WorldWideScience

Sample records for production unit fpu

  1. Floating production unit to work off Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Petroleo Brasileiro SA expects by early November to deploy its Petrobras XXIV floating production unit (FPU) in about 900 ft of water in Albacora field off Brazil. The FPU was scheduled to depart Galveston, Tex., this month, following completion of modifications and upgrades under a turnkey contract with Chiles Offshore International Inc. Chiles began modifying Petrobras XXIV about 1 year ago as part of a deal closed in October 1991 in which Chiles Offshore Corp. sold the vessel, then known as Intrepid, to Brasoil, the international subsidiary of Petrobras

  2. Cooperative Degradation of Chitin by Extracellular and Cell Surface-Expressed Chitinases from Paenibacillus sp. Strain FPU-7

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Takafumi; Hibi, Takao; Fujii, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Ikumi; Fujiwara, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Yukimoto; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Taketo, Akira; Kimoto, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls and invertebrate cuticles, is an exceedingly abundant polysaccharide, ranking next to cellulose. Industrial demand for chitin and its degradation products as raw materials for fine chemical products is increasing. A bacterium with high chitin-decomposing activity, Paenibacillus sp. strain FPU-7, was isolated from soil by using a screening medium containing ?-chitin powder. Although FPU-7 secreted several extracellular chitinases and thoroughly di...

  3. Execution and Result Integration Scheme in FPU Farms for Co-ordinated Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; rani, R. Selva; Saraf, Vighnaraju

    2010-01-01

    - The main goal of this research is to develop the concept of an innovative processor system called Functional Processor System. The particular work carried out in this paper focuses on the execution of functions in the heterogeneous functional processor units(FPU) and integration of functions to bring net results. As the functional programs are super-level programs, the requirements of execution are only at functional level. The Execution and integration of results of funct...

  4. Anomalous Energy Transport in FPU-? Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, Antoine; Merino-Aceituno, Sara

    2015-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of a macroscopic fractional diffusion equation describing heat transport in an anharmonic chain. More precisely, we study here the so-called FPU-? chain, which is a very simple model for a one-dimensional crystal in which atoms are coupled to their nearest neighbors by a harmonic potential, weakly perturbed by a quartic potential. The starting point of our mathematical analysis is a kinetic equation: Lattice vibrations, responsible for heat transport, are modeled by an interacting gas of phonons whose evolution is described by the Boltzmann phonon equation. Our main result is the rigorous derivation of an anomalous diffusion equation starting from the linearized Boltzmann phonon equation.

  5. HW-SW Implementation of a Decoupled FPU for ARM-based Cortex-M1 SoCs in FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Joven Murillo, Jaime; Strid, Per; Castells-Rufas, David; Bagdia, Akash; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrabina, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays industrial monoprocessor and multipro- cessor systems make use of hardware floating-point units (FPUs) to provide software acceleration and better precision due to the necessity to compute complex software applications. This paper presents the design of an IEEE-754 compliant FPU, targeted to be used with ARM Cortex-M1 processor on FPGA SoCs. We face the design of an AMBA-based decoupled FPU in order to avoid changing of the Cortex-M1 ARMv6-M architecture and the ARM compiler, but as ...

  6. FPU $\\beta$ model Boundary Jumps, Fourier's Law and Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, K; Aoki, Kenichiro; Kusnezov, Dimitri

    2001-01-01

    We examine the interplay of surface and volume effects in systems undergoing heat flow. In particular, we compute the thermal conductivity in the FPU $\\beta$ model as a function of temperature and lattice size, and scaling arguments are used to provide analytic guidance. From this we show that boundary temperature jumps can be quantitatively understood, and that they play an important role in determining the dynamics of the system, relating soliton dynamics, kinetic theory and Fourier transport.

  7. Anomalous energy transport in FPU-$\\beta$ chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mellet, Antoine; Merino-aceituno, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of a macroscopic fractional diffusion equation describing heat transport in an anharmonic chain. More precisely, we study here the so-called FPU-$\\beta$ chain, which is a very simple model for a one-dimensional crystal in which atoms are coupled to their nearest neighbors by a harmonic potential, weakly perturbed by a quartic potential. The starting point of our mathematical analysis is a kinetic equation: Lattice vibrations, responsib...

  8. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  9. Thermal expansion and its impacts on thermal transport in the FPU-?-? model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; He, Dahai; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Bambi

    2015-05-01

    We study the impacts of thermal expansion, arising from the asymmetric interparticle potential, on thermal conductance in the FPU-?-? model. A nonmonotonic dependence of the temperature gradient and thermal conductance on the cubic interaction parameter ? are shown, which corresponds to the variation of the coefficient of thermal expansion. Three domains with respect to ? can be identified. The results are explained based on the detailed analysis of the asymmetry of the interparticle potential. The self-consistent phonon theory, which can capture the effect of thermal expansion, is developed to support our explanation in a quantitative way. Our result would be helpful to understand the issue that whether there exist normal thermal conduction in the FPU-?-? model.

  10. The proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn-YeuChen; Rong-JuCherng

    2013-01-01

    In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O'Seaghdha et al., 2010). The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten character production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had t...

  11. Novel Method for Determining the Maximally Productive Units using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new method for determine maximally productive units based on input-output orientation data envelopment analysis. In this method, we find that reduce inputs and improve outputs units without regard to any factor weights is possible. The new method is a linear mathematical programming technique that determines the intensities of units. No assumptions are required on the internal transformation processes of the units. Decision making depends critically on the way excellent units are frequently described. Present findings have implications for the monitoring and financing of units. Some units with the maximal productivity should be considered as a guide for the other units to reduce inputs and improve outputs units. Numerical illustrations are provided for 15 hospitals dataset of Sherman and 12 hospitals in Tehran, Iran.

  12. 48 CFR 470.103 - United States origin of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... United States origin of agricultural products. 470.103 Section... United States origin of agricultural products. (a) Products of United...a) commodities and the products of agricultural commodities acquired...

  13. Uranium production, the United States perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. uranium production appears to be headed for a level of approximately one quarter of the peak production of the early 1980's. In a free world market the majority of the U.S. production capability is noncompetitive and unnecessary to supply the free world's demand. Those world producers which can produce into the competitive uranium market of the present and the foreseeable future will be sufficient to supply the uranium needs of the world for the next ten to fifteen years. Thus, the U.S. production industry once the leading producer in the world will not regain nor approach that status in the foreseeable future

  14. Two-Dimensional Breather Lattice Solutions and Compact-Like Discrete Breathers and Their Stability in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic ?-FPU Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We restrict our attention to the discrete two-dimensional monatomic ?-FPU lattice. We look for two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers by using trying method and analyze their stability by using Aubry's linearly stable theory. We obtain the conditions of existence and stability of two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in the discrete two-dimensional monatomic ?-FPU lattice.

  15. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  16. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  17. mAgic-FPU and MADE: A customizable VLIW core and the modular VLIW processor architecture description environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Pier S.; Kajfasz, Philippe; Bonnot, Philippe; Candaele, Bernard; Maufroid, Daniel; Pastorelli, Elena; Ricciardi, Andrea; Fusella, Yves; Guarino, Eugenio

    2001-09-01

    mAgic-FPU is the architecture of a family of VLIW cores for configurable system level integration of floating and fixed point computing power. mAgic customization permits the designer to tune basic parameters, such as the computing power/memory access ratio of the core processor, the number of available arithmetic operation per cycle, the register file size and number of port, as well as of the number of arithmetic operators. The reconfiguration (e.g., of register file size and number of port, as well as of the number of arithmetic operators) is supported by the software environment MADE (Modular VLIW processor Architecture and Assembler Description Environment). MADE reads an architecture description file and produces a customized assembler-scheduler for the target VLIW architecture, configuring a general purpose VLIW optimizer-scheduler engine. The mAgic-FPU core architecture satisfies the requisite of portability among silicon foundries. The first members of the mAgic FPU core family architecture fit the requirements of 'Smart Antenna for Adaptive Beam-Forming processing' and 'Physical Sound Synthesis'. The first 1 GigaFlops mAgic core will run at 100 MHz within an area of 40 mm 2 in 0.25 ?m ATMEL CMOS technology in first half 2002.

  18. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  19. Automation in Rectified Spirit (RS Production in Distillery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRINIVASAN K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectified Spirit production Automation in distillery unit in the production of Rectified Spirit (RS is a necessary system which is not implemented in this distillery unit. The present technology involves the manual control of the RS production process. This involves a huge wastage of time with manual effort. Hence there is a decrease in quality and less production of RS. The quality of RS should be greater than 66 for a normal Rectified Spirit. When the control used is manual, there is a probability of getting RS whose quality is less than 66. In order to get the desired quality and high production of RS, automation of RS using PLC is implemented in this proposed work. Here, the wash and steam are fed in an automated manner. There is no need of manual support, hence it reduces errors and it ensures high production.

  20. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2014-01-01

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical efficiency of various “mergers” relative to a common reference technology. The approach is radically different from the usual one based on super-efficiency indexes in DEA. We illustrate the mechanics of our method by a series of numerical examples and further demonstrate that our new index inherits all relevant and desirable properties of the Farrell efficiency index upon which it is constructed.

  1. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation. To account for any effects of autoclavation, a comparison was made with unsterilized media containing antibiotics. It was found that unsterilized washed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw (which contained antibiotics) was best suited for the production of xylanases (110 IU ml(-1)) and cellulases (0.5 filter paper units (FPU) ml(-1)). Addition of Avicel boosted enzyme titers with the highest cellulase titers (1.5 FPU ml(-1)) found with addition of 50 % w/w Avicel and with the highest xylanase production (350 IU ml(-1)) reached in the presence of 10 % w/w Avicel. Comparison with enzyme titers from other nonrefined feedstocks suggests that plasma pretreated wheat straw is a promising and suitable substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production.

  2. Heat unit availability for cotton production in the Ogallala Aquifer Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expansion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in the Ogallala Aquifer Region can be tied to early maturing varieties, rising energy costs, and declining water levels in the Ogallala Aquifer. However, the feasibility of growing cotton considering the availability of heat units in this region...

  3. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-YeuChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., ?in?, ?, ?, ?; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  4. Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

  5. The productivity advantge of one/two unit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the 1980s there has been tremendous competition in the coal market. This competition has fueled a relentless search for productivity. The employment census has steadily decreased while the total production has been at record levels. Between 1988 and 1989 production increased by three percent while employment decreased approximately fifteen percent. Where longwalls are not financially feasible to purchase and operate, the method of extraction has evolved predominantly to the one or two section coal mines. Both the large and small companies have adopted this philosophy. This paper provides one operator's opinion on why the one and two section coal mines have distinct advantages over the multiple unit mines. It focuses on the opportunity that the smaller mine affords in the areas of employee relations

  6. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By reducing the recycle stream, increasing the pressure of the separation section, and increasing th

  7. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  8. Global law for commercial digital products: work in progress at the United Nations and in United States commercial law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jeffrey B.

    1996-03-01

    Recent efforts at the United Nations and in the United States to define the legal structures for electronic commerce are providing insights into the component elements of a global legal structure for commercial digital products. Critical is the important role of originators in defining the rules for the transport, storage and use of standards-based digital messages, and the function of intermediaries as third party resources for assuring the integrity of transactions in digital products.

  9. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers (Manufacturer and Calibrating...2\\ Infra-red (IR) and fuel cell breath testers may be calibrated with...of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol...

  10. Developing a Unit-level Nursing Productivity Model Using Spreadsheets and Database Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Linda L.; Detmer, Sarah

    1989-01-01

    Nursing productivity is a critical factor in controlling costs in hospitals today. Factors that affect nursing productivity are influenced by nurse unit managers, yet decision support systems often fail to provide unit-level information. A nursing productivity model incorporating data already existing in the environment was developed and implemented using spreadsheet and database management software. Both systems will be demonstrated.

  11. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  12. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Competitive Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Competitive Multi-Service...add Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39...

  13. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  14. An FPGA Implementation Of Ieee - 754 Double Precision Floating Point Unit Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya A. Kshirsagar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Arithmetic circuits form an important class of circuits in digital systems. With the remarkable progress in the very large scale integration (VLSI circuit technology, many complex circuits, unthinkable yesterday have become easily realizable today. Algorithms that seemed impossible to implement now have attractive implementation possibilities for the future. In this paper an arithmetic unit based on IEEE standard for floating point numbers has been implemented on FPGA Board. Here FPU follows IEEE double precision format. The arithmetic unit implemented has a 64-bit processing unit which allows various arithmetic operations such as, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division on floating point numbers. Each operation can be selected by a particular operation code. We see that the overhead for double precision is less than that for single precision. The unit comprises of rounding and exception unit as specified in format. The FPU design achieved the operating frequency of 107MHz.

  15. Organization of international market introduction: Can cooperation between central units and local product management influence success

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Antje; Herstatt, Cornelius; Fantapie? Altobelli, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    When organizing international market introductions multinational companies face coordination problems between the leading central organizational unit and local product management. Based on the assumption that international market introductions are initiated and managed by a central unit we examine the impact of cooperation between the central unit and local product management on success. Our survey of 51 international market introductions reveals that the quality of the cooperation with local...

  16. Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models

    OpenAIRE

    Toly Chen

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. Acco...

  17. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  18. Analysis of a Production Order Quantity Model With Declining Unit Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod D. Raehsler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper improves upon the existing literature surrounding the production order quantity inventory model in which unit cost and daily production are assumed to be constant. By including economies of scale into the model, we examine its impact on production order quantity and total cost. The results suggest that the minimal cost solution derived from the production order quantity model needs to balance out holding, setup and production costs. As a result, a smaller inventory level corresponding to a minimum unit production cost is found to be preferred.

  19. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar, Utsav Malviya

    2013-01-01

    The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for ?oating-point computations, and for this reason, ?oating-point operators consume a signi?cant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) with ne...

  20. Comparing labour and total factor productivity growth and level in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States over the past century and in recent years

    OpenAIRE

    Cette, Gilbert; Kocoglu, Yusuf; Mairesse, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The present study contributes to the analysis of economic growth by comparing labour ant total factor productivity (TFP) in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States in the very long run (since 1890) and in the medium run (since 1980). During the past century, the United States has overtaken the United Kingdom and became the leading world economy. During the last 25 years, productivity growth has also known contrasted developments in the four countries, in particular as a result...

  1. Productivity Growth in the Transportation Industries in the United States: An Application of the DEA Malmquist Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews productivity growth in the five major transportation industries in the United States (airline, truck, rail, pipeline, and water and the pooled transportation industry from 2004 to 2011. We measure the average productivity for these eight years by state in each transportation industry and the annual average productivity by transportation industry. The major findings are that the U.S. transportation industry shows strong and positive productivity growth except that in the years of the global financial crisis in 2007, 2008, and 2010, and among the five transportation industries, the rail and water sectors show the highest productivity growth in 2011.

  2. Cascade units for neon isotopes production by rectification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basics of neon separation into isotopes by distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units of the top and bottom column sections at different loads are calculated. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade outlined. A scheme of cryogenic circuit based on the high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity and the technical ability to create the driving difference of pressures between columns of various stages demonstrated.

  3. Production of short straight sections hits 100 units

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

  4. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to t...

  5. Seasonal Unit Root: An Application to Turkish Industrial Production Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Pinar Gürel,

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal patterns of five Turkish manufacturing industry series which have the main characteristics of Turkish economy during the1977:1-2008:4 periods. Many economic time series are often subject to systematic fluctuations within the year such as seasonal movements. All the studies concerning time series methods are useful only when the series do not show seasonal patterns or the methods that care of seasonal patterns used. For this reason, it is important to investigate the seasonal patterns of the series when working with economic time series data. The analysis is conducted using the HEGY approach developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990. It is important to determine what kind of seasonality is present in the data. For this reason, we search for the seasonal unit root with five different models that concern, trends, constant and seasonal dummies. We provide evidence on the presence of seasonal unit roots in the Turkish manufacturing industry series. The main finding is that there are both deterministic and non-stationary stochastic seasonality in the series.

  6. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  7. Unit production cost of the radar beacon transponder (Rbx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schust, A.; Lovelace, W.; Peter, K.

    1982-10-01

    On the basis of circuit and equipment designs, the unit factory selling cost of the RBX was determined to be $53,190. Equipment costs derived using the cost estimating method are listed for the various components. All costs are based on 1981 dollars without inflation. A modular transmitter that uses four 1,150-watt amplifier modules was designed. With the appropriate number of amplifier modules, the estimated costs of a 1 kW transmitter and a 2 kW transmitter were $9,580 and $17,530, respectively. On the basis of these costs, an RBX with a 1 kW transmitter would be approximately $33,130; and RBX with a 2 kW transmitter would cost approximately $41,080. However, an RBX with a 1 kW or 2 kW transmitter might be completely different.

  8. STUDY OF THE CORROSION FACTORS IN OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Alizadeh Moghadam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil production in offshore fields is very important because of its operating conditions. The study of corrosion reasons in these facilities are different from onshore fields because of sea water utilization in desalters, compact equipments use and also high costs and risk in replacement of equipment parts.This paper is going to specify important elements, which cause corrosion of process equipments in offshore oil fields, and also shows different ways for prevention of corrosion by reviewing a case study.

  9. Innovation and productivity in services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Bettina; Riley, Rebecca; Siedschlag, Iulia; Vahter, Priit; Mcquinn, John

    2014-01-01

    We examine the links between innovation investment, innovation output and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Surveys 2006-2008 in Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom and estimate an augmented structural model which links innovation inputs, innovation outputs and productivity. Our estimates suggest that innovation in service enterprises was linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, amongst the innova...

  10. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research.

  11. Research on Structure Learning of Product Unit Neural Networks by Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Xian-Hui Wang; Zheng Qin; Xing-Chen Heng; Yu Liu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we put forward a new method to learn structure of Product Unit Neutral Network (PUNN). The technique used in our research is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The technique can optimized collocate network structure and weight of the PUNN at the same time using PSO algorithm through standard data set. Moreover, the number of Hidden Layer units of PUNN is decided by training set, not prefixed by the designer`s prior knowledge. Particles encoding scheme ...

  12. Selection of the optimum stage number in pipelined floating-point units

    OpenAIRE

    Balliriain, Eduardo; Falco?n Faya, Marti?n Ignacio; Slavkin, Pablo; Lerendegui, Norberto M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the pipeline theory applied to computing systems is reviewed. The effects of the stage delay, overhead stage delay, equalization factor and number of stages on the pipeline system performance are analyzed. A pipeline design method to identify the optimum number of stages is proposed. This method makes use of a trade-off expression that considers speed factor and hardware cost. The procedure is applied to turn a sequential Floating Point Unit (FPU) into a Pipelined Floating Point ...

  13. Production units as new section 38 property for investment tax credit purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, J.H.

    1982-03-01

    A Production Unit on a new oil and gas well appears to clearly qualify as new Section 38 property for purposes of computing investment tax credit, whether constructed with new or used materials, elements, or parts. Any Internal Revenue Service attempts to recategorize some of the parts of a new Production Unit as used Section 38 property should be resisted. Further, any attempts by the Internal Revenue Service to confuse the issue - by citing the numerous Revenue Rulings involving reconditionings or rebuildings because used materials, elements, or parts have been used - should likewise be resisted.

  14. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  15. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  16. PV-Tec: Photovoltaic technology evaluation center: Design and implementation of a production research unit

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Glunz, S. W.; Rein, S.; Rentsch, J.; Emanuel, G.; Brucker, I.; Faasch, T.; Faller, C.; Willeke, G.; Luther, J.

    2006-01-01

    In a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor safety (BMU) Fraunhofer ISE has designed and implemented a new kind of research unit for applied R&D for silicon solar cell production. The Photovoltaic Technology Evaluation Center (PV-TEC) features a high throughput baseline industrial solar cell production process with the possibility to carry out new processes by using innovative functions that have been implemented in the processing to...

  17. Study of United Kingdom product licence applications containing new active substances, 1987-9.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, M. D.; Jefferys, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the fate of product licence applications containing new active substances in relation to their degree of innovation and therapeutic category. To assess the numbers of volunteers and patients exposed to a new active substance when marketing autorisation is first sought. DESIGN AND SETTING--Observational study of records for each licence application submitted to the United Kingdom licensing authority for marketing authorisation from 1987 to 1989. SUBJECTS--118 product...

  18. Two performance indicators for the characterization of the entropy production in a process unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two indicators are presented to compare the Second law performances of different design-variants of the same process unit. The first indicator relates the entropy production to quantities like the total transferred thermal energy and the total chemical conversion. This allows a useful comparison, even in the case of different inlets and outlets. An important aspect of the entropy production in a process unit is its distribution. An even distribution, also known as equipartition of entropy production (EoEP), is related to an optimal design. The second indicator is based on the coefficient of variation of a local entropy production profile and allows one to calculate and compare degrees of equipartition of different designs. Both indicators have been used in a study on the entropy production minimization of a plug-flow reactor. A comparison using the first indicator showed that the optimized reactors perform slightly better than a comparison based on the total entropy production alone would suggest. This shows that the total entropy production is not always a good indicator. The second indicator was found to provide an excellent numerical basis for comparing the degrees of EoEP of the different designs. -- Highlights: ? Tools have been developed to compare in a fair manner the energy efficiency of different process units. ? Such comparisons can be difficult when boundary conditions vary, but this study presents one performance indicator that can handle such a situation, using the specific entropy production. ? The other indicator measures the deviation from an ideal state of uniform entropy production (equipartition of entropy production), which in certain cases is the state of minimum energy dissipation.

  19. Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

  20. Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production process in radiation therapy and research into cost-inducers in two radiation oncology units. Purpose. - To analyse the process of outpatient radiation therapy by dividing it into elementary acts, and to determine the cost-inducers (staff and machine time, equipment) in order to enhance the value of radiotherapy activity. Material and methods. - The care process was analysed from 1 June 1997 to 1 September 1997, in two institutions (Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Saint Etienne and centre de Lutte contre le Cancer de Lyon), in terms of consumption of human and equipment means, representing a cost for the care institution. The valorization was expressed in physics units for material means, and in time units for human and heavy equipment. Parameters able to modify the consumption of means had been defined. The following data had been collected for each activity: patient characteristics, characteristics of the process, specific parameters of each activity, data related to the care staff and care unit. (authors)

  1. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39...

  2. Economic growth, labor and productivity in Brazil and the United States: a comparative analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Gori, Maia; Esther, Menezes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the relation between economic growth and labor market dynamics in Brazil between 1981 and 2009, making a comparison with the United States. Among the findings, one can mention that economic growth in Brazil has been related to a massive incorporation of labor forc [...] e in labor intensive activities, whereas, in the United States, to a substantial improvement of labor productivity in high-technology activities. Despite the favorable economic context in the 2000s, huge inequalities between these countries have widened since the structure of the Brazilian labor market remained with few or no changes.

  3. STUDY ON ESTABLISHING THE OPTIMUM PRODUCTION CAPACITY FOR A UNIT PROCESSING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Niculae, Ioana; Vidu, Livia; Condei, Reta

    2012-01-01

    Establishing the optimum production capacity represents a fundamental issue for the economic activity. Building of oversized objectives is equal to fund wasting, immobilizing capital in fixed assets which remain unused. Or, building of undersized objectives creates bottlenecks in economic processes(4). This is why prior to designing the investment objectives thorough calculations are necessary in order to establish the optimum production capacity. The study was made on a company which will pr...

  4. Monolithic film photocatalyst and its application for hydrogen production with repeated unit structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the immobilized film photocatalyst for hydrogen production has been increased. In this study, a simple monolithic film system is used, and a variety of cell configurations is investigated for minimizing electron losses in the electron transport pathways. The relative area ratio of Pt and photocatalyst (CdS/TiO2) is also an important parameter to maximize hydrogen production on a limited substrate. The relative area ratio (Pt/photocatalyst) is 0.37 for the highest hydrogen production in our photocatalyst system. Repeated unit structures generate high amount of hydrogen without decreased efficiency at large photocatalyst area, comparing to the single unit structure for the same area. Therefore, minimizing electron loss and the effective use of limited area are important factors in applications of monolithic large scale film photocatalyst. - Highlights: ? TiO2 photocatalyst film conjugated with CdS quantum dots. ? Electron movements through the photocatalyst film ? Relative area ratio between photocatalyst and Pt films ? Repeated unit structure for improving hydrogen production efficiency

  5. Potential by-product uranium production in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When evaluating uranium resources, one must not overlook the possibilities of recovering uranium as a by-product of other industries. The technology for recovering by-product uranium from phosphoric acid has been known for many years, but only recently have market conditions encouraged production. Even with recent improvements in process technology, many problems are still encountered in scale-up from laboratory and pilot plant operation to commercial production. Some of these problems are discussed in this review of the process technology. A recent USDOE study shows a total capital cost of US $12 million for a by-product uranium plant designed to recover 40 to 60 t U/a from 30% P2O5 acid provided by a phosphoric acid plant with a capacity of 155,000 t P2O5/a. Operating costs were estimated at US $50 to 65/kg U ($20-25/lb U3O8), assuming the phosphoric acid contains 120 to 160 mg U/l and a raffinate of 13 mg U/l. The quantity of uranium recovered and the operating costs are highly sensitive to the uranium content of the acid. Constraints to by-product uranium production, besides low uranium content of the acid are small-size phosphoric acid plants and high strength (>40% P2O5) acid. Similarly the technology for recovery of uranium from copper waste dump leach liquors has been known for several years. It was developed in the mid-1960s by the US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with K US Bureau of Mines in co-operation with Kennecott Copper Corporation at its Bingham Canyon mine near Salt Lake City, Utah. Commercial application was first realized when an ion-exchange plant to recover about 55 t U/a commenced operation in 1978. (author)

  6. The evolution of sunscreen products in the United States--a 12-year cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven Q; Tanner, Paul R; Lim, Henry W; Nash, J F

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure from ultraviolet (UV) radiation contributes to the development of skin cancers and photoaging. Topical sunscreen products remain one of the most widely used forms of protection for the majority of the public. The objective of this analysis was to examine photoprotection trends (e.g., SPF value) and the degree of UVA I protection from 1997 to 2009 in the United States. Sunscreen products purchased and evaluated in 1997 (N = 59), 2003 (N = 188) and again in 2009 (N = 330), totaling 577, were included in this analysis. Information regarding (1) the SPF value, (2) name and concentration of the active ingredients, (3) type of products (i.e., daily vs. recreational/beach), and (4) claims of UVA protection was recorded and analyzed. In addition, the critical wavelength (CW) of 330 products from 2009 was determined. The results showed an increase in the SPF values of products from 1997 to 2009. The percentage of low SPF products (SPF 4-14) decreased from 27% in 1997 to 6% in 2009. The number of products containing a known UVA-I filter (i.e., avobenzone or zinc oxide) increased from 5% in 1997 to 70% in 2009. Lastly, approximately, 225 (68%) of the products tested in 2009 attained CW > 370 nm. In the past decade, sunscreen products have undergone fundamental improvements, the most significant of which is the breadth of protection against UVA I. PMID:23032968

  7. Starter Unit Flexibility for Engineered Product Synthesis by the Nonreducing Polyketide Synthase PksA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt-Roehl, Callie R; Hill, Eric A; Adams, Martina M; Vagstad, Anna L; Li, Jesse W; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-06-19

    Nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are unique among PKSs in their domain structure, notably including a starter unit:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (SAT) domain that selects an acyl group as the primer for biosynthesis, most commonly acetyl-CoA from central metabolism. This clan of mega-enzymes resembles fatty acid synthases (FASs) by sharing both their central chain elongation steps and their capacity for iterative catalysis. In this mode of synthesis, catalytic domains involved in chain extension exhibit substrate plasticity to accommodate growing chains as small as two carbons to 20 or more. PksA is the NR-PKS central to the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 whose SAT domain accepts an unusual hexanoyl starter from a dedicated yeast-like FAS. Explored in this paper is the ability of PksA to utilize a selection of potential starter units as substrates to initiate and sustain extension and cyclization to on-target, programmed polyketide synthesis. Most of these starter units were successfully accepted and properly processed by PksA to achieve biosynthesis of the predicted naphthopyrone product. Analysis of the on-target and derailment products revealed trends of tolerance by individual PksA domains to alternative starter units. In addition, natural and un-natural variants of the active site cysteine were examined and found to be capable of biosynthesis, suggesting possible direct loading of starter units onto the ?-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain. In light of the data assembled here, the predictable synthesis of unnatural products by NR-PKSs is more fully defined. PMID:25714897

  8. Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

  9. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  10. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  11. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  12. The secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States market evolution and product valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Unti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In this work we discuss the secondary market for life insurance policies in the United States of America. First, we give an overview of the life settlement market: how it came into existence, its growth prospects and the ethical issues it arises. Secondly, we discuss the characteristics of the different life insurance products present in the market and describe how life settlements are originated. Life settlement transactions tend to be long and complex transactions that require the involvem...

  13. Quaternionic Hardy spaces in the open unit ball and half space and Blaschke products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Daniel; Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Hardy spaces H2(B) and H2(H+), where B and H+ denote, respectively, the open unit ball of the quaternions and the half space of quaternions with positive real part, as well as Blaschke products, have been intensively studied in a series of papers where they are used as a tool to prove other results in Schur analysis. This paper gives an overview on the topic, collecting the various results available.

  14. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  15. Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Units in Hybrid FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Kusumakar#1 , Utsav Malviya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “Implementation of area optimized Floating Point Unit in Hybrid FPGA” is gradually replacing the conventional slower FPUs which have lower speed while computing complex calculations includes Digital Signal Processing. Existing FPGA devices are not optimized for ?oating-point computations, and for this reason, ?oating-point operators consume a signi?cant amount of FPGA resources. I will try to implement area optimized FPU on a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with new feature division, multiplication and addition which is designed with VHDL, synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i Webpack, simulated using ModelSim simulator and then implemented on Xilinx Virtex 2E FPGA.

  16. Combined target-ion source unit for production of rare nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined target-ion source unit (ionizing target) has been developed for the on-line production of radioactive single-charged ions. The target is able to withstand temperatures of up to 2500 deg. C and also acts as an ion source of surface, electron-beam, and laser ionizations. Using tantalum foil as a target material, the on-line combined target-ion source unit efficiency, which is the product of the ionization and release efficiencies, has been obtained for neutron-deficient isotopes of Eu, Gd, and Yb. These nuclides were ionized by the surface ionization inside a hot tungsten target container, holding tantalum foils as a target material. The results of the combined target-ion source unit use for on-line laser resonant ionization spectroscopy investigation of neutron-deficient Gd isotopes have been also presented. For neutron-rich isotopes produced from a high-density UC target, which were ionized by the surface ionization inside the target container, the ionization efficiency values have been obtained close to 100% for Rb and Cs and 10% for In. For Ag and Sn neutron-richisotopes, the values of the electron-beam ionization efficiency in the volume of the targetcontainer, correspondingly equal to 4% and 2%, have been obtained

  17. How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

  18. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits. I describe how biofuel governance focuses on scientific practices that legitimize biofuel production for their capacity to marginally reduce greenhouse gas emissions, despite biofuels' agroecological consequences outside this regulatory purview. These consequences include pressure on conservation and agrienvironmental practice, which could be better supported through existing, highly effective, place-based, democratic institutions dedicated to stewarding the resources upon which agricultural livelihoods depend.

  19. Enhancement and selective production of oligomycin through inactivation of avermectin's starter unit in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiong; Yunxiang, Liang; Yinghua, Zheng

    2006-06-01

    Oligomycin and its analogues, produced by Streptomyces avermitilis and other actinomycetes, are of interest for their potent and selective biological activities. PCR-mediated gene replacement, targeting bkdF, one of avermectin's starter unit encoding genes in S. avermitilis, was performed to yield an oligomycin producer, BIB0423. The engineered strain produced oligomycin A at 2.3 mg/ml compared to the wild type strain at 0.1 mg/ml. This resulting mutant was genetically stable and should be useful for the industrial production of oligomycin. PMID:16786277

  20. Calculation of radiation quantities for the medical products sterilization unit by gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical products sterilization unit using 60Co will be in operation starting from in 1991, at the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria. The irradiator produced by USSR and exported by Technoexport. Intial activity of the 6OCo source is 100 Kci. In order to calculate the utilization factor, non-homogeneity factor, shielding, activity and exposure, a computure program written in BASIC language is used. The programe operates on version 3.2 MS DOS using IBM compatable microcomputers. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  1. Valuing Preferences for Environmental Sustainability in Fruit Production by United Kingdom and Japanese Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Tait

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of carbon intensity of high volume grocery products is potentially a major contributor in meeting climate targets. In a choice experiment concerning fruit purchase decisions in the United Kingdom and Japan, this study estimates consumer willingness to pay for sustainability attributes of production alongside vitamin content, including water use efficiency, waste and packaging, and carbon emissions. Results indicate that sustainability attributes significantly influence consumers’ fruit purchase decisions. Preferences are found to be very similar between countries, with reduction of carbon emissions the most valued sustainability attribute by both UK and Japanese consumers and increased vitamin content the least. This study’s findings provide implications for carbon emission labeling development in the context of international food supply chains, and primary sector strategy encouraging initiatives to improve environmental performance domestically.

