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Sample records for process flow diagram

  1. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  2. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, B.; Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such as the flowchart, the VSM, and OR-type of diagrams, have severe limitations, miss certain elements, or are based on implicit but cons...

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869

  5. Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Hillston; Stuart Moodie; Laurence Loewe

    2009-01-01

    For a long time biologists have used visual representations of biochemical networks to gain a quick overview of important structural properties. Recently SBGN, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation, has been developed to standardise the way in which such graphical maps are drawn in order to facilitate the exchange of information. Its qualitative Process Diagrams (SBGN-PD) are based on an implicit Process Flow Abstraction (PFA) that can also be used to construct quantitative representations, ...

  6. Does the process map influence the outcome of quality improvement work? A comparison of a sequential flow diagram and a hierarchical task analysis diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Henry WW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many quality and safety improvement methods in healthcare rely on a complete and accurate map of the process. Process mapping in healthcare is often achieved using a sequential flow diagram, but there is little guidance available in the literature about the most effective type of process map to use. Moreover there is evidence that the organisation of information in an external representation affects reasoning and decision making. This exploratory study examined whether the type of process map - sequential or hierarchical - affects healthcare practitioners' judgments. Methods A sequential and a hierarchical process map of a community-based anti coagulation clinic were produced based on data obtained from interviews, talk-throughs, attendance at a training session and examination of protocols and policies. Clinic practitioners were asked to specify the parts of the process that they judged to contain quality and safety concerns. The process maps were then shown to them in counter-balanced order and they were asked to circle on the diagrams the parts of the process where they had the greatest quality and safety concerns. A structured interview was then conducted, in which they were asked about various aspects of the diagrams. Results Quality and safety concerns cited by practitioners differed depending on whether they were or were not looking at a process map, and whether they were looking at a sequential diagram or a hierarchical diagram. More concerns were identified using the hierarchical diagram compared with the sequential diagram and more concerns were identified in relation to clinical work than administrative work. Participants' preference for the sequential or hierarchical diagram depended on the context in which they would be using it. The difficulties of determining the boundaries for the analysis and the granularity required were highlighted. Conclusions The results indicated that the layout of a process map does influence perceptions of quality and safety problems in a process. In quality improvement work it is important to carefully consider the type of process map to be used and to consider using more than one map to ensure that different aspects of the process are captured.

  7. Automation of process accountability flow diagrams at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many industrial processes (including reprocessing activities; nuclear fuel fabrication; and material storage, measurement and transfer) make use of process flow diagrams. These flows can be used for material accountancy and for data analysis. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Technical Area (TA)-55 Plutonium Facility is home to various research and development activities involving the use of special nuclear material (SNM). A facility conducting research and development (R and D) activities using SNM must satisfy material accountability guidelines. All processes involving SNM or tritium processing, at LANL, require a process accountability flow diagram (PAFD). At LANL a technique was developed to generate PAFDs that can be coupled to a relational database for use in material accountancy. These techniques could also be used for propagation of variance, measurement control, and inventory difference analysis. The PAFD is a graphical representation of the material flow during a specific process. PAFDs are currently stored as PowerPoint files. In the PowerPoint format, the data captured by the PAFD are not easily accessible. Converting the PAFDs to an accessible electronic format is desirable for several reasons. Any program will be able to access the data contained in the PAFD. For the PAFD data to be useful in applications such as an expert system for data checking, SNM accountability, inventory difference evaluation, measurement control, and other kinds of analysis, it is necessary to interface directly with the information contained within the PAFD. The PAFDs can be approved and distributed electronically, eliminating the paper copies of the PAFDs and ensuring that material handlers have the current PAFDs. Modifications to the PAFDs are often global. Storing the data in an accessible format would eliminate the need to manually update each of the PAFDs when a global change has occurred. The goal was to determine a software package that would store the PAFDs in an accessible format that could be interfaced by various programs. After evaluating several commercial relational database and graphing software packages, VISIO Enterprise was selected. LANL is in the process of completing conversion of the existing PAFDs into VISIO Enterprise. A number of the PAFDs have been converted to VISIO Enterprise, and the data from the drawings have been exported to an ACCESS database. After the conversion has taken place, the data contained in the PAFDs will be accessible for various programs. The data that was once stored in PowerPoint will now be available for tools, including expert analysis, propagation of a variance, SNM accountability, inventory difference analysis, measurement control, and other analysis tools that have yet to be identified. Converting from the PowerPoint format to a drawing stored as a relational database will improve the ability of plant personnel to interface with the PAFD

  8. ProofFlow: Flow Diagrams for Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a light formalism for proofs that encodes their inferential structure, along with a system that transforms these representations into flow-chart diagrams. Such diagrams should improve the comprehensibility of proofs. We discuss language syntax, diagram semantics, and our goal of building a repository of diagrammatic representations of proofs from canonical mathematical literature. The repository will be available online in the form of a wiki at proofflow.org, wher...

  9. Development of the pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuels for ADS. Its elemental technologies and process flow diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D on the transmutation of long-lived minor actinides (MA) by the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using nitride fuels is underway at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In regard to reprocessing technology, pyrochemical process has several advantages in case of treating spent fuel with large decay heat and fast neutron emission, and recovering highly enriched 15N. In the pyrochemical reprocessing, plutonium (Pu) and MA are dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and selectively recovered into liquid cadmium (Cd) cathode by molten salt electrorefining. The recovered Pu and MA are converted to nitrides by the nitridation-distillation combined method, in which the Cd alloys containing Pu and MA are heated in nitrogen gas stream. The authors have investigated its elemental technologies such as electrorefining and renitridation. On the other hand, development of the process flow diagram with the material balance sheet of the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nitride fuel for ADS is in progress. This paper summarized recent progress of the study which aims to prove the technological applicability of pyrochemical process to the nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA. (author)

  10. ProofFlow: Flow Diagrams for Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Kieffer, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    We present a light formalism for proofs that encodes their inferential structure, along with a system that transforms these representations into flow-chart diagrams. Such diagrams should improve the comprehensibility of proofs. We discuss language syntax, diagram semantics, and our goal of building a repository of diagrammatic representations of proofs from canonical mathematical literature. The repository will be available online in the form of a wiki at proofflow.org, where the flow chart drawing software will be deployable through the wiki editor. We also consider the possibility of a semantic tagging of the assertions in a proof, to permit data mining.

  11. Formalization of the Data Flow Diagram Rules for Consistency Check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosziati Ibrahim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In system development life cycle (SDLC, a system model can be developed using Data Flow Diagram(DFD. DFD is graphical diagrams for specifying, constructing and visualizing the model of a system.DFD is used in defining the requirements in a graphical view. In this paper, we focus on DFD and itsrules for drawing and defining the diagrams. We then formalize these rules and develop the tool based onthe formalized rules. The formalized rules for consistency check between the diagrams are used indeveloping the tool. This is to ensure the syntax for drawing the diagrams is correct and strictly followed.The tool automates the process of manual consistency check between data flow diagrams.

  12. Material flow of production process

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with material flow of the production process. We present the block diagram of material flow and capacities of engine in various plants each other. In this paper is used IPO (Input Process Output) diagram. IPO diagram described process with aspect to input and output. Production program regards string of precision, branch and paralel processes with aspect IPO diagram.Process is not important with aspect to events. We are looking on the process as a black box. For process is ...

  13. Subsurface flows from ring diagram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it was introduced, almost 20 years ago, ring-diagram analysis, a local helioseismology technique, has provided a variety of results, from large-scale motions on the Sun, such as differential rotation and meridional circulation, to the more localized studies of flows associated to active regions and filaments. This paper presents some relevant results obtained by several authors using this method that help to constrain the solar dynamo models, as well as a discussion of the outstanding issues and areas for future improvement.

  14. Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

  15. Formalization of the data flow diagram rules for consistency check

    OpenAIRE

    Rosziati Ibrahim; Siow Yen Yen

    2010-01-01

    In system development life cycle (SDLC), a system model can be developed using Data Flow Diagram (DFD). DFD is graphical diagrams for specifying, constructing and visualizing the model of a system. DFD is used in defining the requirements in a graphical view. In this paper, we focus on DFD and its rules for drawing and defining the diagrams. We then formalize these rules and develop the tool based on the formalized rules. The formalized rules for consistency check between the diagrams are use...

  16. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  17. Making Data Flow Diagrams Accessible for Visually Impaired Students Using Excel Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of Excel tables to convey information to blind students that would otherwise be presented using graphical tools, such as Data Flow Diagrams. These tables can supplement diagrams in the classroom when introducing their use to understand the scope of a system and its main sub-processes, on exams when answering questions…

  18. The Delunification Process and Minimal Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Jablan, Slavik; Kauffman, Louis; Lopes, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    A link diagram is said to be lune-free if, when viewed as a 4-regular plane graph it does not have multiple edges between any pair of nodes. We prove that any colored link diagram is equivalent to a colored lune-free diagram with the same number of colors. Thus any colored link diagram with a minimum number of colors (known as a minimal diagram) is equivalent to a colored lune-free diagram with that same number of colors. We call the passage from a link diagram to an equival...

  19. HMI ring diagram analysis I. The processing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of high resolution, spatial coverage, and continuity of photospheric Doppler and other data from HMI has allowed us to embark on a program of systematic exploration of solar subsurface flows and thermal structure variations using the technique of ring-diagram analysis on an unprecedented scale. Two ring-diagrams pipelines exist: a synoptic program aimed at mapping the evolution of the circulation and local subsurface flows on a global scale from the surface to depths of down to 0.9Rsun, and a targeted program designed to provide a comprehensive view of the thermal structure anomalies associated with loci of magnetic activity over the course of their life cycles. In this paper we describe the analysis techniques implemented in the processing pipelines.

  20. Introducing the Circular Flow Diagram to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…

  1. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  2. Material flow of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with material flow of the production process. We present the block diagram of material flow and capacities of engine in various plants each other. In this paper is used IPO (Input ? Process ? Output diagram. IPO diagram described process with aspect to input and output. Production program regards string of precision, branch and paralel processes with aspect IPO diagram.Process is not important with aspect to events. We are looking on the process as a ?black box?. For process is used different materials and raw materials. The foudation for material analysis is detailed model of production process with defined flow material, energy, waste etc.Material flow is organised move of mass (material, money, informations, people etc.. Material analysis is made against destination of material flow (i.e. from ending to beginning. Material analysis is performed on the detection demand of individual materials, stocks, forms, etc.For elementary materials and raw materials in which is based production program and which to create better part of production costs is mainly necessary to dedicate the remark. The fluency of material flow concentrates on the respect of the capacitive parameters for individual node from aspect to standardized qualitative parameters and allowed limits.

  3. AUTO-LAY: automatic layout generation for procedure flow diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plant Procedures can be seen from essentially two viewpoints: the process and the information management. From the first point of view, it is important to supply the knowledge apt to solve problems connected with the control of the process, from the second one the focus of attention is on the knowledge representation, its structure, elicitation and maintenance, formal quality assurance. These two aspects of procedure representation can be considered and solved separately. In particular, methodological, formal and management issues require long and tedious activities, that in most cases constitute a great barrier for procedures development and upgrade. To solve these problems, Ansaldo is developing DIAM, a wide integrated tool for procedure management to support in procedure writing, updating, usage and documentation. One of the most challenging features of DIAM is AUTO-LAY, a CASE sub-tool that, in a complete automatical way, structures parts or complete flow diagrams. This is a feature that is partially present in some other CASE products, that, anyway, do not allow complex graph handling and isomorphism between video and paper representation AUTO-LAY has the unique prerogative to draw graphs of any complexity, to section them in pages, and to automatically compose a document. This has been recognized in the literature as the most important second-generation CASE improvement. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs

  4. Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, R.

    1994-10-01

    Isobaric, isothermal phase diagrams are a molar representation of condensed phases in equilibrium with each other at a fixed temperature, pressure, and composition. Since three or four elements are usually involved at a fabricated interface in a semiconductor device, knowledge of the appropriate ternary or quaternary phase diagram is important for optimizing the processing parameters and designing long term stability of devices. While the use of phase diagrams is well-established in the fields of metallurgy, ceramics and mineralogy, only recently have phase diagrams been employed to provide a framework for understanding thin film reactions on a substrate, encountered in semiconductor processing. Even though there are many examples of applications of ternary phase diagrams in the semiconductor literature (for instance, metallization of GaAs, the use of refractory metal silicides for metallization layers in VLSI devices and oxidation of III-V compounds), the same is not true for quaternary phase diagrams. To date, the only application is oxidation of mercury cadmium telluride. This lack of examples is not warranted, as four elements are often involved at a critical interface in compound semiconductor processing and devices. This paper reports on the progress made to remedy this situation by considering the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Moreover, for the first time, solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems.

  5. Microsoft Visio 2013 business process diagramming and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft Visio 2013 Business Process Diagramming and Validation provides a comprehensive and practical tutorial including example code and demonstrations for creating validation rules, writing ShapeSheet formulae, and much more.If you are a Microsoft Visio 2013 Professional Edition power user or developer who wants to get to grips with both the essential features of Visio 2013 and the validation rules in this edition, then this book is for you. A working knowledge of Microsoft Visio and optionally .NET for the add-on code is required, though previous knowledge of business process diagramming

  6. Data Flow Sequences: A Revision of Data Flow Diagrams for Modelling Applications using XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James PH Coleman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data Flow Diagrams were developed in the 1970’s as a method of modelling data flow when developing information systems. While DFDs are still being used, the modern web-based which is client-server based means that DFDs are not as useful. This paper proposes a modified form of DFD that incorporates, amongst other features sequences. The proposed system, called Data Flow Sequences (DFS is better able to model real world systems in a way that simplifies application development. The paper also proposes an XML implementation for DFS which allows analytical tools to be used to analyse the DFS diagrams. The paper discusses a tool that is able to detect orphan data flow sequences and other potential problems.

  7. Phase diagrams of the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn process on lattices with a junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bo; Jiang, Rui; Ding, Zhong-Jun; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2013-06-01

    This paper studies the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn (KLS) process on lattices with a junction, where particles move on parallel lattice branches that combine into a single lattice at the junction. It is shown that 11 kinds of phase diagrams could be observed, depending on the two parameters ? and ? in the KLS process. We have investigated the phase diagrams as well as bulk density analytically based on flow rate conservation and the extremal current principle. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations are performed, and it is found that they are in excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.

  8. 7 CFR 42.123 - Flow diagram for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flow diagram for skip lot sampling and inspection. 42.123 Section 42.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Procedures § 42.123 Flow diagram for skip lot sampling and inspection. EC02SE91.000 Notes: 1. Only...

  9. Improving The Decisional Process By Using UML Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udrica Mioara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the world has moved from predominantly industrial society to information society, governed by a new set of rules, which allows access to digital technologies, processing, storage and transmission of information. Organizations include in their decisional process Business Intelligence components, which help the decision-makers to establish the conditions of financial equilibrium, to highlight weaknesses and strengths, to make predictions.Particularly, Unified Modelling Language (UML, as a formal and standardized language, allows the control of the system’s complexity, shows different but complementary views of the organization and ensures independence towards the implementation language and the domain of application. This article aims to show the way UML diagrams are used as support in a decisional process for a hotel company. UML diagrams designed help decisionmakers to analysis and discover the causes, to design and simulation of possible scenarios, to implement and measuring the results.

  10. On-line metabolic pathway analysis based on metabolic signal flow diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Shimizu, K

    In this work, an integrated modeling approach based on a metabolic signal flow diagram and cellular energetics was used to model the metabolic pathway analysis for the cultivation of yeast on glucose. This approach enables us to make a clear analysis of the flow direction of the carbon fluxes in the metabolic pathways as well as of the degree of activation of a particular pathway for the synthesis of biomaterials for cell growth. The analyses demonstrate that the main metabolic pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae change significantly during batch culture. Carbon flow direction is toward glycolysis to satisfy the increase of requirement for precursors and energy. The enzymatic activation of TCA cycle seems to always be at normal level, which may result in the overflow of ethanol due to its limited capacity. The advantage of this approach is that it adopts both virtues of the metabolic signal flow diagram and the simple network analysis method, focusing on the investigation of the flow directions of carbon fluxes and the degree of activation of a particular pathway or reaction loop. All of the variables used in the model equations were determined on-line; the information obtained from the calculated metabolic coefficients may result in a better understanding of cell physiology and help to evaluate the state of the cell culture process. PMID:10191383

  11. Scale setting in QCD and the momentum flow in Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1995-01-01

    We present a formalism to evaluate QCD diagrams with a single virtual gluon using a running coupling constant at the vertices. This method, which corresponds to an all-order resummation of certain terms in a perturbative series, provides a description of the momentum flow through the gluon propagator. It can be viewed as a generalization of the scale-setting prescription of Brodsky, Lepage and Mackenzie to all orders in perturbation theory. In particular, the approach can be used to investigate why in some cases the ``typical'' momenta in a loop diagram are different from the ``natural'' scale of the process. Moreover, it offers an intuitive understanding of the appearance of infrared renormalons in perturbation theory, their connection to the rate of convergence of a perturbative series, and the necessity to separate short- and long-distance contributions. Several applications to one- and two-scale problems are discussed in detail.

  12. Phase diagram of the ABC model with nonconserving processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three species ABC model of driven particles on a ring is generalized to include vacancies and particle-nonconserving processes. The model exhibits phase separation at high densities. For equal average densities of the three species, it is shown that although the dynamics is local, it obeys detailed balance with respect to a Hamiltonian with long-range interactions, yielding a nonadditive free energy. The phase diagrams of the conserving and nonconserving models, corresponding to the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles, respectively, are calculated in the thermodynamic limit. Both models exhibit a transition from a homogeneous to a phase-separated state, although the phase diagrams are shown to differ from each other. This conforms with the expected inequivalence of ensembles in equilibrium systems with long-range interactions. These results are based on a stability analysis of the homogeneous phase and exact solution of the continuum equations of the models. They are supported by Monte Carlo simulations. This study may serve as a useful starting point for analyzing the phase diagram for unequal densities, where detailed balance is not satisfied and thus a Hamiltonian cannot be defined

  13. Merging Object and Process Diagrams for Business Information Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chénais, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    While developing an information system for the University of Bern, we were faced with two major issues: managing software changes and adapting Business Information Models. Software techniques well-suited to software development teams exist, yet the models obtained are often too complex for the business user. We will first highlight the conceptual problems encountered while designing the Business Information Model. We will then propose merging class diagrams and business process modeling to achieve a necessary transparency. We will finally present a modeling tool we developed which, using pilot case studies, helps to show some of the advantages of a dual model approach.

  14. Fundamental diagrams for kinetic equations of traffic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Fermo, Luisa; Tosin, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of some recently introduced discrete kinetic models of vehicular traffic to catch, in their large time behavior, typical features of theoretical fundamental diagrams. Specifically, we address the so-called "spatially homogeneous problem" and, in the representative case of an exploratory model, we study the qualitative properties of its solutions for a generic number of discrete microstates. This includes, in particular, asymptotic trends and equilibria...

  15. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Preparation of geosynthesis data flow diagram (Construction phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) is pursuing a geoscientific research and development project, namely the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in crystalline rock environment in order to construct scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste (HLW). The MIU project is planned in three overlapping phases ; Surface-based Investigation Phase (Phase I), Construction Phase (Phase II) and Operation Phase (Phase III). Currently, the project is under the Construction Phase and the Operation Phase. In Phase II, adequacy of geological environment models established in Phase I is evaluated by using the data accumulated during Phase II. Based on the evaluation results, applicability and feasibility assessment of various elemental technologies adopted to characterize geological environment in Phase I will be evaluated. The various elemental technologies include planning method, investigation method and modeling method. Furthermore, from a design, construction and safety assessment point of view, a series of evaluation procedures are organized and Geosynthesis Data Flow Diagram is established. This data flow diagram is the integrated data flow from investigation through modeling and analysis. It proposes the rational combinations of investigation items which make the investigation results reflect the safety assessment and designing. In this sense, Geosynthesis Data Flow Diagram indicates the rational framework, from “investigation” to “modeling and analysis”, for achieving individual goals and tasks. This report summarizes the Geosynthesis Data Flow Diagram optimized during Phase II investigation. The Geosynthesis Data Flow Diagram will be revised based on the research progress. (author)

  16. Derivation of a Fundamental Diagram for Urban Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of urban traffic flows, there are only a few theoretical approaches to determine fundamental relationships between macroscopic traffic variables such as the traffic density, the utilization, the average velocity, and the travel time. In the past, empirical measurements have primarily been described by fit curves. Here, we derive expected fundamental relationships from a model of traffic flows at intersections, which suggest that the recently measured f...

  17. Phase diagram of superconductors from nonperturbative flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universal behavior of superconductors near the phase transition is described by the three-dimensional field theory of scalar quantum electrodynamics. We approximately solve the model with the help of nonperturbative flow equations. A first- or second-order phase transition is found depending on the relative strength of the scalar versus the gauge coupling. The region of a second-order phase transition is governed by a fixed point of the flow equations with associated critical exponents. We also give an approximate description of the tricritical behavior and briefly discuss the crossover relevant for the onset of scaling near the critical temperature. Final confirmation of a second-order transition for strong type-II superconductors requires further analysis with extended truncations of the flow equations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Phase Diagrams and Fluid Properties of H2O-NaCl for Flow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesner, T.

    2011-12-01

    The system H2O-NaCl is the simplest proxy to saline fluids in the earth's crust. Such fluids play a central role in processes ranging from basinal fluid flow through hydrothermal heat transport along mid-ocean ridges to ore formation in magmatic-hydrothemal systems. Addition of NaCl strongly modifies the phase diagram of water (Driesner & Heinrich, 2007). The temperature-pressure conditions of vapor+liquid coexistence are greatly enlarged, and new phase regions of vapor+salt, liquid+salt, and vapor+liquid+salt are encountered. High contrasts in salinity, density and viscosity of vapor and liquid have profound effects on fluid flow in hydrothermal convection. Flow simulations of H2O-NaCl can be performed by choosing enthalpy, pressure and salinity as state variables. Temperature, pressure and salinity can be chosen as well and require iteration until thermal equilibrium between rock and fluid is reached. Carefully accounting for numerical precision issues and steep gradients is key to make such iterations work routinely. Two- and three-phase adiabatic compressibilities need to be employed if strict consistency of the scheme is required and to avoid singularities along the pure water boiling curve. The general setup of a numerical scheme as well as applications to natural examples will be shown. Driesner, T., and Heinrich, C.A. (2007),Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 4880-4901.

