

Ignacio, Orona Castillo; Dora Ma., Sangerman-Jarquín; Jacob, Antonio-González; Enrique, Salazar Sosa; José Luis, García Hernández; Agustín, Navarro-Bravo; Rita, Schwentesius de Rindermann.

2013-06-29

366

Assessing Noninstructional Costs and Productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A college's administrative services and support units must give attention to improving quality and service just as instructional units do. Greater efficiency and productivity among noninstructional units can have a significant impact on institutional feasibility. Cost reduction is most effective when there is a common understanding of core…

Maydew, Mary Jo

1992-01-01

367

Unit Hydrograph Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is to provide an estimate of streamflow given the precipitation. A unit hydrograph shows the temporal change in flow, or discharge, per unit of runoff from excess precipitation. In other words, the unit hydrograph shows how the flow of a stream will be affected over time by the addition of one unit of runoff. This module offers a thorough introduction to the use of unit hydrographs and the application of unit hydrograph theory in flood prediction. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and assumptions, outlines the steps in creation of a unit hydrograph, examines the issues surrounding application of unit hydrograph theory, and discusses important considerations for forecasters.

COMET

2005-12-27

368

Márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal de vaca en unidades de producción familiar en Totoremo, Venezuela Cesar / Marketing profits of cattle handmade cheese in family production units in Totoremo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar los márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal bovino elaborado en unidades de producción familiar, se realizó una investigación de campo descriptiva, en la comunidad de Totoremo, municipio Urdaneta, estado Lara, Venezuela. Se identificaron los agentes participantes [...] del mercado, los canales de comercialización utilizados y se calcularon los márgenes de comercialización y la participación directa del productor, en base a entrevistas a productores de ese sistema familiar y transportistas de la zona, durante el año 2008. Los resultados muestran que de 22 productores entrevistados, el 95% realiza la venta directamente a transportistas. El canal de comercialización más común fue: productor (quesero en finca), comprador-transportista, comercio detallista y consumidor final. Los precios promedios al productor y al consumidor de 3,25 US$ y 5,34 US$, respectivamente. El margen bruto de comercialización (MBC) obtenido fue 39,13%, el margen neto de comercialización (MNC) de 38,38% y la participación directa del productor (PDP) de 61%. Se concluye, que en la comercialización del queso artesanal el 39% del precio del consumidor se queda en el sistema intermediario y el 61% en el productor Abstract in english In order to analyze the marketing channels and margins of commercialization of cattle handmade cheese, elaborated in family production units it was carried out a study in Totoremo community, Urdaneta Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela. There were identified the actors involved in the market, market [...] ing channels and margins of commercialization and direct participation of the farmers, based on interviews with producers of that family system and carriers in the area in 2008. The results show that of 22 farmers interviewed, 95% make the sale directly to carriers. The most common marketing channel was: producer (on-farm cheese), buyer-carrier, retail and consumer. The average price to the producer and consumer of 3,25 U.S. $ and 5,34 U.S. dollars, respectively. Marketing gross margin (MBC) obtained was 39,13%, the net marketing margin (MNC) of 38,38% and the direct participation of the producer (PDP) of 61%. We conclude that in the marketing of artisanal cheese 39% of the consumer price remains in the buffer system and 61% in the producer

, Araque; Aleyda, Delgado; Wilmer, Armas; Arlenis, Albornoz; Valentín, Espinosa; Tonny, Quijada.