  2. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  3. Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bakhshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

  4. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up : Escaping the Middle-Income Trap?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out of a small number of firms within each industry rather than catch-up of lagging firms. We then use these finding to investigate on-going patterns of catch-up during 2007 to 2011

  5. MHD-units of a magnetodynamic type, used in technological processes for metallurgy and casting production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many technological processes for casting production and in metallurgy, a forced action on liquid metal must be combined with its pre-heating. Under these conditions MHD-pumps and units of a magneto-dynamic type (MDN), which is a separate class of a pulsing type field of induction MHD-machines of a pulsing field, have essential advantages in comparison with other MHD-machines and known mechanical units, as they possess a high hydrothermal efficiency and the opportunity to change the correlation between hydraulic and heat parameters within wide limits. Since 1961 year there have been developed more than 30 types of MDN. Using the units MDN-3, MDN-6 and MDN-17, the analysis of main peculiarities of this type of MHD-machines has been carried out. A Working Zone (WZ) of MDN is a hydraulic manifold, created by a circular channel and branching-off it or crossing it by the conduit. Here, the current, induced in the liquid metal, by the closed electromagnetic system- an inductor, - interacts with a transverse magnetic field, created by the electromagnet, in the gap of which is WZ. The peculiarities of a metal flow and distribution of pressure in WZ of MDN, which have a T-joined and a cross-shaped form, are being considered here: generation of vortices in the regions of a drop of a magnetic field along the sides of WZ, appearance of reduced pressure regions. In this report there are being considered the different schemes of MDN application in casting and metallurgical produccation in casting and metallurgical production: for melting, preparing and refining treatment of metal, conveying and batchering, forced feeding of moulds and crystallization under electromagnetic pressure, given are the characteristics of industrial, including serially produced, MDN for non-ferrous alloys and iron

  6. Small Ruminant Production System Efficiency under Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Arid Land Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat production systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE operate under scarce natural resource constraints. A cross-sectional survey that covered 661 mixed farms, including major sheep and goat production, was conducted in the three regions of Abu Dhabi Emirate (Al-Ain, Western Region and Abu Dhabi city during 2012. A Cobb-Douglas, double-logarithmic stochastic frontier production function and maximum likelihood estimation were applied to estimate important economic derivatives and the associated risk of small ruminant production in this arid area. The highest impact of an input on the output level was found to be labor for raising sheep and alfalfa grass for raising goats. Both labor and alfalfa variables were found to be overutilized for sheep and goat production, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that average technical efficiency is 0.62 for raising sheep and only 0.34 for raising goats in the study area. Technical efficiency analysis included measuring the frequency of farms at each level of estimated technical efficiency in the range between zero and one. Zero for the technical efficiency coefficient indicates a lack of technical efficiency in resource use. The results of this study indicated that only 1% of the sheep farms show a technical efficiency coefficient of 0.25 or less; the same can be said for 41% of goat producers. However, these technical efficiencies were found to be more than 0.75 for 12% and 5% of the sheep and goat farms, respectively. Overall, goat farming in the UAE was found to be less efficient than sheep production. The results also indicated that flock size and type of breed were the most influential factors relative to other factors, and both show a positive relationship with technical efficiency. Other than flock size, factors, such as owners’ years of experience and management practices, were found to be more influential on goat farming system efficiency relative to sheep farming.

  7. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. This chemistry also substantially reduces the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 6% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that heterogeneous production of ClNO2 can further increase O3 and reduce TNO3 if elevated particulate-chloride levels are present in the atmosphere.

  8. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 ?g m?3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

  9. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, ? = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  10. Impact of composition manipulation on lean lamb production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Hogue, D E

    1995-08-01

    At present less than 30% of the market lambs slaughtered in the United States meet the requirements for leanness and muscling as specified in the "Certified Fresh American Lamb" program established in 1990 by the American Sheep Industry Association (ASI). Carcass composition of slaughter lambs is determined by stage of growth relative to mature size, genotype, sex, and matching dietary nutriment to nutrient requirements for lean tissue growth. On the average, current production strategies produce carcasses that contain excessive amounts of fat, impeding optimized efficiency at all levels of production. Use of large-mature-size terminal sires, feeding rumen-escape dietary protein, feeding intact males, and slaughtering at appropriate weights all improve composition of gain. Improvements of 10 to 20% in rates of gain and efficiency of nutrient use and similar reductions in feed cost can be achieved with each of these management strategies. Results from several experiments demonstrate that these effects are additive and provide a measure of the true genetic capacity for protein accretion rate in growing lambs. Adoption of these management strategies will allow lambs to be slaughtered at a younger age, which may improve meat quality and concurrently reduce the amount of nitrogen waste returned to the environment. Potential for further manipulation of composition exists through more accurately defining nutrient requirements of growing lambs and through use of metabolism modifiers. Maintaining a competitive, profitable, and sustainable sheep industry depends on continued improvement of production efficiency, preferably in systems with high reproductive rates. PMID:8567487

  11. Units in Abelian Group Algebras Over Direct Products of Indecomposable Rings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Danchev.

    Full Text Available Sea R un anillo conmutativo y unitario de característica prima p, que es producto directo de subanillos indescomponibles y sea G un grupo multiplicativo y abeliano tal que G0/Gp p es finito. Caracterizamos las clases de isomorfismo del grupo unitario U(RG) del álgebra del grupo RG. Estos fuertes y r [...] ecientes resultados se deben a Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011). Abstract in english Let R be a commutative unitary ring of prime characteristic p which is a direct product of indecomposable subrings and let G be a multiplicative Abelian group such that G0/Gp is nite. We characterize the isomorphism class of the unit group U(RG) of the group algebra RG. This strengthens recent resul [...] ts due to Mollov-Nachev (Commun. Algebra, 2006) and Danchev (Studia Babes Bolyai - Mat., 2011).

  12. Stochastic unit commitment considering uncertain wind production in an isolated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, Luis [Comillas Univ., Madrid (ES). Inst. for Research in Technology (IIT); Dietrich, Kristin; Latorre, Jesus M.; Ramos, Andres; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J.

    2009-07-01

    Wind Energy has become the renewable energy with the highest installed capacity in some European countries mainly due to its advanced technology and to existing political incentives. In countries like Spain, installed wind capacity amounts to 17% of total installed power capacity as of today. As power produced from wind grows, difficulties created by its intermittency nature (namely, the difficulty to predict wind generation output with enough accuracy and its volatility) make the operation of the system more difficult. Stochastic programming has been proposed as an adequate way to handle this uncertainty. In this article, the unit commitment problem is modelled taking into account the stochastic nature of wind production. The model is applied to the isolated power system of Gran Canaria island. We have analyzed the impact of increasing installed wind capacity and the value of having to deal with the uncertainty associated with wind in this power system. (orig.)

  13. Chill unit accumulation and necessity of rest breaking agents in South African table grape production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenant Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of table grapes in warm regions of South Africa is complicated by problems associated with delayed and uneven bud break. Rest breaking agents, mainly hydrogen cyanamide, are applied to overcome these problems. The chill unit accumulation of the five major table grape production regions in South Africa was compared with the minimum chilling required to obtain a high bud break percentage (>80% and even bud break, defined as 200 hours between 0 and 10??C, or 400 hours at 3??C. The effect of chilling accumulation (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 hours at 3??C on bud break of dormant cuttings of three table grape cultivars was investigated in controlled studies in a glass house over a three year period. Cuttings used in the study were collected from commercial vineyards in Saron in the Berg River Valley (representing a warm region and the Hex River Valley (representing a cool region. Sultanina and Sugraone cuttings from Saron required at least 200 hours at 3??C to obtain a final bud break % of 80%+. A final bud break % of 80%+ was obtained with all Sultanina cuttings from Hex River Valley. Treatments receiving 400 and 800 hours at 3??C, showed the most rapid rate of bud break. Prime cuttings collected from Saron, receiving 0, 50, 100 and 400 hours at 3??C, showed a more rapid bud break process, as well as a higher final bud break % compared to Sugraone and Sultanina. It seems as if Prime has a lower chilling requirement than the other two cultivars. The model of Dokoozlian for quantifying chilling status is applicable to Saron and the Hex River Valley. The necessity of using rest breaking chemicals in the Saron area, for obtaining a high bud break % and even bud break, was confirmed. The Hex River Valley receives sufficient chilling temperatures to obtain a high bud break %, but rest breaking chemicals can be used to obtain more even bud break. The use of hydrogen cyanamide for improved and even bud break is a general practice in regions that receive less than 400 chill units. In regions receiving more than 400 chill units, several producers still use hydrogen cyanamide for even bud break. It is recommended that the chilling requirement of economic important cultivars should be determined simultaneously in field trials and glass house trials for the major table grape production regions of South Africa, to verify the necessity of using rest breaking chemicals for specific cultivars in specific regions.

  14. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m?2 yr?1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr?1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr?1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha fire. These results highlight the strong influence of land management and interannual variation in climate on the terrestrial carbon flux in the temperate zone.

  15. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  16. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  17. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings. PMID:25488307

  18. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

  19. Caracterización de las unidades de producción de tomate en invernaderos de Oaxaca / Characterization of greenhouse tomato production units in Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabino Alberto, Martínez-Gutiérrez; René, Díaz-Pichardo; Griselda, Juárez-Luis; Yolanda D., Ortiz-Hernández; Juana Y., López-Cruz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En los Valles Centrales de Oaxaca se localizan 118 unidades de producción, 30 % de la superficie de tomate en invernaderos del estado. Estas unidades de producción son heterogéneas en sus niveles de desempeño, rentabilidad y productividad. La teoría de la empresa basada en los recursos y en la venta [...] ja comparativa propone que algunos recursos son estratégicos en las unidades de producción y permiten obtener ventajas comparativas y competitivas. Las unidades de producción carecen de organización; 30 % han sido abandonadas y 32 % de los invernaderos miden 2000 m² y tienen 2.8 años en operación en promedio. El trabajo en estas unidades es familiar y sus integrantes tienen de 31 a 50 años de edad. Se concluye que para alcanzar la competitividad y aumentar el desempeño de las unidades de producción de tomate se deberá diseñar e implementar estrategias comerciales, financieras, organizativas, operacionales y ambientales. Abstract in english In Oaxaca's Central Valleys, there are 118 production units, 30 %> of the greenhouse surface for tomatoes in the state. These production units are varied in their levels of performance, profitability and productivity. The theory of enterprise based on resources and on the comparative advantage sugge [...] sts that some resources are strategic in the production units, and they allow obtaining comparative and competitive advantages. The production units lack organization; 30 % have been abandoned and 32 % of the greenhouses measure 2000 m² and have been operating for 2.8 years, in average. The labor in these units is familiar and members are between 31 and 50 years of age. The conclusion is that in order to reach competitiveness and increase the performance of tomato production units, commercial, financial, organizational, operational and environmental strategies should be designed and implemented.

  20. Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

    2012-10-15

    Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

  1. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C; Reed, Sasha C; Miller, Norman L; Running, Steven W

    2012-03-20

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr(-1). However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data-measured for every 1 km(2) of the 7.2 million km(2) of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.-to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr(-1), depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio. PMID:22321165

  2. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and triclosan in sewage sludge across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycke, Benny F G; Roll, Isaac B; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-07-15

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (?=0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2'-hydroxy-TCC (r=0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r=0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (?=0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37-74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4-2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge. PMID:24932693

  3. Economic and technical experience of nuclear power production in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power, utilizing light-water reactor technology, is a significant source of electric power generation in the United States of America, accounting for about 12% of the electric power production in 1981, more than either oil-fired or hydroelectric generation. It is also the single fastest growing source of central station electric generation in the US, supplying over 40% of the generation in some major industrialized areas, including northern Illinois. The operating experience of LWRs in the United States over the past 25 years is reviewed and, based on that experience, economics, operations, safety, environmental impacts and public acceptance are discussed. An inescapable conclusion is that such plants are well suited for operation on large, interconnected electric power systems. Compared with coal-fired central station electric generation, such plants are cost competitive in most areas and are more reliable. Furthermore, the health and safety record of the nuclear industry has not been surpassed by any other major industry. Nevertheless, there has been a decline in public acceptance of nuclear power, highlighting the fallibility of plant systems and equipment as well as of human and institutional response. Together with excess generating reserve margins, financial stress and nuclear licensing difficulties, this decline has been a contributing factor to the absence of any new plant orders in the US since 1978. The conclusion is that nuclear power has served theusion is that nuclear power has served the consumer well and that, while much remains to be done to realize its full potential, there is no turning back on nuclear power in the US. At the same time, the prospects for new orders in the US will depend upon such factors as capacity requirements, economics, utility confidence and financing capability, regulatory environment, public acceptance, assurance of lifetime supplies of fuel at competitive prices and the availability of other options for bulk power generation. (author)

  4. 12 CFR 7.4005 - Combination of loan production office, deposit production office, and remote service unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Preemption § 7.4005 Combination of loan production office, deposit production... A location at which a national bank operates a loan production office (LPO),...

  5. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY PART I. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dinkov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking in fluidized bed is one of the most complicated and difficult processes in the sense of understanding. The reason for this is due to the fact, that change of one single parameter is related with changes of one or several parameters, which is consequence of utilities system balance. Statistic data processing from manufacturing FCC Unit can accede to more complete information regarding regularities, which relate yields and product quality to process parameters at acceptable parameters variations. By means of regressive analysis of 49 operating days of FCC Unit type “side by side” G-43-107 (Grozni design equations were obtained, which take in consideration the impact of process variables on conversion and yields. It is clear that conversion depends on catalyst activity, on the ratio catalyst/feed and on presence of naphtha precursor in feed. It is clear, also that naphtha production ca be increased by reduction of reactor temperature and increase of catalyst-feed ratio. It was found out, that for the investigated range of process parameters the octane number (by Research Method RON of cracking gasoline is in linear relation with reactor temperature (1,0 RON/10?C. Equation validity is confirmed by trials in plant operation. It was established good conformity between foreseen and actual conversions and yields. Obtained equations can be used for improvement of data basis, for evaluation of impact of unit design changes, catalyst replacement and use of different feed on plant operation at standard conditions.

  6. Work styles, attitudes, and productivity of scientists in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A comparison by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Woerdeman, Dara L.; Rodgers, Yana Meulen

    2006-01-01

    With scientific research growing increasingly multidisciplinary in nature, team playing and communication skills have become critical in the achievement of scientific breakthroughs. This study adds valuable evidence to the oft-cited 'productivity puzzle' in the sciences by comparing the work styles, attitudes, and productivity of female and male scientists. The application of t-test analysis to data on scientists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands indicates that women report relative...

  7. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stockmann Keith D; Anderson Nathaniel M; Skog Kenneth E; Healey Sean P; Loeffler Dan R; Jones Greg; Morrison James F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation ob...

  8. Satellite observations of vegetation productivity provide new insight into United States bioenergy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    The United States (U.S.) currently supplies roughly half the world's biofuel, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) specifying an additional three-fold increase in annual production by 2022. Implicit in such energy targets is an associated increase in biomass demand from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 exajoules (EJ; 1018 joules) annually. However, many of the factors used to estimate future biomass availability are relatively unresolved, bringing into question EISA's ambitious future targets. Here, we estimate the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. using satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data as the most geographically-explicit measure of current vegetation growth capacity. We show that the primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. realistically ranges from approximately 5.9 (± 1.4) to 22.2 (± 4.4) EJ annually, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents current harvest residuals, an attractive potential energy source since no additional harvest land is required. In contrast, the high end represents an annual harvest over 75% of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S. While we identify EISA energy targets as achievable, our results indicate that meeting such targets using current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current U.S. croplands or the conversion of 60% of total U.S. rangelands. Our results are unique in that we apply high resolution, satellite-derived NPP as an upper-envelope constraint on bioenergy potential, which removes the need for extrapolation of plot-level observed yields over large spatial areas. Effective incorporation of biofuel into the U.S. energy portfolio will depend on our ability to accurately quantify the availability of biomass as a resource.

  9. Polyethylene film incorporation into the horticultural soil of small periurban production units in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Laura; Berenstein, Giselle; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Horticulture makes intensive use of soil and extensive use of polyethylene (PE) sheeting and pesticides, producing an environment where the dynamics between soil and plastics can affect pesticide fate. We have determined that the presence of plastic residues in the horticultural soil of small production units equals 10% of the soil area, being meso and macro-sections the predominant fragment sizes. All soil samples were taken from different plots located in Cuartel V, Moreno district, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Laboratory experiments were conducted to see the relations among pesticide, soil and PE film. Endosulfan recovery from LDPE films (25?m and 100?m) was studied, observing evidence that indicated migration to the inside of the plastic matrix. To further analyze the dynamics of pesticide migration to soil and atmosphere, experiments using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin were performed in soil-plastic-atmosphere microenvironments, showing that up to 24h significant amounts of pesticides moved away from the PE film. To determine whether PE residues could act as potential pesticide collector in soil, column elution experiments were done using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin. Results showed an important pesticide accumulation in the mulch film (584?g-2284?g pesticide/g plastic) compared to soil (13?g-32?g pesticide/g soil). Finally, chemical and photochemical degradation of deltamethrin adsorbed in PE film was studied, finding a protective effect on hydrolysis but no protective effect on photodegradation. We believe that a deeper understanding of the dynamics among soil, plastic and pesticides in horticultural productive systems may contribute to alert for the implications of PE use for plastic sheeting. PMID:25862993

  10. Expert system for maintenance/troubleshooting of final product unit (unit-18) Heavy Water Plant - Tuticorin (Paper No. 3.8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EXPERT system has been developed at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin to allow quick operator detection and diagnose incipient failures. The EXPERT system can monitor the input data and try to diagnose the root cause of the failure and suggest the maintenance personnel correct mode of approach to solve the problem. Initial development steps include writing the program fault tree and failure modes and its effect on the operation of the process. Fault tree models display the logical relationship between critical events and possible ways in which the events can occur. As a developmental effort, unit 18 (final product unit) process loop instrumentation of heavy water plant is taken as prototype for trying the EXPERT system. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  11. Implications of Climate Change Impacts on Regional Maize Production in the United States: Risk Mitigation Strategies and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the impacts of climate change on regional maize production in the North Central and the South regions of the United States and proposing risk mitigation strategies have significant implications in the context of national and global food security. Unlike most estimation, we use an interdisciplinary approach and combine climatic variables along with economic inputs and technological improvement in the adapted Cobb-Douglas production function model. The production function is simulated through 2030 under a variety of climate change scenarios, and the results indicate that under the climate change South region tends to have opposite impacts relative to the North Central, the major maize production region in the United States. The results imply that one region’s losses can be partially offset by the other region’s gains. The different responses imply that the South region could provide potential risk mitigation to climate change within the United States and could help the nation and the world maintain maize supply stability. The results gained from this research could be used as cost-efficient climate change risk mitigation strategies for other agricultural commodities in other countries. They can also be used for public policies and advanced risk mitigation and diversification programs, and are expected to contribute to the sustainability of agriculture and the stability of international crop market price in the United States and the world.

  12. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  13. Stored-product insects associated with eight feed mills in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Zeb; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Herrman, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Commercial food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps and pheromone-baited sticky traps were used during 2003 to survey stored-product insect adults in eight participating feed mills in the midwestern United States. Across the eight feed mills, 27 species of beetles (Coleoptera) and three species of moths (Lepidoptera) were captured in commercial traps. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was the most abundant insect species captured inside the eight mills. The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), was the most abundant insect species outside the mill and in the mill load-out area. The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was the most abundant moth species inside the mill and in the mill receiving area. The Simpson's index of species diversity among mills ranged from 0.39 (low diversity) to 0.81 (high diversity). The types of species found among mills were different, as indicated by a Morisita's index of <0.7, for the majority of mills. The differences in the types and numbers of insect species captured inside, outside, in receiving, and in load-out areas could be related to differences in the types of animal feeds produced and the degree of sanitation and pest management practiced. PMID:18613605

  14. Californium-252 source production in the United Kingdom the first five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1970 the USAEC announced that they were going to offer their new nuclide, californium-252, for sale but that sealed sources could only be purchased from commercial encapsulators. Since that time a number of firms in the USA have developed the necessary expertise in source production. In Europe, CEA (France) and the Radiochemical Center (UK) have established themselves as suppliers of californium-252 sources. Although 252Cf is available from Savannah River in the form of wire, pellets, or oxide, the United Kingdom practice has been to prefer the use of oxide. Using this material the encapsulator is able to produce sources of widely differing activities and physical shapes from one batch of starting material. By use of solution sub-division techniques carried out in shielded cells, large numbers of sources with activities ranging from 0.001 ?g (2 x 103 n/sec) to 1.7 mg (4 x 109 n/sec) have been produced. These sources have been used for research, medical, and industrial applications

  15. Material Selection in Oil Production Unit in One of Iranian Onshore Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Mogadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is one of the important steps in designing of oil production units. The reason is that this step affects on two important parameters: cost and effective design. The main concern of this study is the material selection for all important equipment like: flow lines, separators, tanks and others for an Iranian oil field which now is developing and it's construction is going on right now. The plant produces 50000 BOPD whereas the final treatment plant will produce about 165000 BOPD. The crude oil is sour and has high pressure (140 MPa and temperature (about 100C. The crude contains some corrosive elements like H2S, CO2 and water, of fluid coming from oil wells. For this reason the references that are used for this purpose are mainly NACE and API standards. For some equipment which work in sour area, according tso NACE-MR0175, some special alloys like Nickel alloys are used and for case of using carbon steels the amount of corrosion allowances is calculated.

  16. Herbicides and transformation products in surface waters of the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Porter, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Most herbicides applied to crops are adsorbed by plants or transformed (degraded) in the soil, but small fractions are lost from fields and either move to streams in overland runoff, near surface flow, or subsurface drains, or they infiltrate slowly to ground water. Herbicide transformation products (TPs) can be more or less mobile and more or less toxic in the environment than their source herbicides. To obtain information on the concentrations of selected herbicides and TPs in surface waters of the Midwestern United States, 151 water samples were collected from 71 streams and five reservoir outflows in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 13 herbicides and 10 herbicide TPs. Herbicide TPs were found to occur as frequently or more frequently than source herbicides and at concentrations that were often larger than their source herbicides. Most samples contained a mixture of more than 10 different herbicides or TPs. The ratios of TPs to herbicide concentrations can be used to determine the source of herbicides in streams. Results of a two-component mixing model suggest that on average 90 percent or more of the herbicide mass in Midwestern streams during early summer runoff events originates from the runoff and 10 percent or less comes from increased ground water discharge.

  17. Ozone vegetation damage effects on gross primary productivity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.

    2014-09-01

    We apply an off-line process-based vegetation model (the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere model) to assess the impacts of ozone (O3) vegetation damage on gross primary productivity (GPP) in the United States during the past decade (1998-2007). The model's GPP simulation is evaluated at 40 sites of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) synthesis. The ecosystem-scale model version reproduces interannual variability and seasonality of GPP at most sites, especially in croplands. Inclusion of the O3 damage impact decreases biases of simulated GPP at most of the NACP sites. The simulation with the O3 damage effect reproduces 64% of the observed variance in summer GPP and 42% on the annual average. Based on a regional gridded simulation over the US, summertime average O3-free GPP is 6.1 g C m-2 day-1 (9.5 g C m-2 day-1 in the east of 95° W and 3.9 g C m-2 day-1 in the west). O3 damage decreases GPP by 4-8% on average in the eastern US and leads to significant decreases of 11-17% in east coast hot spots. Sensitivity simulations show that a 25% decrease in surface O3 concentration halves the average GPP damage to only 2-4%, suggesting the substantial co-benefits to ecosystem health that may be achieved via O3 air pollution control.

  18. Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

  19. Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level. PMID:21958200

  20. The main WWER 1000 MW production unit of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main production unit consists of the reactor building, the engine room, the heat exchange plant, diesel generator stations and of the related infrastructures. The foundation slab under the reactor building is of a size of 68.2x68.2x2.4 m. The controlled areas are provided with washable epoxy paints. The floors of the technological boxes are covered with carbon steel for stainless steel sheets. The main entrance to the reactor building consists of a hermetic transport corridor that will be used for fuel charging. A boron tank, some technological boxes and the computer and control room are built below the hermetic ceiling. The actual hermetic containment consists of a prestressed reinforced concrete structure with an inner steel lining. The inner diameter is 45 m, the height 38 m and wall thickness 1.2 m. The walls consist of cells of reinforced concrete and of steel. The process of assembly is briefly described. The engine room is a steel hall 42x128 m in size and 42.3 m in height, housing a turbine generator. The poor quality of the Soviet project design documentation is criticised. (M.D.)

  1. Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu2O, CuO, Cu(OH)2)-water (H2O)-gas (H2, O2)-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu2O and Cu(OH)2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10-2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

  2. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  3. Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in milk yield by more than 1.0 litres per day (break even increase). (author)

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Optimization to Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mariana Peñuela; da Silva, Juliana Nascimento C.; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra; Pereira, Nei

    There is tremendous interest in using agro-industrial wastes, such as cellulignin, as starting materials for the production of fuels and chemicals. Cellulignin are the solids, which result from the acid hydrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse. The objective of this work was to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction of cellulignin, and to study its fermentation to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cellulose conversion was optimized using response surface methods with pH, enzyme loading, solid percentage, and temperature as factor variables. The optimum conditions that maximized the conversion of cellulose to glucose, calculated from the initial dried weight of pretreated cellulignin, (43°C, 2%, and 24.4 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) such as the glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.6 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin) were found. The desirability function was used to find conditions that optimize both, conversion to glucose and glucose concentration (47°C, 10%, and 25.9 FPU/g of pretreated cellulignin). The resulting enzymatic hydrolyzate was fermented yielding a final ethanol concentration of 30.0 g/L, in only 10 h, and reaching a volumetric productivity of 3.0 g/L·h, which is close to the values obtained in the conventional ethanol fermentation of sugar cane juice (5.0-8.0 g/L·h) in Brazil.

  5. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ...Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

  6. Occupational exposure monitoring during the decommissioning of a phosphoric acid production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides in the raw material of fertilizer plants, leads to increased levels of natural radioactivity in the by-products, wastes, equipment and residuals, as well as to the phosphoric acid production unit and its surroundings. The radiological survey and the implementation of the radiation protection system, during the site remediation and decommissioning of an old and abandoned phosphate fertilizer Greek industry, was one of GAEC's projects during last year. For the preliminary radiological characterization of the area, in situ and laboratory measurements were performed. During the in situ measurements, enhanced levels of natural radioactivity were detected; the measured gamma dose rate was up to 60?Sv/h. The specific activity of the collected scale samples varied from 1 Bq/g up to 50Bq/g for Ra-226, and from 0.1 Bq/g up to 5Bq/g U-238 for U-238. Based on gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements of collected samples from raw materials such sludge, dust and air filters, and taking into account parameters proposed at the EC publication: Radiation Protection 107 'Establishment of reference levels for regulatory control of workplaces where materials are processed which contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides', the initial estimation of the total effective dose to workers involved in the decommissioning and decontamination process, following the worst case scenario was estimated up to 9mSv. Conse scenario was estimated up to 9mSv. Consequently, radiation protection measures had to be applied to the workers involved in the decommissioning and decontamination process, since there was a risk for external exposure as well as a risk for internal exposure resulting from the inhalation during mechanical operations such as sawing, cutting, grinding and polishing on scale contaminated components. Protective actions were taken, in order to minimize the radiological hazard. The six workers involved were submitted in a radiation protection program for three months. The internal exposure monitoring program was based mainly on in vitro measurements of 24 hours urine samples for the determination of Ra-226 and uranium isotopes with alpha spectroscopy; complementary to that, in-vivo measurements in the whole body counting system have been performed. For the external radiation monitoring program, individual TLDs were distributed on a monthly basis. The radiation protection program is described in detail and the monitoring results are presented. (author)

  7. Isotope production at department of energy sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) provides both stable and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many domestic and foreign research, development,and/or commercial applications. The materials and services are available through the Isotope Distribution Program established by the USDOE at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is operated by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc. The materials and services are provided on a full-cost recovery basis and are limited to those materials and services that are not commercially available. Many USDOE sites, including the ORNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Brookhaven National laboratory (BNL), Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), are utilized in meeting the user community needs for specific materials and/or services. Stable isotopes are provided by the ORNL through the use of the electromagnetic separation process. Distribution of enriched stable isotopes through the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program began in 1954 and presently includes a total of approximately 350 specific isotopic enichments of 50 different materials. These materials are avilable in various compound forms and specific configurations to meet a wide variety of research, development, and commercial applications. The radioisotopes provided by the varius USDOE sites (ORNL, LANL, BNL, HEDL, INEL, SRL, and ANL) are used in a multitude of applications that include basic research, remote power sources, medical applications, radiography, radiation processing, remote light sources, and neutron dosimetry. The stable and radioisotope production and/or processing capabilities at various USDOE sites and the availability of the materials and services throght the ORNL Isotope Distribution Program are described in detail. (author)

  8. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ?1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ?1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exis Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  9. Setting up and Running a Small-Scale Microfiche Production Unit in a Developing Country: A Case History. Matheson Library Contributions to Tropical Librarianship, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Alan

    This document details the creation and development of a small-scale microfiche production unit in the Matheson Library of the Papua New Guinea University of Technology. Emphasized are the technical aspects of developing the unit, especially in a developing nation. Specifications for equipment are provided, and production procedures are detailed.…

  10. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists...200 patent; and whether an industry in the United States exists...262719 Doublestar Dong Feng Tyre Co., Ltd., No. 21 Hanjiang...CA 92801 Shandong Linglong Tyre Co., Ltd., 777 Jinlong...

  11. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers. PMID:25704098

  12. Business Plan for Peloton: A Software Product Firm Focused on the Credit Union Industry in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flippance, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This business plan proposes a new software firm, Peloton Software Inc., the product of which will meet an evident need of credit unions with 30-200 employees based in the United States. The hosted software product, based on Microsoft SharePoint, will improve top-down communication and horizontal collaboration. The firm will be composed of a development office in Vancouver, BC and a sales office in Los Angeles, CA, and will sell to credit unions and their credit union service organizations in ...

  13. Unit-root and stationarity testing with empirical application on industrial production of CEE-4 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lyo?csa, S?tefan; Vy?rost, Toma?s?; Baumo?hl, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain both the need and the procedures of unit-root testing to a wider audience. The topic of stationarity testing in general and unit root testing in particular is one that covers a vast amount of research. We have been discussing the problem in four different settings. First we investigate the nature of the problem that motivated the study of unit-root processes. Second we present a short list of several traditional as well as more recent univariate and pan...

  14. Pharmacists’ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Fahmy; Abdu S; Abuelkhair M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists’ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula.Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a struc...

  15. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  16. Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added, 58-67% and 80-83% of the cellulose and hemicellulose contained in the waste were converted into monomeric sugars. The cellulose conversion efficiency during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) assay at 10% DM was 79% for the highest enzyme loading (25 FPU g(-1) DM) while 69% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids mainly (total carboxylic acids = 3.1-7.4% on DM basis).

  17. Sistemas holónicos embebidos en procesos de producción: unidad holónica de producción / Embedded holonics systems in production process: holonic unit of production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Chacón; Isabel, Besembel; Dulce M, Rivero; Juan, Cardillo.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La automatización del proceso de producción necesita una descripción completa del proceso productivo para poder: “planificar”, “programar”, “controlar” y “supervisar” el mismo. La complejidad en la obtención de una descripción del modelo del proceso productivo está en la existencia de dos puntos de [...] vista que se contradicen: La precisión que implica la construcción de modelos totales, que no pueden ser alcanzados y la necesidad de la globalidad, que está asociada a las diferentes vistas del proceso. Estas vistas muestran: la estructura organizativa del sistema, la dinámica de los distintos componentes del sistema, las distintas escalas temporales en donde se efectúa la toma de decisiones. El enfoque Holónico ha sido utilizado para abordar el manejo de esta complejidad, en función de una abstracción que permite manejar la precisión y la globalidad simultáneamente. En este artículo se muestra un modelo de referencia en donde un proceso productivo es visto como la conjunción de unidades de producción cooperantes. Estas Unidades de Producción son descritas como un sistema invariante empotrado con las características propias de un holón: Unidad Holónica de Producción. Abstract in english The automation of a production process needs a complete description of the productive process in order to be able to: “make a production plan”, “perform a production scheduling”, “control” and “supervise” it. The complexity of building such a description of the productive process model emerges from [...] the coexistence of two points of view that are contradictory: The model precision, which implies the construction of total models that cannot be reached and the necessity of the global knowledge that is associated to the different views of the process. These views show: the organizational structure of the model, dynamics of each distinct component, different temporal scales where decisions are taken. The Holonic approach has been used to handle this complexity in order to manage both, the precision and the global aspects simultaneously. In this article, we show a reference model, where a productive process is seen as the conjunction cooperating production units. These Production Units are described as an invariant embedded system with holon characteristic, named as: the Holonic Production Unit.

  18. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management...Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased...