  19. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  20. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  1. Enhanced empirical data for the fundamental diagram and the flow through bottlenecks

    CERN Document Server

    Seyfried, A; Kähler, J; Klingsch, W; Portz, A; Rupprecht, T; Schadschneider, A; Steffen, B; Winkens, A

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several approaches for modelling pedestrian dynamics have been proposed and applied e.g. for design of egress routes. However, so far not much attention has been paid to their 'quantitative' validation. This unsatisfactory situation belongs amongst others on the uncertain and contradictory experimental data base. The fundamental diagram, i.e. the density-dependence of the flow or velocity, is probably the most important relation as it connects the basic parameter to describe the dynamic of crowds. But specifications in different handbooks as well as experimental measurements differ considerably. The same is true for the bottleneck flow. After a comprehensive review of the experimental data base we give an survey of a research project, including experiments with up to 250 persons performed under well controlled laboratory conditions. The trajectories of each person are measured in high precision to analyze the fundamental diagram and the flow through bottlenecks. The trajectories allow to stud...

  2. Using Sankey diagrams to map energy flow from primary fuel to end use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy flows from both supply and demand sides shown through Sankey diagrams. • Energy flows from reserves to energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels shown. • Five main energy demand sectors in Alberta are analyzed. • In residential/commercial sectors, highest energy consumption is in space heating. • In the industrial sector, highest energy use is in the mining subsector. - Abstract: The energy sector is the largest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), income, employment, and government revenue in both developing and developed nations. But the energy sector has a significant environmental footprint due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Efficient production, conversion, and use of energy resources are key factors for reducing the environmental footprint. Hence it is necessary to understand energy flows from both the supply and the demand sides. Most energy analyses focus on improving energy efficiency broadly without considering the aggregate energy flow. We developed Sankey diagrams that map energy flow for both the demand and supply sides for the province of Alberta, Canada. The diagrams will help policy/decision makers, researchers, and others to understand energy flow from reserves through to final energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels in the five main energy demand sectors in Alberta: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation. The Sankey diagrams created for this study show total energy consumption, useful energy, and energy intensities of various end-use devices. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used in this study. The model showed that Alberta’s total input energy in the five demand sectors was 189 PJ, 186 PJ, 828.5PJ, 398 PJ, and 50.83 PJ, respectively. On the supply side, the total energy input and output were found to be 644.84 PJ and 239 PJ, respectively. These results, along with the associated energy flows were depicted pictorially using Sankey diagrams. The Sankey diagrams reveal the current efficiencies within various end-use sectors and could help identify options for improving energy efficiency in order to reduce GHG emissions

  3. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  4. On the effect of stochastic transition in the fundamental diagram of traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira, Adriano Francisco; Wu, Chen; Qian, Wei-Liang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an alternative stochastic model for the fundamental diagram of traffic flow with minimal number of parameters. Our approach is based on a mesoscopic viewpoint of the traffic system in terms of the dynamics of vehicle velocity transitions. A key feature of the present approach lies in its stochastic nature which makes it possible to describe not only the flow-concentration relation, the so-called fundamental diagram in traffic engineering, but also its variance -- an important ingredient in the observed data of traffic flow. It is shown that the model can be seen as a derivative of the Boltzmann equation when assuming a discrete velocity spectrum. The latter assumption significantly simplifies the mathematics and therefore, facilitates the study of its physical content through the analytic solutions. The model parameters are then adjusted to reproduce the observed traffic flow on the "23 de maio" highway in the Brazilian city of Sao Paulo, where both the fundamental diagram and its var...

  5. Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.

  6. Merging Object and Process Diagrams for Business Information Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Chénais, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    While developing an information system for the University of Bern, we were faced with two major issues: managing software changes and adapting Business Information Models. Software techniques well-suited to software development teams exist, yet the models obtained are often too complex for the business user. We will first highlight the conceptual problems encountered while designing the Business Information Model. We will then propose merging class diagrams and business proc...

  7. Urbaryon diagrams and selection rule of weak non-leptonic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weak decay processes of kaons and charmed pseudo-scalar mesons are analysed by using urbaryon diagrams assuming current-current interaction. The relation between the diagrams and the possible selection rule (?nsub(t)=0 rule) are discussed and sum rules for charmed meson decays are given. Crucial test for our approach is also presented. (auth.)

  8. Prediction of Forming Limit Diagrams for 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhou; Wu, Xin; Li, Guangyao

    2013-08-01

    Hot stamping of ultra-high strength steels possesses many superior characteristics over conventional room temperature forming process and is fairly attractive in improving strength and reducing weight of vehicle body product. However, the mechanical and failure behavior of hot stamping boron steel 22MnB5 are both strongly affected by strain hardening, temperature, strain rate, and microstructure. In this paper, the material yield and flow behavior of 22MnB5 within the temperature and strain rate range of hot stamping are described by an advanced anisotropic yield criterion combined with two different hardening laws. The elevated temperature forming limit diagram (ET-FLD) is constructed using the M-K theoretical analysis. The developed model was validated by comparing our predicted result with experimental data in the literature under isothermal conditions. Based on the verified model, the influence of temperature and strain rate on the forming limit curve for 22MnB5 steel under equilibrium isothermal condition are discussed. Furthermore, the transient forming limit diagram is developed by performing a transient forming process simulation under non-isothermal transient condition.

  9. Scale Setting in QCD and the Momentum Flow in Feynman Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Matthias

    1994-01-01

    We present a formalism to evaluate QCD diagrams with a single virtual gluon using a running coupling constant at the vertices. This method, which corresponds to an all-order resummation of certain terms in a perturbative series, provides a description of the momentum flow through the gluon propagator. It can be viewed as a generalization of the scale-setting prescription of Brodsky, Lepage and Mackenzie to all orders in perturbation theory. In particular, the approach can be...

  10. Traveling wave solution of higher-order traffic flow model with discontinuous fundamental diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Xiu

    2015-07-01

    The traveling wave solution of a unified higher-order traffic flow model is investigated with a discontinuous fundamental diagram under the Lagrange coordinate. The equilibrium velocity is a piecewise function which consists of two concave functions. The weak solution theory is applied to study the traveling wave solution of the model, in which a set of equations about the characteristic parameters are obtained. Through numerical simulation, the moving cluster solutions of the anisotropic and isotropic traffic flow models are reproduced, respectively. The numerical results agree with the analytical ones.

  11. Logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition of coal consumption in China based on the energy allocation diagram of coal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript attempted to analyze the influencing factors of coal consumption growth in China using the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition method developed based on the physical processes of coal utilization from raw coal to the end-use sectors. By mapping the energy allocation diagram of coal flows, we built a method to balance the energy allocation of coal flows and derived several technical influencing factors. These factors were used to develop an LMDI decomposition method suitable for analyzing the coal consumption growth of complex coal-use systems, such as that of China. The method is subsequently applied to analyze the influencing factors of China's coal consumption growth from 2001 to 2011. The results indicate the rapid growth of GDP (gross domestic production) per capita, which heavily relied on the expansion of heavy industry as the dominant factor driving coal consumption growth. Improvement in the energy efficiency of coal power generation and coal end-use combustion were the primary factors reducing coal consumption. - Highlights: • Energy allocation diagrams of China's coal flows from primary energy to end-use. • An LMDI method for analyzing influencing factors of coal consumption growth. • Policy implications for controlling the coal consumption growth in China

  12. Evolution of Near-surface Flows Inferred from High-resolution Ring-diagram Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bogart, Richard S; Baldner,; Basu, Sarbani

    2015-01-01

    Ring-diagram analysis of acoustic waves observed at the photosphere can provide a relatively robust determination of the sub-surface flows at a particular time under a particular region. The depth of penetration of the waves is related to the size of the region, hence the depth extent of the measured flows is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. Most ring-diagram analysis has focused on regions of extent ~15{\\deg} (180 Mm) or more in order to provide reasonable mode sets for inversions. HMI data analysis also provides a set of ring fit parameters on a scale three times smaller. These provide flow estimates for the outer 1% (7 Mm) of the Sun only, with very limited depth resolution, but with spatial resolution adequate to map structures potentially associated with the belts and regions of magnetic activity. There are a number of systematic effects affecting the determination of flows from local helioseismic analysis of regions over different parts of the observable disk, not all well understood. I...

  13. Microsoft excel's automatic data processing and diagram drawing of RIA internal quality control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We did automatic data processing and diagram drawing of various parameters of RIA' s internal quality control (IQC)by the use of Microsoft Excel (ME). By use of AVERAGE and STDEV of ME, we got x-bar, s and CV%. With pearson, we got the serum quality control coefficients (r). Inputing the original data to diagram's self-definition item, the diagram was drawn automatically. By the use of logic judging, we got the quality control judging results with the status, timing and data of various quality control parameters. For the past four years, the ME data processing and diagram drawing as well as quality control judging have been showed to be accurate, convenient and correct. It was quick and easy to manage and the automatic computer processing of RIA's IQC was realized. Conclusion: the method is applicable to all types of RIA' s IQC. (authors)

  14. Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

    2007-01-01

    The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a rigorous baseline for the functional architecture.

  15. Inhomogeneous shear flows of wormlike micelles:mA master dynamic phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berret, Jean-Fra?cois; Porte, Grégoire; Decruppe, Jean-Paul

    1997-02-01

    We report on the nonlinear mechanical response of surfactant wormlike micelles subjected to steady shear flow. The system placed under scrutiny is made of cetylpyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, and salted water at 0.5M NaCl (abbreviated as CPCl-Sal). We have investigated solutions in the intermediate concentration ranges, at ?=6%, 8% and ?=12% for temperatures ranging between 20 °C and 50 °C. In these T and ? ranges, we first confirm that the present system is a true Maxwell fluid. As a consequence, the nonlinear rheology can be formulated in terms of the normalized quantities, ?=?/G0 and ?-dot=?-dot?R , where G0 is the elastic plateau modulus and ?R the terminal relaxation time of the Maxwell fluid. Second, we demonstrate that the flow curves of the CPCl-Sal wormlike micelles ? (?-dot) are invariant with respect to relative changes in temperature and concentration. This enables us to define superimposition procedures between flow curves obtained at different temperatures and concentrations and to derive the so-called 'master dynamic phase diagram' of the CPCl-Sal wormlike micelles. One crucial feature of this master phase diagram is the existence of a critical behavior at T=Tc . Here, the stress ? levels off progressively up to a plateau that is reduced to a single flat point of coordinates (?=0.9, ?-dot=3). The low-temperature regime (TTc ), ? increases monotonously at all shear rates. In order to examine the state of shearing at the stress plateau, flow birefringence experiments were undertaken with a rheo-optical device working with polarized light propagating parallel to the vorticity axis of the Couette. In the plateau regime, the flow is clearly inhomogeneous. Within the gap of a cell, two phases of very different birefringence are observed in the steady state of shearing, as well as after cessation of the shearing.

  16. Stress/temperature phase diagrams as a tool for shape memory alloy selection and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, N.B.; Friend, C.M. [Cranfield Univ., Swindon, Wilts (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials and Medical Sciences

    2001-11-01

    One of the difficulties of applying shape memory alloys to real applications is dealing with how applied stress affects the transformation temperatures and phase sequence. This paper presents stress-temperature phase transformation diagrams of the type described by Todoroki, Tamura and Suzuki [1]. The data employed to construct these diagrams relates to a previous study of binary NiTi alloys that have varied alloy compositions, prior cold work and heat treatment temperatures [2]. The diagrams presented in this paper graphically display how phase sequence as well as transformation temperatures vary with processing and alloying parameters. In addition, it is shown that the stress-temperature diagrams change after repeated thermal transformations against applied stress. Increasing M{sub s} temperatures and decreasing A{sub s} temperatures result in narrower thermal hysteresis and loss of the intermediate R-phase. (orig.)

  17. A rigorous semantics for BPMN 2.0 process diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kossak, Felix; Geist, Verena; Kubovy, Jan; Natschläger, Christine; Ziebermayr, Thomas; Kopetzky, Theodorich; Freudenthaler, Bernhard; Schewe, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the most complete formal specification of the semantics of the Business Process Model and Notation 2.0 standard (BPMN) available to date, in a style that is easily understandable for a wide range of readers - not only for experts in formal methods, but e.g. also for developers of modeling tools, software architects, or graduate students specializing in business process management. BPMN - issued by the Object Management Group - is a widely used standard for business process modeling. However, major drawbacks of BPMN include its limited support for organizational modeling, i

  18. Horizontal Flows in Active Regions from Ring-diagram and Local Correlation Tracking Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Kiran; Ravindra, B; Komm, R; Hill, F

    2015-01-01

    Continuous high-cadence and high-spatial resolution Dopplergrams allow us to study sub-surface dynamics that may be further extended to explore precursors of visible solar activity on the surface. Since the p-mode power is absorbed in the regions of high magnetic field, the inferences in these regions are often presumed to have large uncertainties. In this paper, using the Dopplergrams from space-borne Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI), we compare horizontal flows in a shear layer below the surface and the photospheric layer in and around active regions. The photospheric flows are calculated using local correlation tracking (LCT) method while the ring-diagram (RD) technique of helioseismology is used to infer flows in the sub-photospheric shear layer. We find a strong positive correlation between flows from both methods near the surface. This implies that despite the absorption of acoustic power in the regions of strong magnetic field, the flows inferred from the helioseismology are comparable to those from ...

  19. The Mental Health Outcomes of Drought: A Systematic Review and Causal Process Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vins, Holly; Bell, Jesse; Saha, Shubhayu; Hess, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    Little is understood about the long term, indirect health consequences of drought (a period of abnormally dry weather). In particular, the implications of drought for mental health via pathways such as loss of livelihood, diminished social support, and rupture of place bonds have not been extensively studied, leaving a knowledge gap for practitioners and researchers alike. A systematic review of literature was performed to examine the mental health effects of drought. The systematic review results were synthesized to create a causal process diagram that illustrates the pathways linking drought effects to mental health outcomes. Eighty-two articles using a variety of methods in different contexts were gathered from the systematic review. The pathways in the causal process diagram with greatest support in the literature are those focusing on the economic and migratory effects of drought. The diagram highlights the complexity of the relationships between drought and mental health, including the multiple ways that factors can interact and lead to various outcomes. The systematic review and resulting causal process diagram can be used in both practice and theory, including prevention planning, public health programming, vulnerability and risk assessment, and research question guidance. The use of a causal process diagram provides a much needed avenue for integrating the findings of diverse research to further the understanding of the mental health implications of drought. PMID:26506367

  20. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FONG, S.K.

    1998-11-11

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF.

  1. FMEF Electrical single line diagram and panel schedule verification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the FMEF did not have a mission, a formal drawing verification program was not developed, however, a verification process on essential electrical single line drawings and panel schedules was established to benefit the operations lock and tag program and to enhance the electrical safety culture of the facility. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis by which future landlords and cognizant personnel can understand the degree of verification performed on the electrical single lines and panel schedules. It is the intent that this document be revised or replaced by a more formal requirements document if a mission is identified for the FMEF

  2. When local deformations trigger lattice instability: Flow diagram investigations for photoinduced and quenched metastable states in a Prussian blue analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Miho; Maurin, Isabelle; Varret, François; Frye, Franz A.; Talham, Daniel R.; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The structural aspects of the metastable states for K0.32Co[Fe(CN)6]0.76·3H2O have been investigated by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. The title compound exhibits nonequilibrium high spin (HS) states of CoII(S=3/2)-FeIII(S=1/2) configuration, induced by rapid cooling or photoexcitation from the low-temperature (LT) phase. By introducing a new local order parameter of tilting angle between cyanide-bridged Fe and Co-based octahedra, we discovered the existence of a precursor phenomenon triggering the collective instability during the thermal relaxation of the photoexcited (PX) state. Moreover, we introduced a methodology, based on the flow diagram studies, which allowed us to clearly distinguish the obtained metastable states through their strength of spin-lattice coupling, leading to various pathways in the phase space during the combined electroelastic relaxation process.

  3. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ...

  4. The Effect of Functional Flow Diagrams on the Technical System Understanding of Apprentice Aircraft Maintenance Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott D.; Satchwell, Richard E.

    A quasiexperimental study involved 18 male students enrolled in an aircraft systems course at the University of Illinois. The control group of 10 students studied 39 schematic diagrams of aircraft systems. The treatment group of eight students studied the same schematic diagrams plus conceptual diagrams of the systems. Otherwise, the instruction…

  5. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  6. Digital analysis and potato tissue image processing at the application of voronofs diagrams*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guc

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper image processing is presented from the point of view of obtaining cell wall image. We also proposed some measurement and analysis methods. Because of non-continuos character of plant structure, the authors applied Voronoi's diagrams. This model allows for application of some point co-ordinates and segment lengths only. Also Voronoi's diagrams make easier obtaining a few parameters important for geometrical properties of cell wall. Color microscope images have been converted from RGB system into HLS system which enabled to obtain information about the space configuration of point of objects being investigated and to identify structural elements.

  7. Display the CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram with digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Dong; Yao, Yi-Yang; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2013-12-01

    The chromaticity diagram is also needed in the instrument of a non-contact system for measuring color of printed material. The purpose of this paper is to design the color chromaticity diagram identical with the CIE 1931 and its program in MATLAB with digital image processing is realized. The chromaticity diagram in a binary format representation as black and white is used and the boundary for every color is confined by a closed black real line. More than 20 kinds of colors are selected by the psychophysiology of vision according to the CIE 1931 and their values in RGB are also are given. After every region colors are put in, the closed black real lines are wiped away and their values of RGB are updated according to the value for the nearest color region. The program including the filters in RGB space run until the all steps between every two colors up to the psychophysiology of vision, the chromaticity diagram is obtained. The values of RGB in every position in the chromaticity diagram can be presented.

  8. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  9. Control structures for flow process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dul?u

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial domain, a large number of applications is covered by slow processes, including the flow, the pressure, the temperature and the level control. Each control system must be treated in steady and dynamic states and from the point of view of the possible technical solutions. Based on mathematical models of the processes and design calculations, PC programs allow simulation and the determination of the control system performances.The paper presents a part of an industrial process with classical control loops of flow and temperature. The mathematical model of the flow control process was deducted, the control structure, based on experimental criterions, was designed and the version witch ensure the imposed performances was chosen. Using Matlab, the robustness performances were studied.

  10. The phase diagram of milk: a new tool for optimising the drying process

    OpenAIRE

    Vuataz, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    The spray-drying process of milk has been developed using an approach based more on empirical and technological concepts than on food material science. However, optimisation of the concentration and spray-drying steps require a detailed consideration of material phase transitions as well as the kinetics of possible chemical reactions and physical transformations. The phase diagram of milk, now completed by a description of glass transition, was found to be a very powerful tool for understandi...

  11. Potential - oxoacidity diagrams for electrochemical processing of actinides in molten-salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten-salt based pyroprocessing of nuclear fuels, especially metallic fuels is being considered as a more effective method compared to wet processing route. Lithium and potassium chloride eutectic is one of the most investigated molten salt electrolyte for this purpose. Due to difference in the reduction potential of actinides, rare-earths and other fission products, actinides can be easily separated from other fission product during electrolytic pyroprocessing. However, due to close reduction potentials of actinide species Th, U, Pu, Am, Cm, their separation needs closer investigation of controlling parameters, pO2- and voltage. Therefore, potential-oxoacidity diagrams of these species were calculated in LiCL-KCI eutectic electrolyte at 743 K, with reference to Cl2(1 atm)/Cl- electrode. These diagrams helped in estimating the required oxygen potentials and voltages to selectively reduce different species of actinides to their metallic forms. (author)

  12. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...... consuming process. This article demonstrates how to compile such a diagram into Java code and later, by reverse engineering, produce a class diagram. The process from state diagram via intermediate SAX parsed xml file to Apache Velocity generated Java code is described. The result is a fast reproducible...

  13. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m2, the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s-1|t|-N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2

  14. Effect of strong correlation on the study of renormalization group flow diagram for Kondo effect in a interacting quantum wire

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sujit

    2008-01-01

    We present the study of Kondo effect in an interacting quantum wire. We mainly emphasis the effect of strong electronic correlations in the study of renormalization group flow diagram and the stability analysis of fixed points for both magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities. We observe that the behavior of the system is either in the single channel or in the two channel Kondo effect depending on the initial values of coupling constants and strong correlations.

  15. A proposal for a method to translate MAP model into BPMN process diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Kaffela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to bridge the gap between intentional process modeling and business process modeling. The first represent the business objectives of an enterprise and the strategies used in order to achieve these objectives, while the second concentrate on the business processes. The proposed method uses MAP as an intentional modeling language and Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN as a modeling language for the business processes. We propose to translate the strategic goals expressed with MAP model into a BPMN process diagram. We show that an alignment of the intentional model (MAP with BPMN can support the designers in transforming easily the strategic goals into business operational goals. We also show in this work, an example illustrating the use of our mapping.

  16. Stepwise flow diagram for the development of formulations of non spore-forming bacteria against foliar pathogens: The case of Lysobacter capsici AZ78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-12-20

    The formulation is a significant step in biopesticide development and is an efficient way to obtain consistency in terms of biological control under field conditions. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of information regarding the processes needed to achieve efficient formulation of non spore-forming bacterial biological control agents. In response to this, we propose a flow diagram made up of six steps including selection of growth parameters, checking of minimum shelf life, selection of protective additives, checking that the additives have no adverse effects, validation of the additive mix under field conditions and choosing whether to use additives as co-formulants or tank mix additives. This diagram is intended to provide guidance and decision-making criteria for the formulation of non spore-forming bacterial biological control agents against foliar pathogens. The diagram was then validated by designing an efficient formulation for a Gram-negative bacterium, Lysobacter capsici AZ78, to control grapevine downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola. A harvest of 10(10)L. capsici AZ78cellsml(-1) was obtained in a bench top fermenter. The viability of cells decreased by only one order of magnitude after one year of storage at 4°C. The use of a combination of corn steep liquor, lignosulfonate, and polyethyleneglycol in the formulation improved the survival of L. capsici AZ78 cells living on grapevine leaves under field conditions by one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the use of these additives also guaranteed a reduction of 71% in P. viticola attacks. In conclusion, this work presents a straightforward stepwise flow diagram to help researchers develop formulations for biological control agents that are easy to prepare, stable, not phytotoxic and able to protect the microorganims under field conditions. PMID:26467716

  17. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the ?-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation considerations. The electronic supplements present an application of the analysis techniques to a version of the ?-calculus incorporating distribution and code mobility; also the proofs of the main results can be found in the electronic supplements.