2010-09-01

369

Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of satellite-derived ozone production sensitivity and land use types over the Continental United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To show how remote-sensing products can be used to classify the entire CONUS domain into "geographical regions" and "chemical regimes", we analyzed the results of simulation from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009. In addition, we observe how these classifications capture the weekly cycles of ground-level nitrogen oxide (NOx and ozone (O3 at US EPA Air Quality System (AQS sites. We use the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR land use dominant categories and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 HCHO/NO2 column density ratios to allocate geographical regions (i.e., "urban", "forest", and "other" regions and chemical regimes (i.e., "NOx-saturated", "NOx-sensitive", and "mixed" regimes. We also show that CMAQ simulations using GOME-2 satellite-adjusted NOx emissions mitigate the discrepancy between the weekly cycles of NOx from AQS observations and that from CMAQ simulation results. We found geographical regions and chemical regimes do not show a one-to-one correspondence: the averaged HCHO / NO2 ratios for AVHRR "urban" and "forest" regions are 2.1 and 4.0, which correspond to GOME-2 "mixed" and "NOx-sensitive" regimes, respectively. Both AQS-observed and CMAQ-simulated weekly cycles of NOx show high concentrations on weekdays and low concentrations on weekends, but with one- or two-day shifts of weekly high peaks in the simulated results, which eventually introduces the shifts in simulated weekly-low O3 concentration. In addition, whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly observable at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at sites over the AVHRR urban region because of the chemical characteristics of the urban sites (≈GOME-2 mixed regime. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime, suggesting that the GOME-2-based chemical regime classification is more accurate than CMAQ-based chemical classification. Furthermore, the CMAQ simulations using the GOME-2-derived NOx emissions adjustment (decreasing from 462 Gg N to 426 Gg N over the US for August 2009 show large reductions of simulated NOx concentrations (particularly over the urban, or NOx-saturated, regime, and mitigates the large discrepancies between the absolute amount and the weekly pattern of NOx concentrations of the EPA AQS and those of the baseline CMAQ.

P. Lee

2012-07-01

370

A systematic review of the safety information contained within the Summaries of Product Characteristics of medications licensed in the United Kingdom for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. how does the safety prescribing advice compare with national guidance?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety of paediatric medications is paramount and contraindications provide clear pragmatic advice. Further advice may be accessed through Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs and relevant national guidelines. The SPC can be considered the ultimate independent guideline and is regularly updated. In 2008, the authors undertook a systematic review of the SPC contraindications of medications licensed in the United Kingdom (UK for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. At that time, there were fewer contraindications reported in the SPC for atomoxetine than methylphenidate and the specific contraindications varied considerably amongst methylphenidate formulations. In 2009, the European Medicines Agency (EMA mandated harmonisation of methylphenidate SPCs. Between September and November 2011, there were three changes to the atomoxetine SPC that resulted in revised prescribing information. In addition, Clinical Guidance has also been produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE (2008, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN (2009 and the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC. Methods An updated systematic review of the Contraindications sections of the SPCs of all medications currently licensed for treatment of ADHD in the UK was undertaken and independent statements regarding contraindications and relevant warnings and precautions were then compared with UK national guidance with the aim of assessing any disparity and potential areas of confusion for prescribers. Results As of November 2011, there were seven medications available in the UK for the treatment of ADHD. There are 15 contraindications for most formulations of methylphenidate, 14 for dexamfetamine and 5 for atomoxetine. Significant differences exist between the SPCs and national guidance part due to the ongoing reactive process of amending the former as new information becomes known. In addition, recommendations are made outside UK SPC licensed indications and a significant contraindication for methylphenidate (suicidal behaviours is missing from both the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Particular disparity exists relating to monitoring for suicidal and psychiatric side effects. The BNFC has not yet been updated in line with the European Union (EU Directive on methylphenidate; it does not include any contraindications for atomoxetine but describes contraindications for methylphenidate that are no longer in the SPC. Conclusion Clinicians seeking prescribing advice from critical independent sources of data, such as SPCs and national guidelines, may be confused by the disparity that exists. There are major differences between guidelines and SPCs and neither should be referred to in isolation. The SPC represents the most relevant source of safety data to aid prescribing of medications for ADHD as they present the most current safety data in line with increased exposure. National guidelines may need more regular updates.

Savill Nicola

2012-01-01

371

Use of surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and lactic acid production from rice straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste by-products worldwide and provides an alternative substrate to produce useful chemicals such as bioethanol and lactic acid. However, higher enzyme loadings are needed to obtain a higher product yield, which makes the large-scale utilization economically difficult. The presence of non-ionic surfactants and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics has been found to increase the conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars. We have found that adding 0.2g g-1 substrate of polyoxyethylene(20 sorbitan monooleate (PSM or high-mass PEG increased the sugar yield by 22% and 12%, respectively, when enzyme loading was at 10FPU g-1 for 24h. PSM behaved better than PEG when different substrate concentrations, temperatures, and enzyme loadings were investigated. PSM provides an opportunity to reduce enzyme dosage while still keeping the same extent of hydrolysis. We also investigated the effect of PSM on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated RS to lactic acid. Results showed that addition of 0.7g L-1 PSM improved the lactic acid production by 24% compared to the reference without PSM addition at 72h.