  19. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to simultaneous inclusion of economies of production scale, will transform the nuclear energy industry from construction heavy to manufacturing centric. It will enable a global architecture optimized for the extremely high power density of the nuclear fuels, and a great expansion of the markets and applications of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

  1. Economic evaluation of United States ethanol production from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Sang

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility and economy-wide impacts of the U. S. ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks (LCF) using Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) dilute acid hydrolysis process. A nonlinear mathematical programming model of a single ethanol producer, whose objective is profit maximization, is developed. Because of differences in their chemical composition and production process, lignocellulosic feedstocks are divided into two groups: Biomass feedstocks, which refer to crop residues, energy crops and woody biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW). Biomass feedstocks are more productive and less costly in producing ethanol and co-products, while MSW generates an additional income to the producer from a tipping fee and recycling. The analysis suggests that, regardless of types of feedstocks used, TVA's conversion process can enhance the economic viability of ethanol production as long as furfural is produced from the hemicellulose fraction of feedstocks as a co-product. The high price of furfural makes it a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of ethanol production. Along with evaluating economic feasibility of LCF-to-ethanol production, the optimal size of a plant producing ethanol using TVA's conversion process is estimated. The larger plant would have the advantage of economies of scale, but also have a disadvantage of increased collection and transportation costs for bulky biomass from more distant locations. We assume that the plant is located in the state of Missouri and utilizes only feedstocks produced in the state. The results indicate that the size of a plant using Biomass feedstocks is much bigger than one using MSW. The difference of plant sizes results from plant location and feedstock availability. One interesting finding is that energy crops are not feasible feedstocks for LCF-to-ethanol production due to their high price. Next, a static CGE model is developed to estimate the U.S. economy-wide impacts of the current ethanol production with a government subsidy and the LCF-to-ethanol production using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process. The model is innovative in three ways. First, a production subsidy is explicitly included in the model. Second, co-products are explicitly accounted for in ethanol production. Third, ethanol and gasoline are treated as perfect demand substitutes, as are the co-products and the manufacturing sector's output. The CGE model shows that current ethanol production expands grain crop production by creating an additional demand. In contrast, LCF-to-ethanol production has adverse impacts on grain crop production because Biomass feedstocks substitute for grain in the production of ethanol. The LCF-to-ethanol production also discourages the manufacturing industry because co-products displace a part of intermediate input demand for manufacturing outputs. It is also found that, even though ethanol production using TVA's conversion technology with MSW is economically viable, it is not favorable to the economy. Finally, the results suggest that ethanol production from Biomass feedstocks using TVA's dilute acid hydrolysis process is beneficial to the U.S. economy.

  2. In-situ recovery uranium mining in the United States: Overview of production and remediation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2007, in-situ recovery (ISR) methods produced about 95% of U.S. production of 4.53 million pounds. Eleven new and five expansion ISR applications or letters of intent were filed with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period from 2007-2009. ISR mining can be conducted in water-saturated, permeable, hydrologically confined sandstone beds where the uranium is soluble. Contamination of ground water during and after ISR operations has become a major issue for nearby residents, and for local, county and state governments. Colorado has raised ISR mining requirements and established a burden of proof that operations can return water quality to baseline conditions. Similar concerns are affecting mining plans in Wyoming, Texas, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Major issues affecting restoration at ISR mining operations include the following: ' Baseline water quality: Is the water presently potable or suitable for livestock or irrigation? What parts of the local aquifer should be sampled to establish baseline? What sampling methods are required to establish water quality conditions? ' Control of fluid flow during operations: How much hydrologic understanding of the ore zone is necessary to avoid flow problems? ' Ground-water restoration: To what standard should the ground water be restored? How long should monitoring occur after mining is completed? ' Ground-water restoration:What technologies work or might work? To date, no remediation of an ISght work? To date, no remediation of an ISR operation in the United States has successfully returned the aquifer to baseline conditions. Often at the end of monitoring, contaminants continue to increase by reoxidation and resolubilization of species reduced during remediation; slow contaminant movement from low to high permeability zones; and slow desorption of contaminants adsorbed to various mineral phases. New remediation technologies are being examined, including bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation. Bioremediation can occur through addition of a carbon source such as acetate or molasses to augment the natural bacterial population which can induce simultaneous reduction and precipitation of uranium in solution. Bioremediation experiments are presently being conducted at U.S. Department of Energy sites in western states. Monitored natural attenuation suggest that groundwater flow that created the deposit moved from an oxidized zone through the orebody to a reduced zone. Re-establishment of ground-water flow after mining should move contaminants from the mined orebody into the reduced zone where natural processes can reduce the contaminants and remove them from the ground water. Questions: 1) Is current ground-water hydrology suitable? 2) What is the reducing capacity of the reduced zone? 3) Do kinetics of reduction reactions in the reducing zone vs. speed of ground water flow? 4) Effects of heterogeneity in mining zone and reducing zone? 5) Can all analytes of concern be attenuated? 6) Monitored attenuation- can the limited time frame preferred by operators be achieved? (author)

  3. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-01-01

    The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1) The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2) The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supp...

  4. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from the literature were used to evaluate the production economy. A competitive energy cost limit for the bioethanol production was found to be 0.22 Euro/L. The optimised system produced bioethanol at a mean cost of 0.14 Euro/L during integrated operation and 1.22 Euro/L during separate operation. Maintenance shut-downs and periods of high power demand resulted in 3375 hours of separate operation over the year, giving an average bioethanol energy cost of 0.56 Euro/L. The results suggest that the polygeneration system cannot produce lignocellulosic bioethanol competitively under the given conditions, which questions the economic viability of the polygeneration system if operated in grids with periodically large power demands, for instance those caused by the operation of wind turbines and photovoltaic cells with a large capacity.

  5. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  6. Impact of United States biofuels co-products on the feed industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although 140 biodiesel plants produced 1.2 billion liters of biodiesel in 2010, very little crude glycerol has been used in animal feeds in the U.S. due to relatively low volume produced compared to ethanol industry co-products, and its higher value for consumer products and industrial manufacturing...

  7. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Development of natural gas hydrate NGH pellet production system by bench scale unit for transportation and storage of NGH pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Moriya, H.; Katoh, Y.; Iwasaki, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGH) can be used to store and transport natural gas safely under atmospheric pressures. This paper described an NGH bench scale unit (BSU) designed as part of an NGH test plant process development unit. The BSU consisted of 3 processes: hydrate and water slurry production dehydration; and a pelletizing process in a high pressure gas environment. The paper outlined the BSU process flow and the results of tests conducted using methane gas and mixed gas as raw materials. The paper also provided details of studies conducted to optimize the gas inclusion density and decomposition rates of the pellets during storage under atmospheric conditions. The relationship between pellet density and pellet dissociation rate was examined. The production process verified by the BSU will be used to build a 5-tonne demonstration plant. It was concluded that the BSU will be used to optimize the energy efficiency of a full-scale NGH production plant that will be built within the next few years. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  9. Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eunjung; Rajesh, Thangamani; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-jung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2013-08-01

    Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc. PMID:23525887

  10. Production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by filamentous fungi cultivated on wet-oxidised wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, A.; Thomsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes by cultivation of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9029, Botrytis cinerea ATCC 28466, Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888, Schizophyllum commune ATCC 38548, and Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 was studied. Wet-oxidised wheat straw suspension supplemented with NH4NO3, MgSO4, and KH2PO4 was used as cultivation medium aiming to obtain an enzyme mixture optimal for enzymatic hydrolysis of wet-oxidised wheat straw. The cultivations with B. cinerea and R brasilianum gave the highest endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activities, in contrast to the other fungi where lower activities were found. The culture filtrates were concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. After enzyme concentration, the highest enzyme activities (1.34 FPU/ml) were found in the culture broth originating from P. brasilianum. Enzymatic hydrolysis of filter cake from wet-oxidised wheat straw for 48 h with an enzyme loading of 5 FPU/g biomass resulted in glucose yields from cellulose of 58% (w/w) and 39% (w/w) using enzymes produced by R brasilianum and a commercial enzyme mixture, respectively. At higher enzyme loading (25 FPU/g biomass) using either enzyme mixtures the glucose yield from cellulose was in the range of 77-79% (w/w).

  11. Critical analysis of the waste management performance of two uranium production units in Brazil--part II: Caetite production center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Horst Monken; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto; Peres, Valeska; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Simões Filho, F Fernando Lamego

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the environmental waste management of the Heap-Leach Uranium Production Facility of Caetité located in a semi-arid region in Brazil. A comparison is made with the first uranium production site of the country located in Poços de Caldas. It is demonstrated that differences in the operational process along with different environmental conditions can lead to different impacts. In the present case groundwater is the potential most sensitive environmental medium despite the well-established consensus in the literature that radon and aerosol emissions may turn-out to be the most relevant environmental aspects of an installation located at this type of region. Most of the (226)Ra content in the ore remains in the leached ore that is deposited with the waste rock. A lack in appropriate prediction of the hydrological balance has been causing unanticipated emissions of liquid effluents into the environment. Chemical treatment of this effluent may be needed. Contamination of groundwater in the short term by the waste ponds is not to be expected but it can be a relevant issue in the long term. As a consequence, careful closure schemes will need to be put in place. Finally, the overall costs with remediation in the Caetité production center are lower than those observed at the Poços de Caldas mining site. PMID:17619076

  12. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research. PMID:18791137

  13. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture...

  14. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States : a consumer exposure study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hair dye products constitute an important source of allergen exposure, and contribute importantly to allergic contact dermatitis in consumers and hairdressers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of potent contact sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products intended for home use on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average product contained six (range 0-11). p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) was found in 83 products (78%), but resorcinol (89%), m-aminophenol (75%), p-aminophenol (60%) and toluene-2,5-diamine (21%) were also frequently identified. CONCLUSIONS: Potent contact sensitizers were almost universally included in the hair dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy.

  15. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Dormann, B.; Decker, C.; Guerrier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as qu...

  16. Heavy water production by the ammonia rectification method with heat pump. Experience of a commercial unit start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facility for heavy water production by ammonia rectification method with heat pump with efficiency of 8 t/year is described. The negative scale effect-decrease in efficiency mass-exchange device of one and the same design by increase in diameter was reliably established for the first time by the plant start-up. It's hydrodynamic nature was determined and foundations of modern theory of scale transfer were laid down. Large-scale testing unit was created for the first time in Russia. 12 refs.; 9 figs

  17. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  18. THE NECESSITY OF LOWERING PRODUCTION COST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COAL MINING UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA-CLAUDIA DINA; GABRIELA BU?AN

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, cost is a key instrument in decisionson resource allocation, which are often limited, on the volume and structure of production,increase or withdraw supply of goods or services market, etc. In these circumstances the bestchoice is to choose a minimum cost. In its universal acceptance, the cost of production is aneconomic category that provides information about the work done by an operator and is a keyfactor of economic and financial analysis of the efficie...

  19. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Liu

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a â??one-boxâ? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactorâ??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered â?¥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under

  20. Production of Fischer–Tropsch liquid fuels from high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for high temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) of carbon dioxide and water using solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOEC) for syngas production and subsequent conversion to liquid fuels by a Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process is presented. The SOEC model is guided by experimental data from the literature, and the model is employed to explore the effect of temperature, pressure, and feedstock composition on syngas composition exiting the SOEC. The syngas is converted in a slurry bubble column F–T synthesis reactor in which the model approach of a once-through conversion of carbon monoxide is chosen, and the distribution of hydrocarbon products is determined by the Anderson–Schulz–Flory model. The overall system efficiency for liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from electrical energy is found to be 54.8% HHV (51.0%-LHV). It is determined that operating the SOEC at low pressure (1.6 bar) versus higher pressure (5 bar) results in an efficiency gain of 2.6%. The economics of the production plant are evaluated for variations in electricity feedstock costs and operating capacity factors. The liquid fuels production costs range from 4.4 $/GGE to 15.0 $/GGE for electricity prices of 0.02 $/kWh to 0.14 $/kWh and a plant capacity factor of 90% to 40%, respectively. -- Highlights: ? Detailed modeling of both SOEC operation and F–T synthesis and distillation is presented. ? SOEC syngas production and system performance sensitivities to operating pressure are explored. ? Results indicate lower pressure SOEC operation is favored for F–T synthesis. ? Fuel production efficiencies of 50.1%-HHV are reported and detailed economic costing is performed. ? Liquid fuels production cost estimates are made and range from 3.3 $/GGE to 18.3 $/GGE.

  1. Integrated target-ion source unit for on-line production of radioactive short-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of integrated target-ion source unit (ionising target) has been developed for the on-line production of radioactive single-charged ions. The target is able to withstand temperatures up to 2500 C and acts also as an ion source of the surface and laser ionisation. Off-line and on-line experiments with the ionising target, housing tantalum foils as a target material, have been carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility. The off-line surface ionisation efficiency measured for stable atoms of Li, Rb and Cs was correspondingly 6%, 40% and 55% at the target temperature of 2000 C and 3-10% for atoms of rare-earth elements Sm, Eu, Tm and Yb at a temperature of 2200 C. The off-line measured values of the ionisation efficiency for stable Gd and Eu atoms by the laser beam ionisation inside the target were 1% and 7%, respectively. The radioactive beam intensities of neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclides from Eu to Lu produced by the integrated target-ion source unit have been measured at a temperature of 2500 C. The results of the integrated target-ion source unit use for on-line laser resonance ionisation spectroscopy study of neutron-deficient Gd isotopes have been also presented. (orig.)

  2. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

  3. Continuous production of carcinoembryonic antigen in hollow fiber cell culture units: brief communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G S; Reisfeld, R A; Chino, T H

    1978-02-01

    A line of cultured cells derived from a primary human adenocarcinoma of the colon was grown in the extracapillary spaces of hollow fiber tissue culture units in the absence of serum components of high molecular weight (greater than 10,000). The cells were capable of producing more than 30 microgram of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) per day, provided that the extracapillary fluid was changed frequently. The concanavalin-A binding and molecular sieve chromatography properties of the tissue culture-derived CEA were similar to those of CEA isolated from metastatic colon cancer tissue. PMID:621750

  4. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission.

  5. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed ?-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on ?-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses, considering both average values and standard deviations.

  6. Assessment of GOES imager microburst product over the southwestern United States

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    A GOES-West (GOES-11) imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3, band 4, and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived microburst products. Band 3 is intended to indicate mid to upper-level moisture content and advection while band 5 indicates low-level moisture content. Large BTDs between bands 3 and 5 imply a large relative humidity gradient between the mid-troposphere and the surface, a condition favorable for strong convective downdraft generation due to evaporational cooling of precipitation in the deep sub-cloud layer. In addition, small BTDs between bands 4 and 5 indicate a relatively dry surface layer with solar heating in progress. This paper provides further assessment of the GOES imager microburst product, case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the microburst products, and validation results for the 2008 convective season over Arizona.

  7. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  8. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  9. Changes in value-added wood product manufacturer perceptions about certification in the United States from 2002 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Certification is a voluntary mechanism which involves assessing either forest management practices or chain-of-custody tracking through supply chains against a set of standards. Certification is becoming an important market requirement particularly in value-added wood product sectors such as furniture, flooring and millwork. In 2002 and 2008 we conducted national studies in the United States to identify value-added wood industry perspectives and participation in certification and to see what has changed in the industry in the past 6 years. Results show that certification continues to be an important issue for the value-added wood products sector in the U.S. Certification awareness and participation have increased significantly from 2002-2008. The percent of respondents receiving premiums for certified products has increased significantly from 2002-2008 and the percent of respondents incurring (non-raw material costs for certified wood raw materials declined. Finally, 97% of respondents in 2008 said that they will continue to sell certified wood products in the future.

  10. Root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots of Eastern United States oak species to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about root susceptibility of eastern U.S. tree species to Phytophthora ramorum. In this study, we examined root susceptibility and inoculum production from roots. Sprouted acorns of Q. rubra, Q. palustrus, Q. coccinia, Q. alba, Q. michauxii and Q. prinus were exposed to motile zoos...

  11. Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that…

  12. An analysis of scholarly productivity in United States academic anaesthesiologists by citation bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, P S; Hudetz, J A

    2011-10-01

    The h-index is used to evaluate scholarly productivity in academic medicine, but has not been extensively used in anaesthesia. We analysed the publications, citations, citations per publication and h-index from 1996 to date using the Scopus(®) database for 1630 (1120 men, 510 women) for faculty members from 24 randomly selected US academic anaesthesiology departments The median (interquartile range [range]) h-index of US academic anaesthesiologists was 1 [0-5 (0-44)] with 3 [0-18 (0-398)] total publications, 24 [0-187 (0-8515)] total citations, and 5 [0-14 (0-252)] citations per publication. Faculty members in departments with National Institutes of Health funding were more productive than colleagues in departments with little or no government funding. The h-index increased significantly between successive academic ranks concomitant with increases in the number of publications and total citations. Men had higher median h-index than women concomitant with more publications and citations, but the number of citations per publication was similar between groups. Our results suggest that h-index is a reasonable indicator of scholarly productivity in anaesthesia. The results may help comparisons of academic productivity across countries and may be used to assess whether new initiatives designed to reverse recent declines in academic anaesthetic are working. You can respond to this article at http://www.anaesthesiacorrespondence.com. PMID:21864299

  13. Methyl Chloride Synthesis in a Microreactor-Development of a Small Scale Production Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, S.A.; Wärnå, J.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kumar, N.; Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Yu.; Salmi, T.

    Budapest : Budapest University of Technology and Economics , 2014, s. 57-58. ISBN 978-963-05-9518-6. [International Conference on Microreactor Technology IMRET /13./. Budapest (HU), 23.06.2014-25.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : methyl chloride * chloromethane * on-site production Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Geography of the United States uranium supply: resources, production, and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resources and production in the US are reviewed. The time frame extends from the early development of domestic uranium in the 1940's, through 1976. The role of the Federal government is discussed. A glossary and a selected bibliography (40 references) are included

  15. Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author)

  16. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sarwar; Simon, H.; P. Bhave; G. Yarwood

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2) which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Both chlorine and NO2 affect atm...

  17. Total Production of Uranium Concentrate in the United States as of December 31, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the US Energy Information Administration, this page contains data on the total production of uranium concentrate in the US for the first to fourth quarters from 1996 through 1999. The data are in graph and table format, broken down into pounds produced each quarter, and a table shows the number of operating uranium mills and plants in the US. Contacts are provided for further information.

  18. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; Simon, H.; Bhave, P.; Yarwood, G.

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2) which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Both chlorine and NO2 affect atm...

  19. Assessment of GOES imager microburst product over the southwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    A GOES-West (GOES-11) imager microburst algorithm that employs brightness temperature differences between band 3, band 4, and split window band 5 has been developed to supplement the sounder-derived microburst products. Band 3 is intended to indicate mid to upper-level moisture content and advection while band 5 indicates low-level moisture content. Large BTDs between bands 3 and 5 imply a large relative humidity gradient between the mid-troposphere and the surface, a condit...

  20. Methane production and emissions from four reclaimed and pristine wetlands of Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.A. (Landcare Research NZ, Ltd., Hamilton (New Zealand)); Reddy, K.R. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

    Wetlands are significant contributors to global CH[sub 4] emission. We measured CH[sub 4] emissions at two pristine wetlands [Okefenokee swamp and the Everglades (Water Conservation Area 2A)] and two reclaimed wetlands (Sunny Hill Farm and Apopka Marsh) in Southeastern USA, and we attempted to relate emissions to CH[sub 4] production rates of the soil and the soil's biological and chemical properties. Methane emissions through cattail [Typha sp.] and waterilly [Nymphaea ordorata (L.)] ranged from 0.09 to 1.7 g CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] and exhibited high spatial and temporal variability. Diffusive flux of CH[sub 4] was calculated using dissolved CH[sub 4] profiles in the soil pore water and accounted for <5% of the plant-mediated emissions. Potential CH[sub 4] production rates were measured as a function of depth using soil samples obtained at 2-cm increments. Methane production rates were the same order of magnitude at all sites (<1-70 ng CH[sub 4]-C g[sup [minus]1] soil C d[sup [minus]1]) and were highest in the surface soils (0-6 cm) at three of the wetland sites, indicating that the predominant source of C available to methanogens was in the surface soils. Methane production rates in the top 24 cm ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 g CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] and annual C losses due to anaerobic decomposition accounted for between 0.68 and 3.7% of the total C in the surface 24-cm soil depth. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  2. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using ?-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  3. Comparison of Mechanized Units in Rural Cooperatives, Production Cooperatives and Mechanized Companies in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karami

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative have always been considered institutions capable of solving major problems in the process of development in different countries. These institutions has evolved along with theories of development from government dependent organization to independent, people centered with the objective of being equal-opportunity systems for all members in order to be responsive to current goals of development. The aim of the present research was to determine the level of success in mechanized companies in Fars Province (12 Mechanized Companies, 24 Rural Cooperatives and 8 Production Cooperatives in achieving development goals through a survey research. The findings indicated that production cooperatives were more successful in promoting farmers' income and participation of members in community activities, increasing equity and farmers' work related welfare while mechanized companies had more achievements in flexibility and participation of members in making decisions regarding farming activities and in terms of payment to farmers. In other words, production cooperatives have been more successful in achieving development goals (increasing income, participation, and work related welfare and decreasing inequity. Mechanized companies rank a position in the middle of the success scale, but rural cooperatives had the lowest success level in achieving development goals.

  4. Opportunities to increase the productivity of spent fuel shipping casks in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trends indicate that future transportation requirements for spent fuel will be different from those anticipated when the current generation of casks and vehicles was designed. Increased storage capacity at most reactors will increase the average post irradiation age of the spent fuel to be transported. A scenario is presented which shows the 18 casks currently available should be sufficient until approximately 1983. Beyond this time, it appears that an adequate transportation system can be maintained by acquiring, as needed, casks of current designs and new casks currently under development. Spent fuel transportation requirements in the post-1990 period can be met by a new generation of casks specifically designed to transport long-cooled fuel. In terms of the number of casks needed, productivity may be increased by 19% if rail cask turnaround time is reduced to 4 days from the current range of 6.5 to 8.5 days. Productivity defined as payloads per cask year could be increased 62% if the turnaround time for legal weight truck casks were reduced from 12 hours to 4 hours. On a similar basis, overweight truck casks show a 28% increase in productivity

  5. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de trabajo industriales a otras jurisdicciones para reducir costes, y la externalización, la automatización, la producción "justo a tiempo", y las prisas relacionadas con las cadenas de suministro globales. Como resultado, las comunidades locales y poblaciones regionales se han desestabilizado e incluso colapsado, con los consiguientes problemas sociales. Una posible respuesta es el sindicalismo comunitario –la comunidad local financia y concede crédito para la producción industrial, combinándolo con medidas democráticas de propiedad de los trabajadores y de control de la producción–. Así, se lograría aumentar la inversión directa en producción, mantener puestos de trabajo en los centros de población existentes, promover la mejora de las competencias de empleo, y aumentar los impuestos destinados a servicios locales y a apoyar a empresas locales. Al mismo tiempo, se aumenta el apoyo a una democracia política real, haciendo que resulte superflua la ideología explotadora de la distinción entre público/privado. El freno de la deslocalización del trabajo puede reducir la tendencia global de pérdida de la calidad del empleo y las diferencias salariales. Ambos problemas dificultan la vuelta a la producción de valor, y aumentan la diferencia salarial, deteriorando los sueldos sociales y el bienestar en todo el mundo. El sindicalismo comunitario puede servir como objetivo moral de un modelo alternativo de producción, centrado en los incentivos para lograr a largo plazo estabilidad laboral y base económica para la comunidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056256

  6. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles. Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012.

  7. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditint is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  8. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

  9. United States Biofuel Production as Climate Policy: Tensions between Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Agricultural Economies, And Agro-ecological Practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sean, Gillon.

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos como una estrategia para mitigar el cambio climático, mostrando cómo las metas de independencia energética y de reducción de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero podrían no alcanzarse tan fácilmente como se esperaba en un p [...] rincipio. Alternativamente, sitúa la producción de biocombustibles como un "fijo ambiental", un proyecto socioecológico indicador de la contradictoria exigencia de conservar, explotar y crear recursos para la acumulación. Examina cómo se ha desarrollado este "fijo" en lugares de producción rurales, enfocándose en Iowa, Estados Unidos. Describe asimismo cómo los residentes de zonas rurales lidian con un futuro de biocombustibles que implica severos riesgos ecológicos y económicos, mientras que mantiene la oportunidad de acumulación para los actores dominantes de las industrias energética y agro-industrial. Abstract in english This article discusses U.S. biofuel production as a strategy for climate change mitigation, describing how energy independence and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals may not be met as easily as initially hoped. Alternatively, it positions biofuel production as an "environmental fix," a socio-e [...] cological project indicative of the contradictory imperatives to conserve, exploit, and create resources for accumulation. It examines how this "fix" has developed in rural production areas, focusing on Iowa, in the United States. It also describes how rural residents negotiate a biofuels future that bears significant ecological and economic risks, while it maintains accumulation opportunity for dominant energy and agro-industry actors.

  10. Health, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urban Chartbook NCHS Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States, 2014 Health, United States is an annual report ... 2014 Special Feature Adults Aged 55–64 Health, United States, 2014 data on selected topics American Indian or ...

  11. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20?000 ?g L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process. The chemical composition of the inflow samples showed a very heterogenic composition and strongly varied, reflecting that large scale industrial synthesis is carried out in batches. The outflow contained mainly unspecific chlorinated educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses as well as compounds which are known as typical constituents of municipal wastewaters. PMID:24840322

  12. Contact diagnostics of combustion products of rocket engines, their units, and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, N. N.; Ivanov, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    This article is devoted to a new block-module device used in the diagnostics of condensed combustion products of rocket engines during research and development with liquid-propellant rocket engines (Glushko NPO Energomash; engines RD-171, RD-180, and RD-191) and solid-propellant rocket motors. Soot samplings from the supersonic high-temperature jet of a high-power liquid-propellant rocket engine were taken by the given device for the first time in practice for closed-exhaust lines. A large quantity of significant results was also obtained during a combustion investigation of solid propellants within solid-propellant rocket motors.

  13. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. PMID:24476976

  14. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa HØjgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small cold bridge effect.The measurements were carried out in 1996.

  16. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety :an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement about product saf...

  17. Transcription unit mapping bacteriophage T7. II. Proportionality of number of gene copies, mRNA, and gene product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of uv-irradiation of bacteriophage T7 on in vivo early RNA synthesis has been studied by direct quantitation of the gene-specific RNA transcripts. The results show that the early region of phage T7 is transcribed from left to right as a single unit. Furthermore, gene inactivation, the uv sensitivity of synthesis of gene-specific RNA, and the uv sensitivity of synthesis of the corresponding proteins all follow pseudo first-order kinetics in multiply infected cells, demonstrating a random statistical correlation between both transcriptional sampling of gene copies and translational sampling of the resultant RNA transcripts. In addition, these simple kinetics imply an absence of positive feedback mechanisms compensating for the differential decline of individual early gene products in cells multiply infected with phage T7. (auth)

  18. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short-term (2015) and mid-term (2020) scenarios could be between: 1,984 to 6,475 tons (2015) and 3,487 to 13,763 tons (2020) of neodymium; 331 to 864 tons (2015) and 587 to 1,834 tons (2020) of dysprosium; 123 to 325 tons (2015) and 219 to 687 tons (2020) of terbium; finally, zero to 871 tons (2015) and zero to 1,493 tons (2020) of praseodymium. Hybrid vehicle sales in non-U.S. countries could account for a large portion of magnetic rare earth consumption. Wind turbine and related rare earth consumption growth will also be driven by non-U.S. countries, especially developing nations like China. Despite wind turbines using bigger magnets, the sheer volume of hybrids sold and non-U.S. consumers could account for most future consumption of permanent magnets and their rare earths.

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockmann Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region, we provide a framework by which the IPCC and CFPP methods can be applied broadly at sub-national scales to other regions, land management units, or firms.

  20. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  1. The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Choi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  2. United role of radon decay products and nano-aerosols in radon dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerajec, M.; Vaupoti?, J.

    2012-04-01

    The major part of human exposure to natural radiation originates from inhalation of radon (Rn) and radon short-lived decay products (RnDP: 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po). RnDP are formed as a result of ?-transformation of radon. In the beginning they are positive ions which neutralize and form clusters with air molecules, and later partly attach to background aerosol particles in indoor air. Eventually, they appear as radioactive nano-aerosols with a bimodal size distribution in ranges of 1-10 nm (unattached RnDP) and of 200-800 nm (attached RnDP). When inhaled, they are deposited in the respiratory tract. Deposition is more efficient for smaller particles. Therefore, the fraction (fun) of the unattached RnDP, which appears to be influenced by the number concentration and size distribution of general (background) aerosols in the ambient air, has a crucial role in radon dosimetry. Radon, radon decay products and general aerosols have been monitored simultaneously in the kitchen of a typical rural house under real living conditions, also comprising four human activities generating particular matter: cooking and baking, as two typical activities in kitchen, and cigarette smoking and candle burning. In periods without any human activity, the total number concentration of general aerosol ranged from 1000 to 3000 cm-3,with the geometric mean of particle diameter in the range of 60-68 nm and with 0.1-1 % of particles smaller than 10 nm. Preparation of coffee changed the concentration to 193,000 cm-3, the geometric mean of diameter to 20 nm and fraction of particles smaller than 10 nm to 11 %. The respective changes were for baking cake: 503,000 cm-3, 17 nm and 19 %, for smoking:423,000 cm-3, 83 nm and 0.4 %, and forcandle burning: 945,000 cm-3, 8 nm and 85 %. While, as expected, a reduction of fun was observed during cooking, baking and smoking, when larger particles were emitted, fun did not increase during candle burning with mostly particles smaller than 10 nm produced. Because the processes of RnDP creation by radioactive transformation, their neutralization, clustering and association with aerosol particles need time, the response of fun on the changes in general aerosol is delayed in time and therefore fun response on the fast changes, such as those caused by short human activities, may be obscured and even not observed.

  3. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 6, 1996, Secretary of Energy Hazel O''Leary held an openness press conference to declassify the US plutonium inventory and other information needed to present a complete picture of the production, acquisition, and use of plutonium from 1944 through September 30, 1994. The Secretary of Energy''s earlier commitment to inform the public about the details of the US plutonium story was fulfilled by release of a comprehensive report, ''''Plutonium: The First 50 Years.'''' This report was intended to be a material balance; however, the scope was expanded to include detailed explanations of the plutonium acquisition and removal categories, as well as the quantitative data for each of these categories. The information used to prepare this report came from safeguards accountability records, historical reports and memoranda, library research, and interviews. This paper will summarize the report; discuss the methods used to identify, collect, and categorize data; and illuminate the lessons learned from this exercise. A recommendation to address the need for more complete, consistent, and institutionalized record keeping will be made

  4. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  5. Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

  6. Identification of Bioaerosols Released from an Egg Production Facility in the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Li, Qianfeng; Byfield, Grace E

    2013-01-01

    This field study investigated biological characteristics of aerosols emitted from a commercial egg production farm (layer operation). Bioaerosol samples were taken on this farm at five sampling locations covering emission source (inside a layer barn) and four ambient surrounding stations at four wind directions. All-glass impingers (AGI) were used for the field sampling. AGI fluid samples were plated in duplicate on Trypticase Soy Agar for growth of bacteria and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for growth of fungi. The most prominent bacterial colony types were identified using a combination of methods that include recording characteristics of colony morphology; performing a Gram staining method and metabolic analyses using the Biolog system. Results from thirty-five AGI samples taken at the five stations through seven sampling events over four seasons indicate that there were significantly lower total bacterial concentrations in the samples collected from ambient stations as compared with the samples collected in the layer house; the mean bacterial concentration at the in-house sampling station was 3.86×10(5)±1.74×10(5) cfu/m(3), whereas the mean bacterial concentrations at four ambient stations in the vicinity of the farm ranged from 1.3×10(3) to 6.2×10(3) cfu/m(3) with no significant differences in mean among ambient stations. There were also no significant differences in fungi concentrations among all sampling stations. Mean fungi concentrations at the in-house station was 3.0×10(3)±4.45×10(3) cfu/m(3), whereas the mean concentrations at the ambient stations ranged from 7.4×10(3) to 1.7×10(4) cfu/m(3). The most prominent bacterial species differed among all five stations. Three of the most prominent bacteria from samples taken at all five stations were gram positive. Fungal type also differed from station to station. PMID:23326182

  7. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  8. Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Veleva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

  9. Cellulose production based on hemicellulose hydrolysate from steam-pretreated willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szengyel, Z; Zacchi, G; Réczey, K

    1997-01-01

    The production cost of cellulolytic enzymes is a major contributor to the high cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosics using enzymatic hydrolysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellulolytic enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C 30, which is known as a good cellulase secreting micro-organism, using willow as the carbon source. The willow, which is a fast-growing energy crop in Sweden, was impregnated with 1-4% SO2 and steam-pretreated for 5 min at 206 degrees C. The pretreated willow was washed and the wash water, which contains several soluble sugars from the hemicellulose, was supplemented with fibrous pretreated willow and used for enzyme production. In addition to sugars, the liquid contains degradation products such as acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural, which are inhibitory for microorganisms. The results showed that 50% of the cellulose can be replaced with sugars from the wash water. The highest enzyme activity, 1.79 FPU/mL and yield, 133 FPU/g carbohydrate, was obtained at pH 6.0 using 20 g/L carbon source concentration. At lower pHs, a total lack of growth and enzyme production was observed, which probably could be explained by furfural inhibition. PMID:18576094

  10. Tipología de unidades de producción de nuez de castilla en sistema de producción tradicional / Typology of walnut production units in traditional production systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naxeai, Luna-Méndez; José L., Jaramillo-Villanueva; Javier, Ramírez-Juárez; Sergio, Escobedo-Garrido; Ángel, Bustamante-González; Guillermo, Campos-Ríos.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En México, el sistema de producción familiar de nuez de Castilla es generador de ingresos complementarios para las familias y de tradiciones culinarias; como el chile en nogada. En el sur de México se desarrolla un sistema de producción tradicional-familiar, intercalado con cultivos anuales y perenn [...] es en condiciones socioeconómicas muy similares a las condiciones socio-económicas de las unidades de producción en estudio. A pesar de su importancia, poco se conoce sobre el sistema de cultivo y las características de sus unidades de producción (UP); lo que ha limitado el desarrollo de la actividad. El análisis de las UP se realizó por muestreo aleatorio simple con una confiabilidad de 95 %. Se entrevistó a 167 productores en su domicilio particular. Para la construcción de la tipología se utilizó análisis multivariado con variables categóricas. Se identificaron tres tipos de UP diferenciadas por región de producción, manejo poscosecha y mano de obra contratada. Las variables culturales no discriminaron productores, pero contribuyeron a entender la lógica de funcionamiento del cultivo. Se concluye que variables del factor espacial, en términos de las relaciones de mercado, diferencian UP de nuez de Castilla periurbanas de la región Sierra Nevada. Abstract in english In México, the walnut family production system generates complementary income for families as well as culinary traditions such as chile en nogada. In the south of México, a traditional-family production system is practiced, interspersed with annual and perennial crops in very similar socioeconomic c [...] onditions. In spite of its importance, little is known about the cultivation system and the characteristics of its production units (PU), limiting the development of the activity. The analysis of PUs was carried out by simple random sampling with a reliability of 95 %. Interviews were done with 167 producers in their homes. For the construction of the typology, a multivariate analysis with categorical variables was used. Three types of different PUs were identified based on production region, post-harvest management and hired workforce. The cultural variables did not discriminate producers, but they did contribute to understand the logic of the crop functioning. It is concluded that variables of the spatial factor, in terms of the market relationships, differentiate peri-urban walnut PUs in the Sierra Nevada region.