  18. Systematic fuel cycle systems engineering from 2D flow diagrams to 3D layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER fuel cycle systems are designed to supply deuterium-tritium gas mixtures to the ITER fueling systems and to process return gas streams from the vacuum vessel forming the closed inner fuel cycle. The radioactive nature of tritium requires implementation of a multiple barrier concept in order to assure the confinement of tritium within the process equipment. Ventilation and vent detritiation systems are the part of a dynamic confinement barrier which prevents tritium releases to the environment. The ITER fuel cycle systems, ventilation and tritium confinement systems all together form a rather complex chemical plant - the ITER Tritium Plant. Not only because of the complexity of the inner fuel cycle systems and numerous interfaces to the other systems within tritium plant but also because of the procurement sharing integrated planning is required. Interfaces management, configuration control and systems integration requires proper CAD tools and Project Data Management systems. CATIA V4 has been used in the past in ITER for 3D planning. However, only today's version of the software allows linking of the primarily 2D Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams (P and IDs) into detailed 3D design and layout. The capabilities of the software were demonstrated through proof of principle activities in the ITER CAD office, eventually leading to the decision to deploy CATIA V5 Equipment and Systems (E and S) as general purpose single CAD tool for the design and integration of the ITER electrical, fluid and mechanical systems. In order to meet engineering requirements of ITER the CATIA V5 E and S project structure and project resources have been established starting from systems classifications, followed by the implementation of the applicable industrial standards, specifications and systems elements libraries into the Project Resources Management (PRM). Catalogues for the piping parts, piping specifications and standards specific for the design of the tritium processing systems and tritium confinement systems will assure implementation of the Design Guidelines and Quality Requirements for the Tritium Plant systems including the standardization of the equipment and design. The paper describes the CATIA V5 E and S project structure, the procedures to develop and maintain the PRM and how the tool is employed to detail the design of Tritium Plant systems. (orig.)

  19. Meaning and Abduction as Process-Structure: A Diagram of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Semetsky

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is informed by Charles Sanders Peirce’s philosophy as semiotics or the doctrine of signs. The paper’s purpose is to explore Peirce’s category of abduction as not being limited to the inference to the best explanation. In the context of the logic of discovery, abduction is posited as a necessary although not sufficient condition for the production of meanings. The structure of a genuine sign is triadic and represents a synthesis between precognitive ideas and conceptual representations. The novel model of reasoning is offered, based on the mathematical formalism borrowed from Gauss’ interpretation of the complex number. It is suggested that this model in a form of a diagram not only represents a semiotic process-structure but also overcomes the long-standing paradox of new knowledge. For Peirce, it is a diagram as a visual representation that may yield solutions to the otherwise unsolvable logical problems. What appears to us as a paradox is the very presence of abductive, or hypothetical, inference, as Peircean generic category of Firstness within the Thirdness of the total thought-process. Firstness (feeling, Secondness (action, and Thirdness (reason together constitute a dynamic structure of experience.

  20. An active flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Zvi; Granat, Joshua; Wang, Shixiao

    2013-11-01

    An active flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process in incompressible swirling flows in a finite-length, straight, circular pipe is developed. Flow injection distributed along the pipe wall is used as the controller. The flow is subjected to non-periodic inlet-outlet conditions. A long-wave asymptotic analysis results in a nonlinear model problem for the dynamics and control of both inviscid and high Reynolds number flows. The approach provides the bifurcation diagram of steady states and the stability characteristics of these states. In addition, an energy analysis of the controlled flow dynamics suggests a feedback control law which relates the flow injection to the evolving maximum radial velocity at the inlet. The feedback control cuts the natural feed forward mechanism of the breakdown process. Computed examples based on the full Euler and NS formulations at various swirl levels demonstrate the evolution to near-steady breakdown states when swirl is above a critical level. Moreover, applying the proposed feedback control law during flow evolution, shows for the first time the successful elimination of the breakdown states and flow stabilization on an almost columnar state for a wide range of swirl, up to 30 percent above critical.

  1. Cash Flow Diagramming In Line of Balance Technique by Using Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakh, Alireza Bajgiran

    2010-01-01

    Contractors often encounter with repetitive types of projects that contain several identical or similar units. These multi-unit projects are characterized by repeating activities. The known construction planning techniques such as Bar Chart and Network Diagramming method are not suitable and sufficient for repetitive types of projects. For these kinds of projects, Line of Balance planning techniques (LOB) are mainly used. For all construction projects, costs and times must be m...

  2. Preliminary investigation of processing and phase diagram construction in the Y-Sr-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the Y-Sr-Cu-O system which has been reported to from a K2NiF4-type superconducting phase (Tc ∼ 40 K) and a 123-type phase (Tc ∼ 80 K). Difficulties in preparing single phase materials by standard solid state reaction of carbonates and oxides have compelled us to explore other methods. A two-stage solid state processing technique in addition to a coprecipitation method will be discussed along with the relative advantages and disadvantages of each. Using data obtained from XRD and EDS, we have mapped some of the YO1.5SrO-CuO ternary phase diagram in anticipation of continued efforts at single crystal growth

  3. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  4. ISSUES CONCERNING THE USE OF UML DIAGRAMS TO DEFINE THE UNDERLYING PROCESS MODEL SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    MIOARA UDRIC?; TEODORA V?TUIU; ADRIAN GHENCEA

    2011-01-01

    Diagrams are a graphical representation of the information contained in a UML model, and are an essential feature of UML modelling. Each UML diagram is designed to let you view a software system from a different perspective and to varying levels of abstraction.

  5. Learning with Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Garry

    1999-01-01

    Argues that diagram interpretation is largely text-dependent and is also dependent upon the use of particular diagram-processing skills which may be very difficult to develop. Discusses some interpretation difficulties and advances strategies to help teachers make more effective use of diagrams. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/WRM)

  6. Introduction to Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Feynman Diagrams provides Feynman diagram techniques and methods for calculating quantities measured experimentally. The book discusses topics Feynman diagrams intended for experimental physicists. Topics presented include methods for calculating the matrix elements (by perturbation theory) and the basic rules for constructing Feynman diagrams; techniques for calculating cross sections and polarizations; processes in which both leptons and hadrons take part; and the electromagnetic and weak form factors of nucleons. Experimental physicists and graduate students of physics will

  7. Solvable phase diagrams and ensemble inequivalence for two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Venaille, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Using explicit analytical computations, generic occurrence of inequivalence between two or more statistical ensembles is obtained for a large class of equilibrium states of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows. The occurrence of statistical ensemble inequivalence is shown to be related to previously observed phase transitions in the equilibrium flow topology. We find in these turbulent flow equilibria, two mechanisms for the appearance of ensemble equivalences, that were not observed in any physical systems before. These mechanisms are associated respectively with second-order azeotropy (simultaneous appearance of two second-order phase transitions), and with bicritical points (bifurcation from a first-order to two second-order phase transition lines). The important roles of domain geometry, of topography, and of a screening length scale (the Rossby radius of deformation) are discussed. It is found that decreasing the screening length scale (making interactions more local) surprisingly widens the r...

  8. Probing the QCD phase diagram with measurements of strange hadron elliptic flow in STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    We present the measurements of strange hadron elliptic flow at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 - 200 GeV using the STAR detector in the years 2010 and 2011. The transverse momentum and collision centrality dependence of elliptic flow is presented. At the intermediate transverse momentum $\\Omega$ baryon and $\\phi$-meson show baryon-meson separation effect similar to proton and pion for minimum-bias Au+Au collision at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ =200 GeV. This indicates formation of collective flow at the early partonic phase. The separation between baryons and mesons at intermediate transverse momentum decreases with decrease in beam energy and almost disappears at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ $\\leq$ 11.5 GeV, indicating hadronic interaction being dominant at the lower beam energy. We observe difference in elliptic flow between particle and anti-particle and this increases with decrease in beam energy. Differences are larger for baryons than mesons. Relative difference between particle and anti-particle ell...

  9. Flow injection systems for process analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukkari, Ingrid

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection systems have great potential for sample handling and analysis in process analytical chemistry. The flexibility and versatility of flow injection manifolds can he utilized in specific applications of sample conditioning and analysis. An overview of various flow injection methods, including flow reversals, double injection, and sequential injection is given, as well as different clean-up methods, such as gas diffusion, solid phase extraction, dialysis, and solvent extraction. Cal...

  10. A Wiring Diagram of Protocerebral Bridge for Visual Information Processing in the Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Chuang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a physical wiring network relays information flow from sensory input to behavioral output in a complex brain. The protocerebral bridge (PB is a major part of the insect central complex, a pre-motor center analogous to the human basal ganglia. By deconstructing the adult Drosophila PB network into hundreds of single neurons and reconstructing them into a common 3D framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. This system follows several highly-ordered wiring principles indicating multiple levels of mirror, convergence, divergence, reverberation and parallel signal propagation within the CX. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry provides some clues as to how visual sensory cues are processed in the fly’s brain to drive proper locomotor output.

  11. A Comprehensive Wiring Diagram of the Protocerebral Bridge for Visual Information Processing in the Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB is a major part of the insect central complex (CX, a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into a common three-dimensional framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. Circuitry properties such as mirroring, convergence, divergence, tiling, reverberation, and parallel signal propagation were observed; their functional and evolutional significance is discussed. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry may provide guidelines for further investigations on transformation of sensory (e.g., visual input into locomotor commands in fly brains.

  12. Chemical reactions and processes under flow conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Luis, Santiago V; Clark, James H

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and fine chemical products are typically synthesised batchwise which is an anomaly since batch processes have a series of practical and economical disadvantages. On the contrary, flow continuous processes present a series of advantages leading to new ways to synthesise chemical products. Flow processes - * enable control reaction parameters more precisely (temperature, residence time, amount of reagents and solvent etc.), leading to better reproducibility, safer and more reliable processes * can be performed more advantageously using immobilized reagents or catalysts * improve t

  13. Phase diagrams of ionic liquids-based aqueous biphasic systems as a platform for extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel ABS based in ionic liquids were determined as a platform for distinct extraction processes. • The effect of pH, IL cation core, alkyl side chain length, IL anion nature, and salt nature on the ABS formation was investigated. • The ability to form ABS increases with the pH and alkyl chain length for all systems studied. • The ILs cation core and anion nature effect on the ABS formation is dominated by the IL (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) nature. • The effect of the different salts depends of the ionic liquid nature and salt valency. - Abstract: In the past few years, ionic liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems have become the subject of considerable interest as a promising technique for the extraction and purification of several macro/biomolecules. Aiming at developing guidelines for more benign and efficient extraction processes, phase diagrams for aqueous biphasic systems composed of ionic liquids and inorganic/organic salts are here reported. Several combinations of ionic liquid families (imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium, quaternary ammonium and cholinium) and salts [potassium phosphate buffer (KH2PO4/K2HPO4 at pH 7), potassium citrate buffer (C6H5K3O7/C6H8O7 at pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3 at pH ?13)] were evaluated to highlight the influence of the ionic liquid structure (cation core, anion and alkyl chain length), the pH and the salt nature on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems. The binodal curves and respective tie-lines reported for these systems were experimentally determined at (298 ± 1) K. In general, the ability to promote the aqueous biphasic systems formation increases with the pH and alkyl chain length. While the influence of the cation core and anion nature of the ionic liquids on their ability to form aqueous biphasic systems closely correlates with ionic liquids capacity to be hydrated by water, the effect of the different salts depends of the ionic liquid nature and salt valency

  14. Delta Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Jablan, Slavik; Kauffman, Louis H.; Lopes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We call a Delta Diagram any diagram of a knot or link whose regions (including the unbounded one) have 3, 4, or 5 sides. We prove that any knot or link admits a delta diagram. We define and estimate combinatorial link invariants stemming from this definition.

  15. On a generalized phase diagram of simultaneous transport processes - a two velocity universal plane of invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem concerning void fraction as an additional degree of freedom for a discontinuous density continuum e.g., two-phase systems, is theoretically investigated. A generalized phase diagram has been found to signify the evolution of two-phase systems. With due regard to the objective property of motion, the transformation functions and its properties clearly expose the invariance of relative velocity with superficial velocities as the vector quantities. A fundamental one-to-one mapping involving Euclidean point spaces has been derived demonstrating a two-velocity universal plane of invariance as two-phase equation-of-state. The utility of the phase diagram for steady-state operations is doubtless because of the fundamental property of motion. (author)

  16. Flow, diffusion, and rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains recent results obtained for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport and rate processes are reviewed. Kinetic equations, conservation laws, and transport coefficients are obtained for multicomponent mixtures. Thermodynamic principles are used in the design of experiments predicting heat and mass transport coefficients. Highly nonstationary conditions are analyzed in the context of transient heat transfer, nonlocal diffusion in stress fields and thermohydrodynamic oscillatory instabilities. Unification of the dynamics of chemical systems with other sorts of processes (e.g. mechanical) is given. Thermodynamics of reacting surfaces is developed. Admissible reaction paths are studied and a consistency of chemical kinetics with thermodynamics is shown. Oscillatory reactions are analyzed in a unifying approach showing explosive, conservation or damped behavior. A comprehensive review of transport processes in electrolytes and membranes is given. Applications of thermodynamics to thermoelectric systems and ionized gas (plasma) systems are reviewed

  17. Exact and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model with bounded acceleration for a class of fundamental diagrams

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Shanwen

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we propose a new exact and grid-free numerical scheme for computing solutions associated with an hybrid traffic flow model based on the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation, for a class of fundamental diagrams. In this hybrid flow model, the vehicles satisfy the LWR equation whenever possible, and have a constant acceleration otherwise. We first propose a mathematical definition of the solution as a minimization problem. We use this formulation to build a grid-free solution method for this model based on the minimization of component function. We then derive these component functions analytically for triangular fundamental diagrams, which are commonly used to model traffic flow. We also show that the proposed computational method can handle fixed or moving bottlenecks. A toolbox implementation of the resulting algorithm is briefly discussed, and posted at https://dl.dropbox.com/u/1318701/Toolbox.zip. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Grgec; Robert Mužar

    2007-01-01

    When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process) defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD), object diagram (OD), sequence diagram (SD), collaboration diagram (COD), state chart diagram (SCD), activity diagram (AD)), 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD), 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram), 4. Physical view (deployment diagram), and 5. Use case view (use ...

  19. Cognitive Processes (Probably Stimulated By Using Digital Game "Dynamic Metabolic Diagram Virtual Krebs´ Cycle"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. P Azevedo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes some of the possible cognitive operations related to the use of an educational game type activity, which  is  part  of  the  software  e-metabolismo,  developed  to  improve  biochemical  learning.  This  interactive  activity, called  DMDV   – Dynamic  Metabolic  Diagram,  allows  participants  to  drag-and-drop  components  of  the  sequence  of chemical  reactions,  which describe  the  metabolic  route  under study.  It  also offers  to the students  quizzes  and texts about  the  subject.  The  suggestion  of  cognitive  processes  possibly  triggered  by  the  software,  which  must  improve effective learning, was based on Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemological ideas to explain the cognitive activity. One of these  processes  is  the  mere  act  of  playing  the  game,  which  Piaget  relates  to  humans  needs  of  learning  rules  of socialization.  It  also  can  be  seen  as  a  first  step  in  cognition  process,  the  so  called  adaptation  function  that  include assimilation and accommodation, interactive processes between intelligent activities and elements from the reality, to became part of the individual´s mental structures. Another example: drag and drop substracts and enzymes pieces in a  virtual  board,  each  one  corresponding  to  an  specific  place  in  a  metabolic  route.  This  operation  can  be  related  to motivation,  an  affective  element  proposed  by  Piaget  to  stimulate  curiosity  and  improve  construction  of  knowledge structures.  Besides  this  issue,  the  act  of  choosing  pieces  is  assumed  to  inform  the  student  previous  knowledge (previous  cognitive  structures,  which,  according  to  Piaget,  must  be  misbalanced  (equilibration  of  new  structures  is supposed to be part of the dynamic process of organization of new knowledge. DMDV was tested with a group of 24 students  (2003  and  another  group  of  36  students  in  2004,  of  a  Biochemistry  Course  regularly  registered  at FFFMCPA´s medicine  faculty.  The  evaluation  of the student’s apprenticeship  was  made  by a  conventional  test  and three Conceptual Maps constructed by each student, (a before playing the game, (b immediately after, and (c three months after the use of the game.

  20. Bidirectional pedestrian fundamental diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Flötteröd, Gunnar; Lämmel, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new model of stationary bidirectional pedestrian flow. Starting out from microscopic first principles, a bidirectional fundamental diagram (FD) is derived that defines direction-specific flow rates as functions of direction-specific densities. The FD yields non-negative and bounded flows and guarantees that the instantaneous density changes that would result from these flows stay bounded between zero and jam density. In its minimal configuration, it uses just as many p...

  1. Grid diagrams and shellability

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sucharit

    2012-01-01

    We explore a somewhat unexpected connection between knot Floer homology and shellable posets, via grid diagrams. Given a grid presentation of a knot $K$ inside $S^3$, we define a poset which has an associated chain complex whose homology is the knot Floer homology of $K$. We then prove that the closed intervals of this poset are shellable. This allows us to combinatorially associate a PL flow category to a grid diagram.

  2. Parametric diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples.......This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples....

  3. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2012), s. 86-88. ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis .pdf

  4. Robust processing of optical flow of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Ashish; Bors, Adrian G

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a new approach, coupling physical models and image estimation techniques, for modelling the movement of fluids. The fluid flow is characterized by turbulent movement and dynamically changing patterns which poses challenges to existing optical flow estimation methods. The proposed methodology, which relies on Navier-Stokes equations, is used for processing fluid optical flow by using a succession of stages such as advection, diffusion and mass conservation. A robust diffusion step jointly considering the local data geometry and its statistics is embedded in the proposed framework. The diffusion kernel is Gaussian with the covariance matrix defined by the local second derivatives. Such an anisotropic kernel is able to implicitly detect changes in the vector field orientation and to diffuse accordingly. A new approach is developed for detecting fluid flow structures such as vortices. The proposed methodology is applied on artificially generated vector fields as well as on various image sequences. PMID:20409993

  5. Eviction strategies for semantic flow processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, M K; Scharrenbach, Thomas; Bernstein, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    In order to cope with the ever-increasing data volume continuous processing of incoming data via Semantic Flow Processing systems have been proposed. These systems allow to answer queries on streams of RDF triples. To achieve this goal they match (triple) patterns against the incoming stream and generate/update variable bindings. Yet, given the continuous nature of the stream the number of bindings can explode and exceed memory; in particular when computing aggregates. To make the information...

  6. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  7. Correlation between viscous-flow activation energy and phase diagram in four systems of Cu-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation energy is obtained from temperature dependence of viscosities by means of a fitting to the Arrhenius equation for liquid alloys of Cu-Sb, Cu-Te, Cu-Sn and Cu-Ag systems. We found that the changing trend of activation energy curves with concentration is similar to that of liquidus in the phase diagrams. Moreover, a maximum value of activation energy is in the composition range of the intermetallic phases and a minimum value of activation energy is located at the eutectic point. The correlation between the activation energy and the phase diagrams has been further discussed.

  8. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  9. A Feynman Diagram Analyser DIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Tentyukov, M.; Fleischer, J.

    1999-01-01

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automatic Feynman diagram evaluation is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language is used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general.

  10. The influence of random slowdown process and lock-step effect on the fundamental diagram of the nonlinear pedestrian dynamics: An estimating-correction cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Yanqiu; Gong, Junhui; Peng, Fei; Yan, Zidan; Zhang, Taolin; Yang, Lizhong

    2015-03-01

    Random slowdown process and lock-step effect, observed from real-life observation and the experiments of other researchers, were investigated in the view of the pedestrian microscopic behaviors. Due to the limited controllability, repeatability and randomness of the pedestrian experiments, a new estimating-correction cellular automaton was established to research the influence of random slowdown process and lock-step effect on the fundamental diagram. The first step of the model is to estimate the next time-step status of the neighbor cell in front of the tracked pedestrian. The second step is to correct the status and confirm the position of the tracked pedestrian in the next time-step. It is found that the random slowdown process and lock-step have significant influence on the curve configuration and the characteristic parameters, including the concavity-convexity, the inflection point, the maximum flow rate and the critical density etc. The random slowdown process reduces the utilization of the available space between two adjacent pedestrians in the longitudinal direction, especially in the region of intermediate density. However, the lock-step effect enhances the utilization of the available space, especially in the region of high density.

  11. 27 CFR 20.94 - Statement of process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 5150.19 shall also contain the following information: (i) Flow diagrams shall be submitted with the... through the pipelines shall be indicated in the flow diagram. The flow diagram, shall be accompanied by a written description of the flow of materials through the system. (ii) The statement of process...

  12. A diagram method of describing the process of non-stationary heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Gorshkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer through the exterior building envelope in real operating conditions is always unsteady. However, in practice, in most cases, steady-state heat transfer is discussed, characterized by the time-constant magnitude of the heat flow rate and temperatures. The steady-state heat transfer equations are greatly simplified. This makes it practical for developing engineering calculation methods. Modes of non-stationary heat transfer also find practical application. However, these methods have a number of problems. The authors proposed a method for solving the modes of unsteady heat transfer, based on probabilistic methods of the general theory of transference. The paper considers the heat flow rate through a flat building envelope consisting of several successive layers. We showed how the order of the layers in the composition of the multi-layer building envelope affects its thermal stability. We obtained an equation for determining the difference between the average times of passage of heat flow through the building envelope at various layers of disposition.

  13. Coupling Multiple Stiff Processes in Reactive Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Jay P.; Oran, Elaine S.; Patnaik, Gopal

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes a new, Compenstated Operator-Split (COS) methodology for coupling several distinct, mathematically stiff, reactive flow processes into a dynamic simulation model. Operator-splitting (also called process-splitting or timestep-splitting) is the simplest way to build detailed numerical models containing a number of different reactive flow processes and allows use of optimal algorithms for each of the processes individually [Oran and Boris, 1987]. However, explicit operator-splitting performs poorly in situations where two or more of the processes are ``stiff'' and thus require unacceptably small timesteps. Global implicit coupling can in principle be used for these cases, but the computational cost becomes prohibitive, the programming is often complex, there are serious algorithmic restrictions, and the accuracy can be quite low. We describe how operator-splitting can be extended to a broad class of problems with interacting stiff processes without the limitations of a global implicit framework. (Work Sponsored by ONR through the Naval Research Laboratory.)