Shichun Peng

2007-01-01

372

United States Access Board  

Science.gov (United States)

United States Access Board Advancing Full Access and Inclusion for All The Board Guidelines & Standards Training Enforcement Research ... from the Access Board: Board Newsletter: Access Currents United States Access Board 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000 ...

373

A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have indicated that under these conditions approximately 100,000 m3/d of potable water can be produced The use of preheated feedwater results in an improvement in water production efficiency of up to about 15% relative to a system operating at the ambient seawater temperature. This preliminary design study has shown that significant improvements in the cost of water production can be achieved through this 'marriage' of Russian small reactor technology and Canadian RO technology. The potential benefits warrant further detailed evaluation followed by a demonstration project. (author)

374

Embedded Unit Testing Framework  

OpenAIRE

This thesis addresses the challenges with unit testing of embedded software. Embedded software uses peripheral devices that are not available during testing, which results in higher barriers to use unit testing, compared to normal software. But even with these barriers there are no problems with unit testing of embedded software. The study looks at challenges with unit testing of Energy Micros software library, and solutions to the problems with automated testing of embedded software. Use of ...

Bergersen, Erik

2013-01-01

375

Establishing the Intermediate Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

376

Units of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter, the unit of exposure to ionizing radiation is defined according to the International System (SI) of units and is based upon the amount of charge released by photons as they pass through a specified mass of air. In addition, the unit of dose is defined and related to biologic damage in humans

377

Mobile contingency unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

378

78 FR 11954 - Revised Pricing Grid for Gold and Platinum Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Revised Pricing Grid for Gold and Platinum Products AGENCY: United States...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a revised pricing grid for 2013 gold and platinum products. Please see the...

2013-02-20

379

Wind energy in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of the general context (struggle against climate change, actions of the successive British governments, role of wind energy in the British energy strategy), this report proposes an overview of wind energy production in the United Kingdom. It comments the share of wind energy in comparison with other sources. It gives a rather detailed description of the status of the British wind energy industry: production capacity, used technologies, rank of the United Kingdom in the international and European wind energy industry, cost of wind energy production. It describes the means adopted by the United Kingdom to reach its objectives: political incentives (involved actors, main measures, support to research and development), industrial development (actors, offshore development, organisation of a system of rounds for the industrial development). It discusses the different technical, economic and political obstacles faced by this development

380

Integrating Unit Testing Processes into Large Legacy Software System Development Process  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to analyse the improvements of software development processes of a legacy software product after introducing unit testing methodologies. The results and effects on unit testing process and unit testability of Product X were analysed for a period of six years, from late 2007 to 2013. The study showed that setting up a unit-testing-friendly environment for software engineers can take years of time in a challenging product environment. Improvements started b...

Lindqvist, Markus

2014-01-01

381

Solar energy in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

382

Product assurance management and software product assurance  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of software assurance is discussed. The definition and implementation of standards are considered. It is recommended that requirements be clarified at the start of a project. The need for quality assurance in hardware is identified as the coming trend in the production of high cost single units which call for eradication of all errors during the early stages of development. The need to apply quality assurance throughout the whole mission is stressed. The dangers of overpricing product assurance services is stressed.

Schneider, C.; Borycki, G.; Panaroni, P.; Surbone, M.; Borcz, R.; Beddow, A. J.