  11. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total N = 1 - 1.25%) complicates attempts to construct a N mass balance for the barns, and may represent a source of N and S that elevates pit liquid content in addition to daily additions from fecal matter and urine from the hogs. The ancillary information collected during the NAEMS project will provide critical information in order to facilitate the development and test the predictions of process-based models of emissions from shallow-pit hog barns typically used on swine AFOs in the southeastern United States.

  12. Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Miguel D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews) unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged) increases in public invest...

  13. Technological and irradiation conditions for radappertization of chicken products used in the United States Army Raltech toxicology study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the processing and irradiation conditions for the preparation of approximately 140,000 kg of meat for a multigeneration animal study of the wholesomeness of ionizing radiation sterilized chicken meat. This study was initiated by the US Army in 1976 at Raltech Scientific Services, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Four meat diets were prepared for the study as follows: (a) Frozen control chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated (heated to an internal temperature of 73-80 deg. C) chicken was canned and frozen. (b) Thermally processed chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was canned and thermally treated to commercial sterility (F0=6). (c) Cobalt-60 irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated, canned in vacuo chicken was sterilized by gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 (45 to 68 kGy at -25+-15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. (d) Electron-irradiated chicken: Boneless, enzyme-inactivated chicken was vacuum packed in flexible pouches and sterilized by 10 MeV electron irradiation (45 to 68 kGy at -25 deg. C +- 15 deg. C) and stored without refrigeration. Representative samples of the irradiated and control chicken meat were analysed for their chemical and organoleptic qualities during a 2-year period, and for 7 years for lipid oxidation changes. Shelf stability was demonstrated by no increase in non-protein nitrogen and pH during storage. Irradiated samples had lower peroxide values and thiobarbituric acider peroxide values and thiobarbituric acid reactive oxidation products than non-irradiated samples. The free fatty acid contents of the chicken fat of the thermal control and of the irradiated samples were directly related to the length of storage. The four chicken products received acceptable ratings for colour, odour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptance by trained panels over a 2-year period. (author)

  14. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  15. Analysis of possibility to reduce time of scheduled repairs of Ukrainian NPPs production units with WWER 1000 on basis of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper grounds a possibility to change branch standards of mid-life (to 52 days) and capital (to 65 days) repairs' time on basis of statistic analysis of operating experience concerned with scheduled repairs of Ukrainian NPPs' production units with WWER 1000

  16. Simulations of Variable Bottomhole Pressure Regimes to Improve Production from the Double-Unit Mount Elbert, Milne Point Unit, North Slope Alaska Hydrate Deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy; Anderson, Brian; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Gas production was predicted from a reservoir model based on the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation located on the Alaska North slope at various simulator submodels and production scenarios. Log, core, and fluid measurements were used to provide a comprehensive reservoir description. These data were incorporated with experimentally derived saturations, porosities, permeability values, parameters for capillary pressure, and relative permeability functions. The modeled reservoir exposed to depressurization at a constant bottomhole pressure (2.7 MPa) has shown limited production potential due to its low temperature profile. To improve production the bottomhole pressure was allowed to vary from 2.7 (above the quadruple point) to 2.0 MPa over a 15-year period. The results indicate that gas production was nearly doubled in comparison with a constant-pressure regime. Extensive ice formation and hydrate reformation that could severely hinder gas production were avoided in the variable-pressure regime system. A use of permeability variation coupled with porosity change is shown to be crucial to predict those phenomena at a reservoir scale.

  17. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  18. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions testing in neonates treated with an aminoglycoside in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Iosif; Psillas, George; Nikolaides, Nikolaos; Kekes, George; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Constantinidis, John

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ototoxic effect of aminoglycosides on the outer hair cells of newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by means of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) testing. Our study population was made up of 164 newborns who were divided into three groups: group A consisted of 105 infants who were given aminoglycoside therapy (either gentamicin or amikacin, or a combination of the two) as treatment for suspected or proven bacterial infection and septic states; group B included 30 newborns who were not given an antibiotic or who were given an antibiotic other than an aminoglycoside; group C, a control group, was made up of 29 healthy neonates who were hospitalized in the well-baby nursery. All the neonates underwent DPOAE testing in both ears (the f2 primary tone was presented at 2.0, 2.5, 3.2, and 4.0 kHz). We found that 41 patients in group A (39.0%) and 13 in group B (43.3%) failed the DPOAE test in one or both ears; the difference between these two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.673). In group C, the DPOAE fail rate was 13.8% (4 newborns). In group A, there was no statistically significant association between the pass/fail rate and the specific aminoglycoside that was administered, or in the duration of antibiotic treatment, the number of doses, and the size of the mean daily dose and the mean total dose. In clinical practice, DPOAE testing is a sensitive method of evaluating the integrity of the outer hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea after exposure to ototoxic drugs such as aminoglycosides. However, our study did not demonstrate that the aminoglycosides had any ototoxic effect on the hearing of neonates in the NICU. PMID:25923273

  19. Application of digital soil mapping in traditional soil survey - an approach used for the production of the national soil map of the United Arab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C.

    2012-04-01

    Digital soil maps are essential part of the soil assessment framework which supports soil-related decisions and policy-making and therefore it is of crucial importance that they are of known quality. Digital soil mapping is perhaps the next great advancement in soil survey information. Traditional soil survey has always struggled with the collection of data. The amount of soil data and information required to justify the mapping product, how to interpolate date to similar areas, and how to incorporate older data are all challenges that need further exploration. The present study used digital soil mapping to develop a generalized national soil map of the United Arab Emirates with available recent traditional soil survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate (2006-2009) and Northern Emirates (2010-2012), together with limited data from Dubai Emirate, an important part of the country. The map was developed by joining, generalizing, and correlating the information contained in the Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate, the Soil map of Dubai with limited data, and the Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates. Because the soil surveys were completed at different times and with different standards and procedures, the original map lines and soil classifications had to be modified in order to integrate the three original maps and legends into this single national level map. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 was used to guide line placement of the map units. It was especially helpful for the Torripsamments units which are separated based on local landscape relief characteristics. A generalized soil map of the United Arab Emirates is produced, which consists of fifteen map units, twelve are named for the soil great group that dominants each unit. Three are named "Rock outcrop", "Mountains", or "Miscellaneous units". Statistical details are also presented. Soil great groups are appropriate taxa to use for soil classification at a small scale, such as this national map. The map unit descriptions provide information about the general range of important soil properties of the soil great group. The overall extent of each soil map unit in the United Arab Emirates is presented, as well as the percentage of the map unit that occurs within each emirate. The general soil map provides an overview of the kinds of soils making up the United Arab Emirates and their general location.

  20. NICU Notes: A Palm OS® and Windows® Database Software Product and Process to Facilitate Patient Care in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    This is a database software application for information a neonatologist routinely considers in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Users enter data at the point of care on a handheld device that also encrypts the data. Data management follows synchronization via an ODBC DSN to a secure Microsoft® Access application. User feedback guides software modification over time. The poster illustrates the data model, the software user interface, and data management products.

  1. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic uplift and erosion, causing gas leakage and a marked reduction in fluid pressure. Most future natural-gas production in the Clinton/Medina sandstones is anticipated to come from the basin-center accumulation. The Tuscarora Sandstone has additional gas resources but typically low reservoir porosity and permeability, and the likelihood of low-energy (in British thermal units) gas reduce the incentive to explore for it.

  2. 75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...operations (excluding some assets in the United Kingdom...Virginia and tangible and intangible assets associated with Portec's...alleges as follows: I. Nature of the Action 1. On...and the tangible and intangible assets used to...

  3. Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere).

  4. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m?2 bar?1. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ? Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ? Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ? Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ? Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commto those obtained with commercial pepsin. ? The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Petroleum Products Corporation Site, Operable Unit 1, Pembroke Park, Broward County, FL. (First remedial action), October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Petroleum Products site is an inactive oil processing plant in Pembroke Park, Broward County, Florida. The area surrounding the site is highly developed with industrial, commercial, and residential properties. The Petroleum Products (PPC) site lies within the radius of two major municipal wellfields. Current site features include an industrial warehouse complex, a fenced area with several dozen drums of investigation - derived waste, a french drain system, and several monitoring and abandoned storm drainage wells. Subsequent sampling identified that the groundwater had been contaminated by oils, VOCs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the first operable unit (OU1), enhancement of the free product recovery system as an interim remedy. A future ROD will address source control and ground water treatment. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals, including chromium and lead; and oils. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  6. Investigations into the transport of corrosion products in the twin unit 2x1300 MW boiling water reactor plant at Gundremmingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of corrosion products in the feedwater system of Units B and C at Gundremmingen nuclear power station has been carefully analysed. The object of the investigations is to identify the main sources of the corrosion products, in order to be able ultimately to assess their contribution to the build-up of activity. The feedwater of the reactor comprises the main condensate which is purified in the condensate polishing plant, and the drains of the high pressure air heaters and water separators. The drains are carried, without cleaning, direct to the feedwater. The effects of entry of corrosion products into the reactor on the build-up of activity in the systems are described. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

  8. The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

  9. A comparison of individual annual doses for unit releases of activation products over a period of 50 years into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off-site individual annual doses to the public from unit releases over a period of 50 years of activation products from a planned fusion reactor into the aquatic environment are assessed within the framework of the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP). A comparison is made for two different site options: a large inland lake-river water system and a seashore-sited brackish water system. Continuous unit releases (1 Bq/year for 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, which gives the annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) integrated over 50 years. The results of this study show that individual annual doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides into the lake-river water system become 1.3-60 times smaller than the doses obtained for the brackish water system. The Niobium isotopes, however, give a 2.5-4.8 higher dose. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the dilution in the lake-river water system chosen here is higher than in the brackish water system. Another reason is that the bioaccumulation factor for a nuclide can vary considerably between fresh water and marine water. If collective doses were to be compared, the result could be completely different since many more people are exposed to the activity if it is released into an inland lake-river system. (orig.)

  10. Product Evaluation Attributes and Consumer Product Trust of Branded and Generic Drugs: A Comparative Study of the United States and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Musyimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A focus on understanding the attributes that impact product evaluation is important in developing effectivemarketing strategies of branded and generic drugs. This Quantitative cross-cultural study examines whether arelationship exists between product evaluation attributes and consumer product trust and loyalty of branded andgeneric drugs. This study examined the attributes of gender, country, product involvement, and consumerknowledge.A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data from patients and employees from twodifferent healthcare centers, one in Kenya and the other in central Florida. The outcome of the study indicatedthat there was a correlationbetween several of these attributes and consumer product trust of generic and brandeddrugs. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. Despite of its limitations, the results of this studylay down a strong foundation for further research on this subject.

  11. Inefficient translocation of a truncated O unit by a Salmonella Wzx affects both O-antigen production and cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael A; Stent, Thomas L; Hong, Yaoqin; Reeves, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial Wzx flippases translocate (flip) short oligosaccharide repeat units (O units) across the inner membrane into the periplasm, which is a critical step in the assembly of many O antigens, capsules and other surface polysaccharides. There is enormous diversity in O antigens and capsules in particular, even within species. Wzx proteins are similarly diverse, but it has been widely accepted that they have significant specificity only for the first sugar of an O unit. In this study, we analysed the Wzx from the Salmonella enterica group C2 O antigen gene cluster, which is a unique and divergent member of a set of gene clusters that produce galactose-initiated O antigens. We demonstrate that this Wzx has a strong preference for the presence of an abequose side-branch, which manifests in a reduction of long-chain O antigen and a major growth defect. This contributes to a growing body of evidence that, contrary to earlier proposals, Wzx flippases commonly exhibit a strong preference for the structure of their native O unit. PMID:25837817

  12. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  13. A large scale manual production of [18F]FDG using a synthetic unit made of sterile disposable components and operated by a master slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self contained, Master Slave Manipulator operated and largely disposable apparatus for the large scale production of [18F]FDG using nucleophilic fluorination methodology has been developed. The synthetic unit consists of readily available sterile disposable components and is easy to assemble. Operation of the synthetic unit is carried out in a hot cell under a closed system to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. Recovery of [18O]water by direct distillation from the reaction vial makes the system even more attractive. Normal production runs yield 25-150 mCi of [18F]FDG. Since no manual handling of radioactivity is involved, a scaled up production is feasible by this procedure. We have avoided the use of any permanent electrical liquid transfer devices in our system, thereby eliminating the possibility of pyrogen build up. An in-house radiopharmaceutical program to check the sterility and apyrogenicity of the short-lived radiopharmaceuticals is an added convenience at our institution. (author)

  14. Mycotoxin Contamination of Agricultural Products in the Southern United States and Approaches to Reducing it from Pre-harvest to Final Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins represent >300 fungal natural products. Some, notably aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenones, ochratoxins, patulin and fumonisins frequently contaminate cereal grains, causing acute and chronic illnesses in livestock and humans, including teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, endocrine disrup...

  15. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml?1) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l?1) and glutamate (3.6 g l?1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml?1) were also much greater (8–150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

  16. Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse by enzymatic hydrolysis after autohydrolysis and mechanical refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Larisse Aparecida Ribas; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Borges Gomes, Fernando José

    2015-03-01

    The autohydrolysis process has been considered a simple, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for generation of sugars from biomass. In order to improve accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis as well as to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate, the sugarcane bagasse was pretreated using autohydrolysis followed by a mechanical refining process. The autohydrolysis was carried out in three different conditions. Autohydrolysis at 190°C for 10min provided the highest overall sugar (19.2/100g raw bagasse) in prehydrolyzate. The enzymatic hydrolysis step was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 5 and 10FPU/g for 96h. A total of 84.4% of sugar can be recovered from sugarcane bagasse at 180°C for 20min with 5 FPU/g enzyme charge. The economic analysis for the proposed method showed that the bioethanol production can have a financial return larger than 12%. PMID:25590426

  17. Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research would guide the additional parameter refinement required for the MOD16 and SSEBop algorithms in order to further improve their accuracy and performance for agro-hydrologic applications.

  19. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  20. Analysis of production losses during a major outage, Pickering G.S. Units 1/2 retube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of writing, Ontario Hydro had recently completed the removal and subsequent replacement of fuel channel components in Pickering Units 1 and 2. To assist in future retubing, an analysis was made of lost man-hours incurred. The lost time was associated with radiological concerns (particularly carbon-14), equipment failures, scheduling shift changes and lunch breaks, and higher-priority work (not having a team completely dedicated to retubing)

  1. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James E; Coeli M. Hoover

    2012-01-01

    The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summariz...

  2. Using thermal units for crop coefficient estimation and irrigation scheduling improves yield and water productivity of corn (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-capetillo, Carlos F.; Zapata, Manuel; Marti?nez-cob, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of daily crop coefficient (Kc) for corn and irrigation scheduling were performed during 2009 and 2010 by means of two approaches: treatment I, computation of Kc using the FAO method; treatment II, computation of Kc from relative fraction of thermal units. Corn crop water requirements and irrigation gross depth for treatment I were about 25 to 33 % lower than that for treatment II in 2009 and 2010 respectively. However, the performance of the treatment II was better in terms of grain...

  3. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. This report...

  4. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  5. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil : comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

  6. Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business

    OpenAIRE

    Vesela Veleva

    2009-01-01

    Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. ...

  7. PRODUCTS LIABILITY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES*: RESPONSABILIDAD POR PRODUCTOS DEFECTUOSOS EN EUROPA Y ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joel, González Castillo.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata tres cuestiones vinculadas entre sí que son consideradas esenciales para la configuración de un sistema de responsabilidad por productos defectuosos. Primero, categoría de defectos: defectos de fabricación, defectos de diseño y defectos de información. Segundo, cómo determinar si [...] el diseño de un producto es defectuoso habiendo al respecto dos posibilidades: expectativas del consumidor o el análisis riesgo-utilidad. Y, finalmente, si aplicar responsabilidad por culpa u objetiva en casos de daños causados por productos defectuosos. Abstract in english This article examines three linked questions which are considered key elements for the configuration of a products liability system. First, defect categories, i.e., manufacturing defects, design defects, and insufficient warnings. Second, how to determine whether the design of a product is defective [...] . Two possibilities become available at this point: consumer expectations test or risk-utility analysis. And, finally, whether to apply negligence or strict liability in cases of damages caused by defective products.

  8. The use of the United States FDA programs as a strategy to advance the development of drug products for neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Conway, Jocelyn; Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Wasan, Kishor M

    2014-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infections which are endemic in poor populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Approximately one billion people have now or are at risk of getting an NTD and yet less than 5% of research dollars are focused on providing treatments and prevention of these highly debilitating and deadly conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orphan Drug Designation program (ODDP) provides orphan status to drugs and biologics, defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases and/or disorders that affect fewer than 200 000 people in the United States, or that affect more than 200 000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. These regulations have led to the translation of rare disease knowledge into innovative rare disease therapies. The FDA Guidance for Industry on developing drugs for the treatment and prevention of NTDs describes the following regulatory strategies: Orphan Product Designation, Fast Track Designation, Priority Review Designation, Accelerated Approval and Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher. This paper will discuss how these regulations and especially the ODDP can improve the clinical development and accessibility of drug products for NTDs. PMID:24512098

  9. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornados, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

  10. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

  11. Salmonella montevideo infections associated with salami products made with contaminated imported black and red pepper --- United States, July 2009-April 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-24

    In August and September 2009, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella Montevideo infections with an indistinguishable pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern JIXX01.0011). Cases were geographically dispersed, and the age and sex distributions were typical for reported Salmonella cases. Montevideo is the seventh most common Salmonella serotype in the United States; of 1,225 PFGE patterns in the PulseNet Montevideo database, the outbreak strain pattern is the most common. PulseNet monitored this pattern and detected an increase in the number of isolates in November 2009, leading CDC to begin coordinating a multistate investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which identified 272 cases from 44 states and the District of Columbia, with illness onset from July 1, 2009, to April 14, 2010. In a multistate case-control study, consumption of salami was associated with illness. Purchase information from membership card records helped determine specific brands of Italian-style meat products associated with cases. The outbreak strain was identified in salami products, one company A facility environmental sample, and sealed containers of black and red pepper used to produce company A salami products. This outbreak highlights the importance of preventing post-processing contamination of ready-to-eat products from raw ingredients such as spices. PMID:21178949

  12. Are Foreign and Public Investment Spending Productive in the Argentine Case? A Single Break Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis, 1960-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel D. Ramirez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the important question of whether public investment spending and inward foreign direct investment (FDI flows enhance economic growth and labor productivity in Argentina. The paper estimates a dynamic labor productivity function for the 1960-2010 period that incorporates the impact of public and private investment spending, the labor force, and export growth. Single break (Zivot-Andrews unit root and cointegration analysis suggest that (lagged increases in public investment spending on economic and social infrastructure have a positive and significant effect on the rate of labor productivity growth. In addition, the model is estimated for a shorter period (1970-2010 to capture the impact of inward FDI flows. The estimates suggest that (lagged inward FDI flows have a positive and significant impact on labor productivity growth, while increases in the labor force have a negative effect. From a policy standpoint, the findings call into question the politically expedient policy in many Latin American countries, including Argentina during the 1990s and early 2000s, of disproportionately reducing public capital expenditures to meet reducetions in the fiscal deficit as a proportion of GDP. The results give further support to progrowth policies designed to promote public investment spending and attract inward FDI flows.

  13. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

  14. Forest productivity and commercial value of pre-law reclaimed mined land in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigue, J.A.; Burger, J.A.; Oderwald, R.G.

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of mining practices used prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) on forest productivity and commercial value of reclaimed forest sites. Forest productivity and value of 14 mined and 8 nonmined sites throughout the eastern and midwestern coalfield regions were compared. Forest productivity of pre-SMCRA mined sites was equal to or greater than that of nonmined forests, ranging between 3.3 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1} and 12.1 m{sup 3}ha{sup -1}yr{sup -1}. Management activities such as planting pine and valuable hardwood species increased the stumpage value of forests on reclaimed mine sites. Rotation-age stumpage values on mined study sites ranged between 3,064 ha{sup -1} US dollars and 19,528 ha{sup -1} US dollars and were commonly greater than stumpage values on nonmined reference sites. Current law requires that mined land be restored to capability levels found prior to mining. These results should provide a benchmark for reforestation success, potential forest productivity, and timber value for current reclamation activities.

  15. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  16. Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: a United States-wide, 18-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrook, Charles M; Butler, Gillian; Latif, Maged A; Leifert, Carlo; Davis, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, intakes of omega-6 (?-6) fatty acids in Western diets have dramatically increased, while omega-3 (?-3) intakes have fallen. Resulting ?-6/?-3 intake ratios have risen to nutritionally undesirable levels, generally 10 to 15, compared to a possible optimal ratio near 2.3. We report results of the first large-scale, nationwide study of fatty acids in U.S. organic and conventional milk. Averaged over 12 months, organic milk contained 25% less ?-6 fatty acids and 62% more ?-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher ?-6/?-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk (5.77 vs. 2.28). All individual ?-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher in organic milk--?-linolenic acid (by 60%), eicosapentaenoic acid (32%), and docosapentaenoic acid (19%)--as was the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (18%). We report mostly moderate regional and seasonal variability in milk fatty acid profiles. Hypothetical diets of adult women were modeled to assess milk fatty-acid-driven differences in overall dietary ?-6/?-3 ratios. Diets varied according to three choices: high instead of moderate dairy consumption; organic vs. conventional dairy products; and reduced vs. typical consumption of ?-6 fatty acids. The three choices together would decrease the ?-6/?-3 ratio among adult women by ?80% of the total decrease needed to reach a target ratio of 2.3, with relative impact "switch to low ?-6 foods" > "switch to organic dairy products" ? "increase consumption of conventional dairy products." Based on recommended servings of dairy products and seafoods, dairy products supply far more ?-linolenic acid than seafoods, about one-third as much eicosapentaenoic acid, and slightly more docosapentaenoic acid, but negligible docosahexaenoic acid. We conclude that consumers have viable options to reduce average ?-6/?-3 intake ratios, thereby reducing or eliminating probable risk factors for a wide range of developmental and chronic health problems. PMID:24349282

  17. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis X Mangan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to gain access to this market it is important to understand the distribution system used for fresh produce in the United States.Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cad

  18. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research. PMID:8882838

  19. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  20. The Botulism Hazard in the Proposed Use of Irradiation of Fish and Fishery Products in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals to treat packaged fish with pasteurizing doses of radiation, and the potential health hazards of this process are described. It is proposed to introduce irradiation into an existing processing and distribution chain for retail packs of chilled fish. The Codes of Practice at present in use provide an adequate safeguard against possible health hazards, primarily by the control of temperature, and limit the storage time to about half the potential shelf life of the fish. Irradiation of these products with 0.3 Mrad will result in a considerable extension of storage life whilst maintaining the same high quality of the product. It is concluded that whilst Clostridium botulinum types E, F and non-proteolytic B could be present in the raw material, no particular health hazard exists unless gross malpractice occurs, especially in relation to the temperature of storage. (author)

  1. Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan (Kal) Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food) in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Us...

  2. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-based food production is an important and pervasive way humans impact the environment. It causes about one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, and is the key land user and source of water pollution by nutrient overabundance. It also competes with biodiversity, and promotes species extinctions. Empowering consumers to make choices that mitigate some of these impacts through devising and disseminating numerically sound information is thus a key socioenvironmental priority. Unfor...

  3. Update: recall of dry dog and cat food products associated with human Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections--United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    On May 16, 2008, CDC reported on a 2006-2007 multistate outbreak of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund that was associated with dry dog food. At the time of that report, a total of 70 cases had been reported from 19 states, with the last case identified on October 1, 2007. Subsequently, an additional case was identified on December 29, 2007. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations have suggested the source of the outbreak was dry pet food produced by one manufacturer, Mars Petcare US. This report updates the previous CDC report, provides additional epidemiologic findings, and describes additional actions taken by public health agencies and the manufacturer. In 2008, eight more cases have been reported, bringing the total number of cases in the outbreak to 79. On September 12, 2008, the company announced a nationwide voluntary recall of all dry dog and cat food products produced during a 5-month period at one Pennsylvania plant. Dry pet food has a 1-year shelf life. Contaminated products identified in recalls might still be in the homes of purchasers and could cause illness. Persons who have these products should not use them to feed their pets but should discard them or return them to the store. PMID:18987615

  4. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

  5. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  6. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  7. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Del Coco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain, Kalamata (Greece and Sfax (Tunisia. The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples and the second group (2 samples showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils tested were closer to Greek (in particular and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.

  8. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

  9. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States / Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francis X, Mangan; Raquel U de, Mendonça; Maria, Moreira; Samanta del Vecchio, Nunes; Fernando L, Finger; Zoraia de Jesus, Barros; Hilton, Galvão; Gustavo C, Almeida; Rachel AN, Silva; Molly D, Anderson.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao crescente número de imigrantes nos EUA, composto por latinos, brasileiros, asiáticos e africanos, observou-se um aumento no interesse dessas comunidades em obter produtos que são comuns em seus países de origem. Para atender essa demanda houve um aumento nas importações de produtos étnicos [...] e na produção interna dessas hortaliças. A mandioca é um bom exemplo do interesse em cultivos étnicos. As importações desse produto cresceram 370% nos últimos seis anos. A Universidade de Massachusetts iniciou suas pesquisas em 1996 com culturas populares entre os imigrantes de Porto Rico e Republica Dominicana e, em 2002, com os vegetais presentes na culinária brasileira. Este trabalho sumariza as informações disponíveis atualmente em relação às necessidades dos imigrantes brasileiros em termos de hortaliças de cunho cultural, identifica as cadeias fornecedoras existentes, explica os impactos da mídia sobre o mercado étnico e descreve as práticas de aquisição de produtos específicos demandados pelos consumidores brasileiros. Pesquisas mostraram que a maioria dos imigrantes brasileiros eram provenientes do estado de Minas Gerais e devido a esse fator, as culturas escolhidas foram jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora e quiabo. Para a introdução dos produtos no mercado é necessário focar grande parte das atenções no marketing e divulgação. Apesar de existir uma demanda, esses vegetais não são normalmente encontrados nos mercados, sendo necessário informar onde e quais produtos estão disponíveis. O melhor meio de divulgação entre os brasileiros é através da emissora de TV Rede Globo, porém outros meios como jornais e rádios em língua portuguesa são eficientes e mais acessíveis. A exportação de produtos étnicos para os EUA é um mercado crescente, porém para entrar nesse mercado é necessário compreender a cadeia de distribuição de vegetais frescos nos EUA. Além disso, os donos das grandes cadeias de supermercados desconhecem os vegetais étnicos, sendo muitas vezes uma barreira para a comercialização dos mesmos. Abstract in english Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural [...] products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  12. Methane production, oxidation and emission in United Kingdom peatlands and the effect of anions from acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrea

    The production, oxidation and emission of methane in UK peatlands was investigated. The main field study site was Ellergower Moss, Dumfriesshire where the peat was characterised by hollows (water-filled depressions) and hummocks (raised vegetative areas). The pathways of carbon flow in peat under hummocks and hollows were determined and compared on a seasonal basis. Methane emissions were significantly greater from hollows than hummocks (0.88 mols and 0.07 mols CH4 m-2 y-1 respectively). Methane emission rates varied seasonally e.g. for hollows were 0.04 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for January and 2.3 mmols CH4 m-2 d-1 for June. Methane emissions were modulated by biological methane oxidation by 0% of methane produced in the winter months, increasing during spring until 97% of methane produced was oxidised in the summer months. Both methane oxidation and methanogenesis were strongly temperature dependant with Q10 values of 2.2 and 16, respectively. Rates of methane oxidation potential (MOP) were greatest between 4-8 cm depths below the level of the water table, and were located above the most active zone of methanogenesis (8-16 cm depths below the water table levels). This enabled vertically diffusing methane to be utilised by methanotrophic bacteria, providing a very efficient filter for methane. Methanogenesis was limited by hydrogen availability in the peat, but not by acetate, suggesting that methane was produced by hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria (MB), rather than acetate utilising MB. Acid rain pollutants were found to significantly affect carbon flow, with sulphate deposition causing a seasonal inhibition in methanogenesis. Carbon flow predominated through sulphate reduction in the winter and spring months (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio was 1008 and 189, for hummocks and hollows respectively) when sulphate was freely available and when temperatures were low. During the summer when temperatures increased and sulphate became limited carbon flow through methanogenesis predominated (sulphate reduction to methane production ratio 0.39 and 0.07, for hummocks and hollows respectively). The examination of two other peatlands-Great Dun Fell and Caithness which received higher and lower sulphate loadings than Ellergower respectively, did not show a consistent effect of sulphate inhibition on methanogenesis. The methane oxidation kinetics were used in a mathematical model to examine the effect of plant roots on increasing the vertical transport rate of methane out, and oxygen into the peat, by gas phase transport through the roots. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Regulatory corpus related to the contamination of food products by radionuclides. Application in France and comparative study with Belgium, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. Report nr 298

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report gives an overview of the international legal context: arrangements of the Codex Alimentarius, standards established by the Codex Alimentarius Committee on food additives and contaminants, recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, role of the IAEA. The second part presents European regulations: those adopted after the Chernobyl accident, those to be applied in case of a radiological accident. A synthesis of international and European regulations is proposed. The regulations applicable in France are presented (protection of population against hazards of ionizing radiations, application modalities). The other parts of the report present the legal framework, the modalities of food product control, and the post-Chernobyl peculiarities for Belgium, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Norway. The author finally proposes a synthesis and a comparative analysis

  14. Consumers’ Attitude and Product Labeling for GM Food in China and Hormone Induced Milk in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan (Kal Chakraborty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the recent research findings on consumers’ attitude and willingness to pay for genetically modified food (GM food in China and hormone induced milk in the US. The economic impact studies on mandatory labeling for GM food around the world are also discussed. The general consensus from the impact studies in the literature is that it raises the price of the food products depending on the cost of labeling, labeling characteristics, and the structure of the market. Using survey data from the US consumers this study finds that mandatory labeling for hormone (bST induced milk would increase the economic benefit to the society raising the consumer and producer surpluses and provides the right to choose in the hands of the consumers. 

  15. Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy. -- Highlights: ? We model regionalized feedstock-specific United States soil C emission factors. ? We simulate soil C changes from direct land use change associated with biofuel feedstock production. ? Corn, corn-stover, and perennial grass biofuel feedstocks grown in croplands maintain soil C levels. ? Converting grasslands to bioenergy crops risks soil C loss. ? This modeling framework yields more refined soil C emissions than national-level emissions

  16. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  17. Inventory dynamic management applied to supply offshore production units; Gerenciamento dinamico da localizacao de armazens e alocacao de estoques aplicado ao abastecimento de unidades de producao offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thiago Castilho Moreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of large reserves in the region called the pre-salt, significantly changed the environment of oil production in Brazil, as well as the entire chain involved in these activities. From the standpoint of logistics network linked to exploration and production of oil, located further down the coast at greater depths and in a place with no infrastructure in place, new and challenging problems arise: tighter restrictions need to address the problem at different levels hierarchical, requiring consideration of risks and uncertainties in addressing problems and decision making. The correct dimensioning of the network of support facilities, the allocation and sizing of inventory of supplies and spare parts illustrate a series of decisions ranging from strategic decisions to operational planning. In terms of specific operations involved in oil production in offshore platforms, with severe space constraints and high costs of storage and transport these issues are of particular interest. The objective of this work is to develop a model of inventory management, aiming to supply equipment for the extraction of oil at sea, usually called Production Units (UPs), which considers: effects of consolidating inventory, potential alternatives to location of these inventories and time variation of both the location of the UPs, and their demand patterns. For this purpose we developed a nonlinear mathematical programming model whose objective is to minimize the fixed costs of installation of warehouses and variable costs of transportation and storage. Different scenarios are analyzed to understand how the incorporation of the cycle and safety stocks affects the decision to locate one or more warehouses, and also the effects related to the main inventory allocation policies. (author)

  18. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including damage from caterpillars, bark beetles, ice storms, hail and wind storms, and wildfire. The MODIS forest disturbance products compared well with reference data (e.g., Landsat, aerial sketch maps, and news accounts). These products have been useful in aiding development of the forest threat EWS. Information on location and extent of regional forest disturbance is important to Federal, State, and private sector forest managers. The 2-date RGB product for 2009 was also processed into a classification of forest disturbance for the Colorado Front Range. Validation of this classification is underway. Regional forest disturbance classifications in conjunction with available CONUS forest biomass products could be useful for assessing carbon impacts from biotic threats such as mountain pine beetle and from abiotic threats related to climate change. The latency of the NRT eMODIS products addresses an important need of the USFS EWS.

  19. Exothermic brazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Caig, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Units are used for repairing and assembling stainless steel tubing. Heat generated by chemical reaction is used to melt brazing alloy and bonded area is not contaminated by the reactants or by-products of the reaction.