  14. The perceptual flow of phonetic feature processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Steven; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    , posterior probabilities associated with phonetic-feature decoding were computed from confusion matrices in order to deduce the temporal flow of phonetic processing. Decoding the feature, Manner-of-Articulation, depends on accurate decoding of the feature Voicing (but not vice-versa), and decoding Place-of-Articulation...... requires precise decoding of Manner (but not the converse). From these data, we conclude that Voicing is processed prior to Manner-of-Articulation, and that Manner is decoded prior to Place-of-Articulation. Voicing and Manner cues are often correctly decoded in conditions where Place is not. This...

  15. On Class Diagrams, Crossings and Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Eichelberger, Holger

    2006-01-01

    As a standardized software engineering diagram, the UML class diagram provides various information on the static structure of views on software while design, implementation and maintenance phase. This talk gives an overview on drawing UML class diagrams in hierarchical fashion. Therefore, common elements of class diagrams are introduced and aesthetic rules for drawing UML class diagrams are given. These rules are based on four disciplines involved in the reading process of diagrams. After...

  16. Real time acquisition, processing, and archiving of Doublet III diagram data employing table driven software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the diagnostic data acquisition, processing and archiving computer system for the Doublet III fusion research device. This paper's emphasis is mainly on the software, but provides a description of the hardware configuration

  17. Digital image processing in flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow visualization results from the interactions between light and matter. Classical methods such as shadowgraphy, schlieren photography, and interferometry visualize variation in the index of refraction induced by changes in density, pressure, or temperature. Nonuniformities of these physical observables modify the phase of optical waves, rendered visible by free-space propagation (shadowgraphy), optical processing in the back focal plane of a lens (schlieren photography), or interference with a reference wave (interferometry). The classical methods visualize variations of the index of refraction or spatial derivatives thereof integrated along the light path through the fluid. Three-dimensional space is projected onto a plane with the corresponding reduction in degrees of freedom. Except for axial symmetric or two-dimensional flows, spatial structures cannot be recovered from a single image

  18. Planar diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the planar approximation to field theory through the limit of a large internal symmetry group. This yields an alternative and powerful method to count planar diagrams. Results are presented for cubic and quartic vertices. Quantum mechanics treated in this approximation is shown to be equivalent to a free Fermi gas system. (orig.)

  19. System studies in PA: Development of process influence diagram (PID) for SFR-1 repository near-field + far-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenario development is a key component of the performance assessment (PA) process for radioactive waste disposal, the primary objective being to ensure that all relevant factors associated with the future evolution of the repository system are properly considered in PA. As part of scenario development, a list of features, events and processes (FEPs) are identified and assembled, representing the Process System, with interactions/influences between FEPs incorporated in a Process Influence Diagram (PID). This report documents the technical work conducted between 1997 and the end of 1999 under the Systems Studies Project. The overall objective of this project has been the construction of a PID for the SFR-1 repository (final repository for reactor waste), this PID being the first stage in the identification of scenarios to describe future evolution of this repository. The PIDs discussed in this report have been created using two software applications: existing commercial software (Business Modeller, Infotool AB. Stockholm, Sweden) and, more recently, a newly developed software tool SPARTA (Enviros QuantiSci, Henley, U.K.). Although the focus of this report is on the application of SPARTA to PID development, it is important to document the work carried out prior to SPARTA being available, in order to provide a complete record of the entire SFR-1 PID development effort as well as preserving the context of the multi-year project. Following a description of the different disposal sections of the SFR-1 and the various near-field barriers, the sequential development (i.e. near-field of Silo, BMA, BLA, BTF sections; far-field; integrated near-field + far-field) of the PID for SFR-1 repository system using Business Modeller is described. Owing to the complexity of the repository, in terms of number of both different disposal sections (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF) and barriers associated with each section, the two-dimensional (2D) PID created for SFR-1 using Business Modeller is visually complex and potentially difficult to interpret. Primarily for this reason, the need for an alternative approach was recognised in 1996 and the decision was taken to develop new software for this purpose. Following a consensus on the specific requirements of the new software, a first version of SPARTA became available towards the end of 1998, with subsequent versions being released during 1999. SPARTA is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) PID consisting of a series of layers, each underlying layer providing additional (more detailed) information about the Process System. The uppermost layer or diagram may be regarded as a top-level view of the repository system (near-field, far-field and biosphere). In the PID developed for SKI, underlying layers or diagrams often have some physical meaning, e.g. sections of the repository (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF sections, repository zone), or barriers of a section (e.g. for the Silo - backfill, reinforced shell, porous grout or mortar, waste package). Other layers contain groups of related FEPs, e.g. geochemical FEPs. A total of 95 drawings, typically consisting of 6-8 FEPs each, describe the SFR-1 repository system. The two PIDs developed for the SFR-1 repository provide different representations of the near-field and far-field of the repository system; the first PID being two-dimensional and the later one three-dimensional. Despite the different approaches, the primary objective of constructing each PID has been the same: firstly, to ensure that all FEPs relevant to the future evolution of the repository system are considered, and secondly, that all 'essential' influences are identified so that they may be incorporated in the subsequent modelling of the system's evolution

  20. System studies in PA: Development of process influence diagram (PID) for SFR-1 repository near-field + far-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, M.J. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Miller, W.M.; Chapman, N.A. [QuantiSci Ltd., Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2001-05-01

    Scenario development is a key component of the performance assessment (PA) process for radioactive waste disposal, the primary objective being to ensure that all relevant factors associated with the future evolution of the repository system are properly considered in PA. As part of scenario development, a list of features, events and processes (FEPs) are identified and assembled, representing the Process System, with interactions/influences between FEPs incorporated in a Process Influence Diagram (PID). This report documents the technical work conducted between 1997 and the end of 1999 under the Systems Studies Project. The overall objective of this project has been the construction of a PID for the SFR-1 repository (final repository for reactor waste), this PID being the first stage in the identification of scenarios to describe future evolution of this repository. The PIDs discussed in this report have been created using two software applications: existing commercial software (Business Modeller, Infotool AB. Stockholm, Sweden) and, more recently, a newly developed software tool SPARTA (Enviros QuantiSci, Henley, U.K.). Although the focus of this report is on the application of SPARTA to PID development, it is important to document the work carried out prior to SPARTA being available, in order to provide a complete record of the entire SFR-1 PID development effort as well as preserving the context of the multi-year project. Following a description of the different disposal sections of the SFR-1 and the various near-field barriers, the sequential development (i.e. near-field of Silo, BMA, BLA, BTF sections; far-field; integrated near-field + far-field) of the PID for SFR-1 repository system using Business Modeller is described. Owing to the complexity of the repository, in terms of number of both different disposal sections (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF) and barriers associated with each section, the two-dimensional (2D) PID created for SFR-1 using Business Modeller is visually complex and potentially difficult to interpret. Primarily for this reason, the need for an alternative approach was recognised in 1996 and the decision was taken to develop new software for this purpose. Following a consensus on the specific requirements of the new software, a first version of SPARTA became available towards the end of 1998, with subsequent versions being released during 1999. SPARTA is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) PID consisting of a series of layers, each underlying layer providing additional (more detailed) information about the Process System. The uppermost layer or diagram may be regarded as a top-level view of the repository system (near-field, far-field and biosphere). In the PID developed for SKI, underlying layers or diagrams often have some physical meaning, e.g. sections of the repository (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF sections, repository zone), or barriers of a section (e.g. for the Silo - backfill, reinforced shell, porous grout or mortar, waste package). Other layers contain groups of related FEPs, e.g. geochemical FEPs. A total of 95 drawings, typically consisting of 6-8 FEPs each, describe the SFR-1 repository system. The two PIDs developed for the SFR-1 repository provide different representations of the near-field and far-field of the repository system; the first PID being two-dimensional and the later one three-dimensional. Despite the different approaches, the primary objective of constructing each PID has been the same: firstly, to ensure that all FEPs relevant to the future evolution of the repository system are considered, and secondly, that all 'essential' influences are identified so that they may be incorporated in the subsequent modelling of the system's evolution.

  1. Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing. Progress report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, A.

    1988-12-31

    This paper considers the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Examples, listed in a table, include semiconductor/insulator/semiconductor (SIS) layered structures, II-VI/II-VI and III-V/II-VI epitaxial heterojunctions and oxidation of ternary compounds. Solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems. Using free energies of formation, a method to calculate the quaternary phase diagrams was developed. The Ga-As-II-VI and Cd-Te-Zn-O phase diagrams are reviewed as examples of quaternary phase diagrams without and with solid solubility.

  2. Application of ISO22000, failure mode, and effect analysis (FMEA) cause and effect diagrams and pareto in conjunction with HACCP and risk assessment for processing of pastry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H

    2011-09-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of pastry processing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the pastry industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO22000. Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (pastry processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and fishbone diagram). In this work a comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over pastry processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the Risk Priority Number (RPN) per identified processing hazard. Storage of raw materials and storage of final products at -18°C followed by freezing were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (225, 225, and 144 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. Following the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out leading to considerably lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO22000 system of a pastry processing industry is considered imperative. PMID:21838557

  3. Recharge and flow processes in a till aquitard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas Morville; Høgh Jensen, Karsten; Dahl, Mette

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Denmark is primarily covered by clay till. The transformation of the excess rainfall into laterally diverted groundwater flow, drain flow, stream flow, and recharge to the underlying aquifer is governed by complicatedinterrelated processes. Distributed hydrological models provide a...

  4. Examination of participant flow in the CONSORT diagram can improve the understanding of the generalizability of study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental principle in research is that the findings of a study can only be generalized to the population from which the sample of the study was drawn. What this population was can be discerned from an examination of the study selection criteria. Additional insights can sometimes be gleaned from the study flowchart or CONSORT diagram, which may show sample attenuation between subject screening and final recruitment. Such sample attenuation, if present, implies further limitation to the generalizability of the study outcomes. Two large, 2-year, randomized controlled maintenance therapy trials are described to illustrate sample attenuation that limits study generalizability, one in the context of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus antidepressant drugs for recurrent major depressive disorder and the other in the context of quetiapine versus placebo for bipolar disorder. Readers therefore need to examine both study selection criteria and the CONSORT diagram in order to better understand the extent to which study results apply to the patients whom they see. PMID:26646042

  5. Work flow in process development for energy efficient processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing expenditures for energy require an optimization of chemical processes with regard to energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is of course only one aspect of a multi-objective optimization during process development. It will be shown how methods for increasing energy efficiency are integrated in the workflow of BASF's process development for new and existing processes. Special focus will be on the use of exergy analysis and its high relevance to industrial chemical processes. It will be shown how exergy analysis might be used for comparison of different process concepts. Additionally examples will emphasize how an increase of energy efficiency by change of operational conditions can be reached. Also these measures can be interpreted in terms of reduced exergy losses. For all examples the additional investment, if needed, is justified by the savings, which were altogether approximately 7 million euro per year. Highlights: ? Work flow for development of energy efficient processes for new and existing plants in the chemical industry is presented. ? Exergy analysis has been used to identify favorable process concepts. ? Examples with annual savings of about 7 million euro emphasize the use of the method.

  6. Phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description is presented of binary phase diagrams of titanium alloyed with the following elements: silver, aluminium, arsenic, gold, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, carbon, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, gallium, germanium, hydrogen, hafnium, indium, iridium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrogen, sodium, niobium, nickel, oxygen, osmium, phosphorus, lead, palladium, platinum, plutonium, rhenium, lanthanium, cerium, preseodymium, neodymium, gadolinium, erbium, terbium, thulium, lutetium, rhodium, ruthenium, scandium, silicon, tin, strontium, tantalum, technetium, thorium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium

  7. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  8. Human Factors Operability Timeline Analysis to Improve the Processing Flow of the Orion Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Schlierf, Roland; Miller, Darcy; Posada, Juan; Haddock, Mike; Haddad, Mike; Tran, Donald; Henderon, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Human factors and timeline analysis to have a more efficient and effective processing flow. The solution involved developing a written timeline of events that included each activity within each functional flow block. Each activity had computer animation videos and pictures of the people involved and the hardware. The Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool (HFEAT) was improved by modifying it to include the timeline of events. The HFEAT was used to define the human factors requirements and design solutions were developed for these requirements. An example of a functional flow block diagram is shown, and a view from one of the animations (i.e., short stack pallet) is shown and explained.

  9. The RiverFish Approach to Business Process Modeling: Linking Business Steps to Control-Flow Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliane, Devanir; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Malkowski, Simon; Alcazar, José Perez; Ferreira, João Eduardo

    Despite the recent advances in the area of Business Process Management (BPM), today’s business processes have largely been implemented without clearly defined conceptual modeling. This results in growing difficulties for identification, maintenance, and reuse of rules, processes, and control-flow patterns. To mitigate these problems in future implementations, we propose a new approach to business process modeling using conceptual schemas, which represent hierarchies of concepts for rules and processes shared among collaborating information systems. This methodology bridges the gap between conceptual model description and identification of actual control-flow patterns for workflow implementation. We identify modeling guidelines that are characterized by clear phase separation, step-by-step execution, and process building through diagrams and tables. The separation of business process modeling in seven mutually exclusive phases clearly delimits information technology from business expertise. The sequential execution of these phases leads to the step-by-step creation of complex control-flow graphs. The process model is refined through intuitive table and diagram generation in each phase. Not only does the rigorous application of our modeling framework minimize the impact of rule and process changes, but it also facilitates the identification and maintenance of control-flow patterns in BPM-based information system architectures.

  10. Stability Lobe Diagram for High Speed Machining Processes:Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALPANDIAN P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chatter is a complicated problem faced by machine tool operators. Chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during machining operations. This is an undesirable phenomenon which limits the productivity of the machine. A lot of techniques have been developed to control the chatter. Stability lobe diagram is an effective tool which helps the operator to select specific spindle speeds during production to avoid chatter in machine. Stability lobes are plotted against axial depth of cut Vs spindle speed, which shows a boundary between stable and unstable cutting regions. Numerous experimental and analytical techniques have been developed to establish stability lobe diagram. This paper presents a review on experimental and analytical methods of obtaining stability lobe diagram in high speed milling operation.

  11. Understanding Network Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert

    A survey of a range of introductory university level textbooks in the social sciences found little use of network diagrams (NDs), i.e., graphic representations of processes, organizations, systems, and mechanisms. NDs can be viewed as a text/picture hybrid medium with titles and captions serving to qualify and identify the meaning and status of…

  12. The story of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicists are no strangers to Feynman diagrams, but the meaning of the diagrams is not always clear, even to those who have used them. That confusion has deep roots, as Kaiser clearly and convincingly explains. To Feynman himself, a diagram depicted an actual physical process in space-time, such as the exchange of photons that occurs when an electron and proton collide. However, he also saw it as shorthand for the contributions to the amplitude of a physical process made by the element of the process it depicted. The best part of this new book covers the early history, social history and 'conceptual history' of Feynman diagrams. Disagreements and criticisms aside, the book will be invaluable to historians and sociologists of physics interested in the growth of Feynman diagrams. (U.K.)

  13. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching.

  14. Process flow measurement based on tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow measurement methods based on the tracer techniques are the transit time method as well as methods based on tracer dilution. These methods can be applied to the on-site calibration of flowmeters and to measuring the flowrate where no flowmeter is installed. The accuracy of the tracer methods depends on the prevailing measuring conditions. In this report the accuracy of the transit time method under field conditions is estimated to be 1-2% on the 99,7% confidence level. The accuracy of the isotope dilution method is estimated as slightly better, namely about 0.5% at its best. An even better accuracy, about 0.2%, could be achieved by developing the method and the measuring equipment. Tests were carried out with the transit time method for water and steam flow. While measuring water flow the effect of different measuring parameters upon the repeatability of the method were looked into. Such were the number of the detectors and the distance between the measuring points. Different means of tracer injection were tested, as well. These had less effect than expected. The accuracies achieved in steam flow measurements were of the same order of magnitude as in water flow measurements. The tracers used were 137mBa for water flow and 41Ar for steam flow measurements

  15. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  16. Stability Lobe Diagram for High Speed Machining Processes:Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Methods – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    PALPANDIAN P; Prabhu Raja V; Satish Babu S

    2013-01-01

    Chatter is a complicated problem faced by machine tool operators. Chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during machining operations. This is an undesirable phenomenon which limits the productivity of the machine. A lot of techniques have been developed to control the chatter. Stability lobe diagram is an effective tool which helps the operator to select specific spindle speeds during production to avoid chatter in machine. Stability lobes are plotted against axial depth of cut Vs...

  17. Opportunities in IT Support of Workflow & Information Flow in the Emergency Department Digital Imaging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R J; Guarrera, T K; Bisantz, A B; Venturino, M; Westesson, P L

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study is to examine workflow and information flow in the emergency department (ED) digital imaging process to identify features of an optimized system. Radiological imaging (x-rays, CT scans, etc) is unique in the ED setting, as the need for fast turn-around time and interactive communication between radiologists and emergency physicians is different than that of most other healthcare settings. The information technology systems which are used by both radiologists and emergency physicians to support these processes have been designed with a focus on the routine workflow of radiologists. We report the results of 14 hours of naturalistic observations of the use of digital imaging systems by a total of 22 ED and radiology staff. A hierarchical task analysis and an information process diagram are presented, and disparate theories that groups in the system have about other groups were discovered, particularly in the communication of clinical information. PMID:22398841

  18. An active feedback flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Joshua

    An active feedback flow control theory of the vortex breakdown process in incompressible, axisymmetric swirling flows in a finite-length, straight, circular pipe is developed. Flow injection distributed along the pipe wall is used as the controller. The flow is subjected to non-periodic inlet and outlet conditions. A long-wave asymptotic analysis, which involves a re-scaling of the axial distance and time at near critical swirl ratios, results in a nonlinear model problem for the dynamics and control of both inviscid and high-Reynolds number, Re, flows. The approach provides the bifurcation diagram of steady states and the stability characteristics of these states. Computed examples of the flow dynamics based on the full Euler and Navier-Stokes formulations at various swirl levels demonstrate the evolution to near-steady breakdown states when swirl is above a critical level which depends on Re. Numerical stability and mesh convergence studies performed on the inviscid and high-Re flow simulations ensure the accuracy of the computations and the agreement with the theoretical approaches. In addition, an energy analysis of the nonlinear model problem sheds insight into the mechanisms of the flow dynamics which lead to vortex breakdown and suggests a feedback control law which relates the flow injection and the evolving maximum radial velocity at the inlet. Moreover, applying the proposed feedback control law during flow evolution, shows for the first time the successful and robust elimination of the breakdown states and flow stabilization on an almost columnar state for a wide range of swirl up to 53 percent above the first critical level for the inviscid flow case and for a range of swirl up to 15 percent above the first critical level for viscous flows. The control law can be improved for a lower momentary maximum flux injection through the use of discrete injection regions along the pipe. The feedback control cuts the natural feed-forward mechanism of the breakdown process. Specifically, in the case of high-Re flows, the control approach establishes a branch of columnar states for all swirl levels studied where in the natural flow dynamics no such states exist.

  19. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  20. Drawing Feynman diagrams by computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is devoloped which can be used to draw Feynman diagrams. The program FEYNMAN can select the Lagrangian combination which has contribution to a given process and the program REDUFEM can perform functional variation

  1. Causal diagrams for physical models

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    I present a scheme of drawing causal diagrams based on physically motivated mathematical models expressed in terms of temporal differential equations. They provide a means of better understanding the processes and causal relationships contained within such systems.

  2. OVERLAND FLOW TREATMENT OF POULTRY PROCESSING WASTEWATER IN COLD CLIMATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates a full-scale wastewater treatment facility emphasizing the overland flow process in northern Indiana, which has a cold climate. The other processes include mechanical pretreatment, a storage lagoon, a lagoon for batch chemical treatment of the overland flow...

  3. Anomalous quark diagrams in the virtual V ? P+P', P ? V+P' decays and in the related processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Form factors of the virtual decays V?P+P' and P?V+P' are calculated assuming that the anomaly due to the corresponding quark diagram dominates in the VPP' vertex, where V and P are a vector meson and a pseudoscalar meson. An effect of the obtained form factors upon the electromagnetic and weak P- meson form factors is considered. It is shown that the results coincide with predictions of the standard vector-meson dominance model, if the interactions of the photon and of the W-boson with the pseudoscalar meson are determined by the quark-diagram anomaly in the vertices ?PP and WPP. The effect of the rho??? decay form factors for a virtual rho-meson on the superconvergency of the dispersion relations for the rho??rho? scattering amplitude, as well as on the rho-meson contribution to the ??-scattering lengths, is discussed. Rules for calculation of quark graphs with an arbitrary number of mesons are formulated for the examples of the decays ???+?-?0 and eta(eta')??+?-?

  4. Information flow and simulation support in the product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsson, Tobias

    1998-01-01

    This paper consists of a case study of the product development process at Indexator AB, manufacturer of rotators for heavy equipment. The process has been studied concerning the information flow and computer support in the engineering design department and its interacting departments. It is shown that the company has a clear view of how information flows and which computer tools they use in the different parts of the processes. The advantage of using computer tools for analysis and planning i...

  5. The perceptual flow of phonetic feature processing

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Steven; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How does the brain process spoken language? It is our thesis that word intelligibility and consonant identification are insufficient by themselves to model how the speech signal is decoded - a finer-grained approach is required. In this study, listeners identified 11 different Danish consonants spoken in a Consonant + Vowel + [l] environment. Each syllable was processed so that only a portion of the original audio spectrum was present. Three-quarter-octave bands of speech, centered at 750, 15...

  6. Modeling Nonequilibrium Flow and Transport Processes Using HYDRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate process-based modeling of nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport remains a major challenge in vadose zone hydrology. The objective of this paper is to describe a wide range of nonequilibrium flow and transport modeling approaches available within the latest version of the HYDRUS-1D ...

  7. Neural processing of naturalistic optic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Roland; Petereit, Christian; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Stimuli traditionally used for analyzing visual information processing are much simpler than what an animal sees in normal life. When characterized with traditional stimuli, neuronal responses were found to depend on various parameters such as contrast, texture, or velocity of motion, and thus were highly ambiguous. In behavioral situations, all of these parameters change simultaneously and differently in different parts of the visual field. Thus it is hardly possible to predict from traditio...