1991-01-01

383

Obtención de un ranking de unidades productivas a través del análisis envolvente de datos / Obtention d'une classification d'unités productives par l'analyse envelopp ante de données / Obtaining a ranking of productive units through Data Envelopment Analysis / Obtenção de um ranking de unidades produtivas através da análise envoltória de dados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho considera-se o problema da obtenção de um ranking de unidades produtivas no contexto da técnica não-paramétrica da análise envoltória de dados (DEA). Centrarse- á a atenção no modelo da supereficiência (SDEA) segundo a proposta de Andersen e Petersen (1993); desde seu trabalho, tem-se [...] procurado melhorar a capacidade de discriminação da DEA. Analisar-se-ão os principais problemas, em especial o da infactibilidade do modelo SDEA e as soluções oferecidas desde a área, e a utilidade adicional do modelo SDEA para obter informação sobre a identidade de cada unidade avaliada. Uma primeira contribuição própria deste trabalho indicará que onde a infactibilidade impeça um ranking coerente, a classificação ordinal das unidades em função de seu status e seu coeficiente SDEA pode servir de substitutivo. Finalmente, um exemplo ilustrativo servirá para introduzir no cenário uma possibilidade não considerada em outros trabalhos: o modelo SDEA aplicado a modelos globais. Os resultados indicam que, em geral, cabe esperar uma maior homogeneidade na classificação obtida de cada modelo. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se considera el problema de la obtención de un ranking de unidades productivas en el contexto de la técnica no paramétrica del análisis envolvente de datos (DEA). Se centrará la atención en la modelización supereficiente (SDEA) según la propuesta de Andersen y Petersen (1993); desde [...] su trabajo, se ha intentado mejorar la capacidad de discriminación del DEA. Se analizarán los principales problemas, en especial el de la infactibilidad del modelo SDEA y las soluciones aportadas desde el área, y la utilidad adicional de la modelización SDEA para obtener información sobre la identidad de cada unidad evaluada. Una primera aportación propia de este trabajo indicará que allá donde la infactibilidad impida un ranking coherente, la clasificación ordinal de las unidades en función de su estatus y su coeficiente SDEA puede servir de sustitutivo. Finalmente, un ejemplo ilustrativo servirá para introducir en escena una posibilidad no considerada en otros trabajos: la modelización SDEA aplicada a modelos globales. Los resultados indican que, en general, cabe esperar una mayor homogeneidad en la clasificación obtenida de cada modelo. Abstract in english This work considers the problem of obtaining a ranking of productive units in the context of the nonparametric technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). It focuses on superefficient modeling (SDEA) according to the proposal by Andersen and Petersen (1993); based on their work, attempts have been [...] made to improve the capacity for discrimination of DEA. The main problems are analyzed, particularly the infeasibility of the SDEA model and the solutions provided from that field, as well as the additional usefulness of SDEA modeling to obtain information on the identity of each evaluated unit. A preliminary contribution inherent to this work indicates that where infeasibility impedes a coherent ranking, the ordinal classification of the units as a function of their status and their SDEA coefficient can serve as a replacement. Finally, an illustrative example serves to introduce a possibility that had not been considered in other works: SDEA modeling applied to global models. The results indicate that in general we may expect greater homogeneity in the classification obtained in each model.

José, Solana-Ibáñez.

2011-01-01

384

78 FR 76104 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Reinstatement of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Compliance, formerly Import Administration, International...Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom...Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom...Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom...the rolling element. Imports of these products...

2013-12-16

385

Strategic renewal for business units.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, business units have increasingly taken the role of strategy formulation away from corporate headquarters. The change makes sense: business units are closer to customers, competitors, and costs. Nevertheless, business units can fail, just as headquarters once did, by losing their focus on the organization's priorities and capabilities. John Whitney--turnaround expert and professor of management at Columbia University--offers a method for refocusing companies that he calls the strategic-renewal process. The principles behind the process are straightforward, but its execution demands extensive data, rigorous analysis, and the judgment of key decision makers. However, when applied with diligence, it can produce a strategy that yields both growth and profit. To carry out the process, managers must analyze, one by one or in logical groupings, the company's customers, the products it sells, and the services it offers in light of three criteria: strategic importance, significance, and profitability. Does a given customer, product, or service mesh with the organization's goals? Is it significant in terms of current and future revenues? And is it truly profitable when all costs are care fully considered? Customers, products, and services that do not measure up, says the author, must be weeded out relentlessly. Although the process is a painstaking one, the article offers clear thinking on why-and how-to go about it. A series of exhibits takes managers through the questions they need to raise, and two matrices offer Whitney's concentrated wisdom on when to cultivate--and when to prune. PMID:10158476

Whitney, J O

1996-01-01

386

21 CFR 139.110 - Macaroni products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Spaghetti is the macaroni product the units of which are tube-shaped...Vermicelli is the macaroni product the units of which are cord-shaped...this section is “Macaroni product”; or alternatively, the name is...statement “Spiced”, “Spice added”, or “Spiced with...

2010-04-01

387