  20. Interconnections between the depletion of minerals and fuels: The case of copper production in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the relationship between natural resources and economic development frequently neglect the interdependency between the depletion of one resource and the depletion of other resources. Of particular interest is how energy resource extraction is affected by the depletion of nonfuel minerals due to the important role of energy in upgrading minerals to a useful state. Although this relationship has been described in theoretical terms, there is little detailed empirical support. To quantify the relationship between the depletion of mineral and fuel resources, the authors develop a dynamic model that is based on physical, technological, and economic data. The analysis quantifies the relationship between the depletion of copper in the US and the depletion of fossil fuel and uranium energy resources stimulated by the increase in demand for refined copper that is forecast for the next 50 years. The model calculates the increase in the energy cost of extracting energy due to the depletion of copper. The results of the model indicate that this feedback is significant. The energy cost of producing a refined ton of copper increases 23% over the 50-year simulation period due to the diminution in ore grade and diminishing returns to technical change. The increase in the energy cost for copper increases the production of fossil and uranium fuels, which diminishes their quality and increases their energy cost

  1. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Homyack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

  2. Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the Unidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio, which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

  3. Microbiological evaluation of a range of disinfectant products to control mixed-species biofilm contamination in a laboratory model of a dental unit water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J T; Bradshaw, D J; Fulford, M R; Marsh, P D

    2003-06-01

    Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible biofilms were developed in the model over 14 days; decontamination was assessed using total viable counts (TVC) and microscopic-image analysis techniques to view the inner surface of tubing. Flushing did not reduce the biofilm coverage or TVC. Combizyme and ozone did not completely eliminate the viable bacteria (70 and 65% reduction in biofilm TVC, respectively), nor did they remove the biofilm (45 and 57% reduction in biofilm coverage, respectively). Chlorhexidine and Bio2000 (active agent: ethanol and chlorhexidine), Tegodor and Gigasept Rapid (aldehyde based), and Grotanol (hydroxide based) completely eliminated the TVC but did not completely remove biofilm (31, 53 33, 34, and 64.9% reduction of biofilm coverage, respectively). Other products including Grotanol Flussig (phenol based), Betadine (povidone-iodine based), Alpron (chlorite based), and the hydroxide-containing products Sporklenz, Sterilex Ultra, Dialox, Sterilox, Sanosil, Oxigenal, and Grotanat Bohrerbad resulted in a 100% reduction in the biofilm TVC and a >95% reduction in biofilm coverage. The study demonstrated that while many disinfectants achieve a sufficient reduction in TVC they may not necessarily remove unwanted biofilm from the tubing surfaces as tested in this laboratory-controlled biofilm model. PMID:12788733

  4. Injury to apical meristem of cranberry by Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) reduces production of floral-units in the next growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S; Buonaccorsi, J P; Averill, A L

    2012-08-01

    Cranberry tipworm, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (a gall-making fly), disrupts normal growth of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) by injuring the apical meristem of shoots or uprights. The impact of larval feeding injury on reproductive parameters of cranberry was determined, from one growing season to next, at upright (Maine and Massachusetts, 2008-2009) and plot levels (Massachusetts, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011). We also estimated the proportions of uprights injured because of tipworm feeding at several cranberry production sites (Massachusetts and Maine) and the proportions of uprights that produced flowers and fruits in the next growing season. Tipworm-injured uprights tagged at the end of the growing season did not produce floral-units (following year) across sites in both Massachusetts and Maine. There was significant variation among the sampled sites in the proportions of tipworm-injured uprights and also in the proportions of uprights with flowers in the next growing season (Massachusetts and Maine). A trend was apparent wherein sites with higher tipworm injury levels had relatively lower flowering proportions in the next growing season. However, sites in Massachusetts did not differ in the proportions of uprights that set fruit and in a replicated study, significant reduction in tipworm injury at plot level (using insecticide) did not impact flower and fruit production in the next growing season. PMID:22928318

  5. Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostahsine S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral phases highlighted in the tests of diffraction of x-rays. Sludge thermal behaviour study, in particular that of the deshydroxylation and phases transformations is located in an interval of temperature ranging between 300 and 8OO °C. These thermal transformations are characterised by several analytical methods (DSC, DRX and infra-red.The new crystallized phases are in various forms of solid solutions of the type (Ca, Al, If, Fe, K, Mg.

  6. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, N.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m?2 yr?1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr?1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m?2 yr?1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m?2 yr?1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  7. Migración internacional y manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz / International migration and technological management in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A. Melquíades, Hernández-Solabac; Martha E., Nava-Tablada; Salvador, Díaz-Cárdenas; Emiliano, Pérez-Portilla; Esteban, Escamilla-Prado.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz ocupa el tercer lugar nacional en producción de café. El sector enfrenta una crisis por la caída de precios en el mercado internacional; esto ha ocasionado, entre otras consecuencias, un aumento de la emigración hacia Estados Unidos de América (EUA). El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar [...] la relación de la migración con el nivel de manejo tecnológico del café en dos comunidades del centro de Veracruz: Capulapa y Zapoapan. La información se obtuvo mediante observación y una encuesta a 46 unidades de producción familiar (UPF). En Zapoapan las UPF con mejor manejo tecnológico del cafetal, fueron aquellas que están más capitalizadas, pues poseen mayor superficie y producen otros cultivos, tienen más miembros en EUA, reciben más remesas e invierten 14 % de éstas en la agricultura. En las UPF de Capulapa no se observa relación entre el número de migrantes internacionales, el monto de remesas y el nivel de manejo tecnológico. Lo cual se atribuye a que 83 % de las UPF sólo cultivan café y dependen de los vaivenes del mercado internacional, consecuentemente su situación socioeconómica es más precaria y orientan 86 % de las remesas a gastos de sostenimiento familiar y sólo 7 % a inversión agrícola. Abstract in english Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production. This sector is facing a crisis due to the fall in prices in the international market, which has resulted amongst other things, in increased emigration to the United States of America (USA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relation [...] ship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU). In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in U.S.A. and receive greater remittances, investing 14 % more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This can be attributed to 83 % of the FPUs cultivating solely coffee and depending on the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86 % of remittances are directed towards family sustenance, with only 7 % directed towards agricultural investment.

  8. [2011 ranking in production and research productivity in Spanish public universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Bermúdez, M Paz; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Quevedo-Blasco, Raúl; Castro, Ángel; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro

    2012-11-01

    The assessment and improvement of the quality of scientific research in the universities is one of the main goals of the European Space for Higher Education. Within this goal, increased interest in national and international rankings has been shown. The objective of this research is to update the scientific research productivity ranking of Spanish public universities and it is based on data corresponding to 2011. The methodology of this research is similar to those of past research, including not only the assessment of productivity, but the total production of each university. Seven indicators were assessed: articles in JCR-indexed journals, scientific research periods, I+D projects, doctoral dissertations, FPU scholarships, doctoral programs towards Excellence Mention, and patents. Results show a notable difference between universities with a higher production (University of Barcelona, Complutense University of Madrid, and University of Granada) and those that are the most productive (Pompeu Fabra, Pablo de Olavide, and Rovira i Virgili). The results obtained are analyzed in the discussion with special focus on the evolution of research in Spanish public universities in the past four years. Some challenges for the future are also discussed. PMID:23079344

  9. Contribution of Oil and Gas Production to Atmospheric CH4 in the South-Central United States: Reconciling Bottom-up and Top-down Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Pinto, J. P.; Turner, A. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Henze, D. K.; Brioude, J. F.; Bousserez, N.; Sargsyan, K.; Safta, C.; Najm, H. N.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Bambha, R.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the United States have been largely inconsistent, particularly for oil and gas production (OGP) in the South-Central United States. We have quantified the contribution of OGP to the South-Central US (TX/OK/KS) CH4 budget through atmospheric regional transport modeling with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). This model is driven by a new process-based, spatially resolved OGP CH4 emissions inventory. We employed Bayesian inference to calibrate CMAQ emissions inputs using continuous CH4 measurements at the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility and evaluated model predictions against a subset of aircraft and surface flask measurements that are assimilated by NOAA's CarbonTracker-CH4. Our results suggest that OGP emissions are the largest source of CH4 observed at the DOE SGP site and the largest source of CH4 in TX/OK/KS, constituting ~45% of total CH4 emission in the region. The next largest source in the region is livestock, with other sources being relatively less important. We estimate OGP emissions in TX/OK/KS contribute about one half of national total OGP emissions. Using continuous CH4 measurements, we found evidence of rapid nocturnal transport by the Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) and sporadic oil and gas emissions. Our study demonstrates the importance of improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal features of oil and gas emissions in reconciling CH4 budgets derived using bottom-up and top-down approaches at regional and national scales.

  10. Production of a national 1:1,000,000-scale hydrography dataset for the United States: feature selection, simplification, and refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Robin H.; Wilson, Zachary D.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Thompson, Florence E.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During 2006-09, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Atlas of the United States, produced a 1:1,000,000-scale (1:1M) hydrography dataset comprising streams and waterbodies for the entire United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, for inclusion in the recompiled National Atlas. This report documents the methods used to select, simplify, and refine features in the 1:100,000-scale (1:100K) (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) National Hydrography Dataset to create the national 1:1M hydrography dataset. Custom tools and semi-automated processes were created to facilitate generalization of the 1:100K National Hydrography Dataset (1:63,360-scale in Alaska) to 1:1M on the basis of existing small-scale hydrography datasets. The first step in creating the new 1:1M dataset was to address feature selection and optimal data density in the streams network. Several existing methods were evaluated. The production method that was established for selecting features for inclusion in the 1:1M dataset uses a combination of the existing attributes and network in the National Hydrography Dataset and several of the concepts from the methods evaluated. The process for creating the 1:1M waterbodies dataset required a similar approach to that used for the streams dataset. Geometric simplification of features was the next step. Stream reaches and waterbodies indicated in the feature selection process were exported as new feature classes and then simplified using a geographic information system tool. The final step was refinement of the 1:1M streams and waterbodies. Refinement was done through the use of additional geographic information system tools.

  11. 31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Exportation or supply of insubstantial United... Section 560.511 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued...511 Exportation or supply of insubstantial United...abroad were not subject to export license...

  12. Grau de acabamento e unidades equivalentes de produção: uma abordagem conceitual e empírica / Finishing level and equivalent production units: an empirical and conceptual approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reinaldo, Guerreiro; Edgard Bruno, Cornachione Jr; Armando, Catelli.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objeto de estudo o problema da determinação do grau de acabamento utilizado no processo de cálculo das unidades equivalentes de produção no sistema de custeio por processo contínuo. Foi estabelecida a hipótese que a teoria da contabilidade de custos não oferece uma solução objet [...] iva para o cálculo do grau de acabamento e, dessa forma, as empresas não adotam os conceitos teóricos fundamentais definidos pela teoria, no que diz respeito à valorização do estoque de produtos em processo e valorização dos produtos acabados em indústriais de produção contínua A revisão da literatura, considerando-se um grupo de obras de autores clássicos da contabilidade de custos, constatou que não existe indicação objetiva da forma de cálculo do grau de acabamento. Este trabalho apresenta um método para cálculo do grau de acabamento e um estudo exploratório desenvolvido com a finalidade de se obter um conhecimento pragmático sobre a realidade das empresas quanto ao tema em questão. As pesquisas bibliográfica e empírica indicam a validade da hipótese estabelecida. Abstract in english This paper focuses on how to determine the finishing level used in calculating the equivalent production units in the continuous process costing system. The hypothesis was established that cost accounting theory does not offer an objective solution for the calculation of the finishing level and, con [...] sequently, enterprises do not adopt the fundamental theoretical concepts about the inventory evaluation of goods in process and finished goods in continuous production industries. A collection of classic cost accounting works was revised¹ , which revealed that there does not exist any objective indication about how to measure the finishing level. In this paper, a method for finishing level measurement is presented and an exploratory study is developed, which aims at obtaining practical knowledge about the reality of the enterprises in relation to the subject discussed in this paper. The bibliographical and empirical researches indicate the validity of the hypothesis established.

  13. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong

    2014-01-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain’s promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid–liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose

  14. Measurement of area of surplus X-ray radiation by dose-area product meter at image intensifier in angiography X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the area of surplus X-ray radiation (surplus area) of three image intensifiers (I.I.) of two angiography X-ray units. Surplus area refers to an area surrounded with a circular collimator and effective field of view (FOV). Dose-area product (DAP) was used to measure surplus X-rays. A ratio of surplus area when based on each FOV showed an 8% to 39.3% increase with expansion of FOV, surplus area showed an 18 cm2 to 95 cm2 decrease with FOV. When the circular collimator was narrowed to a degree that could be confirmed partially in effective FOV, the rate of surplus area was decreased almost as much as the rate of scattered radiation. Surface dose was almost unchanged. The radiation exposure of the physician as well as that of the patient was reduced by the reduction of surplus area. The DAP meter, while a tool for patient radiation exposure management, is also highly useful for machinery management such as the measurement of surplus area at the I.I. system. (author)

  15. Letter Report. Independent Confirmatory Survey Results Of Soils Associated With The Argyle Street Sewer Line At The United Nuclear Corporation Naval Products Site, New Haven, Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) personnel visited the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Naval Products site on three separate occasions during the months of October and November 2011. The purpose of these visits was to conduct confirmatory surveys of soils associated with the Argyle Street sewer line that was being removed. Soil samples were collected from six different, judgmentally determined locations in the Argyle Street sewer trench. In addition to the six soil samples collected by ORISE, four replicate soil samples were collected by Cabrera Services, Inc. (CSI) for analysis by the ORISE laboratory. Replicate samples S0010 and S0011 were final status survey (FSS) bias samples; S0012 was an FSS systematic sample; and S0015 was a waste characterization sample. Six soil samples were also collected for background determination. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 concentrations were determined via gamma spectroscopy; the spectra were also reviewed for other identifiable photopeaks. Radionuclide concentrations for these soil samples are provided. In addition to the replicate samples and the samples collected by ORISE, CSI submitted three soil samples for inter-laboratory comparison analyses. One sample was from the background reference area, one was from waste characterization efforts (material inside the sewer line), and one was a FSS sample. The inter-laboratory comparison analyses results between ORISE and CSI were in agreement, except for one sample collected in the reference area. Smear results For Argyle Street sewer pipes are tabulated

  16. Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

    2009-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

  17. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee

    2014-01-01

    For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed by commercial software. The aim of this work is to develop detailed process flow diagram for the FT technology in order to subsequently study the economic feasibility based on once-Through mode. A cost analysis is performed to find out the convenience of the proposed solutions.

  18. Cellulolytic enzymes production by utilizing agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation and its application for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Kshirsagar, Siddheshwar D; Sampange, Vilas T; Saratale, Rijuta G; Oh, Sang-Eun; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2014-12-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium was evaluated for cellulase and hemicellulase production using various agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. Optimization of various environmental factors, type of substrate, and medium composition was systematically investigated to maximize the production of enzyme complex. Using grass powder as a carbon substrate, maximum activities of endoglucanase (188.66 U/gds), exoglucanase (24.22 U/gds), cellobiase (244.60 U/gds), filter paperase (FPU) (30.22 U/gds), glucoamylase (505.0 U/gds), and xylanase (427.0 U/gds) were produced under optimized conditions. The produced crude enzyme complex was employed for hydrolysis of untreated and mild acid pretreated rice husk. The maximum amount of reducing sugar released from enzyme treated rice husk was 485 mg/g of the substrate. Finally, the hydrolysates of rice husk were used for hydrogen production by Clostridium beijerinckii. The maximum cumulative H2 production and H2 yield were 237.97 mL and 2.93 mmoL H2/g of reducing sugar, (or 2.63 mmoL H2/g of cellulose), respectively. Biohydrogen production performance obtained from this work is better than most of the reported results from relevant studies. The present study revealed the cost-effective process combining cellulolytic enzymes production under solid state fermentation (SSF) and the conversion of agro-industrial residues into renewable energy resources. PMID:25374139

  19. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H2O2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H2O2. Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H2O2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X1: 30–50 °C), solid loading (X2: 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X3: 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X4: 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (?37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (?8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (?14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (?5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  20. Land Units

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  1. Research on the production performances achieved by pig bloodlines used within a swine intensive husbandry unit in the NE of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Through this paper, we proposed to establish the production performances of breeder lines belonging to one of the most important providers of genetic material in Romania, respectively the Pig Improvement Company (P.I.C.), exploited within a top unit in Moldova in swine husbandry - S.C.SUINPROD S.A. ROMAN. The researches goal was to study the reproduction performances (sperm volume, spermatozoids concentration in sperm, the amount of spermatozoids and of produced doses, etc.). There have been analysed the reproduction performances achieved by three PIC boars lines (PIC 1075, PIC 402, PIC 408). The insemination material, issued from the 1075 boars, is used to artificially inseminate the PIC 1050 sows from the hybridisation farm of the unit. The insemination material, issued from the boars of PIC 408 and PIC 402 lines, is used to artificially inseminate the Camborough sows, resulting piglets exclusively designed for slaughtering. Both boars and sows used as biological material have been examined from the reproductive life onset toward their culling. Ejaculate volume at the three bloodlines of boars we studied, was comprised within the limits specified in the references. It reached values between 224 and 235 ml during 8-12 months old, between 310 and 366 ml during 13-24 months old, between 330 and 348 ml between 25-36 months old and between 304 and 404 ml during 37-42 months old. Significant and distinguished significant values occurred both between boars and at values occurred both between boars and age periods. The level of sperm concentration, as influenced by boars' age, was found high, in all lines, during the 25-36 months old period, the differences compared to the other periods being statistically significant. Comparing the values achieved in each boar line, we could find differences between PIC 1075 (372 x spermatozoids / ml =100%) and PIC 402 (311.5 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 16.28%, or compared to PIC 408 (302.3 x 106 spermatozoids / ml), of 18.76%. The average spermatozoids mobility within the crude semen had mean values comprised between 76.92 % and 79.4%, but not significantly influenced by boar's age. Expressed in relative values, the differences between the average level observed in PIC 402 line (79.4%=100) and those found in the other lines, were comprised between 3.13% (comp. to the PIC 1075 line) and 0.57% (comp. to PIC 408 line). The amount of doses per ejaculate subscribed to the trend presented in the last field researches. The maximum amount of doses/ejaculate has been achieved in both bloodlines during 25-36 months old period, while the poor amount during the reproduction activity onset (8-12 months old period). The highest doses amount (21.12) has been produced by the PIC 402 line. No significant differences occurred between groups. Expressed as relative values, the differences were of 3.17 % (compared to PIC 1075 line), respectively of 7.20 % (compared to PIC 408 line). It could be stated, basing on the researches we carried on, that, due to the high sperm concentration, meaning high spermatozoids amounts per ejaculate during the whole exploitation period, the reproduction usage intensity of studied PIC boars could be improved. Thus, the period between two ejaculates could be shortened to 3 or 4 d, compared to the actual used interval, of 5 d. In the studied PIC boars, the sperm production level allows the exploitation of a reduced amount of males, generating thus favourable financial and zootechnic consequences. (author)

  2. Experience in the development and introduction of a full scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit at Mosenergo TETs-27 heat and electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a description of experience in the development and introduction of a full-scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit of station No. 3 at the TETs-27 heat and electric power station of JSC 'Mosenergo' based on the latest, fourth generation program package SPPA-T3000, which is being used for the first time in Russia for steam-gas units. The fundamental technical solutions for the structure of the process control system are described, along with the features of the algorithms for control of the main engineering equipment in electric power plants based on the PGU-450

  3. Aspectos sanitários e produtivos das unidades de terminação suinicolas do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil / Sanitary and production aspects of swine finishing units of Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.B.V., Corrêa; D.M., Aguiar; J.G., Caramori Júnior.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos sanitários e produtivos das Unidades de Terminação (UT) suinícolas do Estado de Mato Grosso. Foram levantados dados oficiais junto ao Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, referentes a 55 granjas de terminação, distribuídas em 18 municípi [...] os, no período de dezembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. As características foram descritas e analisadas pelo teste de correlação Spearman, segundo o número de animais por UT, aspectos produtivos, sistemas de proteção sanitária, controle de possíveis veiculadores de agentes patogênicos e manejo dos animais. A população suína cadastrada totalizou 74.650 animais, sendo que 44 (80,0%) UT encontravam-se na região do cerrado. Segundo o número de suínos 10,9%, 9,1%, 14,%, 18,2%, 21,8% e 25% possuíam de 1 a 10, 11 a 100, 101 a 500, 501 a 1.000, 1.001 a 2.000 e acima de 2.000 suínos, respectivamente. As granjas integradas totalizaram 63,6% sendo que 89,1% empregavam manejo intensivo. As analises de correlações positivas (P Abstract in english The present study examined health and productive aspects of swine Finishing Units (FU) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data were collected by the official Institute of Agricultural Protection of Mato Grosso State, considering 55 finishing farms, distributed in 18 municipalities in the period from Dece [...] mber 2005 to January 2006. The data were described and analyzed by the Spearman correlation test, according to the number of animals per FU, productive aspects, health protection systems, control of potential pathogen carriers and animal handling. The swine population totaled 74,650 registered animals and 44 TU (80.0%) were in the cerrado region. In regard to the number of pigs, 10.9%, 9.1%, 14%, 18.2%, 21.8% and 25% had 1-10, 11-100, 101-500, 501-1,000, 1,001-2,000 and up to 2,000 pigs respectively. Integrated farms totaled 63.6%, while 89.1% utilized intensive management. The analysis of positive correlations (P

  4. Analisis Integritas Struktur Kaki Jack-up yang Mengalami Retak dengan Pendekatan Ultimate Strength; Studi Kasus Jack-up Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alit Winiscoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jack-up adalah suatu struktur bangunan lepas pantai yang terdiri dari lambung (hull, kaki (legs, dan suatu sistem jacking sehingga memungkinkan untuk dipindahkan dari satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan studi kasus struktur Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit yang dioperasikan oleh SANTOS (Madura Pty.Ltd. yang beroperasi di Selat Madura blok Maleo dengan kedalaman perairan di lokasi ini adalah 57 m terhadap MSL (Mean Sea Level. Studi kasus ini dilakukan karena ditemukan indikator retak lelah/damage pada sambungan antara kaki jack-up dan mudmat. Analisis ultimate strength akan dilakukan untuk mengetahui integritas struktur terhadap beban maksimal . Variasi dead load, live load dan environmental load menjadi tahapan penting dalam analisa ini untuk mengetahui tingkat integritas struktur. Dengan pengaruh variasi beban (dead load dan live load terhadap struktur untuk tiap-tiap kasus didapatkan nilai unity check (UC yang dari semua kasus dikategorikan aman karena tidak ada nilai UC yang melebihi 1,3 (API RP 2A WSD. Dari semua analisis yang dilakukan dead load lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan dengan live load. Dari analisis pushover yang telah dilakukan pada jack-up Maleo MOPU yang dimitigasi dengan menambahkan brace dan menambahkan ketebalan dihasilkan nilai Reserve Strength Ratio (RSR terkecil pada arah pembebanan 2700 dengan nilai 6,5 pada Brace Clamp case dan terbesar dengan nilai 18,3 pada X-Bracing case. Nilai RSR tersebut masih memenuhi syarat yang telah ditetapkan API RP 2A berupa nilai RSR minimal untuk platform berpenghuni adalah 1,6.  

  5. Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná / Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meiby Carneiro de, Paula; Elias Nunes, Martins; Luiz Otávio Campos da, Silva; Carlos Antonio Lopes de, Oliveira; Altair Antônio, Valotto; Newton Pohl, Ribas.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305) de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de in [...] teração genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39) foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23) para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57). As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná. Abstract in english It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305) of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holstei [...] ns cows between dairy production units in the state of Paraná using the Bayesian inference. All animals were officially controlled by the Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, between January/1992 and December/2003. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using one and multiple-trait analysis, where MY305 of each dairy production unit was considered as a different variable. Means and standard deviations for MY305 (kg) for dairy production units of Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte and Oeste, were 8,414 ± 1,825; 8,481 ± 2,010; 7,636 ± 1,594; 7,850 ± 1,795; 8,617 ± 2,050; 7,401 ± 1,809 and 7,336 ± 2,456, respectively. The highest heritability estimated was obtained for the Oeste unit (0.39) while Carambeí unit presented the lowest value (0.23). Genetic correlations were low (0.09 to 0.57) between dairy production units. Pearson and Spearman correlations were lower for the Oeste unit, when compared with other dairy production units, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.41, and from 0.37 to 0.49, respectively. These results show the presence of genotype × environment interaction between dairy production units in the state of Paraná.

  6. Response surface optimization for enhanced production of cellulases with improved functional characteristics by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Rawat, Rekha; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Fungi isolated from partially decayed wood log samples showing characteristic diversity for spore colour, colony morphology and arrangement of spores were assessed for cellulolytic enzyme production. Isolates showing a cellulolytic index of ?2.0 were assayed for filter paper (FP) cellulase and ?-glucosidase (BGL) production. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of the selected cellulolytic isolate as a strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger HN-2). Addition of 2 % (w/v) urea enhanced FP and BGL activity by about 20 and 60 %, respectively. Validation studies conducted at parameters (29 °C, pH 5.4, moisture content 72 % and 66 h) optimized through response surface methodology in a solid-state static tray fermentation resulted in FP, BGL, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), endoglucanase (EG), xylanase activity and protein content of 25.3 FPU/g ds, 750 IU/g ds, 13.2 IU/g ds, 190 IU/g ds, 2890 IU/g ds and 0.9 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, A. niger N402 which is a model organism for growth and development studies, produced significantly lower FP, BGL, CBHI, EG, xylanase activity and protein content of 10.0 FPU/g ds, 100 IU/g ds, 2.3 IU/g ds, 50 IU/g ds, 500 IU/g ds and 0.75 mg/ml, respectively under the same process conditions as were used for A. niger HN-2. Process optimization led to nearly 1.8- and 2.2-fold increase in FP and BGL activity, respectively showing promise for cellulase production by A. niger HN-2 at a higher scale of operation. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms each for EG and cellobiohydrolase and three isoforms for BGL. Crude cellulase complex produced by A. niger HN-2 exhibited thermostability under acidic conditions showing potential for use in biofuel industry. PMID:24158534

  7. Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhi; Gu, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to poplar NE222 chips in a range of chemical loadings, temperatures, and times. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) as a pretreatment severity accurately predicted xylan dissolution by SPORL. Good correlations between CHF and pretreated solids enzymatic digestibility, sugar yield, and the formations of furfural and acetic acid were obtained. Therefore, CHF was used to balance sugar yield with the formation of fermentation inhibitors for high titer ethanol production without detoxification. The results indicated that optimal sugar yield can be achieved at CHF=3.1, however, fermentation using un-detoxified whole slurries of NE222 pretreated at different severities by SPORL indicated CHF?2 produced best results. An ethanol titer of 41g/L was achieved at total solids of approximately 20wt% without detoxification with a low cellulase loading of 15FPU/g glucan (27mL/kg untreated wood). PMID:25817033

  8. A systematic review of the safety information contained within the Summaries of Product Characteristics of medications licensed in the United Kingdom for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. how does the safety prescribing advice compare with national guidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Savill Nicola; Bushe Chris J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The safety of paediatric medications is paramount and contraindications provide clear pragmatic advice. Further advice may be accessed through Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and relevant national guidelines. The SPC can be considered the ultimate independent guideline and is regularly updated. In 2008, the authors undertook a systematic review of the SPC contraindications of medications licensed in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of Attention Deficit...

  9. Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stra...

  10. Cálculo de los costos de calidad en la Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias, Cienfuegos / Costing of quality in Business Base Unit Several Productions, Cienfuegos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Gómez Alfonso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente inf [...] ormativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011. Abstract in english The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculat [...] e the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  11. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the reproductive andproductive performance of farm animals, this knowledge should focuson providing better preparation and awareness of staff who havedirect contact with animals whose benefits are targeted for bestresults of economic importance to livestock producers, the BA withoutharming the animals and caring environment where they are locatedAPUS. In this paper, we describe the most important points toconsider should be conducted in APUS around the world, steps arebeing taken to legislate in relation to AW and environmental care. Itdescribes the following: factors affecting animal welfare, such asmanagement, facilities, climate and transportation. It also mentionssituations that can lead to failure of the AW, AW's effects on animals, such as reproductive behavior, estrous cycle and puberty,physiological mechanisms of stress at the AW, AW postulates in farmanimals; important Veterinarian for AW and AW´s position in Mexico.

  12. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  13. Unit Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Mzoughi

    This resource is a digital tool for performing unit conversions. It provides the additional feature of displaying cancellation of terms, enabling users to gain a deeper understanding of the mathematical processes involved in converting units. Users can convert among 25 quantities, including units such as force, temperature, energy, and current. Also available are less commonly used units, such as illuminance and magnetic flux. In addition, the calculations respect the number of significant figures. It is part of Web-Based Computer Aided Instruction, a set of free resources for teachers and learners.

  14. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Home Publications & Information Products Health, United States Health, United States, 2014 Users with Internet Explorer may ... the file to your desktop before opening. Men's Health On this Page Access and utilization of health ...

  15. Trial production of ceramic heat storage unit and study on thermal properties and thermal characteristics of the heat storage unit. Mixed salts of Na2CO3, MgCl2 and CaCl2 as heat storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat storage technique of high temperature and high density latent heat can be applied to an accumulator of heat generated by nuclear power plant in the night and to a thermal load absorber. For the practical use of the heat storage technique, it is important to improve heat exchange characteristics between heat storage medium, such as molten salts, and heat transfer fluid because of low thermal conductivity of the molten salts, to improve durability among molten salt and structure materials and to develop the molten salt with stable thermal properties for a long period. Considering the possibility for the improvement of heat exchange characteristics of phase change heat storage system by absorbing molten salt in porous ceramics with high thermal conductivity, high temperature proof and high resistance to corrosion, several samples of the ceramics heat storage unit were made. Basic characteristics of the samples (strength, thermal properties, temperature characteristics during phase change) were measured experimentally and analytically to study the utility and applicability of the samples for the heat storage system. The results show that the heat storage unit should be used in inactive gas condition because water in the air absorbed in the molten salts would yield degeneration of properties and deterioration of strength and that operation temperature should be confined near fusion temperature because some molten salts would be vaporized and mass would be decreased in considerable high temperature. The results also show that when atmospheric temperature changes around the melting temperature, change in ceramic temperature becomes small. This result suggests the possibility that ceramic heat storage unit could be used as thermal load absorber. (J.P.N.)

  16. Simulation, exergy analysis and application of diabatic distillation to a tertiary amyl methyl ether production unit of a crude oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a detailed exergy analysis of a tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) unit of a crude oil refinery and the application of diabatic distillation to the depentanizer tower of the unit. Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is not only supplied to the reboiler and extracted from the condenser [as in a conventional (adiabatic) distillation column], but is also transferred inside the column. The process enables operation to approach equilibrium conditions, thus reducing exergy losses and increasing exergy effectiveness. In a TAME unit of a refinery, isoamylenes are converted to TAME. Before transforming the isoamylenes in the reactors, it is necessary to recover them from a catalytic gasoline stream by a depentanization process. The exergy losses of this depentanization process represent about 70% of the total exergy losses of the unit. The results of the exergy analysis of the TAME unit are presented and a detailed exergy analysis of the conventional adiabatic depentanizer column is conducted for comparison purposes. Then, the application of diabatic distillation to the system is evaluated by using cooling water circulating in series from tray to tray in the rectification section and by making the steam emanating from the reboiler circulate in series from tray to tray in the stripping section. The results in terms of the reduction of exergy losses, heating and cooling media flow rates, and cost effectiveness of the diab rates, and cost effectiveness of the diabatic option for the depentanizer section of the plant are compared to the original adiabatic system, and the effect of the diabatization on the overall exergy performance parameters of the depentanizer section and on the whole TAME unit, are presented in this paper

  17. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which forests with the most severe NDVI decreases are assigned hot colors (yellow to red) and forests with prominent NDVI increases are assigned cold colors (blue tones). All mentioned products have been integrated as data layers into ForWarn s geospatial data viewer known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The latter is used to view and assess the context of the mentioned forest change products with respect to ancillary data layers, such as land cover, elevation, hydrologic features, climatic data, storm data, aerial disturbance surveys, fire data, and land ownership. The FCAV also includes a temporal NDVI profiler for viewing phenological change in multi-year NDVI associated with known or suspected regionally apparent forest disturbances (e.g., from fire and insects). ForWarn forest change products have been used to detect, track, and assess several biotic and abiotic regional forest disturbance events across the country, including ephemeral and longer lasting damage from storms, drought, and insects. Such change products are most effective for viewing severe disturbances affecting multiple MODIS pixels. MODIS vegetation phenology products contribute vital current information on forest conditions to the ForWarn system and this role is expected to grow as these products are refined and derivative products are added.

  18. Geopolitical Units

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting geopolitical data for the entire area of the United States and territories. This includes States, Counties or Boroughs,...

  19. Veggies Unite!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veggies Unite! is a searchable index of vegetarian recipes. The site also includes information on topics such as storage tips, vitamins, and links to many nutrition and health WWW and gopher sites all over the world.