  8. 4D flow mri post-processing strategies for neuropathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauben, Eric Mathew

    4D flow MRI allows for the measurement of a dynamic 3D velocity vector field. Blood flow velocities in large vascular territories can be qualitatively visualized with the added benefit of quantitative probing. Within cranial pathologies theorized to have vascular-based contributions or effects, 4D flow MRI provides a unique platform for comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic parameters. Targeted blood flow derived measurements, such as flow rate, pulsatility, retrograde flow, or wall shear stress may provide insight into the onset or characterization of more complex neuropathologies. Therefore, the thorough assessment of each parameter within the context of a given disease has important medical implications. Not surprisingly, the last decade has seen rapid growth in the use of 4D flow MRI. Data acquisition sequences are available to researchers on all major scanner platforms. However, the use has been limited mostly to small research trials. One major reason that has hindered the more widespread use and application in larger clinical trials is the complexity of the post-processing tasks and the lack of adequate tools for these tasks. Post-processing of 4D flow MRI must be semi-automated, fast, user-independent, robust, and reliably consistent for use in a clinical setting, within large patient studies, or across a multicenter trial. Development of proper post-processing methods coupled with systematic investigation in normal and patient populations pushes 4D flow MRI closer to clinical realization while elucidating potential underlying neuropathological origins. Within this framework, the work in this thesis assesses venous flow reproducibility and internal consistency in a healthy population. A preliminary analysis of venous flow parameters in healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients is performed in a large study employing 4D flow MRI. These studies are performed in the context of the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis. Additionally, a double-gated flow acquisition and reconstruction scheme demonstrates respiratory-induced changes in internal jugular vein flow. Finally, a semi-automated intracranial vessel segmentation and flow parameter measurement software tool for fast and consistent 4D flow post-processing analysis is developed, validated, and exhibited an in-vivo.

  9. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandi?ák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  10. Stochastic equations, flows and measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    We first prove some general results on pathwise uniqueness, comparison property and existence of non-negative strong solutions of stochastic equations driven by white noises and Poisson random measures. The results are then used to prove the strong existence of two classes of stochastic flows associated with coalescents with multiple collisions, that is, generalized Fleming-Viot flows and flows of continuous-state branching processes with immigration. One of them unifies the different treatments of three kinds of flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2005). Two scaling limit theorems for the generalized Fleming-Viot flows are proved, which lead to sub-critical branching immigration superprocesses. {From} those theorems we derive easily a generalization of the limit theorem for finite point motions of the flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2006).

  11. Space Based Multi-level Process Flow and Logistics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qiu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to thoroughly promote the enterprise digital construction and meet the demand of production management, the space based multi-level process data organization model has been put forward. Firstly, according to the practical division situation of enterprise production space, the multi-level organization method of production space has been proposed. Then through analyzing the manufacturing process of the products in different space layers, the space based multi-level process flow idea has been presented. At the same time, the mathematical model and formalized expression of multi-level technological process have been established. Finally, the in-output material flow relationship between different levels process flow units has been analyzed and the source of input object as well as the disposition of the output object of various level process flow units has been put into detailed analysis. At the mean time, particular statistical sum and trace arithmetic are provided so as to profoundly illustrate the essence of manufacturing process in theory. As a result, the models proposed in this study are not only express the manufacturing process flow of the product in an intuitive and clear way, but also satisfy all types of demands of production management.

  12. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter BØgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology.

  13. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....

  14. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  15. Dynamic Euler Diagram Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Mutton, Paul; Flower, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to lay out a graph enhanced Euler diagram so that it looks similar to a previously drawn graph enhanced Euler diagram. This task is non-trivial when the underlying structures of the diagrams differ. In particular, if a structural change is made to an existing drawn diagram, our work enables the presentation of the new diagram with minor disruption to the user's mental map. As the new diagram can be generated from an abstract representation, its initial embed...

  16. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  17. Ground-state phase diagram and magnetization process of the exactly solved mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisnyi, Bohdan, E-mail: lisnyj@icmp.lviv.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, 79011 L' viv (Ukraine); Stre?ka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.strecka@upjs.sk [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2013-11-15

    The ground state and magnetization process of the mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain are exactly solved by employing the generalized decoration–iteration mapping transformation and the transfer-matrix method. The decoration–iteration transformation is first used in order to establish a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths chain in a non-zero magnetic field, which is subsequently exactly treated within the framework of the transfer-matrix technique. It is shown that the ground-state phase diagram includes just four different ground states and the low-temperature magnetization curve may exhibit an intermediate plateau precisely at one half of the saturation magnetization. Our rigorous results disprove recent Monte Carlo simulations of Xin et al. [Z. Xin, S. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324 (2012) 3704], which imply an existence of the other magnetization plateaus at 0.283 and 0.426 of the saturation magnetization. - Highlights: • Mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain is exactly solved. • Ground-state phase diagram consists of four different phases. • Magnetization plateaus at zero and half of the saturation magnetization were found.

  18. Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma Process Improvement Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, Karen S [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-20

    An overview of the Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma improvement project covers LANL’s environmental data processing following receipt from the analytical laboratories. The Six Sigma project identified thirty-three process improvements, many of which focused on cutting costs or reducing the time it took to deliver data to clients.

  19. Information Flow Security in Tree-Manipulating Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Máté Amadé

    2014-01-01

    By enterprise workflows and web service technologies data is frequently represented in the form of XML documents. In the same time, these systems are highly security critical, because they may be in control of important processes of organizations, while communicating with external partners over the network. Therefore, this work describes three methods to verify information flow properties of processes manipulating tree-structured data.

  20. Two-Phase Flow Analyses During Throttling Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, V.; Vinš, V.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of the throttling process of saturated fluorocarbon refrigerants (such as R116, R218, and R610) inside capillary tubes. For the detailed two-phase flow analyses, refrigerant R218 was selected. A divided capillary tube was prepared with a set of precise pressure and temperature sensors providing detailed information about the refrigerant flow behavior inside the tube. The metastable flow regions of the superheated liquid and of the two-phase vapor-liquid mixture were clearly detected. A correlation for the ‘underpressure’ of vaporization applicable for capillary flow of fluorocarbon refrigerants was determined. New experimental data were compared with a modified numerical model simulating all four capillary flow regions. A negative effect of non-condensing gases present within the cooling circuit on the overall capillary tube performance was experimentally noted.

  1. Rotating thermal flows in natural and industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lappa, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes provides the reader with a systematic description of the different types of thermal convection and flow instabilities in rotating systems, as present in materials, crystal growth, thermal engineering, meteorology, oceanography, geophysics and astrophysics. It expressly shows how the isomorphism between small and large scale phenomena becomes beneficial to the definition and ensuing development of an integrated comprehensive framework.  This allows the reader to understand and assimilate the underlying, quintessential mechanisms withou

  2. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the state of the art of flow injection and related approaches thereof for automation and miniaturization of sample processing regardless of the aggregate state of the sample medium is overviewed. The potential of the various generation of flow injection for implementation of in-line dilution, derivatization, separation and preconcentration methods encompassing solid reactors, solvent extraction, sorbent extraction, precipitation/coprecipitation, hydride/vapor generation and d...

  3. A viscous flow analysis for the tip vortex generation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Briley, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    A three dimensional, forward-marching, viscous flow analysis is applied to the tip vortex generation problem. The equations include a streamwise momentum equation, a streamwise vorticity equation, a continuity equation, and a secondary flow stream function equation. The numerical method used combines a consistently split linearized scheme for parabolic equations with a scalar iterative ADI scheme for elliptic equations. The analysis is used to identify the source of the tip vortex generation process, as well as to obtain detailed flow results for a rectangular planform wing immersed in a high Reynolds number free stream at 6 degree incidence.

  4. Subsea flow assurance and process monitoring via gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condition monitoring and process control with the use of gamma radiation is considered to be the most reliable detection principle for a wide range of applications throughout the oil and gas industries, from measuring mechanical integrity to dynamic process fluid monitoring. The growing numbers of advanced subsea processing projects and pipeline flow assurance studies currently adds an increasing number of subsea applications to the radiation measurement reference list (author) (ml)

  5. Wastewater treatment using electron beam machine - a process flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam treatment for water and wastewater treatment is being investigated in combination with conventional methods such as biological oxidation, coagulation and ozonization. The application of EBM for wastewater treatment has been carried out by numerous researchers. In ALURTRON, research on the use of Electron Beam Machine for wastewater treatment is still at infancy stage. At the initial stage, effort is being undertaken to develop a process flow for wastewater treatment and water purification. In order to irradiate the water sample, it requires specific apparatus that ensure continuous flow and ideal electron penetration to get uniform beam exposure. This paper presents the proposed process flow mechanism to irradiate and treat wastewater by electron beam irradiation. The process requires an irradiation vessel that consists of irradiation area, water piping, meter, water tank (storage and collection tank), and trolley. (Author)

  6. On Ladder Diagrams Compilation and Synthesis to FPGA Implemented Reconfigurable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Milik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents synthesis process of a hardware implemented reconfigurable logic controller from a ladder diagram according to IEC61131-3 requirements. It is focused on the originally developed a high-performance LD processing method. It is able to process a set of diagrams restricted to logic operations in a single clock cycle independently from the number of processed rungs. The paper considers the compilation of the ladder diagram into an intermediate form suitable for logic synthesis process according to developed processing method. The enhanced data flow graph (EDFG has been developed for the intermediate representation of an LD program. The original construction of the EDFG with attributed edges has been described. It allows for efficient representation and processing of logic and arithmetic formulas. The set of compilation algorithms that allow to preserve serial analysis order and to obtain massively parallel processing unit are presented. The overview of a hardware mapping concludes the presented considerations.

  7. Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm - Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS

  8. Flow manipulation and control methodologies for vacuum infusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alms, Justin B.

    Vacuum Infusion Processes (VIPs) are very attractive composite manufacturing processes since large structures such as fuselages and wind blades can be fabricated in a cost effective manner. In VIPs, the fabric layers are placed on a one sided mold which is closed by enveloping the entire mold with a thin plastic film and evacuating the air out. The vacuum compresses the fabric and when a resin inlet is opened, resin flows into the mold. The resin is allowed to cure before demolding the structure. However, VIPs causes non-repeatable and problematic resin filling patterns due to the heterogeneous nature of the material, nesting between various layers, and the hand labor utilized for laying up the fabric. The design of the manufacturing process routinely involves a trial and error model which make manufacturing costs and development time difficult to estimate. The clear solution to improving the reliability and robustness of VIPs is to implement a system capable of on-line flow control. While on-line flow control has been studied and developed for other composite manufacturing processes, the VIPs have been largely ignored as there are few process parameters that lend themselves to effective flow control. In this work, two new processes were discovered with the goal of on-line control of VIPs in mind. These two processes referred to as Flow Flooding Chamber (FFC) and Vacuum Induced Preform Relaxation (VIPR) will be discussed. They both employ an external vacuum chamber to influence the permeability of the fabric temporarily which allows one to redirect the resin flow to resin starved regions of the mold. The VIPR process in addition uses a low and regulated vacuum pressure in the external chamber to increase the permeability of the fabric in a controllable manner. The objective is to understand how the VIPR process affects the resin flow in order to implement it into a complete flow control and automated environment which will reduce or eliminate the variability experienced. First, the effect on permeability is characterized, so the process can be simulated and the flow front patterns can be predicted. It was found that using the VIPR process in combination with tool side injection gates is a very effective method to control resin flow. Based on this understanding several control algorithms were developed to use the process in an automated manufacturing environment which were tested and validated in a virtual environment. To implement and demonstrate the approach, an experimental workstation was built and various infusion examples were performed in the automated environment to validate the capability of the VIPR process with the control methodologies. The VIPR process with control consistently performed better than the process without control. This contribution should prove useful in making VIPs more reliable in the production of large scale composite structures.

  9. Design build process flow visualization model plant PLTN PWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-down version of nuclear power plant type PWR model and process flow visualization has been design and constructed. This scale-down model includes primary and secondary cooling systems, and transmission line in three dimensional layout with a 1: 33,33 scale. The construction of scale model has been done in five steps that are study literature, field survey, drawing scale design, construction, and test. The results is scale-down model integrated with monitoring system using lab view and interlock system using PLC. The test result shows that process flow has operated as required in design specification. (author)

  10. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information...... from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  11. Numerical simulation of assisting gas flow for laser cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsaout, Toufik; Amara, EL-Hachemi

    2012-03-01

    In laser cutting process, an assisting gas is used to improve the mass removal rate from the cutting kerf and protect the kerf surfaces from the high temperature exothermic reactions, such as oxidation reactions, during the cutting process. Numerical simulations are carried out using a commercial CFD code Fluent. In the first part of this work, the behavior of assisting gas flow is computed without heat transfer in laminar model which reveals a vortex structures in the flow at the inlet and exit of the kerf, which may directly affect the surface quality in real gas-laser cutting of metals. The largest vortex, which arises at the channel exit, collects and accumulates the liquid flowing down the channel walls. The study with increasing the angle of the kerf shows that the vortices disappear, and a stable vortex-free attached gas flow is formed. In other side, the heat transfer from the kerf wall to the flow of the assisting gas is important for quality cutting which is carried out in second part of this study including the RNG/?-? model. The kerf wall temperature is kept at 1500K to resemble the laser cutting process. The distance between the nozzle exit and the kerf top surface to nozzle diameter is selected as H=0.7, where H is the stand-off-distance.

  12. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ding; Peng, Lihui; Lu, Geng; Yang, Shiyuan; Yan, Yong

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  13. Image processing system for velocity measurements in natural convection flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image processing system based on a particle-tracking method has been developed to measure quantitatively at one time the two-dimensional velocity components arising in natural convection flows. The analysis of the image data proceeds automatically, due in part to the video recording system utilized in our method. The image processing system was applied to the natural convection flows in a 1/10 scale basic reactor model. The velocity vectors and the vorticities were obtained under transient and steady states in different experimental cases, enabling us to examine in detail the transition of the flow patterns and other aspects under different experimental conditions. The uncertainty of this system was evaluated for use in our experiments and it was confirmed that the margin of error is acceptable. (orig.)

  14. Elements of flow and diffusion processes in separation nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present monograph is an attempt to systematize the results of studies performed by the author and his colleagues on the physics of the separation nozzle process, which is based on pressure diffusion in curved flows of uranium hexafluoride and a light auxiliary gas. The description of the complex flow and diffusion in separation nozzles includes transient separation effects in ternary mixtures of gases, as well as non-equilibrium phenomena typical of low-density flows of disparate mass mixtures. In addition, the principles and designs of the most important types of separation nozzles are explained in detail. In view of the practical application of the separation nozzle process, general correlations are pointed out between the physics of aerodynamic separation and the technical expenditure for large-scale production of enriched uranium. (orig./WL)

  15. Plant uprooting by flow as a fatigue mechanical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, Paolo; Edmaier, Katharina; Crouzy, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    In river corridors, plant uprooting by flow mostly occurs as a delayed process where flow erosion first causes root exposure until residual anchoring balances hydrodynamic forces on the part of the plant that is exposed to the stream. Because a given plant exposure time to the action of the stream is needed before uprooting occurs (time-to-uprooting), this uprooting mechanism has been denominated Type II, in contrast to Type I, which mostly affect early stage seedlings and is rather instantaneous. In this work, we propose a stochastic framework that describes a (deterministic) mechanical fatigue process perturbed by a (stochastic) process noise, where collapse occurs after a given exposure time. We test the model using the experimental data of Edmaier (2014) and Edmaier et al. (submitted), who investigated vegetation uprooting by flow in the limit of low plant stem-to-sediment size ratio by inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume. We first identify the proper timescale and lengthscale for rescaling the model. Then, we show that it describes well all the empirical cumulative distribution functions (cdf) of time-to-uprooting obtained under constant riverbed erosion rate and assuming additive gaussian process noise. By this mean, we explore the level of determinism and stochasticity affecting the time-to-uprooting for Avena sativa in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We eventually ascribe the overall dynamics of the Type II uprooting mechanism to the memory of the plant-soil system that is stored by root anchoring, and discuss related implications thereof. References Edmaier, K., Uprooting mechansims of juvenile vegetation by flow erosion, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, 2014. Edmaier, K., Crouzy, B. and P. Perona. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow. J. of Geophys. Res. - Biogeosci., submitted

  16. Coaching, lean processes and the concept of flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte Gørtz, Kim Erik

    2008-01-01

    The chapter takes us inside Nordea Bank to look at how coaching was used to support their leadership development as they underwent a major change effort implementation. Drawing on the literature on Lean processes, flow and coaching, it demonstrates some of the challenges and opportunities of working with coaching in a systematic way across broader initiatives in organizations.

  17. Do health technology assessments comply with QUOROM diagram guidance? An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Andrew

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM statement provides guidance for improving the quality of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To make the process of study selection transparent it recommends "a flow diagram providing information about the number of RCTs identified, included, and excluded and the reasons for excluding them". We undertook an empirical study to identify the extent of compliance in the UK Health Technology Assessment (HTA programme. Methods We searched Medline to retrieve all systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions in the HTA monograph series published from 2001 to 2005. Two researchers recorded whether each study contained a meta-analysis of controlled trials, whether a QUOROM flow diagram was presented and, if so, whether it expressed the relationship between the number of citations and the number of studies. We used Cohen's kappa to test inter-rater reliability. Results 87 systematic reviews were retrieved. There was good and excellent inter-rater reliability for, respectively, whether a review contained a meta-analysis and whether each diagram contained a citation-to-study relationship. 49% of systematic reviews used a study selection flow diagram. When only systematic reviews containing a meta-analysis were analysed, compliance was only 32%. Only 20 studies (23% of all systematic reviews; 43% of those having a study selection diagram had a diagram which expressed the relationship between citations and studies. Conclusion Compliance with the recommendations of the QUOROM statement is not universal in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Flow diagrams make the conduct of study selection transparent only if the relationship between citations and studies is clearly expressed. Reviewers should understand what they are counting: citations, papers, studies and trials are fundamentally different concepts which should not be confused in a diagram.

  18. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs. PMID:25524750

  19. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which FEPs are included in UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document.

  20. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS MandO 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which FEPs are included in UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document

  1. Calculation of flow and diffusion processes in gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the flow and diffusion processes within high-velocity gas centrifuges is accomplished by numerically solving the rotation-symmetric conservation equations. The flow field, initially assumed to be homogeneous and ideal, is calculated within the realm of continuity by a numerical integration of the transient linear, or alternatively, non-linear Navier-Stokes equations in rotating systems. The solution of the system of equations is conducted by Beam and Warming's implicit non-iterative, cubically factored finite difference algorithm. The physical boundary conditions are implemented both explicitly and implicitly as a result of the improved stability characteristics when applying large temporal increments. (orig./HP)

  2. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator....

  3. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the state of the art of flow injection and related approaches thereof for automation and miniaturization of sample processing regardless of the aggregate state of the sample medium is overviewed. The potential of the various generation of flow injection for implementation of in-line dilution, derivatization, separation and preconcentration methods encompassing solid reactors, solvent extraction, sorbent extraction, precipitation/coprecipitation, hydride/vapor generation and digestion/leaching protocols as hyphenated to a plethora of detection devices is discussed in detail and relevant examples published in the literature up to April 2007 are pinpointed.

  4. Multilevel flow modelling of process plant for diagnosis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as basic for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator. (author)

  5. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator.

  6. The investigate of flow in direct extrusion process of heterogeneous materials flow

    OpenAIRE

    A. Patejuk; J. Piwnik; M. Gabrylewski

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations were introduced in range of verification of model investigations results (in utilization of supplementary materials) with results of investigations on real materials are presented in this work. To this aim the matrix became constructed with interchangeable little eye made possible extrusion process of real materials at three reduction ratio: ? = 1,5 1,75 and 2,0. Analysis of heterogeneous materials flow process shows, that of principle onto extrusion...

  7. Recharge and flow processes in a till aquitard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchrØder, Thomas Morville; HØgh Jensen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Eastern Denmark is primarily covered by clay till. The transformation of the excess rainfall into laterally diverted groundwater flow, drain flow, stream flow, and recharge to the underlying aquifer is governed by complicatedinterrelated processes. Distributed hydrological models provide a framework for assessing the individual flow components and forestablishing the overall water balance. Traditionally such models are calibrated against measurements of stream flow, head in the aquiferand perhaps drainage flow. The head in the near surface clay till deposits have generally not been measured and therefore not consideredin the calibration procedure.In a 16 km2 rural catchment, 15 shallow wells were installed in the upstream end for continuous measurements of the fluctuations in hydraulic head. In addition data were obtained from two wells penetrating to the deeper artesian aquifer, one located near the shallow wells and one in the valley adjacent to the stream. Precipitation and stream flow gauging along with potential evaporation estimates from a nearby weather station provide the basic data for the overall water balance assessment. The geological composition was determined from geoelectrical surveys along three transects, supported by geophysical logs in deepwells, lowflow records at the outlet of the catchment and three tributaries, and soil maps. Slug tests were carried to obtain data forhydraulic conductivity.The time series of hydraulic head depth in the shallow wells were analyzed using linear transfer noise functions on driving input timeseries and kriging techniques in order to identify correlation structures in time and space among the wells.The distributed and physically based hydrological model code MIKE SHE was applied to the catchment. The model considers one-dimensional flow in the unsaturated zone and three-dimensional below. Drainage flow isempirically modelled as a linear reservoir using a time constant related to drain pipe capacity, spacing and soil hydraulic conductivity.Key parameters are calibrated against records of precipitation, potential evaporation and stream flow. Simulation based on historicalrecords prior to the installation of subsurface drainage in 1/3 of the catchment was carried out in order to investigate the impact ofdrainage on streamflow and access the use of the linear reservoir assumption. Subsequently, data from the shallow wells wereconsidered in order to analyse the value of such data in the calibration procedure and particularly in estimating the areal variation inrecharge.

  8. Quantification of air flow patterns by image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brecht, Andres; Janssens, Koen; Berckmans, D.; Vranken, E.

    1999-09-01

    In a ventilated space, the incoming air jet and the resulting air flow pattern play key roles in the removal or supply of heat, moisture, and harmful gases from or to living organisms (man, animal, plant). In this research, two low cost image processing methods (boundary peeling and optical flow) were developed to quantify the 2-D trajectory and the deflection angle of an air jet in a ventilated room. The image processing algorithms were applied to a wide range of air jets in a laboratory test room. Based on the deflection angle of the air jet trajectory from the initial path, a distinction could be made between falling, instable or horizontal air jets.

  9. Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Mark; Michel, J.; Liu, J. F.; Ahn, D. H.; Sparacin, D.; Sun, R.; Hong, C. Y.; Kimerling, L. C.; Pomerene, A.; Carothers, D.; Beattie, J.; Kopa, A.; Apsel, A.; Rasras, M. S.; Gill, D. M.; Patel, S. S.; Tu, K. Y.; Chen, Y. K.; White, A. E.

    2008-02-01

    Multilevel thin film processing, global planarization and advanced photolithography enables the ability to integrate complimentary materials and process sequences required for high index contrast photonic components all within a single CMOS process flow. Developing high performance photonic components that can be integrated with electronic circuits at a high level of functionality in silicon CMOS is one of the basic objectives of the EPIC program sponsored by the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) of DARPA. Our research team consisting of members from: BAE Systems, Alcatel-Lucent, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cornell University and Applied Wave Research reports on the latest developments of the technology to fabricate an application specific, electronic-photonic integrated circuit (AS_EPIC). Now in its second phase of the EPIC program, the team has designed, developed and integrated fourth order optical tunable filters, both silicon ring resonator and germanium electro-absorption modulators and germanium pin diode photodetectors using silicon waveguides within a full 150nm CMOS process flow for a broadband RF channelizer application. This presentation will review the latest advances of the passive and active photonic devices developed and the processes used for monolithic integration with CMOS processing. Examples include multilevel waveguides for optical interconnect and germanium epitaxy for active photonic devices such as p-i-n photodiodes and modulators.

  10. Coded ultrasound for blood flow estimation using subband processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    This paper further investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband coded signals are used to increase SNR, followed by sub-band processing. The received broadband signal, is filtered using a set of narrow-band filters. Estimating the velocity in each of the bands and aver...

  11. Processes of Turbulent Liquid Flows in Pipelines and Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Yesman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for an analysis and calculation of processes pertaining to turbulent liquid flows in pipes and channels. Various modes of liquid motion in pipelines of thermal power devices and equipment have been considered in the paper.The presented dependences can be used while making practical calculations of losses due to friction in case of transportation of various energy carriers.

  12. The process flow and structure of an integrated stroke strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Emma F. van Bussel; Thomas Jeerakathil; Schrijvers, Augustinus J.P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the Canadian province of Alberta access and quality of stroke care were suboptimal, especially in remote areas. The government introduced the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy (APSS) in 2005, an integrated strategy to improve access to stroke care, quality and efficiency which utilizes telehealth. Research question: What is the process flow and the structure of the care pathways of the APSS?Methodology: Information for this article was obtained using documentation, archival ...

  13. Semantics of UML 2.0 Activity Diagram for Business Modeling by Means of Virtual Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Vitolins, V; Vitolins, Valdis; Kalnins, Audris

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a more formalized definition of UML 2.0 Activity Diagram semantics. A subset of activity diagram constructs relevant for business process modeling is considered. The semantics definition is based on the original token flow methodology, but a more constructive approach is used. The Activity Diagram Virtual machine is defined by means of a metamodel, with operations defined by a mix of pseudocode and OCL pre- and postconditions. A formal procedure is described which builds the virtual machine for any activity diagram. The relatively complicated original token movement rules in control nodes and edges are combined into paths from an action to action. A new approach is the use of different (push and pull) engines, which move tokens along the paths. Pull engines are used for paths containing join nodes, where the movement of several tokens must be coordinated. The proposed virtual machine approach makes the activity semantics definition more transparent where the token movement can be easily tra...

  14. Modelling of macropore flow and transport processes at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal Christiansen, Jesper; Thorsen, Mette; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Søren; Christian Refsgaard, Jens

    2004-11-01

    Macropores play a significant role as a preferential flow mechanism in connection with pesticide leaching to shallow groundwater in clayey and loamy soils. A macropore description based on some of the same principles as those of the MACRO code has been added to the coupled MIKE SHE/Daisy code, enabling a physically based simulation of macropore processes in a spatially distributed manner throughout an entire catchment. Simulation results from a small catchment in Denmark suggest that although the point scale macropore processes have no dominating effect on groundwater recharge or discharge at a catchment scale, they will have significant effects on pesticide leaching to groundwater at a catchment scale. The primary function of macropores in this area is that they rapidly transport a significant part of the infiltrating water and solutes from the plough pan at 20 cm depth some distance downwards before most of it flows back into the soil matrix. This has a very significant effect on the leaching of pesticides from the surface to the groundwater table, because some of the pesticides are transported rapidly downwards in the soil profile to zones with less sorption and degradation. It is concluded that the spatial variations of macropore flows caused by the variation in topography and depth to groundwater table within a catchment are so large that this has to be accounted for in up-scaling process descriptions and results from point scale to catchment scale.

  15. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming...

  16. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    This paper presents a new data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable...

  17. Difference Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y......This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y...

  18. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  19. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a...... tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  20. Electrochemical analysis on the process of flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow accelerated corrosion behavior concerning both activation and mass transfer process of low alloy steel was studied using rotating cyclinder electrode in room temperature alkaline solution by electrochemical techniques. Passive film was formed pH 9.8 by step oxidation of ferrous product into hydroxyl compound. Corrosion potential shifted slightly upward with rotating velocity through the diffusion of cathodic species. From the analysis between corrosion current and limiting current, there seems that activation process, which represents formation of passive film on the bare metal surface, controls the entire corrosion kinetics

  1. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what is not enough to make a shelter for stream invertebrates. It serves as a shelter only for microorganisms, but the stream invertebrates have to avoid the swift flow or adapt to flow with adaptations described above. To understand what conditions are subject to aquatic organisms and how to adapt, it is essential. Both, knowledge of fluid dynamics in natural watercourses and ecology are needed to understand to what conditions the stream invertebrates are exposed and how they cope with them. Some investigations of near bed flow will be performed on the Glinšica stream. The acoustic Doppler velocimeter SonTek will be adapted to measure so close to the bed as possible. It is expected we should be able to measure the velocities just 0,5 cm above the bed surface. We intend to measure the velocities on a natural and on a regulated reach and then compare the results.

  2. Global quantum Hall phase diagram from visibility diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Chandelier, Frederique; Georgelin, Yvon; Masson, Thierry; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    We propose a construction of a global phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect. This global phase diagram is based on our previous constructions of visibility diagrams in the context of the Quantum Hall Effect. The topology of the phase diagram we obtain is in good agreement with experimental observations (when the spin effect can be neglected). This phase diagram does not show floating.

  3. Logical reasoning with diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Allwein, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    PART A: Theoretical Issues. 1. Visual Information and Valid Reasoning, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 2. Operational Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning, Atsushi Shimojima. 3. Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System, Jon Barwise and Eric Hammer. PART B: Case Studies. 4. Situation-Theoretic Account of Valid Reasoning with Venn Diagrams, Sun-Joo Shin. 5. Towards a Model Theory of Venn Diagrams, eric Hammer and Norman Danner. 6. Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic, Eric Hammer. 7. A Diagrammatic Subsystem of Hilbert''s Geometry, Isabel Luengo. PART C: Heterogenous Systems. 8. Heterogenous Logic, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 9. Toward the Rigorous Use of Diagrams in Reasoning about Hardware, Steven D. Johnson, Jon Barwise, and Gerard Allwein. 10. Exploiting the Potential of Diagrams in Guiding Hardware Reasoning, Kathi D. Fisler

  4. Nonlinear compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows modeling of a process ICP torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlef, N.; Hacib, T.; Leroy, O.; Mékiddèche, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) describes the physical behavior of inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The goal of this paper is to provide a physical understanding of a process ICP torch using a resistive MHD model. This includes a basic description and derivation of the fluid model. Inductive plasma is treated as a continuous, conducting fluid that satisfies the classical laws of motion and thermodynamics. This model combines fluid equations, similar to those used in fluid dynamics, with Maxwell's equations. Steady fluid flow and temperature equations are simultaneously solved (direct method) using a finite elements method (FEM). The electromagnetic field equations are formulated in terms of potential vector with applied voltage source, so this model is physically more consistent, a more accurate and a faster simulation. The governing resistive MHD equations for an inductive plasma flow under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and laminar flow are presented, with appropriate boundary conditions. The model enabled to obtain the electromagnetic fields, temperature and flow velocity distributions also allows the determination of the electric parameters such as impedance of the plasma torch, total power, eddy losses, etc.

  5. Post-processing methods of PIV instantaneous flow fields for unsteady flows in turbomachines

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazzini, Giovanna; DAZIN, Antoine; Pavesi, Giorgio; DUPONT, Patrick; Bois, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry is undoubtedly one of the most important technique in Fluid-dynamics since it allows to obtain a direct and instantaneous visualization of the flow field in a non-intrusive way. This innovative technique spreads in a wide number of research fields, from aerodynamics to medicine, from biology to turbulence researches, from aerodynamics to combustion processes. The book is aimed at presenting the PIV technique and its wide range of possible applications so as to p...

  6. RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; SchlØer, Signe

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model coupling the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equationswith two-equation k?? turbulence closure is presented and used to simulate a variety of turbulent wave boundary layer processes. The hydrodynamic model is additionally coupled with bed and suspended load descriptions, the latter based on an unsteady turbulent-diffusion equation, for simulation of sheet-flow sediment transport processes. In addition to standard features common within such RANS-based approaches, the present model includes: (1) hindered settling velocities at high suspended sediment concentrations, (2) turbulence suppression due to density gradients in the water–sand mixture, (3) boundary layer streaming due to convective terms, and (4) converging–diverging effects due to a sloping bed. The present model therefore provides a framework for simultaneous inclusion of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent agreement with experimental and/or previous numerical work. The sediment transport model is likewise validated against oscillatory tunnel experiments involving both velocity-skewed and acceleration-skewed flows, as well as against measurements beneath real progressive waves.Model capabilities are exploited to investigate the importance of boundary layer streaming effects on sediment transport in selected velocity-skewed conditions. For the medium sand grain conditions considered, the model results suggest that streaming effects can enhance onshore sediment transport rates by asmuch as a factor of two.Moreover, for fine sand conditions streaming (and related convective) effects are demonstrated to potentially reverse the direction of net transport (i.e. from offshore to onshore) relative that predicted in oscillatory tunnel conditions. The developed model is implemented within the popular Matlab environment, and hence may be attractive for both research and educational purposes.

  7. Flow processes at low temperatures in ultrafine-grained aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinh, Nguyen Q. [Department of General Physics, Eoetvoes University of Budapest, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany P. setany 1/A. (Hungary)]. E-mail: chinh@metal.elte.hu; Szommer, Peter [Department of General Physics, Eoetvoes University of Budapest, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany P. setany 1/A. (Hungary); Csanadi, Tamas [Department of General Physics, Eoetvoes University of Budapest, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany P. setany 1/A. (Hungary); Langdon, Terence G. [Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-25

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the flow behavior of pure aluminum at low temperatures. Samples were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) to give a grain size of {approx}1.2 {mu}m and compression samples were cut from the as-pressed billets and tested over a range of strain rates at temperatures up to 473 K. The results show the occurrence of steady-state flow in these highly deformed samples and a detailed analysis gives a low strain rate sensitivity and an activation energy similar to the value for grain boundary diffusion. By using depth-sensing indentation testing and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that grain boundary sliding occurs in this material at low temperatures. This result is attributed to the presence of high-energy non-equilibrium boundaries in the severely deformed samples.

  8. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO2 and O2 ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2

  9. Flow processes at low temperatures in ultrafine-grained aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the flow behavior of pure aluminum at low temperatures. Samples were processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) to give a grain size of ?1.2 ?m and compression samples were cut from the as-pressed billets and tested over a range of strain rates at temperatures up to 473 K. The results show the occurrence of steady-state flow in these highly deformed samples and a detailed analysis gives a low strain rate sensitivity and an activation energy similar to the value for grain boundary diffusion. By using depth-sensing indentation testing and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that grain boundary sliding occurs in this material at low temperatures. This result is attributed to the presence of high-energy non-equilibrium boundaries in the severely deformed samples

  10. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-01-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO(2) and O(2) ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2. PMID:17888646

  11. Perceptions of Instructional Design Process Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Robert Maribe

    Instructional design is a process that is creative, active, iterative and complex; however, many diagrams of instructional design are interpreted as stifling, passive, lock-step and simple because of the visual elements used to model the process. The purpose of this study was to determine the expressed perceptions of the types of flow diagrams…

  12. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...... our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...... notes, clustering notes, walking the wall, and documentation. We draw examples from eight projects to illustrate our particular practices along these four stages, as well as to ground the discussion....

  13. Analysis of Nike distribution facility's outbound process flow

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, Werner

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to run different scenarios on the outbound process flow affected by the Soccer World Cup 2010 event. Along with Excel spreadsheets this simulation proved to be vital in the decision making of the build up for the World Cup. The results obtained showed that not all KPI’s where at their optimal level, thus changes where made in the number of resource at certain workstations. It also indicated that the system was resistant to change and modifications on proces...

  14. Groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Young; Woo, Nam Chul; Yum, Byoung Woo; Choi, Young Sub; Chae, Byoung Kon; Kim, Jung Yul; Kim, Yoo Sung; Hyun, Hye Ja; Lee, Kil Yong; Lee, Seung Gu; Youn, Youn Yul; Choon, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study is objected to characterize groundwater flow and sorption processes of the contaminants (ground-water solutes) along the fractured crystalline rocks in Korea. Considering that crystalline rock mass is an essential condition for using underground space cannot be overemphasized the significance of the characterizing fractured crystalline rocks. the behavior of the groundwater contaminants is studied in related to the subsurface structure, and eventually a quantitative technique will be developed to evaluate the impacts of the contaminants on the subsurface environments. The study has been carried at the Samkwang mine area in the Chung-Nam Province. The site has Pre-Cambrian crystalline gneiss as a bedrock and the groundwater flow system through the bedrock fractures seemed to be understandable with the study on the subsurface geologic structure through the mining tunnels. Borehole tests included core logging, televiewer logging, constant pressure fixed interval length tests and tracer tests. The results is summarized as follows; 1) To determine the hydraulic parameters of the fractured rock, the transient flow analysis produce better results than the steady - state flow analysis. 2) Based on the relationship between fracture distribution and transmissivities measured, the shallow part of the system could be considered as a porous and continuous medium due to the well developed fractures and weathering. However, the deeper part shows flow characteristics of the fracture dominant system, satisfying the assumptions of the Cubic law. 3) Transmissivities from the FIL test were averaged to be 6.12 x 10{sup -7}{sub m}{sup 2}{sub /s}. 4) Tracer tests result indicates groundwater flow in the study area is controlled by the connection, extension and geometry of fractures in the bedrock. 5) Hydraulic conductivity of the tracer-test interval was in maximum of 7.2 x 10{sup -6}{sub m/sec}, and the effective porosity of 1.8 %. 6) Composition of the groundwater varies with that of contacting geomedia and the significant change occurs in K and Fe. 7) Metal ions in groundwater were found to be sorbed onto groundwater particulates. (author). 128 refs., 39 tabs., 49 figs.

  15. Which factors, processes and storages influence low flow (Q347)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margreth, Michael; Scherrer, Simon; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Naef, Felix

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, estimation of residual water is based on Q347 (flow exceeded during 347 days per year). In ungauged catchments Q347 has to be determined with some simplified approaches. However, these statistical models often provide inaccurate results. The runoff reaction of a river depends on the spatial distribution of the Dominant Runoff Processes (DRP) like Hortonian Overland Flow (HOF), Saturated Overland Flow (SOF), Sub-Surface Flow (SSF) or Deep Percolation (DP) within its catchment area. Low flow is fed by slowly reacting groundwater or deep hillslope storages. These storages are supposed to be located mainly beneath permeable soils in highly permeable bedrock like talus, deposits of debris flows or rock fall, gravel of river deposits, lateral moraines or karst systems, represented in DRP-maps by slowly reacting SOF3-, SSF3- or DP- areas. To better understand these mechanisms, the relation between areas of slowly reacting SOF3, SSF3, DP and the form of the recession curves was analysed in 27 catchments of Swiss Plateau and Jura. Results show, that drainage characteristics and percentage of SOF3-, SSF3- and DP- areas in catchments relate well. The more extended the recharge areas, the smoother and longer the recession curves. For example the recession to Q347 in the Eulach River (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 54%) takes 95 days, in the Töss River only 10 days (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 9%). However, the differences in Q347 cannot be explained with these percentages. The runoff volume from Q347 to Q365 in 14 investigated catchments is only between 0.2 and 14 mm, about 1.5% of the annual precipitation volume. It seems that the storages mentioned above do not contribute significantly any more, when the discharge falls below Q347. It was found that catchments with high Q347 consist mainly of sandstone, conglomerate or large scaled wetlands. It seems that mainly porous and fissured solid rocks contribute to Q347. Very small Q347 are usually caused by seepage loss of water in the riverbed.

  16. Square Source Type Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density function of moment tensor's eigenvalues P(λ1, λ2, λ3) depends only on the scalar moment [(λ12+λ22+λ32)/2]0.5. Even if this is not the real case, the easiness of calculating the areal density is useful when we compare the results of analyzing real data with that of analyzing background noise.

  17. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grgec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.

  18. Drawing Activity Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenhaller, Martin; Kaufmann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Activity diagrams experience an increasing importance in the design and description of software systems. Unfortunately, previous approaches for automatic layout support fail or are just insufficient to capture the complexity of the related requirements. We propose a new approach tailored to the needs of activity diagrams which combines the advantages of two fundamental layout concepts called "Sugiyama's approach" and "topology-shape-metrics approach", originally develope...

  19. Feynman Diagrams for Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Kumericki, Kresimir

    2016-01-01

    We give a short introduction to Feynman diagrams, with many exercises. Text is targeted at students who had little or no prior exposure to quantum field theory. We present condensed description of single-particle Dirac equation, free quantum fields and construction of Feynman amplitude using Feynman diagrams. As an example, we give a detailed calculation of cross-section for annihilation of electron and positron into a muon pair. We also show how such calculations are done with the aid of computer.

  20. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  1. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  2. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2005-08-04

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  3. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  4. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA

  5. The process flow and structure of an integrated stroke strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. van Bussel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the Canadian province of Alberta access and quality of stroke care were suboptimal, especially in remote areas. The government introduced the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy (APSS in 2005, an integrated strategy to improve access to stroke care, quality and efficiency which utilizes telehealth. Research question: What is the process flow and the structure of the care pathways of the APSS?Methodology: Information for this article was obtained using documentation, archival APSS records, interviews with experts, direct observation and participant observation.Results: The process flow is described. The APSS integrated evidence-based practice, multidisciplinary communication, and telestroke services. It includes regular quality evaluation and improvement.Conclusion: Access, efficiency and quality of care improved since the start of the APSS across many domains, through improvement of expertise and equipment in small hospitals, accessible consultation of stroke specialists using telestroke, enhancing preventive care, enhancing multidisciplinary collaboration, introducing uniform best practice protocols and bypass-protocols for the emergency medical services.Discussion: The APSS overcame substantial obstacles to decrease discrepancies and to deliver integrated higher quality care. Telestroke has proven itself to be safe and feasible. The APSS works efficiently, which is in line to other projects worldwide, and is, based on limited results, cost effective. Further research on cost-effectiveness is necessary.

  6. Modelling of energy flows in potato crisp frying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food frying is very energy intensive and in industrial potato crisp production lines frying is responsible for more than 90% of the total energy consumption of the process. This paper considers the energy flows in crisp frying using a First Law of Thermodynamics modelling approach which was verified against data from a potato crisp production line. The results indicate that for the frying process considered, most of the energy used is associated with the evaporation of water present in the potato and on the surface of potato slices. The remainder is from evaporation of frying oil and air of the ventilation system and heat losses from the fryer wall surfaces by convection and radiation. The frying oil is heated by an industrial gas furnace and the efficiency of this process was calculated to be 84%. The efficiency of the overall frying process which was found to be of the order of 70% can be improved by employing exhaust heat recovery and optimising other operating and control parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation.

  7. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  8. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  9. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Economy

    2004-11-16

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  10. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-08-20

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  11. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded)

  12. Optimization of protein electroextraction from microalgae by a flow process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustets, Mathilde; Joubert-Durigneux, Vanessa; Hérault, Josiane; Schoefs, Benoît; Blanckaert, Vincent; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Teissié, Justin

    2015-06-01

    Classical methods, used for large scale treatments such as mechanical or chemical extractions, affect the integrity of extracted cytosolic protein by releasing proteases contained in vacuoles. Our previous experiments on flow processes electroextraction on yeasts proved that pulsed electric field technology allows preserving the integrity of released cytosolic proteins, by not affecting vacuole membranes. Furthermore, large cell culture volumes are easily treated by the flow technology. Based on this previous knowledge, we developed a new protocol in order to electro-extract total cytoplasmic proteins from microalgae (Nannochloropsis salina, Chlorella vulgaris and Haematococcus pluvialis). Given that induction of electropermeabilization is under the control of target cell size, as the mean diameter for N. salina is only 2.5 ?m, we used repetitive 2 ms long pulses of alternating polarities with stronger field strengths than previously described for yeasts. The electric treatment was followed by a 24h incubation period in a salty buffer. The amount of total protein release was observed by a classical Bradford assay. A more accurate evaluation of protein release was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Similar results were obtained with C. vulgaris and H. pluvialis under milder electrical conditions as expected from their larger size. PMID:25216607

  13. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded)

  14. Weyl card diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods

  15. Manufacturing process planning optimisation in reconfigurable multiple parts flow lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the capabilities of genetic algorithms in handling optimization of the criticalissues mentioned above for the purpose of manufacturing process planning in reconfigurable manufacturingactivities. Two modified genetic algorithms are devised and employed to provide the best approximate processplanning solution. Modifications included adapting genetic operators to the problem specific knowledge andimplementing application specific heuristics to enhance the search efficiency.Design/methodology/approach: The genetic algorithm methodology implements a genetic algorithmthat is augmented by application specific heuristics in order to guide the search for an optimal solution.The case study is based on the manufacturing system. Raw materials enter the system through an input stageand exit the system through an output stage. The system is composed of sixteen (16 processing modulesthat are arranged in four processing stages.Findings: The results indicate that the two genetic algorithms are able to converge to optimal solutionsin reasonable time. A computational study shows that improved solutions can be obtained by implementinga genetic algorithm with an extended diversity control mechanism.Research limitations/implications: This paper has examined the issues of MPP optimization in a reconfigurablemanufacturing framework with the help of a reconfigurable multiparts manufacturing flow line.Originality/value: The results of the case illustration have demonstrated the practical use of diversity controlimplemented in the MGATO technique. In comparison to MGAWTO, the implemented MGATO improves thepopulation diversity through a customized threshold operator. It was clear that the MGATO can obtain bettersolution quality by foiling the tendency towards premature convergence.