  20. Order of 4 august 1989 on licensing the release of gaseous radioactive effluents by the Cattenom nuclear production centre (units 3 and 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order fixes the conditions and limits of authorised releases of gaseous radioactive effluents from Units 3 and 4 of the Cattenom nuclear power plant. It specifies these are maximum limits, below which the radioactive releases should be as low as possible

  1. Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ludovic

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevista con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios.With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P, in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structures centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

  2. Caracterización bajo un enfoque sostenible de las unidades de producción agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo del estado Zulia. / Characterization under a sustainable approach of the urban agriculture production units in the Maracaibo municipality, Zulia state.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Ludovic; N, Rincón; L, Huerta; R, Rincón.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de caracterizar bajo un enfoque sostenible a las unidades de producción (UP) agrícola rururbanas en el municipio Maracaibo, se identificaron sus principales limitaciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas a través de un estudio no experimental descriptivo. Se estructuró una entrevist [...] a con 70 preguntas cerradas dirigido a productores de las parroquias Francisco E. Bustamante y Venancio Pulgar. Los datos se analizaron aplicando estadísticas descriptivas. Los resultados evidencian la existencia de 52 UP rururbanas identificadas a través de un censo poblacional. Se determinó que estas UP presentan una baja rentabilidad económica, condiciones socialmente inaceptables y un inadecuado manejo de los recursos naturales. Se observó también, que la familia agroproductiva presenta un deseo de permanencia en la zona, así como, seguir laborando en la actividad agrícola. En cuanto a los obstáculos hallados para iniciar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo, se encontró un bajo nivel de preparación para construir sociedades que perduren y evolucionen. Se concluye que el productor y el grupo familiar se encuentran bajo condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas que los inducen a condiciones de pobreza y a la insostenibilidad de su unidad de producción, y con ello, desaparecen sus productos, costumbres, tradiciones y la condición de tranquilidad que los hace permanecer en estos espacios. Abstract in english With the aim of characterizing under a sustainable approach the urban agriculture production units (U.P), in Maracaibo municipality, its main social, economical and ecological limitations were identified through a descriptive non experimental study. An interview with 70 close questions was structure [...] s centered in the producers of Francisco E. Bustamante and Venancio Pulgar parishes. The information was analyzed applying descriptive statistics. Results show the existence of 52 urban production units identified with a population census. It was determined that these production units have a low economical profitability, socially unacceptable conditions and an inadequate handle of the natural resources. It was also observed that the agroproductive families want to stay in the area, as well as continuing working in the agriculture activity. According to the obstacles that were found in order to initiate a new development model, a low preparation level was found to construct societies that would develop. It is concluded that the producer and his family are under social, economical and ecological conditions that induce him to poverty and to the untenability of his production unit, all these conduct to the disappearance of his products, traditions and tranquility condition that make them stay in that area.

  3. 7 CFR 1.216 - Appearance as a witness or production of documents on behalf of a party other than the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance as a witness or production of documents on...REGULATIONS Appearance of USDA Employees as Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.216 Appearance as a witness or production of documents...

  4. EVALUATION OF FCC UNIT PROCESS VARIABLES IMPACT ON YIELD DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCT QUALITY Part II. Evaluation of the impact of FCC Unit operating conditions on gasoline hydrocarbon composition and octane number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Dinkov

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the influence of the Lukoil Neftochim Bulgaria FCC unit variables on FCC gasoline qualitywhile employing an octane-barrel catalyst. It was found that research octane number of the FCC gasoline directlycorrelated with the riser outlet temperature (ROT. FCC gasoline was found to consist of higher octane low boiling(that boil in the range 40-60oC and high boiling components (that boil in the range 160-200oC. The high octanelow boiling components are mainly olefins, whereas the high octane high boiling components are mainlyaromatics. The raise of ROT leads to increase of ratio of ?-cracking relative to hydrogen transfer which results inenhancement of the lower molecular hydrocarbon content in the FCC gasoline.

  5. Freight transport, food production and consumption in the United States of America and in Europe: Or how far can you ship a bunch of onions in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Böge, Stefanie

    1996-01-01

    CO2-emissions from traffic - increasingly from freight transport - are growing, es-pecially in the highly developed industrialized countries. The answers to thisenvironmentally problematical development are technical ones mainly: Admi-nistrators and scientists try to improve engines, transportation modes and logisticstrategies. Freight transport is influenced by production, consumption, land-usepatterns and life-styles. But these fundamental determinants of increasing trafficare rarely given ...

  6. Competitividad de las unidades de producción rural en Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, México / Competitiveness of rural production units in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, Sierra Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Rodríguez-Hernández; Pedro, Cadena-Iñiguez; Mariano, Morales-Guerra; Sergio, Jácome-Maldonado; Sergio, Góngora-González; Ernesto, Bravo-Mosqueda; J. Rafael, Contreras-Hinojosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En la región Sierra Sur del estado de Oaxaca, México, prevalecen elevados índices de marginación y pobreza. Esta situación es influenciada por varios factores, uno de ellos es la baja competitividad de las unidades de producción rural. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el nivel de competiti [...] vidad de las familias e identificar las variables que la determinan. Se realizó una encuesta a jefes de familia de Santo Domingo Teojomulco y San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complementada con recorridos y reuniones informales. Se cuantificó la competitividad por unidad productiva mediante la Relación de Costo Privado (RCP), y se formuló un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple en donde la competitividad fue la variable dependiente. Los resultados indicaron que 83 % de las unidades de producción no son competitivas, ya que aunque su ganancia neta es positiva, el valor agregado es insuficiente para cubrir los factores de producción. La competitividad está determinada por factores como el costo de mano de obra, el autoconsumo, las ventas, los gastos en efectivo, los subsidios y la productividad del maíz. Para mejorar la competitividad se requiere incrementar y diversificar la productividad de la tierra con mejoras tecnológicas, y propiciar mayor nivel de autoconsumo y participación en el mercado. Abstract in english In the Sierra Sur region of the state of Oaxaca, México, high indexes of marginalization and poverty prevail. This situation is influenced by several factors, one of them being the low competitiveness of rural production units. The objective of this study was to determine the level of competitivenes [...] s of families and to identify the variables that determine it. A survey was carried out with heads of households in Santo Domingo Teojomulco and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, complemented with visits and informal meetings. The competitiveness per productive unit was quantified through the Private Cost Relation (Relación de Costo Privado, RCP), and a multiple linear regression model was formulated where competitiveness was the dependent variable. The results indicated that 83 % of the production units are not competitive, since although their net profit is positive, the added value is insufficient to cover the production factors. Competitiveness is determined by factors such as the cost of labor, auto-consumption, sales, cash expenses, subsidies and maize productivity. In order to improve competitiveness, increasing and diversifying land productivity with technological improvement is required, as well as fostering a higher level of auto-consumption and participation in the market.

  7. The effect of hydrazine dosing on high temperature water chemistry and corrosion product transport in primary circuit of VVER 440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the VVER 440 type reactors have started to use hydrazine dosing to primary coolant instead of ammonia, because it has been shown to be efficient in reducing activity transport. On the other hand, some other studies have shown that there is no significant difference between new VVER units using hydrazine dosing and the ones operating with standard potassium/ammonia water chemistry. In this paper the results are presented concerning the out-of-core high temperature water chemistry and in-core redox potential measurements at Rez research reactor in Czech republic during hydrazine/ammonia water chemistries. At Loviisa 1 unit (VVER 440) in Finland the pHT and redox potentials were monitored during standard potassium hydroxide/ammonia operation. (authors). 5 figs., 13 refs

  8. Creating a Consortium to Increase minority and Low-Income Community Participation in Alternative Energy Development, Production and Management Melinda Downing, United States Department of Energy Geraldine Herring, United States Department of Agriculture John Rosenthall, Environmental Justice Conference, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's desire for energy independence places a new demand on alternative fuel production. Additional interest and emphasis are being placed on alternatives such as solar, wind, biofuels and nuclear energy. The nuclear fuel production option brings a new look at risk and residual waste management for a number of communities that have traditionally remained outside the energy debate. With the Federal requirements for environmental justice and public participation in energy and environmental decision-making, proponents of alternative energy production facilities will find themselves participating in discussions of risk, production, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and waste matters with low income and minority members in communities where these facilities are located or wish to locate. The fundamental principal of environmental justice is that all residents should have meaningful and intelligent participation in all aspects of environmental decision-making that could affect their community. Impacted communities must have the resources and ability to effectively marshall data and other information in order to make informed and intelligent decisions. Traditionally, many low-income and minority communities have lacked access to the required information, decision-makers and technical advisers to make informed decisions with respect to various risks that accompany alternative energy production, hazardous materials storage and nuclear waste management. In order te and nuclear waste management. In order to provide the necessary assistance to these communities, the Departments of Energy and Agriculture have teamed with others to cerate the Alternative Energy Consortium. The Alternative Energy Consortium is a collaboration of non-profit organizations, Federal agencies, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Serving Institutions (HBCU/MSIs), and private sector corporations (energy industry specialists) designed to explore and develop opportunities that empower minorities to own and work in all aspects of the field of alternative energy. The Consortium's primary objectives are to find ways to: - Include minorities in the development and ownership of infrastructure in the alternative energy industry; - Promote research and education programs to inform the public about risks and benefits of various forms of alternative energy; - Build a Mentor/Protege Program between HBCU/MSIs and industry leaders to enhance minority participation in ownership and career success in alternative energy production and distribution. The Consortium will work together to create a process whereby minorities and low income individuals will be recruited, educated, and mentored to maximize alternative energy ownership and job opportunities. Industry specialists and government representatives will work with academicians and others to: 1. research areas and methods where minorities and rural communities can engage in the industry; 2. invest in minorities by serving as mentors to minority serving institutions by offering hands-on experience through apprenticeships; 3. work to identify ownership opportunities for minorities; and 4. work to develop legislation that supports economic development and participation for minorities and rural communities in the industry. To accomplish this goal, the Consortium has set out a three-phase plan. Phase I organized a meeting of professionals to discuss the concept, explore the fundamentals, identify key players, and draft next steps. The group took a critical look at the energy industry: 1) trends, 2) economics, 3) limited number of minorities; and 4) infrastructure. Through that process the group identified four areas that would greatly impact economic development for minorities and rural communities: I Energy; II Broadband Communications; III Education; IV Labor Resources. Phase II presented a roundtable panel discussion that continued to refine the Consortium. The goal of these discussions is to produce a well-balanced Consortium committed to working together to produce effective solutions that

  9. Microbiological Evaluation of a Range of Disinfectant Products To Control Mixed-Species Biofilm Contamination in a Laboratory Model of a Dental Unit Water System

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J. T.; Bradshaw, D. J.; Fulford, M. R.; Marsh, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Dental unit water system (DUWS) tubing harbors complex multispecies biofilms that are responsible for high microbial levels at the distal outlet. The aim of this study was to use an established biofilm laboratory model to simulate biofouling of DUWS to evaluate practical, cost-effective, and evidence-based methods of microbial decontamination. Reproducible biofilms were developed in the model over 14 days; decontamination was assessed using total viable counts (TVC) and microscopic-image anal...

  10. United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  11. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ? Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production.a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ? Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ? Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ? 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

  12. Research Paper: Nanotechnology companies in the United States:A web-based content analysis of companies and products for poverty alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, T.; Do, D.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the goals, nanotechnology experience, corporate social responsibility and products of 50 USA-based companies  working with nanotechnology to see if they are developing products that help low-income populations. Out of the top 50 R&D companies that publish and patent nanotechnology research in agri-food, energy and water sectors, 18 of them do not mention nanotechnology on their websites. The other 32 companies discuss nanotechnology in varying degrees. However, only two o...

  13. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave the most accurate predictions (<3%) for cellulose loss.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  15. Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará / Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raimundo Nonato da Silveira, Ribeiro; Manoel Malheiros, Tourinho; Antônio Cordeiro de, Santana.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-i [...] ndicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. T [...] he indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a previously established level of sustainability.

  16. Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato da Silveira Ribeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-indicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. The indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a previously established level of sustainability.

  17. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  18. Food Sovereignty Revisited: Should the United States Reevaluate its Commitment to Free Trade in Food Products in the 21st Century?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Erika

    2002-01-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has worked to prevent another terrorist attack on American citizens. One possible form of attack could be intentional adulteration of the food supply. This paper examines that threat and poses the question: Should the United States reduce its commitment to free trade in food in order to protect the American public from a foodborne attack? Part I examines the likelihood of an attack on the food supply and the actions the federa...

  19. The effect of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the USSR on the export of milk products from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper exposes the problems experienced by exporters of milk products resulting essentially from the confusion of acceptable levels of radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident, the development of limits in the ensuing six months and the recommended action which should be taken internationally for the future. (author)

  20. United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in the United Kingdom for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  1. Water electrolysis plants for hydrogen and oxygen production. Shipped to Tsuruga Power Station Unit No.1, and Tokai No.2 power station, the Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara's water electrolysis plants have been shipped to Tsuruga Power Station Unit No.1, (H2 generation rate: 11 Nm3/h), and Tokai No.2 Power Station (H2 generation rate: 36 Nm3/h), Japan Atomic Power Co. An outcome of a business agreement between Nissho Iwai Corporation and Norsk Hydro Electrolysers (Norway), this was the first time that such water electrolysis plants were equipped in Japanese boiling water reactor power stations. Each plant included an electrolyser (for generating hydrogen and oxygen), an electric power supply, a gas compression system, a dehumidifier system, an instrumentation and control system, and an auxiliary system. The plant has been operating almost continuously, with excellent feedback, since March 1997. (author)

  2. Epithermal gold-siver deposits in the western United States: time-space products of evolving plutonic, volcanic and tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; Bonham, H.F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The western United States has been the locus of considerable subaerial volcanic and plutonic igneous activity since the mid-Mesozoic. After the destruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc-trench system, subduction was re-established in the Late Mesozoic with low-angle underthrusting of the oceanic plate beneath western North America. This resulted in crustal shortening during the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary and removal of the mantle lithosphere west of the Rocky Mountains. Commencing in the Eocene, flat subduction ceased, the volcanic arc began to re-establish itself along the continental margin, and the hingeline along the steepening subducting plate migrated from east to west. The crust east of the migrating hingeline was exposed to hot asthenosphere, and widespread tectonics and volcanic activity resulted. Hydrothermal activity accompanied the volcanism resulting in numerous epithermal gold-silver deposits. The temporal and spatial distributions of epithermal deposits in the region are therefore systematic and can be subdivided into discrete time intervals which are related to widespread changes in magmatic activity. Time intervals selected for discussion are Pre-Cenozoic, 66-55 Ma, 54-43 Ma, 42-34 Ma, 33-24 Ma, 23-17 Ma, and deposits (adularia-sericite and alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite). Continental rifting is important to the formation of deposits, and, within any given region, it is at the initiation of deep rifting that alunite-kaolinite ?? pyrophyllite type epithermal deposits are formed. Adularia-sericite type deposits are most common, being related to all compositions and styles of volcanic activity. Therefore, the volcano-tectonic context of the western United States provides a unified framework in which to understand and explore for epithermal type deposits. ?? 1990.

  3. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  4. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife...

  5. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield...

  6. Plasma-chemical processes and units in powder metallurgy for production of ultra-dispersed powders and nano-structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parers dealt with plasma-chemical processes used for production of powders of refractory metals, their oxides, nitrides and carbides, are reviewed. The possibility is noted to obtain in a plasma jet the nanocrystalline powders of WC, WC-Co, TaC, NbC, W as well as the coatings of a nanostructured hard alloy WC-15Co. The plasma-chemical technology is shown to be promising for sintering nanosized powders of hard alloys

  7. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature.

  8. Approximate analysis of production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, M.B.M., de

    1988-01-01

    In this paper complex production systems are studied where a single product is manufactured and where each production unit stores its output in at most one buffer and receives its input from at most one buffer. The production units and the buffers may be connected nearly arbitrarily. The buffers are supposed to be of finite capacity and the goods flow is continuous. For such netwroks it is possible to estimate the throughput by applying repeated aggregation over the production units. The appr...

  9. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas (3He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

  10. Special equipment of the controlled area of the building part of main production units 1 and 2 of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ill-conceived concept is pointed out of the so-called controlled area special equipment that should be subject to special quality testing. In practice, grotesque situations occur when one part of a system is considered to be special equipment while another part of the same system is not, or when attestation is required for materials that functionally are unimportant. Formalities keep busy a number of personnel that could spend their time productively on completing the project design preparation. (M.D.)

  11. Cogeneration units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles are outlined of cogeneration, i.e. of combined generation of electricity and heat. The assets of this approach include a decrease in the consumption of primary sources, and lower air pollution. Replacement of 1000 MWe brown coal fired power sources by cogeneration units in the Czech Republic would imply the shutdown of 3 to 4 brown coal fired power plants, bringing about a reduction in SO2, NOx and particulate emissions by 13.4%, 7%, and 4.3%, respectively. (J.B.)

  12. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Pires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  13. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina Helena, Pires; Jaime Maia dos, Santos; José Eduardo, Zaia; Carlos Henrique Gomes, Martins; Maria José Soares, Mendes-Giannini.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i) to screen for Cand [...] ida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis), (ii) to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii) to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  14. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  15. Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzebio Beli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

  16. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  17. Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

  18. Concentrations of Glyphosate, Its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate in Ground- and Surface-Water, Rainfall, and Soil Samples Collected in the United States, 2001-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a number of studies from 2001 through 2006 to investigate and document the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate, its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in 2,135 ground- and surface-water samples, 14 rainfall samples, and 193 soil samples. Analytical methods were developed to detect and measure glyphosate, AMPA, and glufosinate in water, rainfall, and soil. Results show that AMPA was detected more frequently and occurred at similar or higher concentrations than the parent compound, glyphosate, whereas glufosinate was seldom found in the environment. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected more frequently in surface water than in ground water. Trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA may persist in the soil from year to year. The methods and data described in this report are useful to researchers and regulators interested in the occurrence, fate, and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment.

  19. Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC ampersand A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC ampersand A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  20. Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the United States to Enhance the Existing Nuclear-Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Systems at Mayak Production Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (Mayak) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by lylINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC and A systems at Mayak. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC and A systems at two of the plants operated by Mayak that work with proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials

  1. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate improved from 48% in the control cows to 68% in the supplemented cows. Supplementation of dairy cows with FC and UMMB was cost effective when milk production increased by 0.93 and 0.66 litres/cow/day (break even increase) in the respective groups. The increase milk production gave a profit of US$ 0.11-0.29 per cow/day, which was a considerable increase in income in the case of small-holder farmers. (author)

  2. Characterization of Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae biomass composition and its potential for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Parviz; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae, harvested from Persian Gulf, was chemically characterized and employed for the production of ethanol, seaweed extract, alginic acid, and biogas. In order to improve the products yields, the biomass was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and hot water. The pretreated and untreated biomasses were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase (15FPU/g) and ?-glucosidase (30IU/g). Hydrolysis yield of glucan was 29.8, 82.5, and 72.7g/kg for the untreated, hot-water pretreated, and acid pretreated biomass, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomycescerevisiae resulted in the maximum ethanol yield of 34.6g/kg of the dried biomass. A seaweed extract containing mannitol and a solid residue containing alginic acid were recovered as the main byproducts of the ethanol production. On the other hand, the biogas yield from the biomass was increased from 170 to 200m(3) per ton of dried algae biomass by hot water pretreatment. PMID:25461003

  3. MANCHESTER UNITED’S IPO (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A practice quite rarely used in the competition industry, the Initial Public Offering (IPO of a sporting entity can have as a goal the procurement of financial resources in order to invest in productive assets or to adjust the economic image of the club. The listing on the Stock Exchange in 2012 of one of the most valuable football clubs in the world, Manchester United, was an atypical one within the sporting area, both in terms of the motivation behind it and of the technical considerations. This analysis aims to provide a general perspective on the stock exchange index in this niche area and its relevance, focusing on the details of the English club’s listing and analyzing a set of indicators relevant to the dynamics of its economic evolution and popularity. After more than two years from the club’s listing on the Stock Exchange, the stocks have a value close to the initial one, the stock price following an oscillating trend, marked by a couple of stages of significant growth too. The research emphasizes the opposing effects of certain indicators: the brand value experiences a negative growth, while the income from current activities, especially the one from commercial activities follows a rising trend. So, it is still premature to deem the listing of Manchester United on the Stock Exchange a success or a failure, but the scientific debate is worth continuing.

  4. Slices in the unit ball of the symmetric tensor product of mathcal{C}(K) and L 1(?) Proyecto de Excelencia” FQM-01438. The second author was partially supported by Junta de Andalucía grants FQM-0199 and FQM-1215, and MTM-2006-15546-C02-02.->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, María D.; Becerra Guerrero, Julio

    2009-04-01

    We prove that for the cases X=mathcal{C}(K) ( K infinite) and X= L 1(?) (? ?-finite and atomless) it holds that every slice of the unit ball of the N-fold symmetric tensor product of X has diameter two. In fact, we prove more general results for weak neighborhoods relative to the unit ball. As a consequence, we deduce that the spaces of N-homogeneous polynomials on those classical Banach spaces have no points of Fréchet differentiability.

  5. Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system 'corrosion products (MenOm; Me(OH)k)) - water (H2O) - gas (H2, O2) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction' in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear 'post-transitional' process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

  6. A Suggested Unit for Interlingual Identification in Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine E.

    Recent research in experimental phonetics seems to provide evidence for a clear division between language units and speech units. Many researchers have suggested that the consonant-vowel (CV) syllable may be a universal unit of speech production and perception, while language units become criterial only at higher levels of processing. In second…

  7. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska

  8. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  9. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  10. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins AGENCY: United States...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for products featuring $1 coins, as...

  11. United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom currently has ten operational nuclear power plants with another nine undergoing decommissioning. The operation and decommissioning of the Magnox Reactors is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority whilst the day-to-day operation is currently run by the two Parent Body Organizations Magnox North (Oldbury, Yr Wylfa, Hunsterton A, Chapecross and Trawsfynydd) and Magnox South (Bradwell, Berkeley, Dungeness A, Hinkley Point A and Sizewell A). Oldbury was scheduled to cease generation at the end of 2008 and Yr Wylfa by the end of 2010 but Oldbury continues to operate and a lifetime extensions is possible for Yr Wylfa. The AGRs and the PWR at Sizewell B are operated by British Energy. The ten operational reactors generate approximately 11 GW to the UK electricity mix, which is about 15% of the total UK requirement, down from a peak of 26% in 1997. Following an announcement early in 2008 by the government, with support from the main opposition party, it is expected that new nuclear plants will be built in the UK as soon as possible. Two new designs, the Westinghouse AP1000 and the Areva EPR, are currently undergoing a Generic Design Assessment by the UK regulator, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Decommissioning of the Magnox NPPs is the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). They also own the liability of Capenhurst Fuel Enrichment Plant, Springfields Fuel Manufacturing Plant, the research reactor sites aturing Plant, the research reactor sites at Harwell and Winfrith, the fusion research centre at Culham, the Fast Reactor research centre at Dounreay and Sellafield. Privatization of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA) and the subsequent closure of many national laboratories, together with the transfer of the liability for the decommissioning of the Magnox sites from BNFL to the NDA resulted in the re-organization of BNFL. The BNFL Research and Technology division was rebranded as Nexia Solutions which in 2008 became the National Nuclear Laboratory. Reorganization has also taken place within government. The Office for Nuclear Development was established in early 2008 with a remit to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK and advise the Secretary of State on the exercise of his regulatory and policy functions in relation to the nuclear industry. In October 2008 the Department of Energy and Climate Change was created bringing together energy policy (previously with BERR - the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform) with climate change mitigation policy (previously with Defra - the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). The UK has also had a long involvement with nuclear fusion based at the Culham site in Oxfordshire. Currently operational are the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). JET is run as collaboration between all European fusion organizations and the participation of scientists from around the globe. MAST is collaboration between EURATOM and the UKAEA Fusion Association. The UK is also involved in the ITER project which builds on much of the work accomplished with JET which is currently the world's largest tokamak

  12. Estimation of entrance skin dose, dose area product and effective dose in radiological examinations performed in a digital radiographic unit using DICOM headers and Monte Carlo derived conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: Digital radiographic units store images in DICOM format and thus apart the radiographic image, data regarding the examination type, the geometrical conditions and the exposure parameters of each acquisition are also stored. These data can be used for the estimation of the Entrance Surface Air Kerma (ESAK), Entrance Skin Dose (ESD), Dose Area Product (DAP) and Effective dose (E). Our objective was to develop a method that enables automatic dose calculations from DICOM data. Materials and methods: More than 1000 radiological examinations performed with a DR Xray unit were recorded on a DVD-rom. Using appropriate software (DICOM Info Extractor) all necessary DICOM headers were extracted. These data were input into a Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet, containing embedded algorithms for the identification of each radiological examination type and the estimation of ESAK, ESD, DAP and E. The ESD and DAP to E conversion coefficients for each examination type were derived using the PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. For each examination type, a simulation was performed using the mathematical adult phantom and the examination data deduced from DICOM images and data. Results: Analysis of data exhibited that in the vast majority of examinations the correct protocol was used. The average E values (in mSv) were: Skull AP/LAT=0.01/0.01; Cervical Spine AP/LAT=0.024/0.011; Chest PA/LAT=0.016/0.044; Thoracic SpineAP/LAT=0.117/0.079; Lumbar Spine AP/LAT=0.159/0.150; KUB AP=0.202; Abdomen PA=0.111 and Pelvis AP=0.133. Conclusion: The methodology and spreadsheet that we developed offers to medical physicists a useful tool for conducting patient dose surveys in radiological examinations. (authors)

  13. Evaluación de la sustentabilidad de dos sistemas de producción de cacao: estudios de caso de unidades de producción rural en Comalcalco, Tabasco / Sustainability assessment of two cocoa production systems: Case studies in rural production units in Comalcalco, Tabasco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GA, Priego-Castillo; A, Galmiche-Tejeda; M, Castelán-Estrada; O, Ruiz-Rosado; Al, Ortiz-Ceballos.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El Marco de Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo de Recursos Naturales Incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidad (MESMIS) se utilizó para evaluar comparativamente la sustentabilidad de dos unidades de producción de cacao en el municipio de Comalcalco, Tabasco durante 2006. El método de estudio de caso [...] s se empleó mediante la combinación de enfoques cuantitativos y cualitativos de investigación, e incorporando métodos y herramientas participativas. Dos unidades de producción familiares de cacao se seleccionaron por medio de informantes clave; una con manejo orgánico y otra con manejo convencional. La sustentabilidad fue evaluada con 22 indicadores definidos a partir de la identificación de puntos críticos en cada caso, aplicando ejercicios participativos con los productores. El análisis de los resultados se abordó bajo las categorías de los atributos y las dimensiones de sustentabilidad. Los resultados de la comparación indican una mayor sustentabilidad para el caso orgánico con 67.75%, ya que en el convencional fue de 47.32%. El caso orgánico se acercó más a los valores deseables debido a sus valores en los atributos de adaptabilidad, equidad y autogestión. En el análisis por dimensión de sustentabilidad, el caso orgánico obtuvo resultados más elevados de sustentabilidad, especialmente en la dimensión ambiental. Ambos sistemas pueden mejorar su nivel de sustentabilidad si se realiza un manejo agroecológico integral que contemple la actualización de los conocimientos y habilidades a través de la asistencia profesional, la participación en los mercados locales y fomente la autonomía de las unidades de producción. Abstract in english The Framework for the Evaluation of Natural Resources Management Systems Incorporating Sustainability Indicators (MESMIS) was used to comparatively evaluate the sustainability of two cocoa production farms in the municipality of Comalcalco, Tabasco during 2006. The method of Case Studies was used co [...] mbining quantitative and qualitative approaches of research, and including participative methods. Two cocoa production farms, one organic and one conventional were selected with the aid of key informants. Sustainability was evaluated using 22 indicators selected after identifying critical points in each case and applying participative exercises with the farmers. The analysis of the results considered the categories of the attributes and the dimensions of sustainability. The results revealed that the highest sustainability was obtained by the organic farm with a sustainability value of 67.75 %, the conventional value being 47.32 %. The organic farm was nearer the desirable value of sustainability as a result of its values of adaptability, equity and self-sufficiency. In the analysis of the dimensions of sustainability, the organic farm scored the highest sustainability values, particularly in the Environmental dimension. Both systems of production can improve their sustainability if an integral agroecological management is implemented including the updating of knowledge and practical skills through professional assistance, the involvement of the farmers in local markets and the promotion of the autonomy of the farms.

  14. Pharmacists´ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates / Actitud, conocimiento y percepciones de los farmacéuticos hacia el uso de plantas medicinales en Abu Dhabi, Emiratos Árabes Unidos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahar A., Fahmy; Shajahan, Abdu; Mohammed, Abuelkhair.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El propósito del estudio fue evaluar la práctica actual de los farmacéuticos, las percepciones y el conocimiento sobre el uso de plantas medicinales en Abu Dhabi, Emiratos Árabes Unidos (EAU). El estudio evaluó la necesidad de incorporar las plantas medicinales como materia separada en el [...] currículo de los estudiantes de farmacia. Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 600 farmacéuticos empleados en Abu Dhabi, que fueron contactados electrónicamente, de los que 271 completaron la encuesta. Los datos se recogieron utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: El uso de plantas medicinales es elevado en EAU, ya que existe una creencia sobre la alta efectividad de estos productos, y sólo la edad fue la variable más predominante que influenció el uso personal de plantas medicinales por los farmacéuticos (p-value=0.0171). Los farmacéuticos tenían más conocimientos de los usos/indicaciones de las plantas medicinales (47%) que de otras áreas. El conocimiento del modo de dispensación (prescripción o over-the-counter) obligado por el Ministerio de Salud era bastante bueno, sin embargo se vio que la fuente de información para la dispensación eran los representantes médicos (48%). El conocimiento del modo de dispensación pareció estar influenciado significativamente por el lugar de trabajo, con mayor conocimiento los que trabajaban en el sector privado (p-value 0.0007). Los resultados del estudio también señalan la necesidad de incluir las plantas medicinales como materia separada en el currículo de la facultad de farmacia y de proporcionar más seminarios y programas de formación continua enfocados hacia los farmacéuticos del Emirato de Abu Dhabi. Conclusiones: Los farmacéuticos necesitan estar informados de indicaciones, interacciones, efectos adversos y precauciones de las plantas medicinales. Las entidades relacionadas también deben proporcionarles programas de formación continua regulares además de incluir los aspectos relevantes de las plantas medicinales en el currículo de los estudiantes de farmacia. Abstract in english Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists´ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student [...] curricula. Methods: The study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in Abu Dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results: Pharmacists´ use of herbal products is high in the UAE, as they have a high belief on the effectiveness of herbal products, and only age was found to be the most predominant variable that was influencing pharmacists´ personal use of herbal products (p-value=0.0171). Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on the uses/indications of herbal products (47%) rather than on other areas. Knowledge of the dispensing mode (prescription only or over the counter medicines) mandated by the Ministry of Health was quite good, however, it is to be noted that the source of information on the dispensing mode was provided by medical representatives (48%). Knowledge of dispensing mode of herbal products was found to be significantly influenced by the place of work with more knowledge of the dispensing mode by pharmacists working in the private sector (p-value 0.0007). The results from the study also underscores the need for including herbal medicine as a separate topic in pharmacy college curriculum and to provide for more seminars and continuing pharmacy education programs targeting pharmacists in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Conclusions: Pharmacists need to be informed on indications, drug interactions, adverse events and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their efforts to incorporate relevant topics on herbal medicine in the pharmacy stud

  15. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

  16. Prevalence and Characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Strains Isolated from Stray Dog and Coyote Feces in a Major Leafy Greens Production Region at the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Hake, Alexis F.; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010–2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area. PMID:25412333

  17. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.)

  18. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water production for solar desalination units.

  19. 75 FR 67776 - Comment Request; Review of Productivity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...productivity for major sectors and industries of the United States economy. BLS periodically conducts formal reviews of its...productivity for major sectors and industries of the United States economy. The Office of Productivity and Technology...

  20. Statistical Optimization for Application of Nonionic Surfactants in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Palm Fiber for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatuporn Parnthong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Palm fiber is a lignocellulosic material, which is available in large quantity from oil palm industry. Due to its cellulosic structure, it is considered as a highly potential alternative material for ethanol production. Thus, the palm fiber is utilized as a raw material in this study. The palm fiber is obtained from local industry and mechanically ground to reduce the size in the range of 0.417-1 mm. Then, it is pretreated with 10% sodium hydroxide. Then, it is further utilized in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The commercial cellulase enzyme (Trichoderma reesei is employed in this study. The nonionic surfactant (Tween80 is applied to enhance the conversion of cellulose to sugar. In the experiment, the effects of enzyme loading, surfactant concentration, and hydrolysis time on sugar yield are investigated at 50 ?C and pH 5. By employing the response surface methodology, optimum sugar yield was obtained at as high as 67.65 % from palm fiber at 107 h hydrolysis time, 20 FPU/g substrate enzyme loading, and 7.39 g/L surfactant concentration

  1. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal I. Daoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

  2. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has developed slowly. Since achieving independence in 1971, the UAE has begun to strengthen its federal institutions. The UAE has no political parties. Prior to oil production, the UAE economy was dominated by fishing, agriculture, and herding. Since the rise of oil prices in 1973, petroleum has dominated the economy, accounting for almost all of its export earnings and providing significant opportunities for productive investment. The UAE has huge proven oil reserves estimated at 32.4 billion barrels and gas reserves of 810 million cubic meters. As in most of the oil-rich Persian Gulf, the 1974-77 boom in the UAE has ended. For some years the US has enjoyed friend, informal relations with the Trucial Shaikhdoms, a relationship built on important and mutually advantageous private US contacts in the area. PMID:12178108

  3. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and national sovereignty: An appraisal of United States-measures affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    TV, Warikandwa; PC, Osode.

    1263-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absen [...] ce of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes) have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  4. Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California / Economic rent of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Fisheries Typical Production Units in the Gulf of California

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor, Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio, Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán, Ponce-Díaz; Luis, Almendarez-Hernández.

    Full Text Available La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empr [...] esas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas cala-mareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades representativas de producción (URP): una que opera en BCS con 10 embarcaciones menores, recibe anualmente $2722,000.00 pesos por la venta de calamar, invierte el 68% en pago de mano de obra y obtuvo una razón beneficio-costo de 1.74. La otra trabaja con 5 barcos desde puertos en SON, recibe $4027,000.00 pesos de ingresos totales anuales (54% del camarón, 18% del calamar y 22% del subsidio al diesel); el costo del combustible representa el 52% de los egresos y la razón beneficio-costo en 2008 fue de 0.93. Abstract in english The jumbo squid fishery in Mexico is mainly performed off the Baja California Sur (BCS) and Sonora (SON) coasts in the Gulf of California by cooperatives and private firms which operate outboard boats (pangas) or shrimp trawlers. The differences in economic returns of each type of fleet were estimat [...] ed through the characterization of typical production units (TPU). The TPU of BCS, with 10 pangas, obtains Mexican pesos $2722,000.00 annually from squid sales and pays 68% of it in salaries. The TPU in SON, with 5 shrimp trawlers, earns Mexican pesos $4027,000.00 annually (54% from shrimp sales, 18% from squid and, additionally receives 22% from the government for diesel subsidies); diesel costs represent 52% of the total income.

  5. Creating Thematic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diana; Young, Linda Payne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses getting started, organizing a thematic unit, developing a unit around classroom concerns, and skills students need. Discusses creating a thematic unit in American literature focused on Henry David Thoreau. Presents a series of nine questions for teachers to ask themselves when selecting a novel for use in a thematic unit with middle or…

  6. Production, safety, exchange, and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Two agents convert resources into safety investment and production while exchanging goods voluntarily. Safety investment ensures reduction of costly risk. High unit cost of safety effort reduces both productive effort and safety effort, which reduces income.

  7. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have indicated that under these conditions approximately 100,000 m3/d of potable water can be produced The use of preheated feedwater results in an improvement in water production efficiency of up to about 15% relative to a system operating at the ambient seawater temperature. This preliminary design study has shown that significant improvements in the cost of water production can be achieved through this 'marriage' of Russian small reactor technology and Canadian RO technology. The potential benefits warrant further detailed evaluation followed by a demonstration project. (author)

  8. NSP Production Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Production Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...

  9. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...

  10. PET radiopharmaceuticals production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indications of PET tomography are described. the different units of a PET radiopharmaceuticals production facility are mentioned: cyclotron or proton accelerator, radiopharmaceutical synthesis and radiopharmaceutical lab. The design criteria for complying with God Manufacturing Practice are discussed. (Author)

  11. SEARCH FOR MICROORGANISMS IN UTENSILS, MILK AND CHEESE OF THE CRAFT PRODUCTION IN SMALL UNITS OF PRODUCTION IN SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO PESQUISA DE MICRORGANISMOS EM UTENSÍLIOS, LEITE E QUEIJOS DE PRODUÇÃO ARTESANAL EM UNIDADES DE PRODUÇÃO FAMILIAR NO MUNICÍPIO DE SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Landgraf Botteon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed in order to evaluate the hygienical and sanitary features of homemade production of “Minas Frescal” cheese in small units of production in Seropédica, RJ. Samples of subclinical and clinical mastitic cows milk, production stuffs and cheese were analyzed. Several microorganisms were detected in 100% of the samples, including Salmonella spp. in a sample of cheese. The main isolated agents were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi coagulans, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. Microorganisms were isolated from the milk of clinical and subclinical mastitis cows, the production stuffs and storage and also from the cheese, confirming the inadequate thermic treatment and hygienic procedures of the utensils. The inadequate hygienic quality of the homemade cheese evaluated is of concern once the isolated microorganisms represent potential hazards to health and the product sale is direct to the consumers.

    KEY WORDS: Food safety, homemade cheese, hygienic quality.
    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para avaliar aspectos higiênico-sanitários da produção artesanal de queijo minas frescal em pequenas unidades de produção em um assentamento de reforma agrária em Seropédica, RJ. Analisaram-se amostras de leite, queijo e utensílios utilizados em diferentes etapas da linha de produção. Verificou-se a presença de microrganismos diversos, incluindo-se Salmonella spp. em uma amostra de queijo. Os principais agentes isolados foram Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi coagulans, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp. e Micrococcus spp. Isolaram-se microrganismos de quartos mamários de vacas com mastite clínica ou subclínica, de amostras de leite do latão, de utensílios e recipientes utilizados na linha de produção, assim como do queijo, confirmando a inadequação do tratamento térmico e das práticas de higiene adotadas para os utensílios. A má qualidade higiênica do queijo produzido no assentamento constitui uma preocupação, haja vista que alguns dos agentes isolados representam risco à saúde, uma vez que o produto é comercializado diretamente ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Qualidade higiênica, queijo minas frescal artesanal, segurança alimentar.

  12. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

  13. Use of surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and lactic acid production from rice straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Peng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic waste by-products worldwide and provides an alternative substrate to produce useful chemicals such as bioethanol and lactic acid. However, higher enzyme loadings are needed to obtain a higher product yield, which makes the large-scale utilization economically difficult. The presence of non-ionic surfactants and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics has been found to increase the conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars. We have found that adding 0.2g g-1 substrate of polyoxyethylene(20 sorbitan monooleate (PSM or high-mass PEG increased the sugar yield by 22% and 12%, respectively, when enzyme loading was at 10FPU g-1 for 24h. PSM behaved better than PEG when different substrate concentrations, temperatures, and enzyme loadings were investigated. PSM provides an opportunity to reduce enzyme dosage while still keeping the same extent of hydrolysis. We also investigated the effect of PSM on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated RS to lactic acid. Results showed that addition of 0.7g L-1 PSM improved the lactic acid production by 24% compared to the reference without PSM addition at 72h.

  14. Formation of layer-by-layer assembled titanate nanotubes filled coating on flexible polyurethane foam with improved flame retardant and smoke suppression properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-14

    A fire blocking coating made from chitosan, titanate nanotubes and alginate was deposited on a flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam surface by a layer-by-layer assembly technique in an effort to reduce its flammability. First, titanate nanotubes were prepared by a hydrothermal method. And then the coating growth was carried out by alternately submerging FPU foams into chitosan solution, titanate nanotubes suspension and alginate solution. The mass gain of coating on the surface of FPU foams showed dependency on the concentration of titanate nanotubes suspension and the trilayers's number. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that titanate nanotubes were distributed well on the entire surface of FPU foam and showed a randomly oriented and entangled network structure. The cone calorimeter result indicated that the coated FPU foams showed reduction in the peak heat release rate (peak HRR), peak smoke production rate (peak SPR), total smoke release (TSR) and peak carbon monoxide (CO) production compared with those of the control FPU foam. Especially for the FPU foam with only 5.65 wt % mass gain, great reduction in peak HRR (70.2%), peak SPR (62.8%), TSR (40.9%) and peak CO production (63.5%) could be observed. Such a significant improvement in flame retardancy and the smoke suppression property for FPU foam could be attributed to the protective effect of titanate nanotubes network structure formed, including insulating barrier effect and adsorption effect. PMID:25496211

  15. Proyección económica de unidades representativas de producción en caprinos en la Comarca Lagunera, México / Economic projection of representative production units of caprine cattle in the Comarca Lagunera region, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Orona Castillo; Dora Ma., Sangerman-Jarquín; Jacob, Antonio-González; Enrique, Salazar Sosa; José Luis, García Hernández; Agustín, Navarro-Bravo; Rita, Schwentesius de Rindermann.

    2013-06-29

    Full Text Available La caprinocultura en México es importante por la cantidad de familias rurales que dependen de ésta, estimada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía en 250 mil. Sin embargo, por tradición, para apoyar la actividad, el gobierno mexicano a través de Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, P [...] esca y Alimentación, considera que todos los productores dedicados a las cabras tienen condiciones tecnológicas iguales, y que todos se dedican a producir lo mismo. La realidad es que los productores son diferentes entre sí, por regiones, entidades y al interior mismo de una localidad, por lo que el tipo de apoyos que se canalice debe ser acorde a sus necesidades y características. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la proyección de la viabilidad económica y financiera de una Unidad Representativa de Producción (URP) productora de leche y cabrito bajo un sistema de producción extensivo para el periodo 2008-2018 en el municipio de Lerdo Durango, ubicado en la región Comarca Lagunera, tomando como año base el comportamiento económico de las URP en 2008 y a partir de ello identificar qué componentes tecnológicos deben apoyarse para incrementar la rentabilidad de éste tipo de sistema productivo. Los datos necesarios para llevar a cabo este estudio y formar la URP productora de leche y cabrito surgieron de paneles de productores realizados en el ejido La Loma, Durango. El análisis económico y de simulación se llevó a cabo en el modelo de simulación agroeconómica MexSim, cuyos resultados muestran un comportamiento futuro positivo a los productores dedicados a esta actividad que cuenten con un hato de 100 vientres y produzcan leche y cabrito. Abstract in english In México, caprine cattle breeding is important due to the families living in rural areas who depend on the activity; according to estimations made by the National Institute for Statistics and Geography, there are about 250 thousand animals in México. Nevertheless, traditionally and so as to show su [...] pport for this activity, the Mexican government, represented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Stockbreeding, Fishing and Food, considers that all the producers who breed goats have access to the same technology, and that all of them produce the same thing. In reality, producers have differences according to the region, entity and even within the same township, and so the type of support they receive must be according to their needs and characteristics. The objective of this paper is to present the economic and financial feasibility projection for a Representative Production Unit (URP, in Spanish), which would produce milk and kid, under an extensive production system for the period that goes from 2008-2018, in the municipality of Lerdo, Durango, located in the region known as Comarca Lagunera, taking as baseline year the economic behavior shown by the URPs in 2008, and deriving from it the identification of the technologic components which need support in order to increase the profitability of this kind of productive system. The data required to undertake this study and establish the milk and kid producing URP, came from panel s of producers presented at the common land of La Loma, state of Durango. The economic and simulation analysis was realized within the agro-economic simulation model MexSim, which results show a positive behavior in the future for the producers focused in this activity, who own a herd of 100 breeding stock, and produce milk and kid.

  16. Unit Hydrograph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2005-12-27

    The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is to provide an estimate of streamflow given the precipitation. A unit hydrograph shows the temporal change in flow, or discharge, per unit of runoff from excess precipitation. In other words, the unit hydrograph shows how the flow of a stream will be affected over time by the addition of one unit of runoff. This module offers a thorough introduction to the use of unit hydrographs and the application of unit hydrograph theory in flood prediction. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and assumptions, outlines the steps in creation of a unit hydrograph, examines the issues surrounding application of unit hydrograph theory, and discusses important considerations for forecasters.

  17. Reliability and Availability Analysis of Database System with Standby Unit Provided by the System Provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhvir Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the study of a database system having Primary database and hot standby database unit which is provided by the system provider itself. There is an agreement with the system provider that on the failure of the hot standby unit, another similar unit is immediately provided by him. The primary unit is a production unit and synchronized with hot standby unit through online transfer of archive redo logs. Data being saved in the primary unit gets simultaneously stored in the hot standby unit. When the primary database unit fails, the hot standby database unit becomes the production database and primary database unit goes under repair. The system is analyzed by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Expression for Mean Time to System Failure, Mean Time to Failure of Primary Database Unit and Availability of Primary Unit are obtained. Graphical study has also been done.

  18. A systematic review of the safety information contained within the Summaries of Product Characteristics of medications licensed in the United Kingdom for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. how does the safety prescribing advice compare with national guidance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savill Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety of paediatric medications is paramount and contraindications provide clear pragmatic advice. Further advice may be accessed through Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs and relevant national guidelines. The SPC can be considered the ultimate independent guideline and is regularly updated. In 2008, the authors undertook a systematic review of the SPC contraindications of medications licensed in the United Kingdom (UK for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. At that time, there were fewer contraindications reported in the SPC for atomoxetine than methylphenidate and the specific contraindications varied considerably amongst methylphenidate formulations. In 2009, the European Medicines Agency (EMA mandated harmonisation of methylphenidate SPCs. Between September and November 2011, there were three changes to the atomoxetine SPC that resulted in revised prescribing information. In addition, Clinical Guidance has also been produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE (2008, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN (2009 and the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC. Methods An updated systematic review of the Contraindications sections of the SPCs of all medications currently licensed for treatment of ADHD in the UK was undertaken and independent statements regarding contraindications and relevant warnings and precautions were then compared with UK national guidance with the aim of assessing any disparity and potential areas of confusion for prescribers. Results As of November 2011, there were seven medications available in the UK for the treatment of ADHD. There are 15 contraindications for most formulations of methylphenidate, 14 for dexamfetamine and 5 for atomoxetine. Significant differences exist between the SPCs and national guidance part due to the ongoing reactive process of amending the former as new information becomes known. In addition, recommendations are made outside UK SPC licensed indications and a significant contraindication for methylphenidate (suicidal behaviours is missing from both the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Particular disparity exists relating to monitoring for suicidal and psychiatric side effects. The BNFC has not yet been updated in line with the European Union (EU Directive on methylphenidate; it does not include any contraindications for atomoxetine but describes contraindications for methylphenidate that are no longer in the SPC. Conclusion Clinicians seeking prescribing advice from critical independent sources of data, such as SPCs and national guidelines, may be confused by the disparity that exists. There are major differences between guidelines and SPCs and neither should be referred to in isolation. The SPC represents the most relevant source of safety data to aid prescribing of medications for ADHD as they present the most current safety data in line with increased exposure. National guidelines may need more regular updates.

  19. Márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal de vaca en unidades de producción familiar en Totoremo, Venezuela Cesar / Marketing profits of cattle handmade cheese in family production units in Totoremo, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    , Araque; Aleyda, Delgado; Wilmer, Armas; Arlenis, Albornoz; Valentín, Espinosa; Tonny, Quijada.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar los márgenes de comercialización del queso artesanal bovino elaborado en unidades de producción familiar, se realizó una investigación de campo descriptiva, en la comunidad de Totoremo, municipio Urdaneta, estado Lara, Venezuela. Se identificaron los agentes participantes [...] del mercado, los canales de comercialización utilizados y se calcularon los márgenes de comercialización y la participación directa del productor, en base a entrevistas a productores de ese sistema familiar y transportistas de la zona, durante el año 2008. Los resultados muestran que de 22 productores entrevistados, el 95% realiza la venta directamente a transportistas. El canal de comercialización más común fue: productor (quesero en finca), comprador-transportista, comercio detallista y consumidor final. Los precios promedios al productor y al consumidor de 3,25 US$ y 5,34 US$, respectivamente. El margen bruto de comercialización (MBC) obtenido fue 39,13%, el margen neto de comercialización (MNC) de 38,38% y la participación directa del productor (PDP) de 61%. Se concluye, que en la comercialización del queso artesanal el 39% del precio del consumidor se queda en el sistema intermediario y el 61% en el productor Abstract in english In order to analyze the marketing channels and margins of commercialization of cattle handmade cheese, elaborated in family production units it was carried out a study in Totoremo community, Urdaneta Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela. There were identified the actors involved in the market, market [...] ing channels and margins of commercialization and direct participation of the farmers, based on interviews with producers of that family system and carriers in the area in 2008. The results show that of 22 farmers interviewed, 95% make the sale directly to carriers. The most common marketing channel was: producer (on-farm cheese), buyer-carrier, retail and consumer. The average price to the producer and consumer of 3,25 U.S. $ and 5,34 U.S. dollars, respectively. Marketing gross margin (MBC) obtained was 39,13%, the net marketing margin (MNC) of 38,38% and the direct participation of the producer (PDP) of 61%. We conclude that in the marketing of artisanal cheese 39% of the consumer price remains in the buffer system and 61% in the producer

  20. A Novel Architecture for Effective and Efficient Unit Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Chandra Pandey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Testing is the most important method used to validate a software product. Unit testing is an efficient method of detecting and isolating defects in individual units of code.In this thesis we explore some issues relating to the unit testing of object-oriented systems, using the experimental approach for validation Specifically we Proposes a framework for assessing the effectiveness and the efficiency of unit testing and applies it to evaluate different coverage criteria.

  1. United States Access Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Access Board Advancing Full Access and Inclusion for All The Board Guidelines & Standards Training Enforcement Research ... from the Access Board: Board Newsletter: Access Currents United States Access Board 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000 ...

  2. Conversion of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-18

    This units conversion tool for science students and scientists allows users to enter a numerical value and a permissible unit (or select from a menu) and subsequently select the "wanted" unit from another menu. There is a separate tool for temperature conversions. It is also available in German.

  3. Integrating Unit Testing Processes into Large Legacy Software System Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the improvements of software development processes of a legacy software product after introducing unit testing methodologies. The results and effects on unit testing process and unit testability of Product X were analysed for a period of six years, from late 2007 to 2013. The study showed that setting up a unit-testing-friendly environment for software engineers can take years of time in a challenging product environment. Improvements started b...

  4. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  5. United Kingdom position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined

  6. Productivity: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Carl

    This training package explains productivity in terms of the difference between worker output and company input. Output is defined in terms of the products and/or services of an organization (number and/or quality of units produced, efficiency of time use, marginal profits) and in terms of behavior (labor turnover, disruptions in routine, wasted…

  7. Consumer Product Disassembly Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzali, Joe

    This document from Joe Orzali provides a classroom unit on consumer product disassembly. Students are asked to "critically analyze the life cycle of products," which will help them better understand larger related concepts like systems thinking, global climate change, ecological preservation and how what we buy and how items are produced impacts our environment. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  8. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  9. Diseño de un Coprocesador Matemático de Precisión Simple usando el Spartan 3E / Design of Mathematical Coprocessor of Simple Precision using Spartan 3E

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Antonio, Álvarez; Michael, Lindig B..

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Una Unidad de Punto Flotante (Floating Point Unit en inglés) o, más comúnmente conocido como coprocesador matemático, es un componente de la CPU especializado en las operaciones de punto flotante. Las operaciones básicas que toda FPU puede realizar son las aritméticas (suma y multiplicación), si bie [...] n algunos sistemas más complejos son capaces también de realizar cálculos trigonométricos o exponenciales. No todas las CPUs tienen una FPU dedicada. En ausencia de FPU, la CPU puede utilizar programas en microcódigo para emular una función en punto flotante a través de la unidad aritméticológica (ALU), la cual reduce el costo del hardware a cambio de una sensible pérdida de velocidad. El objetivo de este articulo, es mostrar como puede ser implementado un coprocesador matemático utilizando VHDL, para su implementación en cualquier FPGA. Abstract in english Floating Point Unit (FPU) is also known as mathematical coprocessor and is a specialized component of the CPU dedicated to floating point operations. Basic operations of any FPU are arithmetic (sum and multiplication), though some more complex systems are also able to perform trigonometric or expone [...] ntial calculations. Not all CPUs have an additional FPU. If there is no FPU present, then CPU can use some programs written in microcode for emulation of floating point operations using arithmetic-logical unit (ALU). This reduces the cost of the hardware but slow down the processing speed. The purpose of this paper is to propose an implementation of the mathematical coprocessor using VHDL, for its further implementation in FPGA.

  10. Potential of mass algae production in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, A; Fekri, M

    1984-11-01

    The rationale for efficient light absorption by algae at a production unit is given and design details of an intensive thin-layer technology outdoor (2.11 m(2)) unit are presented. Data on productivity under extreme conditions were collected. Maximum productivity data are close to those reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. PMID:18551651

  11. The puzzling units of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the different units used in radioprotection and dosimetry: Becquerel (Bq), Gray (Gy) and Sievert (Sv). Their definitions and their domains of use are clarified. 2 examples are given: Cs137, an artificial nuclide released in nuclear accidents and uranium and its decay products that contribute to natural radioactivity. It is recalled that each year the Rhone river carries 100 tonnes of natural uranium that comes mostly from rainwater runoff and yet an incident at the Tricastin plant that led to the release of 74 kg of uranium in the environment for 2 days triggered a large anxiety among the population. (A.C.)

  12. Obtención de un ranking de unidades productivas a través del análisis envolvente de datos / Obtention d'une classification d'unités productives par l'analyse envelopp ante de données / Obtaining a ranking of productive units through Data Envelopment Analysis / Obtenção de um ranking de unidades produtivas através da análise envoltória de dados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Solana-Ibáñez.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho considera-se o problema da obtenção de um ranking de unidades produtivas no contexto da técnica não-paramétrica da análise envoltória de dados (DEA). Centrarse- á a atenção no modelo da supereficiência (SDEA) segundo a proposta de Andersen e Petersen (1993); desde seu trabalho, tem-se [...] procurado melhorar a capacidade de discriminação da DEA. Analisar-se-ão os principais problemas, em especial o da infactibilidade do modelo SDEA e as soluções oferecidas desde a área, e a utilidade adicional do modelo SDEA para obter informação sobre a identidade de cada unidade avaliada. Uma primeira contribuição própria deste trabalho indicará que onde a infactibilidade impeça um ranking coerente, a classificação ordinal das unidades em função de seu status e seu coeficiente SDEA pode servir de substitutivo. Finalmente, um exemplo ilustrativo servirá para introduzir no cenário uma possibilidade não considerada em outros trabalhos: o modelo SDEA aplicado a modelos globais. Os resultados indicam que, em geral, cabe esperar uma maior homogeneidade na classificação obtida de cada modelo. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se considera el problema de la obtención de un ranking de unidades productivas en el contexto de la técnica no paramétrica del análisis envolvente de datos (DEA). Se centrará la atención en la modelización supereficiente (SDEA) según la propuesta de Andersen y Petersen (1993); desde [...] su trabajo, se ha intentado mejorar la capacidad de discriminación del DEA. Se analizarán los principales problemas, en especial el de la infactibilidad del modelo SDEA y las soluciones aportadas desde el área, y la utilidad adicional de la modelización SDEA para obtener información sobre la identidad de cada unidad evaluada. Una primera aportación propia de este trabajo indicará que allá donde la infactibilidad impida un ranking coherente, la clasificación ordinal de las unidades en función de su estatus y su coeficiente SDEA puede servir de sustitutivo. Finalmente, un ejemplo ilustrativo servirá para introducir en escena una posibilidad no considerada en otros trabajos: la modelización SDEA aplicada a modelos globales. Los resultados indican que, en general, cabe esperar una mayor homogeneidad en la clasificación obtenida de cada modelo. Abstract in english This work considers the problem of obtaining a ranking of productive units in the context of the nonparametric technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). It focuses on superefficient modeling (SDEA) according to the proposal by Andersen and Petersen (1993); based on their work, attempts have been [...] made to improve the capacity for discrimination of DEA. The main problems are analyzed, particularly the infeasibility of the SDEA model and the solutions provided from that field, as well as the additional usefulness of SDEA modeling to obtain information on the identity of each evaluated unit. A preliminary contribution inherent to this work indicates that where infeasibility impedes a coherent ranking, the ordinal classification of the units as a function of their status and their SDEA coefficient can serve as a replacement. Finally, an illustrative example serves to introduce a possibility that had not been considered in other works: SDEA modeling applied to global models. The results indicate that in general we may expect greater homogeneity in the classification obtained in each model.

  13. 78 FR 24195 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...technical products, listed in Table 1. of Unit II., will be effective...allethrins end use products listed in Table 2. of Unit II. will be effective...of the products identified in Tables 1. and 2. of Unit II. in a manner inconsistent with any of...

  14. ANALISIS SUBSIDI SILANG ANTAR UNIT PRODUKSI DI RSUD WONOGIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Trihandoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cost Recovery Rate (CRR for production unit at District Hospital was influenced each income level to expect establishing cross-subsidy concept for equity of health care service. The case research performed at 1 (one District Hospital in Central Java Province Wonogiri District Hospital. The data is collected by observing available research result of writer in 2000 and the financial data collection 2001 by applies adjustment with Consumption Price Index (CPI of budget 2000. There are 2 methods of cost calculation namely full cost and direct cost. The research result shows tha the highest production unit income at Wonogiri Distric Hospital 2000 is from hospital wards and the lowest from electrical diagnostic, in 2001 the highest also from hospital wards and the lowest from operation room (OK. Full cost calculation defind that biggest total cost at production unit of year 2000 at Wonogiri Distric Hospital is hospital wards and the lowest electro diagnostic, in 2001 the biggest and the lowest are also from hospital ward and electro diagnostic. If calculation with direct cost the bigest and the lowest in 2000 are hospital wards and electro diagnostic, in 2001 the bigest and the lowest also from hospital wards and electro diagnostic. CRR at Wonogiri Distric Hospital full cost calculation difine that there are 2 production units having CRR > 100%, CRR percentage of retribution at Wonogiri District Hospital 35.27 and 29.95%, and direct cost calculation define also 2 production units having CRR > 100%, CRR percentage of distribution at Wonogiri District Hospital 56.98 and 47.09%. Full cost calculation business yield remaining (SHU of production unit at Wonogiri District hospital in 2000 and 2001 almost never have positive SHU that there are some production units having positive SHU where such cross subsidy is establish among production units. However total SHU from total retribution show negative result.   Keywords: hospital, production unit, cross subsidy

  15. Station Master Indication Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Brahmani, A.; Suresh, B.

    2014-01-01

    To give reliable visual information to the Station Master about the gate status (OPEN /CLOSE) of corresponding LC Gates. Closure and opening of the LC gate is identified using digital input. The digital input is connected to the Gate logger. Gate logger transmits this data to Communication unit at station through modem communication. Communication unit process the data and controls the tele control relays, based on the status of Gate. LED based SM indication unit is located on the top of the ...

  16. Sample preparation unit (SPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample preparation influences on the final results of mass spectrometric analysis. The sample preparation unit has been designed and used to automate the uranium and plutonium samples preparation. The sample drop is dried and oxidized before introducing to the ion source. The unit and the procedure has improved the reproducibility of mass spectrometric analysis. The technical specifications and instructions for the use of the sample preparation unit are described

  17. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  18. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  19. 77 FR 2087 - Certain Silicon Microphone Packages and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ...Inv. No. 337-TA-825] Certain Silicon Microphone Packages and Products Containing...United States after importation of certain silicon microphone packages and products containing...United States after importation of certain silicon microphone packages and products...

  20. Genetic algorithm using to the solution of unit commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Parashar#1,Kuldeep Kumar Swankar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents for the solution of unit commitment and constrained problem by genetic algorithm. The unit commitment word in power system using for deciding and planning for using generating unit according to load demand at particular hour and any time. Genetic algorithm is an evolutionary algorithm which works on the principle of natural selection like "survival of fittest". In the case study 5power generating units system for 24 hour period of cycle. The aim of this paper is detract the total production cost including all constraints, and generate a system for economically use of power generating unit.

  1. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM GRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    World ethanol production and use of ethanol as motor fuel is increasing. In the United States, 6.3 billion gallons (24 billion liters) of new annual production capacity was planned or under construction in 2007, in addition to annual production capacity of 6.1 billion gallons (23 billion liters) fr...

  2. Prototype unit for the air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it has the objective of to design and to manufacture an unit that took advantage of the filters of national production in appropriate form, and to offer a wide protection to the maintenance personnel that carries out the replacement, besides to be able to be installed in any position and to facilitate the adsorber installation

  3. Entomology Unit annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in the 2002 Annual Report an improved medfly genetic sexing strain (GSS) was developed, VIENNA 8. This strain shows improved production characteristics and will have a major impact on the production efficiency in SIT rearing facilities. During 2003 this strain was transferred to four rearing facilities in Guatemala, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia based on acceptable QC data developed for the strain in the Unit. For the first time the strain was transferred to the different facilities under an agreement that prevents further distribution to third parties without consent of the Unit. In the past, strains originating from the Unit have been freely exchanged within the medfly SIT community, sometimes with not always the best results. During 2003 there has been a substantial increase in the resources devoted to activities in fruit flies other than medfly e.g. Bactrocera oleae and Anastrepha fraterculus. Rearing of the olive fly, B. oleae has traditionally not been straightforward due to the very specific, and expensive, larval diet that is required by this monophagous pest. With the disappearance of an essential larval diet component from the commercial market an urgent search is underway for an alternative. In 2004, experiments will be carried out to identify improved larval diets. For A. fraterculus, a large-scale evaluation of mating compatibility between different geographical races has been carried out by a consultant. Progress has been made in the containerised rearing of tsetse fly colonies. The container required considerable work before the temperature and humidity controls were suitable for tsetse rearing and a closed colony of Glossina fuscipes is now being reared. Discussions are now underway to install a version of TPU 3.2 (an automated tsetse feeding and production unit) in the container. A protocol for the handling, irradiation and eventual release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse has been formulated and it will involve at least two chilling periods, one during radiation and one during transport and release. A temperature regime to accommodate these procedures was developed and successfully tested. A preliminary experiment using infrared scanning to sex tsetse pupae was successful and further tests will be carried out in 2004. In June 2003 the mosquito rearing laboratory was completed and a colony of Anopheles arabiensis established

  4. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  5. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  6. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  7. Replacing an Existing Product's Production Within a Similar Product Production by Using a Replacement Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kova? Kralj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Existing processes for specific products cannot sustain operational profitably over a long period. The product’s price is not much higher than the raw material costs and it is necessary to make certain modifications by using savings or replacements during product production. In our case, the production of methanol having a low market value would be replaced by the production of dimethyl ether (DME. This would create greater demand, especially from the environmental perspective, and can be achieved by using replacement technique. We want to keep and transfer as many of the existing units from the previous production to the new production. Dimethyl ether is an organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3.  It is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds, and an aerosol propellant. DME can act as a clean fuel when burned in engines properly optimized for DME. The direct production of DME would be cheaper than indirect when applied for new buildings. The same applies for retrofits, or the replacing of existing methanol - specific production – a similar DME product plant would be more rational for the direct production of DME, because of greater efficiency, productivity of DME production, profit, and for 20 % more electricity generation.

    Key words: Dimetyl ether; Replacement; Methanol process; Indirect method; Direct method; Retrofit

  8. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  9. 76 FR 28213 - Certain Lined Paper Products From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...On April 27, 2011, the United States Court of International Trade...Paper Products Co., Ltd. v. United States, Court No. 09-00198, Slip Op...Paper Products Co., Ltd. v. United States, Court No. 09-00198, Slip...

  10. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to discourage investors due to the high capital investment relative to low US ethanol price. Nevertheless, the economics of autohydrolysis can be substantially improved by upgrading the value of unhydrolyzed residues, such as the fuel pellets. Moreover, the utilization of proven technology and equipment renders autohydrolysis adaptable to pulp and paper industrial. Attractive economics have been found when autohydrolysis based bioethanol plant is co-located to a pulp and paper mill or the distressed pulp and paper mill is being repurposed to produce bioethanol. An alternative to autohydrolysis combined with refining, thermomechanical pulping (TMP) process has been evaluated using corn stover as the feedstock. A significant low solids yield after the pretreatment process has been observed due to the harsh condition operated and the limitation of lab equipment. But the TMP process has great potential to be employed as a pretreatment for bioethanol production in an industrial scale if the process is optimized.

  11. 15 CFR 295.3 - Eligibility of United States- and foreign-owned businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...investments in the United States in research, development, and manufacturing (including...manufacture within the United States of products resulting from that technology (taking...Companies owned by legal residents (green card holders) may apply to the...

  12. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the unit commitment in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which means that production planning must be done in coordination. We introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of unit...

  13. Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States Are Safe

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Basics Metrics Watch: FDA Basics Videos FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United ... product off the market." - Show all related FDA Basics Questions FDA Webinar on Tattoos and Permanent Makeup ...

  14. Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States Are Safe

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics Metrics Watch: FDA Basics Videos FDA Basics Video: Ensuring That Cosmetics Used in the United States ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs ...

  15. 9 CFR 98.16 - The embryo collection unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos From Regions...the following requirements are met: (a) Animal holding and breeding area(s). The embryo collection unit...

  16. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States...States. (b) Perishable agricultural commodities, peanuts, ginseng, pecans, and macadamia nuts: from products produced in...

  17. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  18. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 29 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events

  19. A Dictionary of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students and teachers alike will appreciate the very helpful Dictionary of Units Web Site. As part of the Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, the site "provides a summary of most of the units of measurement to be found in use around the world today (and a few of historical interest), together with the appropriate conversion factors needed to change them into a 'standard' unit of the Systeme International." The single (long) page contains everything a student would need to figure out a scientific conversion and understand different systems of measurement, as well as other historical and interesting facts about "Metrication."

  20. A Unit Concept for GST: "Change in Relationships."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A change in focus of much of the work of the Society for General Systems Research for greater impact, relevance, and productivity is suggested. Tentative unit concepts for 23 areas of study or disciplines are explored. A unit concept is defined as the central, pivotal concept around which virtually all other basic concepts in a field revolve. The…

  1. Value - Added Products From Beekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    0000-00-00

    FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 124 This is an online book published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. It deals in depth with products from bees, besides honey, wax, royal jelly, propolis, and venom are covered.

  2. Exergy Analysis of a Reactive Distillation MTBE Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, M.; Ricardo Rivero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper application of exergy analysis to the reactive distillation system of a Methyl TerButyl Ether (MTBE) production unit of a crude oil refinery is presented. In a refinery, the MTBE is obtained from methanol, and butanes (isobutylenes) produced in the fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. The reactives (isobutylenes) after purification are introduced to the main reaction system, the products of which are sent to the reactive distillation system to complete the reaction....

  3. Unit 10 - Reference Manual for People & Animals: United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-07-01

    The unit in this section is: Unit 10 - On-Going Biomedical Research Each unit provides clear and comprehensive information, illustrations and slides (contained in a separate archive file in this collection) that is very helpful in developing a curriculum.