  16. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, Thaibinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar...

  17. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributions. Gravity wave transmission diagrams for different horizontal wavelengths in simple background horizontal winds with constant vertical shear indicate that the effects of the turning level reflection are significant and strongly dependent on the horizontal wavelength.

  18. Evaluating Influence Diagrams using LIMIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Dennis; Lauritzen, Steffen L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to the solution of decision problems formulated as influence diagrams. The approach converts the influence diagram into a simpler structure, the LImited Memory Influence Diagram (LIMID), where only the requisite information for the computation of optimal policies is depicted. Because the requisite information is explicitly represented in the diagram, the evaluation procedure can take advantage of it. In this paper we show how to convert an influence diagram to a LIMI...

  19. EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION OF USE CASE MAIN SUCCESS SCENARIO STEPS INTO BUSSINESS OBJECT RELATION (BORM) DIAGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSSINESS PROCESS REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ATHANASIOS PODARAS; JOSEF MORAVEC; MARTIN PAPIK

    2012-01-01

    The basic part of an innovative and modern approach to business processrequirement analysis which is based on the simultaneous utilization of UML Use Caseapproach and the Business Object Relation Modelling approach is analyzed in thepresent paper. Precisely the transition rules by which the Use Case Main SuccessScenario steps are converted into to a BORM diagram, entitled as the Use Case ToBORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA) transition rules, are presented as apattern based method which lea...

  20. Processing of Flow Accounting Data in Java: Framework Design and Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kögel, Jochen; Scholz, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Flow Accounting is a passive monitoring mechanism implemented in routers that gives insight into traffic behavior and network characteristics. However, processing of Flow Accounting data is a challenging task, especially in large networks where the rate of Flow Records received at the collector can be very high. We developed a framework for processing of Flow Accounting data in Java. It provides processing blocks for aggregation, sorting, statistics, correlation, and other tasks. Besides read...

  1. Diagrams of States in Quantum Information: an Illustrative Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Felloni, Sara; Strini, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    We present "Diagrams of States", a way to graphically represent and analyze how quantum information is elaborated during the execution of quantum circuits. This introductory tutorial illustrates the basics, providing useful examples of quantum computations: elementary operations in single-qubit, two-qubit and three-qubit systems, immersions of gates on higher dimensional spaces, generation of single and multi-qubit states, procedures to synthesize unitary, controlled and diagonal matrices. To perform the analysis of quantum processes, we directly derive diagrams of states from physical implementations of quantum circuits associated to the processes. Complete diagrams are then rearranged into simplified diagrams, to visualize the overall effects of computations. Conversely, diagrams of states help to conceive new quantum algorithms, by schematically describing desired manipulations of quantum information with intuitive diagrams and then by guessing the equivalent complete diagrams, from which the corresponding...

  2. Eigenanalysis of a neural network for optic flow processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flies gain information about self-motion during free flight by processing images of the environment moving across their retina. The visual course control center in the brain of the blowfly contains, among others, a population of ten neurons, the so-called vertical system (VS) cells that are mainly sensitive to downward motion. VS cells are assumed to encode information about rotational optic flow induced by self-motion (Krapp and Hengstenberg 1996 Nature 384 463-6). Recent evidence supports a connectivity scheme between the VS cells where neurons with neighboring receptive fields are connected to each other by electrical synapses at the axonal terminals, whereas the boundary neurons in the network are reciprocally coupled via inhibitory synapses (Haag and Borst 2004 Nat. Neurosci. 7 628-34; Farrow et al 2005 J. Neurosci. 25 3985-93; Cuntz et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA). Here, we investigate the functional properties of the VS network and its connectivity scheme by reducing a biophysically realistic network to a simplified model, where each cell is represented by a dendritic and axonal compartment only. Eigenanalysis of this model reveals that the whole population of VS cells projects the synaptic input provided from local motion detectors on to its behaviorally relevant components. The two major eigenvectors consist of a horizontal and a slanted line representing the distribution of vertical motion components across the fly's azimuth. They are, thus, ideally suited for reliably encoding translational and rotational whole-field optic flow induced by respective flight maneuvers. The dimensionality reduction compensates for the contrast and texture dependence of the local motion detectors of the correlation-type, which becomes particularly pronounced when confronted with natural images and their highly inhomogeneous contrast distribution

  3. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  4. Prediction of the decay process in turbulent swirl flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algifri, A. H.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Rao, Y. V. N.

    The paper describes a numerical procedure for predicting the decay of a swirl flow by computing the swirl intensity and tangential and axial velocity distributions at any downstream section of the pipe from the flow parameters at the inlet of the test pipe. The predictions were compared with experimental results obtained on a flow in a test pipe of 74-mm-diameter and 7400-mm-length. Air was used as the working fluid; its stream was given a swirling motion by means of a radial cascade with adjustable blades installed at the inlet. The flow in this set-up was created by a blower, and the rate of flow was regulated by means of a throttling disk. Data obtained on four different flows on the variation of the swirl number along the axis of the test pipe agreed with theoretical predictions within the range of experimental errors. A flow chart for the computational procedure is included.

  5. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  6. Traffic dynamics: Its impact on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Victor L.; van Lint, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-11-01

    Literature shows that-under specific conditions-the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole network. Recent works describe hysteresis effects: systematic deviations from the MFD as a result of loading and unloading. This article proposes a two dimensional generalization of the MFD, the so-called Generalized Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (GMFD), which relates the average flow to both the average density and the (spatial) inhomogeneity of density. The most important contribution is that we show this is a continuous function, of which the MFD is a projection. Using the GMFD, we can describe the mentioned hysteresis patterns in the MFD. The underlying traffic phenomenon explaining the two dimensional surface described by the GMFD is that congestion concentrates (and subsequently spreads out) around the bottlenecks that oversaturate first. We call this the nucleation effect. Due to this effect, the network flow is not constant for a fixed number of vehicles as predicted by the MFD, but decreases due to local queueing and spill back processes around the congestion "nuclei". During this build up of congestion, the production hence decreases, which gives the hysteresis effects.

  7. Laser Doppler anemometer signal processing for blood flow velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdova, M. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method for analysing the signal in a laser Doppler anemometer based on the differential scheme is proposed, which provides the flow velocity measurement in strongly scattering liquids, particularly, blood. A laser Doppler anemometer intended for measuring the absolute blood flow velocity in animal and human near-surface arterioles and venules is developed. The laser Doppler anemometer signal structure is experimentally studied for measuring the flow velocity in optically inhomogeneous media, such as blood and suspensions of scattering particles. The results of measuring the whole and diluted blood flow velocity in channels with a rectangular cross section are presented.

  8. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.

    2003-03-19

    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  9. Fractional Flow Theory Applicable to Non-Newtonian Behavior in EOR Processes:

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen, W.R.; Venkatraman, A.; Johns, R.T.; Kibodeaux, K.R.; Lai, H.; Moradi Tehrani, N.

    2011-01-01

    The method of characteristics, or fractional-flow theory, is extremely useful in understanding complex Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes and in calibrating simulators. One limitation has been its restriction to Newtonian rheology except in rectilinear flow. Its inability to deal with non-Newtonian rheology in polymer and foam EOR has been a serious limitation. We extend fractional flow methods for two-phase flow to non-Newtonian fluids in one-dimensional cylindrical flow, where rheology c...

  10. Variations in G.S. process flow sheet (Preprint No. PD-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations have been seen in Girdler Sulfide process flow sheet as compared to the flow sheet used at HWP (Kota). These involve movement of deuterium to higher stages by gas and keeping liquid of 2nd and 3rd stages in total recirculation. Working further on these concepts a revised flow sheet for a typical exchange unit has been developed and given along with original flow sheet of HWP (KOTA) for comparison. The drawings show equipments and process control features. (author). 3 figs

  11. Neuro-flow Dynamics and the Learning Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsuno, M

    1997-01-01

    A new description of the neural activity is introduced by the neuro-flow dynamics and the extended Hebb rule. The remarkable characteristics of the neuro-flow dynamics, such as the primacy and the recency effect during awakeness or sleep, are pointed out.

  12. Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming...... a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One is a generalized version of the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. This ability is demonstrated by verifying that two different circuit implementations of a 16-bit multiplier implement the same...... Boolean function. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved efficiently, while using standard BDD techniques this problem is infeasible. Generally, BEDs are useful in applications, for example tautology checking, where the end-result as a reduced ordered BDD is small. Moreover, using operators for...

  13. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  14. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.

  15. The Tinsley diagram revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, S; Leonard, Stephen; Lake, Kayll

    1995-01-01

    Motivated by the recent determinations of the Hubble constant (H_0) from observations of Cepheid variables in NGC4571 and M100, we plot the Tinsley diagram with level curves of the cosmological constant (\\Lambda). Based on current estimates of the absolute ages of globular clusters we conclude that \\Lambda > 0 and, irrespective of the background spatial curvature, the universe will not recollapse. These conclusions hold for both relativistic and Newtonian models and are {\\it independent} of the density parameter.

  16. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instan...

  17. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeesch, P.

    2006-01-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity ( ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivar...

  18. Power diagrams and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    van Manen, M; Manen, Martijn van; Siersma, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    We remark that the power diagrams from computer science are the spines of amoebas in algebraic geometry, or the hypersurfaces in tropical geometry. Our concept of a Morse poset generalizes to power diagrams. We show that there exists a discrete Morse function on the coherent triangulation, dual to the power diagram, such that its critical set equals the Morse poset of the power diagram. In the final section we use Maslov dequantization to compute the medial axis.

  19. Layout Metrics for Euler Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Flower, Jean; Rodgers, Peter; Mutton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We present an aesthetics based method for drawing Euler diagrams. Aesthetic layout metrics have been found to be useful in graph drawing algorithms, which use metrics motivated by aesthetic principles that aid user understanding of diagrams. We have taken a similar approach to Euler diagram drawing, and have defined a set of suitable metrics to be used within a hill climbing multicriteria optimiser to produce good drawings. There are added difficulties when drawing Euler diagrams as they are ...

  20. Feynman diagram drawing made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a drawing package optimised for Feynman diagrams. These can be constructed interactively with a mouse-driven graphical interface or from a script file, more suitable to work with a diagram generator. It provides most features encountered in Feynman diagrams and allows to modify every part of a diagram after its creation. Special attention has been paid to obtain a high quality printout as easily as possible. This package is written in Tcl/Tk and in C. (orig.)

  1. Diagram groups are totally orderable

    OpenAIRE

    Guba, Victor; Sapir, Mark

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of the independence graph of a directed 2-complex. We show that the class of diagram groups is closed under graph products over independence graphs of rooted 2-trees. This allows us to show that a diagram group containing all countable diagram groups is a semi-direct product of a partially commutative group and R. Thompson's group $F$. As a result, we prove that all diagram groups are totally orderable.

  2. The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.

  3. Legendrian graphs and quasipositive diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Baader, S; Baader, Sebastian; Ishikawa, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between ribbon surfaces of Legendrian graphs and quasipositive diagrams by using certain fence diagrams. As an application, we give an alternative proof of a theorem concerning a relationship between quasipositive fiber surfaces and contact structures on the 3-sphere. We also answer a question of L. Rudolph concerning moves of quasipositive diagrams.

  4. Hyperbolic diagram groups are free

    OpenAIRE

    Genevois, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the so-called diagram groups. Our main result is that diagram groups are free if and only if they do not contain any subgroup isomorphic to $\\mathbb{Z}^2$. As an immediate corollary, we get that hyperbolic diagram groups are necessarily free, answering a question of Guba and Sapir.

  5. Generalized performance diagrams for steam turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two generalized diagrams have been prepared for the steam turbine performance estimate. The diagrams can predict the turbine net heat rate for various turbine exhaust pressures and loadings. The turbine systems covered in these diagrams have the steam conditions either supercritical or subcritical, and the power output in the range of 400,000 kW to 800,000 kW. The turbine has 4 or 6 exhaust flows and the last stage blade length 23, 26, 30 or 33.5 inches. The basic approach is to normalize the turbine heat rates and express them in terms of turbine heat rates and express them in terms of turbine output per unit area of exhaust flow. The turbine exhaust pressure is treated as a parameter. Approximately 30 steam turbine system have been simulated by computer and the performance data were utilized in the construction of the generalized diagrams. The values predicted by this approach are in good agreement with the actual data

  6. Coded ultrasound for blood flow estimation using subband processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, F.; Udesen, J.; Jensen, J.A.; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2008-01-01

    velocity estimation is compared with a conventional approach transmitting a narrow-band pulse. The study was carried out using an experimental ultrasound scanner and a commercial linear array 7 MHz transducer. A circulating flow rig was scanned with a beam-to-flow angle of 60 degrees. The flow in the rig......This paper investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband coded......-band pulse directly. Also, the spatial resolution of the narrow-band pulse would be too poor for brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging, and additional transmissions would be required to update the B-mode image. For the described approach in the paper, there is no need for additional transmissions, because the...

  7. Coded Ultrasound for Blood Flow Estimation Using Subband Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachamnn; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    velocity estimation is compared with a conventional approach transmitting a narrow-band pulse. The study was carried out using an experimental ultrasound scanner and a commercial linear array 7 MHz transducer. A circulating flow rig was scanned with a beam-to-flow angle of 60°. The flow in the rig was......This paper investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband coded......-band pulse directly. Also, the spatial resolution of the narrow-band pulse would be too poor for brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging, and additional transmissions would be required to update the B-mode image. For the described approach in the paper, there is no need for additional transmissions, because the...

  8. Identification of the molten glass flow process in tank furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model for the evaluation of flow dynamics of molten glass within a tank furnace has been developed. The technological and dynamical parameters were obtained for an industrial and a model tank furnace using 140La as a tracer. The results are in good agreement with theoretical values computed on the basis of a complex flow model (Wolf-Resnick model) with the aid of the MARMOD code

  9. Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Chuang; Cao Xuewen; Yang Yan; Feng Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pres...

  10. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  11. Stochastic Modelling of Shiroro River Stream flow Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa, J. J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economists, social scientists and engineers provide insights into the drivers of anthropogenic climate change and the options for adaptation and mitigation, and yet other scientists, including geographers and biologists, study the impacts of climate change. This project concentrates mainly on the discharge from the Shiroro River. A stochastic approach is presented for modeling a time series by an Autoregressive Moving Average model (ARMA. The development and use of a stochastic stream flow model involves some basic steps such as obtain stream flow record and other information, Selecting models that best describes the marginal probability distribution of flows. The flow discharge of about 22 years (1990-2011 was gotten from the Meteorological Station at Shiroro and analyzed with three different models namely; Autoregressive (AR model, Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA model and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA model. The initial model identification is done by using the autocorrelation function (ACF and partial autocorrelation function (PACF. Based on the model analysis and evaluations, proper predictions for the effective usage of the flow from the river for farming activities and generation of power for both industrial and domestic us were made. It also highlights some recommendations to be made to utilize the possible potentials of the river effectively

  12. Conceptual process flow of a fluoride volatility process under 'milder' condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new conceptual process flow for reprocessing by fluoride volatility process is constructed that could be operated economically under a 'milder' condition compared to the conventional process. The two-step fluorination method using mixed gas of HF and H2, and F2 is employed to reduce the reaction temperature and F2 concentration in this process. PuF3 and UF4 formed at the 1st stage would be fluorinated to gaseous hexafluorides simultaneously, on the other hand, involatile fluorides would remain in the reactor. Most of the volatilised UF6, PuF6 and other substances would be condensed in the cold trap. UF6 could be purified by removing other substances with chemical traps after volatilising them at the specific temperature and pressure. The mixed UF6 and PuF6 that remain in the cold trap would be volatilised together to be used as the raw material of MOX fuel after adjusting the plutonium enrichment ratio. (author)

  13. Conservative generalized bifurcation diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchein, Cesar, E-mail: cmanchein@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89219-710 Joinville (Brazil); Beims, Marcus W., E-mail: mbeims@fisica.ufpr.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    Bifurcation cascades in conservative systems are shown to exhibit a generalized diagram, which contains all relevant informations regarding the location of periodic orbits (resonances), their width (island size), irrational tori and the infinite higher-order resonances, showing the intricate way they are born. Contraction rates for islands sizes, along period-doubling bifurcations, are estimated to be ?{sub I}?3.9. Results are demonstrated for the standard map and for the continuous Hénon–Heiles potential. The methods used here are very suitable to find periodic orbits in conservative systems, and to characterize the regular, mixed or chaotic dynamics as the nonlinear parameter is varied.

  14. Conservative generalized bifurcation diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifurcation cascades in conservative systems are shown to exhibit a generalized diagram, which contains all relevant informations regarding the location of periodic orbits (resonances), their width (island size), irrational tori and the infinite higher-order resonances, showing the intricate way they are born. Contraction rates for islands sizes, along period-doubling bifurcations, are estimated to be ?I?3.9. Results are demonstrated for the standard map and for the continuous Hénon–Heiles potential. The methods used here are very suitable to find periodic orbits in conservative systems, and to characterize the regular, mixed or chaotic dynamics as the nonlinear parameter is varied.

  15. Voronoi Diagram Generation Algorithm based on Delaunay Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Sun; Yonglong Luo; Yalei Yu; Xintao Ding

    2014-01-01

    Voronoi diagram and its geometric dual, the Delaunay triangulation, both are practical geometric constructions which have been applied extensively in spatial analysis. Considering the low efficiency of the algorithm of indirectly building Voronoi diagram, this paper proposes an improved Voronoi diagram generation algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation of randomly distributed points in the Euclidean plane. In the process of building Delaunay triangulation, correlative edges of points and co...

  16. Equational reasoning with context-free families of string diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Kissinger, Aleks; Zamdzhiev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    String diagrams provide an intuitive language for expressing networks of interacting processes graphically. A discrete representation of string diagrams, called string graphs, allows for mechanised equational reasoning by double-pushout rewriting. However, one often wishes to express not just single equations, but entire families of equations between diagrams of arbitrary size. To do this we define a class of context-free grammars, called B-ESG grammars, that are suitable for defining entire ...

  17. Flow regulation of variable feed pressure stream: process and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stream is separated into a main stream and a coaxial control stream. The control stream is formed into a vortex in which the rotational axis is parallel to the flow direction of the main stream. The control stream vortex is directed towards the main stream to ensure the regulation of the fluid flow by direct interaction of the two streams. The device comprises a central tube with perforated plates around it. A structure, through which thin and straight pipes pass, and a cylindrical envelope including outlet pipes inclined with regard to the radial direction of the envelope are set in the central tube. The invention applies, more particularly, to the regulation of the liquid sodium flow rate in the used assemblies of a fast neutron nuclear reactor, during their cooling storage in the reactor vessel

  18. Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pressure. A higher back pressure results in an earlier location of the shock wave. The pressure ratio of 0.72 is the first threshold to get the separator work normally. The second threshold is 0.95, in which case the whole flow is subsonic and cannot reach the choked state. The shock position moves upstream with the real gas model compared to the ideal gas law in the cyclonic separation section.

  19. Genealogy of flows of continuous-state branching processes via flows of partitions and the Eve property

    CERN Document Server

    Labbé, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We encode the genealogy of a continuous-state branching process associated with a branching mechanism $\\Psi$ - or $\\Psi$-CSBP in short - using a stochastic flow of partitions. This encoding holds for all branching mechanisms and appears as a very tractable object to deal with asymptotic behaviours and convergences. In particular we study the so-called Eve property - the existence of an ancestor from which the entire population descends asymptotically - and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the $\\Psi$-CSBP for this property to hold. Finally, we show that the flow of partitions unifies the lookdown representation and the flow of subordinators when the Eve property holds.

  20. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force....... Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited to...

  1. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    tool of automated analytical chemistry. The need for an even lower consumption of chemicals and for computer analysis has motivated a study of the FIA peak itself, that is, a theoretical model was developed, that provides detailed knowledge of the FIA profile. It was shown that the flow in a FIA......The technique of Flow-injection Analysis (FIA), now aged 25 years, offers unique analytical methods that are fast, reliable and consuming an absolute minimum of chemicals. These advantages together with its inherent feasibility for automation warrant the future applications of FIA as an attractive...

  2. Effect of relaxation processes on initial stages of flow in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigated are behaviour and structure of commercially pure iron in the range of microplastic deformation below the flow limit, using the methods of mechanical tests of amplitude dependence of internal friction and transmission electron microscopy. Conclusion is made about an appearance of delayed flow process not only in case of changes in loading rate, but under static tests as well, permitting to induce material flow when holding under stresses below the flow limit

  3. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b): Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) may be used to... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by... process shall include at least the following: (i) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow...

  4. Laminar Flow Processes of Fluid Energy Carries in Pipe Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Еsman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for analysis and calculation of laminar fluid flows in pipes and channels.  Various regimes of fluid motion in pipelines of heat-power units and equipment are considered in the paper.The presented dependencies can be used for practical calculations while transporting energy carriers for various application.

  5. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented

  6. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Gunawan [The Earth Physics and Complex Systems Research Group (Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung Indonesia) gunawanhandayani@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  7. Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data

  8. Modeling and analysis of coupled porous-medium and free flow with application to evaporation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mosthaf, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Exchange processes between fluid-filled porous media and an adjacent free flow occur in a wide range of natural and technical systems. In the course of these processes, the flow dynamics in the porous domain and in the free flow exhibit a strong interdependency, which is often controlled by mechanisms at the common interface. Understanding and modeling these interactions is decisive for divers technical, medical and environmental applications. Prominent technical examples are the drying of pr...

  9. Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Owen; Cuccia, David; Choi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a technique in which coherent light incident on a surface produces a reflected speckle pattern that is related to the underlying movement of optical scatterers, such as red blood cells, indicating blood flow. Image-processing algorithms can be applied to produce speckle flow index (SFI) maps of relative blood flow. We present a novel algorithm that employs the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform to perform laser speckle image processing on...