  4. GRAVITY: the Calibration Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Blind, N; Haug, M; Gillessen, S; Lippa, M; Burtscher, L; Hans, O; Haussmann, F; Huber, S; Janssen, A; Kellner, S; Kok, Y; Ott, T; Pfuhl, O; Sturm, E; Weber, J; Wieprecht, E; Amorim, A; Brandner, W; Perrin, G; Perraut, K; Straubmeier, C

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper the design and characterisation of a new sub-system of the VLTI 2nd generation instrument GRAVITY: the Calibration Unit. The Calibration Unit provides all functions to test and calibrate the beam combiner instrument: it creates two artificial stars on four beams, and dispose of four delay lines with an internal metrology. It also includes artificial stars for the tip-tilt and pupil guiding systems, as well as four metrology pick-up diodes, for tests and calibration of the corresponding sub-systems. The calibration unit also hosts the reference targets to align GRAVITY to the VLTI, and the safety shutters to avoid the metrology light to propagate in the VLTI-lab. We present the results of the characterisation and validtion of these differrent sub-units.

  5. LETSNet Global Warming Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This unit includes classroom activities to help students understand global warming and its possible effects on human beings. Lessons in the unit provide students with opportunities to study global climate changes, discuss and debate the current arguments for and against global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, investigate the possibility of global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, and present their findings in the form of research reports.

  6. Unit root testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, Jürgen; Hassler, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of unit roots in economic time series has far reaching consequences for univariate as well as multivariate econometric modelling. Therefore, unit root tests are nowadays the starting point of most empirical time series studies. The oldest and most widely used test is due to Dickey and Fuller (1979). Reviewing this test and variants thereof we focus on the importance of modelling the deterministic component. In particular, we survey the growing literature on tests accounting for...

  7. United States Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

  8. [Narrow photon-beam radiation therapy unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, B A; Tiutin, L A; Mel'nikov, L A; Vorogushin, M F; Prudnikov, I A; Klinov, A P

    1999-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology and the Research and Production Complex, Radiation Training Center, D. V. Efremov Research Institute of Experimental Physics have been the first in Russia to design a narrow photon-beam unit for stereotactic radiation therapy of intracranial small formation. Fifty one patients were treated. Thirty six presented arteriovenous malformations, 4 had hypophyseal adenomas. The hypophysis was exposed to radiation in 11 patients with prostatic cancer. The unit has been found to have great operational and clinical capacities. PMID:12717918

  9. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues. PMID:17133803

  10. 75 FR 6108 - New Postal Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...The Commission is adding Canada Post-United States Postal...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 74 FR 65169 (December 9...seeks to add a new product, Canada Post-United States Postal...3020.30 et seq. to add the Canada Post-United States...

  11. Ecoeficiência: um instrumento para a redução da geração de resíduos e desperdícios em estabelecimentos de saúde / Ecoefficiency: a tool to reduce solid waste production and waste of materials in health care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina Lúcia Silveira, Sisinno; Josino Costa, Moreira.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estabelecimentos de saúde têm como objetivo o atendimento ao paciente. Durante esse atendimento, água e energia são constantemente exigidas e diferentes materiais são utilizados, gerando efluentes líquidos e resíduos sólidos que precisam de um tratamento adequado. Embora o gerenciamento dos resíd [...] uos de serviços de saúde demande cada vez mais atenção, a redução na geração desses resíduos ainda tem merecido pouco destaque. Por meio da ecoeficiência é possível demonstrar que os padrões de uma empresa estão atingindo as metas de qualidade de produtos, de procedimentos e de controle ambiental e sendo economicamente eficientes, ou seja, são alcançados benefícios econômicos ao mesmo tempo em que são obtidos benefícios ambientais por intermédio da redução progressiva da geração de resíduos sólidos, efluentes líquidos e emissões atmosféricas. Esse novo conceito ainda precisa ser mais difundido entre os estabelecimentos da área de saúde, pois, muitos deles, apesar dos esforços para atender com qualidade, continuam negligenciando a questão do desperdício e gerando uma quantidade crescente de resíduos, o que implica não somente desperdício de matérias-primas, mas também custos adicionais para o seu gerenciamento adequado. Abstract in english The main goal of health care units is patient care. During this process, water, energy, and different materials are used, generating liquid effluents and solid waste that require adequate treatment. Although medical waste management demands increasing attention by health care units, reduction in the [...] generation of medical solid waste has still not been set as a priority. Using ecoefficiency techniques, it is possible to demonstrate whether a company is meeting it standards for quality, procedures, environmental control, and economic efficiency. Therefore, ecoefficient companies realize both economic and environmental benefits through progressive reduction in solid waste, liquid effluents, and air emissions. This new concept requires further dissemination among health care units, since many are making efforts to improve quality of services, but still overlook the issue of waste and generate an increasing amount of solid waste. This leads not only to waste of raw materials but also additional costs for proper waste management.

  12. Ecoeficiência: um instrumento para a redução da geração de resíduos e desperdícios em estabelecimentos de saúde Ecoefficiency: a tool to reduce solid waste production and waste of materials in health care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lúcia Silveira Sisinno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os estabelecimentos de saúde têm como objetivo o atendimento ao paciente. Durante esse atendimento, água e energia são constantemente exigidas e diferentes materiais são utilizados, gerando efluentes líquidos e resíduos sólidos que precisam de um tratamento adequado. Embora o gerenciamento dos resíduos de serviços de saúde demande cada vez mais atenção, a redução na geração desses resíduos ainda tem merecido pouco destaque. Por meio da ecoeficiência é possível demonstrar que os padrões de uma empresa estão atingindo as metas de qualidade de produtos, de procedimentos e de controle ambiental e sendo economicamente eficientes, ou seja, são alcançados benefícios econômicos ao mesmo tempo em que são obtidos benefícios ambientais por intermédio da redução progressiva da geração de resíduos sólidos, efluentes líquidos e emissões atmosféricas. Esse novo conceito ainda precisa ser mais difundido entre os estabelecimentos da área de saúde, pois, muitos deles, apesar dos esforços para atender com qualidade, continuam negligenciando a questão do desperdício e gerando uma quantidade crescente de resíduos, o que implica não somente desperdício de matérias-primas, mas também custos adicionais para o seu gerenciamento adequado.The main goal of health care units is patient care. During this process, water, energy, and different materials are used, generating liquid effluents and solid waste that require adequate treatment. Although medical waste management demands increasing attention by health care units, reduction in the generation of medical solid waste has still not been set as a priority. Using ecoefficiency techniques, it is possible to demonstrate whether a company is meeting it standards for quality, procedures, environmental control, and economic efficiency. Therefore, ecoefficient companies realize both economic and environmental benefits through progressive reduction in solid waste, liquid effluents, and air emissions. This new concept requires further dissemination among health care units, since many are making efforts to improve quality of services, but still overlook the issue of waste and generate an increasing amount of solid waste. This leads not only to waste of raw materials but also additional costs for proper waste management.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory – IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Developing Techniques for Small-Scale Indigenous 99Mo Production Using LEU Fission or Neutron Activation [Country report: United States of America - ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States was active in the Consultancy Meeting that defined the scope of this CRP and has been involved from the beginning as an Agreement Holder. ANL’s major role in the CRP was providing two technologies free of charge, namely: (1) the annular LEU-foil target and, (2) the LEU-Modified Cintichem process. In addition to providing a range of documents describing the fabrication, irradiation history, and disassembly of the LEU-foil target; procedures and QC for the LEU-Modified Cintichem process; and guides describing handling of radioactive materials and gamma and alpha counting of radioactive samples, ANL also worked with Indonesia to hold a workshop demonstrating all aspects of the technology for the two technologies

  14. 3-Unit System Comprising Two Types of Units with First Come First Served Repair Pattern Except When Both Types of Units are Waiting for Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goyal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we investigated the probabilistic analysis of a three unit system working in a sugar Mill, wherein one unit is big and the other two units are small and identical, is examined. Upon failure of the big unit, both small units are made operative and failed unit is undertaken for repair immediately. Priority for operation is given to the big unit. Priority for repair is given to big unit if both types (i.e., big and small of units are in queue to get the repair done. System is able to work with full capacity only if big unit or both small units are in good condition. If only one small unit is operable, the system works at reduced capacity. The system under consideration goes to rest during the non-seasonal period. Approach: System was analyzed by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique and various measures of the system effectiveness are obtained including the profit incurred to the system. Results: Graphs had been plotted to depict the behavior of the profit with respect to failure rate for different values of repair rate and with respect to revenue per unit up time for which system is working at full capacity for different values of cost for PM/CM. Conclusion: The profit increases with the decrease in the values of the failure rate and with the increase in the values of revenue per unit up time. It has lower (higher values on increasing the values of cost (repair rate. Cut-off points obtained for failure rate help decide about having the system with failure rate lesser than that the value at cut-off point. Also, the price of the product should be fixed in such a way so as to get the revenue greater than the value at cut-off point.

  15. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  16. Troubled units: creating change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Anne LaVoice; Kratsch, Lucinda Stephens

    2004-01-01

    Your unit may be in trouble. Are conversations among team members authentic or do real conversations happen in the hallways after the meeting? Are staff afraid of voicing their disagreements for fear of being labeled, while other team members complacently agree to a consensus, then go off and work from their own agenda? Some units have fallen into the habit of disrespectful communication and uncaring behaviors toward team members. The impact this has on staff, units, and organizations can be deleterious. More importantly, these behaviors impact the quality of patient care a unit is able to provide. Fostering teamwork must be a top priority for leaders. In a healthy team, differences and conflict exist, but they are acknowledged and dealt with openly. Creating change in a troubled unit is not a fast fix, but rather needs a well-devised plan. This article describes how leaders can seek out appropriate resources, develop strategies, and intervene to create a healthy, professional work environment. PMID:15461038

  17. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  18. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  19. (Lack of) care for sterilized healthcare products during transport to and storage in inpatient units / (Des)cuidado com produtos para saúde processados no transporte e armazenamento em unidades de internação / (Des)cuidado con productos sanitarios en el transporte y almacenamiento en unidades de hospitalización

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucimara Rodrigues de, Freitas; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga, Tipple; Francine Vieira, Pires; Dulcelene de Sousa, Melo; Jeenna Louhanna Umbelina, Spagnoli.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal, descritivo com abordagem quantitativa, cujos objetivos foram identificar os responsáveis pelos cuidados com os produtos para saúde, após a sua distribuição nas unidades de internação, e os aspectos estruturais e recursos materiais disponíveis para o seu transporte e armazenamento [...] ; descrever os cuidados dispensados com o transporte e armazenamento de produtos para saúde, nas unidades de internação e a ocorrência de eventos relacionados com esses produtos. Os dados foram coletados em um hospital de ensino de grande porte, de julho a setembro de 2012, por um checklist, preenchido por observação direta e uma entrevista com os gerentes de enfermagem. Após análise descritiva, nenhuma das 11 unidades atendia a todas as recomendações referentes à estrutura, recursos materiais e processos de trabalho para o transporte e armazenamento dos produtos. Os eventos relacionados observados revelaram descuidado da equipe de saúde nas unidades e consequente risco para a manutenção da esterilidade dos produtos e segurança do usuário. Abstract in spanish Estudio descriptivo transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo cuyos objetivos eran identificar los responsables de los cuidados requeridos por Productos Sanitarios después de su distribución en unidades de hospitalización, y los aspectos estructurales y recursos materiales disponibles para su transport [...] e y almacenamiento; describir cuidados entregados en el transporte y almacenamiento de Productos Sanitarios en unidades de hospitalización, eincidencia de eventos relacionados con esos productos. Los datos fueron recolectados en un hospital clínico de gran tamaño, entre julio y septiembre de 2012, a través de un checklist, llenado con observación directa y entrevistas a los gerentes de enfermería. Después de un análisis descriptivo, ninguna de las 11 unidades observó todas las recomendaciones referentes a estructura, recursos materiales y procesos de trabajo para el transporte y almacenamiento de los productos. Los eventos relacionados observados revelaron descuidos por parte del equipo de salud en unidades, y el consiguiente riesgo en la mantención de la esterilidad de productos y seguridad del usuario. Abstract in english Cross-sectional descriptive study with a quantitative approach, whose objectives were to identify those responsible for the care of sterilized healthcare products after their distribution to inpatient units, structural and material resources available for transportation and storage, and to describe [...] the care given to transport and storage of sterilized healthcare products in inpatient units, and the occurrence of events related to these products. Data were collected by checklist in a large teaching hospital from July to September 2012, completed by direct observation and interviews with nursing managers. After descriptive analysis, none of the 11 units met all recommendations concerning the structure, material resources or work processes for the transport and storage of sterilized healthcare products. Events related revealed lack of care of the healthcare teams in the units, and consequent risk to maintaining product sterility and patient safety.

  20. Production of radioisotope products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 20 years medicines, compounds and products with radioactive isotopes for medicine, science and technique which are used in the Republic and exported in Community countries, Europe, USA are fabricated at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise of Nuclear Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. Number of products fabricated now at 'Radiopreparat' enterprise exceeds 70 descriptions. The technologies for production of these medicines are unique and simple. Quality of the products yielded doesn't concede to worldwide analog. The products may be divided into 5 sorts: 1. Radiopharmaceutical medicines and products. 2. Compounds tagged with radioisotopes for biotechnology and genetic engineering. 3. Medicines of common use. 4. Radioisotope generators of technetium-99m. 5. Sources for X-ray fluorescent analysis from iron - 55

  1. 77 FR 43595 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...the registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. Accordingly, the...product registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. are cancelled...of the products identified in Table 1 of Unit II. in a manner inconsistent with any of the...

  2. 75 FR 48669 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...the registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. Accordingly, the...product registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. are canceled...of the products identified in Table 1 of Unit II. in a manner inconsistent with any of the...

  3. 78 FR 11879 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...the registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. Accordingly, the...product registrations identified in Table 1 of Unit II. are canceled...of the products identified in Table 1 of Unit II. in a manner inconsistent with any of the...

  4. How much biomass do plant communities pack per unit volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheault, Guillaume; Bonin, Laurianne; Roca, Irene Torrecilla; Martin, Charles A.; Desrochers, Louis; Seiferling, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground production in terrestrial plant communities is commonly expressed in amount of carbon, or biomass, per unit surface. Alternatively, expressing production per unit volume allows the comparison of communities by their fundamental capacities in packing carbon. In this work we reanalyzed published data from more than 900 plant communities across nine ecosystems to show that standing dry biomass per unit volume (biomass packing) consistently averages around 1 kg/m3 and rarely exceeds 5 kg/m3 across ecosystem types. Furthermore, we examined how empirical relationships between aboveground production and plant species richness are modified when standing biomass is expressed per unit volume rather than surface. We propose that biomass packing emphasizes species coexistence mechanisms and may be an indicator of resource use efficiency in plant communities. PMID:25802814

  5. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for significant ethanol cost reductions exist in increasing pentose fermentation efficiency and reducing biomass and enzyme costs. The results demonstrated the importance of addressing the tradeoffs in capital costs, pretreatment and downstream processing technologies.

  6. Highly Configurable Computing Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Karthic Ashokan

    2012-01-01

    E-waste is a serious problem that we face today and several processes and techniques that try to extract usable material from them are already being explored; but, these techniques and processes attempt to only solve the problem of E-waste that has already been created - The heart of the problem lies in reducing E-waste to be created by future technologies. The concept that this paper proposes is that of “Highly Configurable Computing Units”. The idea here is to develop a computing unit that ...

  7. Cynthia Lanius' Fractal Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia Lanius, a former mathematics teacher who currently serves as Technology Integration Specialist for Sinton Independent School District in Sinton, Texas, has posted numerous lessons online. This website features a Fractals Unit for elementary and middle school students (although adults are also welcome to enjoy the lesson). The lesson includes a discussion on why one might study fractals and then provides step-by-step explanations on how to make fractals using Java, along with some challenging mathematics questions to consider. Samples of student work are also posted. A section for teachers provides an overview of the unit objectives along with links to other resources and materials to use in the classroom.

  8. Mobile emergency response unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hotspot quick-response unit was the solution to a requirement to find, identify, and control areas of radioactive contamination at the scene of a nuclear weapons accident. The unit consists of two trucks and two trailers, and is designed to be transported by one U.S. Air Force C-141. One truck (generator truck) carries a 40 kW generator-heater-air conditioner combination, spare tires, and accessories. The other (water truck) carries supplies and a 250-gal water tank. One trailer (counting trailer) contains detecting, counting, and recording equipment. The other (decontaminating trailer) contains a shower, sink, 30-gal hot water tank, and supplies

  9. Unit Vector Games

    OpenAIRE

    Savani, Rahul; Von Stengel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    McLennan and Tourky (2010) showed that "imitation games" provide a new view of the computation of Nash equilibria of bimatrix games with the Lemke-Howson algorithm. In an imitation game, the payoff matrix of one of the players is the identity matrix. We study the more general "unit vector games", which are already known, where the payoff matrix of one player is composed of unit vectors. Our main application is a simplification of the construction by Savani and von Stengel (2...

  10. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical review of British nuclear weapons development and testing programmes is used to set the stage for the United Kingdom's ambivalent acceptance of the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty being negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. The status of nuclear weapons in Britain in 1995 is described, together with plans for modernization. The role and structure of the Atomic Weapons Establishment in weapons development and safety assessment has led to a high level of expertise which will diminish under CTB conditions, causing the British nuclear weapons stockpile to become obsolete. Finally, the role the United Kingdom could take in implementing a CTB treaty is explored, including verification. (UK)

  11. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  12. Are the Mexican States and the United States Business Cycles Synchronized?: Evidence from the Manufacturing Production / ¿Se encuentran sincronizados los ciclos económicos de los estados mexicanos con aquellos de Estados Unidos?: Evidencia que presenta la producción manufacturera

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Mejía-Reyes; Jeanett, Campos-Chávez.

    Full Text Available En este documento se analiza la sincronización de los ciclos económicos de los estados mexicanos con el ciclo estadounidense para el periodo 1997-2007, mediante el enfoque de los ciclos de crecimiento. Los indicadores del ciclo se obtuvieron a partir de la producción manufacturera mensual (ajustada [...] por estacionalidad). Nuestros resultados confirman la sincronización del ciclo de la economía nacional con el de los EU. Sin embargo, aunque los ciclos específicos de los estados del país son pro cíclicos, su sincronización es muy heterogénea. En particular, es fuerte y consistente solamente para Baja California, el Distrito Federal, Jalisco y Nuevo León, y al menos moderada para el Estado de México y Querétaro. Los resultados son consistentes (robustos) respecto a tres métodos de eliminación de la tendencia. La sincronización puede explicarse por los elevados volúmenes de comercio exterior que desarrollan empresas extranjeras en los estados del centro del país y de industrialización tradicional, y por las actividades maquiladoras de los estados fronterizos. Esta sincronización puede explicarse por la integración vertical de los procesos productivos, resultante de la internacionalización de la producción de las empresas transnacionales. Abstract in english This paper analyses the degree of synchronization between the Mexican states and the US business cycles by using a growth cycle approach for the period 1997-2007. The business cycle indicators are obtained from seasonally-adjusted monthly manufacturing production. Our results confirm that the Mexica [...] n aggregate cycle is highly synchronized with the US business cycle. However, although specific Mexican state cycles are pro-cyclical with respect to the US business cycle, their synchronization is very heterogeneous. In particular, it is strong and robust only for the states of Baja California, Jalisco, Nuevo León and the Federal District, and at least moderate for the state of Mexico and Querétaro. The results are robust with respect to three different detrending methods. Synchronization may be explained by the high volumes of international trade carried out by foreign firms in the case of the central and traditionally industrialized states, and by the "maquila" production in the Northern bordering states. This synchronization may be explained by the vertical integration of the productive processes resulting from the internationalization of production of multinational firms.

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  14. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Pentad Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  15. Butadiene production process overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Wm Claude

    2007-03-20

    Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

  16. A production model for a flexible production system and products with short selling season

    OpenAIRE

    Moutaz Khouja; Abraham Mehrez

    2005-01-01

    We address a practical problem faced by many firms. The problem is deciding on the production levels for a product that has a very short selling season. The firm has a full period to produce and meet a lumpy demand which occurs at the end of the period. The product is no longer demanded after the end of the period. A constant production rate which minimizes average unit cost may increase holding costs. Varying the production rate at discrete points in time may increase production costs but ma...

  17. Stochastic description of a bistable frustrated unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed positive and negative feedback loops are often found in biological systems which support oscillations. In this work we consider a prototype of such systems, which has been recently found at the core of many genetic circuits showing oscillatory behaviour. Our model consists of two interacting species A and B, where A activates not only its own production, but also that of its repressor B. While the self-activation of A leads already to a bistable unit, the coupling with a negative feedback loop via B makes the unit frustrated. In the deterministic limit of infinitely many molecules, such a bistable frustrated unit is known to show excitable and oscillatory dynamics, depending on the maximum production rate of A which acts as a control parameter. We study this model in its fully stochastic version and we find oscillations even for parameters which in the deterministic limit are deeply in the fixed-point regime. The deeper we go into this regime, the more irregular these oscillations are, becoming finally random excitations whenever fluctuations allow the system to overcome the barrier for a large excursion in phase space. The fluctuations can no longer be fully treated as a perturbation. The smaller the system size (the number of molecules), the more frequent are these excitations. Therefore, stochasticity caused by demographic noise makes this unit even more flexible with respect to its oscillatory behaviour

  18. Heterogeneity in the properties of burst-forming units of erythroid lineage in sickle cell anemia: DNA synthesis and burst-promoting activity production is related to peripheral hemoglobin F levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating 14-day erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) from 28 sickle cell anemia (SS) patients with hemoglobin F (HbF) levels ranging from 2% to 16% were studied to determine their sensitivity to [3H] thymidine kill and burst-promoting activity (BPA)-like factor production. We find that the proportion of BFU-E sensitive to 3H-dT kill, and hence active in DNA synthesis, was inversely correlated with the percent of peripheral HbF when light density (LD) mononuclear cells were used for plating. Regression analysis showed that the correlation between HbF level and BFU-E kill was highly significant (r = .88; P less than .00003). We confirmed the BPA-like factor(s) production by LD mononuclear cells of SS patients, and found, in addition, that this phenomenon is restricted to the population of SS patients with HbF levels lower than 9%. Circulating BFU-E of patients with high HbF levels are not sensitive to 3H-dT, and their mononuclear cells do not release BPA-like factor. In summary, SS patients exhibit differences in the capacity of their mononuclear cells to produce BPA activity according to their peripheral HbF level, as well as to the DNA synthesis-state of their circulating BFU-E. We conclude that erythroid progenitors differ among SS patients in relation to their peripheral HbF level

  19. Impacto de la producción de biocombustibles en Estados Unidos en el mercado de maíz (Zea mays L.) en México / Impact of the United States biofuels' production on mexican corn (Zea mays L.) market

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arely, Romero-Padilla; Martín, Hernández-Juárez; O. Antonio, Arana-Coronado; R. Carlos, García- Sánchez; Jaime, Malaga; Eduardo, Segarra.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available México importa cantidades grandes de maíz creando una dependencia cada vez mayor del exterior tornándose vulnerable a los cambios en la producción internacional y susceptible a las decisiones y políticas que se establecen, especialmente en EE.UU., por ser el principal proveedor de maíz para México y [...] el primer productor y exportador en el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de las políticas de producción de biocombustibles en EE.UU. en el mercado de maíz en México. Para ello se usó un modelo de regresión y las elasticidades precio de la oferta y precio de la demanda de México, estableciendo seis escenarios posibles de política en la producción de biocombustibles en EE.UU., usando información de FAPRI (2012), INEGI (2012), BANXICO (2012), USDA (2012) y SIACON (2012). Los resultados muestran que durante el período 2011-2026, el precio del maíz en México bajaría 10 % en ausencia del Límite de Mezcla de etanol y un precio alto de petróleo (US $100/barril) y 16 % en ausencia de ambas políticas (Límite de Mezcla y Norma de Combustibles Renovables). Con la eliminación de ambas políticas y un precio bajo de petróleo (US $50/barril), la demanda de maíz aumentaría alrededor de 4 %, mientras que la oferta se reduciría en 6.7 % y, como consecuencia, las importaciones aumentarían 31 %. El crecimiento de producción de bioetanol a partir usando maíz reduce la oferta de este grano, elevando el precio. Es importante el análisis e implementación de políticas que busquen la autosuficiencia de maíz en México, de lo contrario, se prevé que en pocos años alcanzará precios muy altos y con repercusiones negativas en la población mexicana. Abstract in english México imports large quantities of maize, creating an ever increasing dependence and vulnerability to the changes in international production. It also creates susceptibility to the decisions and policies that are established, especially in the USA, which is the principal supplier of corn for México [...] and the major producer and exporter in the world. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the policies of biofuel production in the USA. on the Mexican corn market. A regression model was used along with the price elasticities of the supply and demand of México. Six possible scenarios were established of biofuel production policy in the U.S., using information of FAPRI (2012), INEGI (2012), BANXICO (2012), USDA (2012) and SIACON (2012). Results show that during the period 2011-2026, corn prices in Mexico would drop 10 % in absence of the Blend Wall of ethanol and a high petroleum price (US $100/barrel), and 16 % in absence of both policies (Blend Wall and Renewable Fuels Standard). With the elimination of both policies and a low petroleum price (US $50/barrel), the demand of corn would increase by approximately 4 %, whereas the supply would decrease by 6.7 % and consequently, imports would increase by 31 %. The growth of bioethanol production from corn diminishes the supply of this grain, elevating the price. It is important to analyze and implement policies that promote self-sufficiency of corn production in Mexico. Otherwise, it is predicted that prices will be very high in a few years, with negative repercussions for the Mexican population.

  20. Temperature Optimization of a Naphtha Splitter Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nevado, A.; Onate, L. M.; Sanz, J.; Alcalde, R.; Slaven, K.

    2008-01-01

    A fully reliable and efficient adaptive control methodology has been long awaited in industry due to the time-varying nature of industrial plants. This paper demonstrates that this kind of adaptive solution is now available and simple to apply by presenting the first application of a methodology called Adaptive Predictive Expert (ADEX) Control in a petrochemical production unit. A description of the plant and the ADEX solution is followed by a comparative analysis of the results obtained with...

  1. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented

  2. Measures induced by units

    CERN Document Server

    Panti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The half-open real unit interval (0,1] is closed under the ordinary multiplication and its residuum. The corresponding infinite-valued propositional logic has as its equivalent algebraic semantics the equational class of cancellative hoops. Fixing a strong unit in a cancellative hoop -equivalently, in the enveloping lattice-ordered abelian group- amounts to fixing a gauge scale for falsity. In this paper we show that any strong unit in a finitely presented cancellative hoop H induces naturally (i.e., in a representation-independent way) an automorphism-invariant positive normalized linear functional on H. Since H is representable as a uniformly dense set of continuous functions on its maximal spectrum, such functionals -in this context usually called states- amount to automorphism-invariant finite Borel measures on the spectrum. Different choices for the unit may be algebraically unrelated (e.g., they may lie in different orbits under the automorphism group of H), but our second main result shows that the cor...

  3. Becquerel: unit and eponym

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief biography of the physicist, Antoine-Henri Becquerel, is given. This is the first in a series of three biographies of the men who have been honoured by the use of their names for the SI units for activity (Becquerel), absorbed dose (Gray) and dose equivalent (Sievert). (U.K.)

  4. Tundra: Unit Outlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article assembles free resources from the Tundra: Life in the Polar Extremes issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for Grades K-2 and 3-5.

  5. Outdoorsman, Unit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The second of three units of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program introduces more advanced camping and survival techniques for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Backpacking, finding food in the wild, making a fire without matches, lashing techniques, axemanship, finding your way (with and without a compass), making a…

  6. Polar Mammals: Unit Outlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This article assembles free resources from the Polar Mammals issue of the Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears cyberzine into a unit outline based on the 5E learning cycle framework. Outlines are provided for Grades K-2 and 3-5.

  7. Scanning Productivity in Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Wayne A.; Runestad, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The authors report findings of a research study conducted at the Iowa State University Library. Data was gathered on the scanning of library materials by students working in the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) unit. The goals of the study were fourfold: (1) Develop measures of scanning productivity in ILL, (2) Determine if it is more productive to scan…

  8. Technical preparation of a 300 kWel biomass gasification plant. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Teknisk forberedelse af 300 kWel bioforgasningsanlaeg. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2009-09-15

    In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. For technical preparation of the planned future up scaling of the cogeneration system, a test of the function of the gas generator core (reactor core) was performed in this sub-project. It is the central component of the total cogeneration system, and it is also the one who has the greatest influence on the overall gasification process. The experiments have demonstrated that the stage gasification principle, which is in operation at the Castor plant, is also possible to have in operation with the desired process steps in the tested reactor core with four times more capacity. Finalization of the total gas generator in the range of 300 kWel is now being developed in a new project. The simplified experiments, that were possible to perform with the outdoor setup of the reactor core, were, however, not suited to qualitative assessments of the gasification process. (ln)

  9. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  10. The Ortho-Syllable as a Processing Unit in Handwriting: The Mute E Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric; Sausset, Solen; Rigalleau, François

    2015-01-01

    Some research on written production has focused on the role of the syllable as a processing unit. However, the precise nature of this syllable unit has yet to be elucidated. The present study examined whether the nature of this processing unit is orthographic (i.e., an ortho-syllable) or phonological. We asked French adults to copy three-syllable…

  11. 77 FR 57001 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PW901A auxiliary power units (APUs) approved under Technical...products. The MCAI states: The PW901A Auxiliary Power Units have experienced...

  12. 77 FR 11421 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada, Auxiliary Power Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PW901A auxiliary power units (APUs) approved under Technical...products. The MCAI states: The PW901A Auxiliary Power Units have experienced...

  13. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Products...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] products...

  14. 78 FR 5245 - Pricing for New Product-America the Beautiful Quarters® Three-Roll Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for New Product--America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing pricing for a new product, the America the Beautiful Quarters...

  15. 76 FR 68207 - Certain Silicon Microphone Packages and Products Containing the Same; Determination To Rescind in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-720] Certain Silicon Microphone Packages and Products Containing...United States after importation of certain silicon microphone packages and products containing...entry into the United States of MemsTech silicon microphone packages that infringe...

  16. The United States Army Food Irradiation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Army ten- year food irradiation programme is a mature, comprehensive, scientific and technological effort that has produced sufficient results to warrant the confidence it now enjoys. Modern, highly-effective facilities are now available to expedite all phases of the work. Highly-qualified research personnel have been drawn into the programme over the years, and with present fine resources and the talent bank, all aspects of interest - sources, doses, radiation effects, and product development - are receiving intensive study. The paper covers (1) the scope and essential findings of the United States Army wholesomeness studies; (2) acceptance-testing procedures and typical hedonic ratings; (3) the status of gamma-ray and accelerated electron irradiation. Reference is made to: (a) food item(s) cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA); (b) petitions accepted and pending; and (c) special objectives of electron irradiation studies. The influence on product quality of conditions current during irradiation is discussed, with emphasis on nutritive and sensory improvements stemming from low (cryogenic) temperatures and from high dose-rate irradiation. The place of radiation pasteurization in the Army programme is described, especially with regard to poultry product improvements achievable by this means. The work on packages and packaging for irradiated foods, now under development, is reported. Studies (and FDA clearances) of rigid contStudies (and FDA clearances) of rigid containers, parchment liners and of resinous can linings are reviewed. The promising leads in flex-pack development are of much interest. An important section of the paper concerns the efforts of other Federal Agencies, such as the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Fisheries, and the United States Department of Agriculture. A perspective on the interrelationships of these efforts with the United States Army programme is given. In conclusion, future plans are briefly described. Highlights of the new five-year research and development programme are set forth. Of special interest is the industrial food irradiation pilot plant, now in the planning stage. (author)

  17. Dairy cattle production in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Arendonk, J. A. M.; Bijma, P.

    2003-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Overall EU dairy production continues to follow a trend towards increased intensification on a smaller number of larger, more specialised production units. In this paper we highlight the main charact...

  18. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports l higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher consumer prices in the 2005-2006 winter season. 2 tabs., 8 figs

  19. MURR-IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Developing Techniques for Small-Scale Indigenous 99Mo Production Using LEU Fission or Neutron Activation [Country report: United States of America - MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) officially became an Agreement Holder in October of 2006 based on the sponsorship provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MURR’s role as an Agreement Holder was to provide support to the CRP based on MURR’s collaboration with ANL. MURR performed two (2) trial demonstrations designed to validate the efficacy of ANL’s annular LEU-foil target and LEU-Modified Cintichem process technologies. The first trial demonstration was performed in October of 2008 using LEU-foil supplied by ANL. The second trial demonstration was performed in April of 2009 using LEU-foil supplied by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The 99Mo yield of each of the trial demonstrations was about 90%. The quality assay of the finished sodium molybdate product was verified to be comparable to the HEU-based sodium molybdate supplied to the worldwide market by the major 99Mo producers. The results and “lessons learned” from these two successful trial demonstrations were shared with all Contract Holders. Other significant contributions made to the subject CRP are listed

  20. Unit Testing in ASPIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Febbraro, Onofrio; Leone, Nicola; Reale, Kristian; Ricca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a declarative logic programming formalism, which is employed nowadays in both academic and industrial real-world applications. Although some tools for supporting the development of ASP programs have been proposed in the last few years, the crucial task of testing ASP programs received less attention, and is an Achilles' heel of the available programming environments. In this paper we present a language for specifying and running unit tests o...