  10. Perfect orderings on Bratteli diagrams II: general Bratteli diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuglyi, Sergey; Yassawi, Reem

    2013-01-01

    We continue our study of orderings on Bratteli diagrams started in previous work, joint with Jan Kwiatkowski, where Bratteli diagrams of finite rank were considered. We extend the notions of languages, permutations (called correspondences in this paper), skeletons and associated graphs to the case of general Bratteli diagrams, and show their relevance to the study of perfect orderings: those that support Vershik maps; in particular, perfect orderings with several extremal paths. A perfect ord...

  11. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart EC14OC91.004...

  12. Experimental study of air flow rate effects on humidification parameters with preheating and dehumidification process changing

    OpenAIRE

    Ayad T. Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study experimentally the effect of air flow rate on humidification process parameters. Experimental data are obtained from air conditioning study unit T110D. Results obtained from experimental test, calculations and psychometrics software are discussed. The effect of air flow rate on steam humidification process parameters as a part of air-conditioning processes can be explain in results obtained. Results of the steam humidification process with and withou...

  13. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  14. Equivalent Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram for the Study of Ejector Refrigeration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khennich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Carnot factor versus enthalpy variation (heat diagram has been used extensively for the second law analysis of heat transfer processes. With enthalpy variation (heat as the abscissa and the Carnot factor as the ordinate the area between the curves representing the heat exchanging media on this diagram illustrates the exergy losses due to the transfer. It is also possible to draw the paths of working fluids in steady-state, steady-flow thermodynamic cycles on this diagram using the definition of “the equivalent temperature” as the ratio between the variations of enthalpy and entropy in an analyzed process. Despite the usefulness of this approach two important shortcomings should be emphasized. First, the approach is not applicable for the processes of expansion and compression particularly for the isenthalpic processes taking place in expansion valves. Second, from the point of view of rigorous thermodynamics, the proposed ratio gives the temperature dimension for the isobaric processes only. The present paper proposes to overcome these shortcomings by replacing the actual processes of expansion and compression by combinations of two thermodynamic paths: isentropic and isobaric. As a result the actual (not ideal refrigeration and power cycles can be presented on equivalent temperature versus enthalpy variation diagrams. All the exergy losses, taking place in different equipments like pumps, turbines, compressors, expansion valves, condensers and evaporators are then clearly visualized. Moreover the exergies consumed and produced in each component of these cycles are also presented. The latter give the opportunity to also analyze the exergy efficiencies of the components. The proposed diagram is finally applied for the second law analysis of an ejector based refrigeration system.

  15. Microhardness meter with record of indentation diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of microhardness meter with record of the depth of indention during the process of loading is developed. The registration of load-intrusion depth diagram is provided. The design differs from the analogues by non-vibrating indenter loading system. The specifications of the instrument as well as examples of its usage are given

  16. Influence diagrams for contextual information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Tamine-Lechani, Lynda; Boughanem, Mohand

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of contextual information retrieval is to make some exploration towards designing user specific search engines that are able to adapt the retrieval model to the variety of differences on user's contexts. In this paper we propose an influence diagram based retrieval model which is able to incorporate contexts, viewed as user's long-term interests into the retrieval process.

  17. Dynamic Modelling of Erosion and Deposition Processes in Debris Flows With Application to Real Debris Flow Events in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, Y.; McArdell, B. W.; Graf, C.

    2011-12-01

    The dynamics of a debris flow can be significantly influenced by erosion and deposition processes during an event because volume changes have a strong influence on flow properties such as flow velocity, flow heights and runout distances. It is therefore worth exploring how to include these processes in numerical models, which are used for hazard assessment and mitigation measure planning. However, it is still under debate, what mechanism drives the erosion of material at the base of a debris flow. There are different processes attributed to erosion: it has been proposed that erosion correlates with the stresses due to granular interactions at the front, which in turn strongly depend on particle size or it may be related to basal shear forces. Because it is expected that larger flow heights result in larger stresses one can additionally hypothesize that there is a correlation between erosion rate and flow height. To test different erosion laws in a numerical model and its influence on the flow behavior we implement different relationships and compare simulation results with field data. Herefore, we use the numerical model, RAMMS (Christen et al., 2010), employing the Voellmy-fluid friction law. While it has already been shown that a correlation of erosion with velocity does not lead to a satisfying result (too high entrainment in the tail) a correlation with flow height combined with velocity (momentum) has been successfully applied to ice-avalanches. Currently, we are testing the momentum-driven and for comparison we reconsider the simple velocity-driven erosion rate. However, these laws do not consider processes on a smaller scale such as particle fluctuations resulting in energy production, which might play an important role. Therefore, we additionally consider an erosion model that has potential to draw new insights on the erosion process in debris flows. The model is based on an extended Voellmy model, which additionally employs an equation, which is a measure of the random kinetic energy (RKE, equivalent to granular temperature) produced by the random movement of particles in a debris flow (Buser and Bartelt, 2009). Advantageous is that friction is dependent on the production of RKE and is decreasing with decreasing RKE. The amount of energy produced in the system, might therefore be a useful indicator for the erosion rate. While the erosion model using the Voellmy approach might be successfully applicable to cases where erosion and bulking are the main processes, such as in Illgraben (CH), it might be less straight forward in mountain torrents where we additionally observe a lot of deposition along the flow path such as in Dorfbach (CH). The extended Voellmy model is indirectly accounting for this process as friction is a function of RKE, which allows material to deposit earlier. At both locations we have debris flow observation stations including innovative new measurement techniques indication parameters such as flow velocity, height and volumes at specific locations (Illgraben, Dorfbach) as well as erosion rate measurements (Illgraben). These highly valuable data allow us good model calibration as well as verification of the newly implemented erosion models.

  18. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; SØrensen, Niels N.

    2007-01-01

    Rotational augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine blade aerodynamics currently remains incompletely characterized and understood. To address this, the present study concurrently analysed experimental measurements and computational predictions, both of which were unique and of high quality. Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force production during rotating conditions. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  20. Aerodynamic Structures and Processes in Rotationally Augmented Flow Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, Scott J.; SØrensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Rotational augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine blade aerodynamics currently remains incompletely characterized and understood.To address this, the present study concurrently analysed experimental measurements and computational predictions, both of which were unique and of high quality. Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels.Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed.Subsequently,boundary layer state was linked to abovesurface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms underlying augmented aerodynamic force production during rotating conditions.

  1. A viscous flow analysis of the tip vortex generation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Briley, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    A viscous primary-secondary flow analysis designed for numerical solution by forward marching integration is applied to the tip vortex generation problem. Equations governing streamwise momentum, streamwise vorticity, and a gas law are solved in conjunction with equations governing scalar and vector surface potentials for the secondary velocities. The numerical method used combines a consistently split linearized block implicit (LBI) scheme for parabolic equations and a scalar iterative ADI scheme for elliptic equations. Computed results are presented for a wing of rectangular planform immersed in a high Reynolds number stream at 6 degrees incidence. The physical mechanism for generation of the tip vortex, as revealed by the analysis and computations, is discussed. Detailed flow results for the case of 6 degree incidence are included.

  2. Digital video image processing applications to two phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid spraying is common in various fields (combustion, cooling of hot surfaces, spray drying,...). For two phase flows modeling, it is necessary to test elementary laws (vaporizing drops, equation of motion of drops or bubbles, heat transfer..). For example, the knowledge of the laws related to the behavior of vaporizing liquid drop in a hot airstream and impinging drops on a hot surface is important for two phase flow modeling. In order to test these different laws in elementary cases, the authors developed different measurement techniques, associating video and microcomputers. The test section (built in perpex or glass) is illuminated with a thin sheet of light generated by a 15mW He-Ne laser and appropriate optical arrangement. Drops, bubbles or liquid film are observed at right angle by a video camera synchronised with a microcomputer either directly or with an optical device (lens, telescope, microscope) providing sufficient magnification. Digitizing the video picture in real time associated with an appropriate numerical treatment allows to obtain, in a non interfering way, a lot of informations relative to the pulverisation and the vaporization as function of space and time (drop size distribution; Sauter mean diameter as function of main flow parameters: air velocity, surface tension, temperature; isoconcentration curves, size evolution relative to vaporizing drops, film thickness evolution spreading on a hot surface...)

  3. Evaluation of biomass gasification in a ternary diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper addresses the development of an alternative approach to illustrate biomass gasification in a ternary diagram which is constructed using data from thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of air-blown atmospheric wood gasification. It allows the location of operation domains of slagging entrained-flow, fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow and fixed/moving-bed gasification systems depending on technical limitations mainly due to ash melting behavior. Performance parameters, e.g. cold gas efficiency or specific syngas production, and process parameters such as temperature and carbon conversion are displayed in the diagram depending on the three independent mass flows representing (1) the gasifying agent, (2) the dry biomass and (3) the moisture content of the biomass. The graphical approach indicates the existence of maxima for cold gas efficiency (84.9%), syngas yield (1.35 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf)) and conversion of carbon to CO (81.1%) under dry air-blown conditions. The fluidized-bed/dry-ash entrained-flow processes have the potential to reach these global maxima since they can operate in the identified temperature range from 700 to 950 °C. Although using air as a gasifying agent, the same temperature range posses a potential of H2/CO ratios up to 2.0 at specific syngas productions of 1.15 m3 (H2 + CO STP)/kg (waf). Fixed/moving-bed and fluidized-bed systems can approach a dry product gas LHV from 3.0 to 5.5 MJ/m3 (dry STP). The ternary diagram was also used to study the increase of gasifying agent oxygen fraction from 21 to 99 vol.%. While the dry gas LHV can be increased significantly, the maxima of cold gas efficiency (+6.5%) and syngas yield (+7.4%) are elevated only slightly. - Highlights: • Novel graphical approach for comprehensive assessment of biomass gasification. • Parameters fields for temperature, conversion, cold gas efficiency, syngas yield etc. • Identification of operation ranges for entrained, fluid and moving-bed gasifiers. • Visualization of the influence of oxygen enrichment in gasifying agent

  4. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  5. Studies on statics of 1 exstraction of Purex process. Low-acid flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steady-state of 16-stage countercurrent extraction process has been studied for the system UO2(NO3)2 - Pu(NO3)4 - HNO3/30% TBP. Three various methods were used for the determination of concentration profiles: experimental, graphical (diagrams X-Y of McCabe-Thiele type) and analytical (an adapted form of Groenier's computer program SEPHIS). Using the computer method, a circulation and accumulation of plutonium was studied as a function of solvent loading with uranium and plutonium and of the feed solution acidity. (author)

  6. Information/Relevance Influence Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Jenzarli, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we extend the influence diagram (ID) representation for decisions under uncertainty. In the standard ID, arrows into a decision node are only informational; they do not represent constraints on what the decision maker can do. We can represent such constraints only indirectly, using arrows to the children of the decision and sometimes adding more variables to the influence diagram, thus making the ID more complicated. Users of influence diagrams often want to represent constraint...

  7. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Gem; Zhang, Leishi; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Euler diagrams are a popular and intuitive visualization tool which are used in a wide variety of application areas, including biological and medical data analysis. As with other data visualization methods, such as graphs, bar charts, or pie charts, the automated generation of an Euler diagram from a suitable data set would be advantageous, removing the burden of manual data analysis and the subsequent task of drawing an appropriate diagram. Various methods have emerged that automatically dra...

  8. Degeneracy of Angular Voronoi Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Muta, Hidetoshi; Kato, Kimikazu

    2007-01-01

    Angular Voronoi diagram was introduced by Asano et al. as fundamental research for a mesh generation. In an angular Voronoi diagram, the edges are curves of degree three. From view of computational robustness we need to treat the curves carefully, because they might have a singularity. We enumerate all the possible types of curves that appear as an edge of an angular Voronoi diagram, which tells us what kind of degeneracy is possible and tells us necessity of considering a singularity for com...

  9. Modeling of Gas Flows in Steelmaking Decarburization Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhili Jack

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to increase the understanding of different steelmaking processes at the decarburization stages by use of mathematical modeling. More specifically, two De-Laval nozzles from a VOD (Vaccum Oxygen Decarburization) process, which is used for producing stainless steels with ultra-low carbon grades, was investigated for different vessel pressures. Moreover, the post combustion phenomena in a BOF or LD (Linz-Donawitz) process as well as an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarb...

  10. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition.

  11. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  12. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  13. Fluid flow and solute segregation in EFG crystal growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunoiu, O.; Nicoara, I.; Santailler, J. L.; Duffar, T.

    2005-02-01

    The influence of the die geometry and various growth conditions on the fluid flow and on the solute distribution in EFG method has been studied using numerical simulation. The commercial FIDAP software has been used in order to solve the momentum and mass transfer equations in the capillary channel and in the melt meniscus. Two types of shaper design are studied and the results are in good agreement with the void distribution observed in rod-shaped sapphire crystals grown by the EFG method in the various configurations.

  14. Synthesis of Test Scenarios Using UML Sequence Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Ashalatha Nayak; Debasis Samanta

    2012-01-01

    UML 2.0 sequence diagrams are used to synthesize test scenarios. A UML 2.0 sequence diagram usually consists of a large number of different types of fragments and possibly with nesting. As a consequence, arriving at a comprehensive system behavior in the presence of multiple, nested fragment is a complex and challenging task. So far the test scenario synthesis from sequence diagrams is concerned, the major problem is to extract an arbitrary flow of control. In this regard, an approach is pres...

  15. Multiphase flow modeling: A tool to aid in scale up of processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy

    2010-10-01

    Multiphase flows are ubiquitous in chemical processing industries. Traditional approach has been to ignore fluid dynamical effects by invoking simplifying assumptions of homogeneity, but pay the price during scale-up of processes. The question that I address is ``Can Multiphase flow modeling come to our rescue in minimizing the need for pilot scale experiments?'' On the fundamental side, we have developed algorithms for direct numerical simulation of multiphase flows. For dispersed rigid particles as in suspension flows, sedimentation etc, we couple the Navier-Stokes equations with the rigid body dynamics in a rigorous fashion to track the particle motion in a fluid. For deformable bubbles/droplets dispersed in another fluid, we also track their motion in an Eulerian grid. The two classes of algorithms show great promise in attempting direct simulation of multiphase flows, from which we can extract statistically meaningful average behavior of suspensions or bubbly flows. On the other hand, there is an immediate need to study flow of complex fluids of industrial importance. Such cases include polymer blending processes, erosion in pipelines and process vessels and mass transfer in packed beds. In such studies we use volume averaged equations as the basis of flow models coupled with experimental validation of such predictions in an effort to develop scale invariant closure models that are needed as part of the volume averaged flow models.

  16. Space Based Multi-level Process Flow and Logistics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Qiu-Zhong; Ning Guo-Liang; Xu Wan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    In order to thoroughly promote the enterprise digital construction and meet the demand of production management, the space based multi-level process data organization model has been put forward. Firstly, according to the practical division situation of enterprise production space, the multi-level organization method of production space has been proposed. Then through analyzing the manufacturing process of the products in different space layers, the space based mu...

  17. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven as a tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing eq...

  18. Coded ultrasound for blood flow estimation using subband processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    This paper further investigates the use of coded excitation for blood flow estimation in medical ultrasound. Traditional autocorrelation estimators use narrow-band excitation signals to provide sufficient signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and velocity estimation performance. In this paper, broadband...... narrow-band pulse directly. Also, the spatial resolution of the narrow-band pulse would be too poor for brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging and additional transmissions would be required to update the B-mode image. In the described approach, there is no need for additional transmissions, because the...... excitation signal is broadband and has good spatial resolution after pulse compression. Two different codin-schemes are used in this paper, Barker codes and Golay codes. The performance of the codes for velocity estimation is compared to a conventional approach transmitting a narrow-band pulse. The study was...

  19. Parameterization of near-bed processes under collinear wave and current flows from a two-phase sheet flow model

    OpenAIRE

    Amoudry, Laurent O.; Liu, Philip L.-F

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport models require appropriate representation of near-bed processes. We aim here to explore the parameterizations of bed shear stress, bed load transport rate and near-bed sediment erosion rate under the sheet flow regime. To that end, we employ a one-dimensional two-phase sheet flow model which is able to resolve the intrawave boundary layer and sediment dynamics at a length scale on the order of the sediment grain. We have conducted 79 numerical simulations to cover a range o...

  20. REPRESENTING MARKOV CHAINS WITH TRANSITION DIAGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Kachapova

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic processes have many useful applications and are taught in several university programmes. Students often encounter difficulties in learning stochastic processes and Markov chains, in particular. In this article we describe a teaching strategy that uses transition diagrams to represent a Markov chain and to re-define properties of its states in simple terms of directed graphs. This strategy utilises the studentsâ?? intuition and makes the learning of complex concepts about Markov cha...

  1. Model-based decentralised automatic management of product flow paths in processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Araya, Gustavo Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This work introduces the model of product flow paths as a formal framework for the correct execution of product flow operations in processing plants. A product flow path is a software object responsible for controlling, monitoring and documenting the movement of products along a determined route in the plant, and represents a temporarily and spatially isolated area for the safe and correct transport of products. A formal model provides a guide for the implementation of decentralised object-or...

  2. Calculation of metallurgical phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments in the thermochemical calculation of metallurgical phase diagrams for the beginning of the century up to the present are briefly summarized. More recent examples of calculated phase equilibria in different types of binary, ternary and higher-order system are described and the advantages of such calculations over conventional phase diagram determinations are discussed. (orig.)

  3. QCD phase diagram: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanov, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the contemporary understanding of the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryo-chemical potential. The focus is on recent theoretical developments due to lattice simulations of the phase diagram.

  4. Perturbations to the Hubble diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Schucker, Thomas; ZouZou, Ilhem

    2005-01-01

    We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.

  5. A monitoring of gamma mass flow system using gamma absorption technique for mass flow of sludge on pipe processing Kapal Keruk Bali II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring of gamma mass flow system has been constructed using gamma absorption technique for mass flow of sludge on pipe processing Kapal Keruk Bali II. The system consists of gamma source Cs-137 500 mCi, scintillation detector, data acquisition system, flow sensor and a computer processing for reporting product result (author)

  6. Manufacturing process planning optimisation in reconfigurable multiple parts flow lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, N.; F. Musharavati; A.S.M. Hamouda; Ramli, A. R

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the capabilities of genetic algorithms in handling optimization of the criticalissues mentioned above for the purpose of manufacturing process planning in reconfigurable manufacturingactivities. Two modified genetic algorithms are devised and employed to provide the best approximate processplanning solution. Modifications included adapting genetic operators to the problem specific knowledge andimplementing application specific heuristics to enhance the search effi...

  7. Special Issue: Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Hessel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reaction-oriented research in flow chemistry and microreactor has been extensively focused upon in special journal issues and books. On a process level, this resembled the “drop-in” (retrofit concept with the microreactor replacing a conventional (batch reactor. Meanwhile, with the introduction of the mobile, compact, modular container technology, the focus is more on the process side, including also providing an end-to-end vision of intensified process design. Exactly this is the focus of the current special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal “Processes”. This special issue comprises three review papers, five research articles and two communications. [...

  8. Vista Data Flow System: Pipeline Processing for WFCAM and VISTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Bunclark, P. S.; Evans, D. W.; McMahon, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    The UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on Mauna Kea and the VISTA IR mosaic camera at ESO, Paranal, with respectively 4 Rockwell 2k × 2k and 16 Raytheon 2k × 2k IR arrays on 4m-class telescopes, represent an enormous leap in deep IR survey capability. However with an expected data rate of an image of the sky every 5-30s and combined nightly data-rates of typically 1 TB, automated pipeline processing and data management requirements are paramount. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. The pipelines are designed around a selectable modular scheme, driven by processing recipes for maximum flexibility. Our general philosophy is that all fundamental data products are in multi-extension FITS files with headers describing the data taking protocols in sufficient detail to trigger the appropriate pipeline processing components. All derived information, DQC, photometric and astrometric calibration and processing details are also incorporated into the FITS headers. Generated catalogues are stored in FITS binary tables. The headers provide a basis for ingest into databases for archiving, real time monitoring of survey progress and survey planning. To reduce the data storage I/O overheads and transport requirements, we intend to use, as much as possible, the lossless Rice tile compression scheme as used transparently, for example, in CFITSIO. For this type of data (32 bit integer) the algorithm typically gives a factor of 3-4 compression

  9. Comparison of Inflation Processes at the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow, HI, and the McCartys Flow Field, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.; Crumpler, Larry S.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes during flow emplacement. However, the importance of sheet flow in the development of basalt ic terrains received recognition over the last 15 years. George Walke r?s research on the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow was published posthumously in 2009. In this paper he discusses the concept of endogenous growth, or inflation, for the distal portion of this otherwise channeldominated lava flow. We used this work as a guide when visiting the 1859 flow to help us better interpret the inflation history of the McCartys flow field in NM. Both well preserved flows display similar clues about the process of inflation. The McCartys lava flow field is among the you ngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic lava flows in the continental United States. It was emplaced over slopes of inflation occurred. Although older than the 1859 flow, the McCartys is located in an arid environ ment and is among the most pristine examples of sheet flow morphologies. At the meter scale the flow surface typically forms smooth, undula ting swales that create a polygonal terrain. The literature for simil ar features includes multiple explanatory hypotheses, original breakouts from adjacent lobes, or inflation related upwarping of crust or sa gging along fractures that enable gas release. It is not clear which of these processes is responsible for polygonal terrains, and it is po ssible that one explanation is not the sole cause of this morphology between all inflated flows. Often, these smooth surfaces within an inflated sheet display lineated surfaces and occasional squeeze-ups alon g swale contacts. We interpret the lineations to preserve original fl ow direction and have begun mapping these orientations to better interpret the emplacement history. At the scale of 10s to 100s of meters t he flow comprises multiple topographic plateaus and depressions. Some depressions display level floors with surfaces as described above, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. Th e boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also typically smoo th, grooved surfaces that have been tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. The upper margin of these tilted surfaces displays lar ge cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups. The bottom boundary with smooth floored depressions typically shows embayment by younger lavas. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within prefer red regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral squeeze-outs along the pit walls that form when the rising crust exposes the still liquid core of the sheet. Our current efforts are focused on.

  10. Gas/slurry flow in coal liquefaction processes (fluid dynamics in 3-phase flow columns)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, D. H. S.; Sivasubramanian, R.; Givens, E. N.

    1981-02-01

    The need for additional data on behavior of three phase systems in large vessels was addressed. Parameters are investigated at conditions that relate directly to the projected demonstration plant operating conditions. Air/water/sand three phase flow system in both a 5 inch diameter and a 12 inch diameter column is used in this cold flow simulation program. The type of distributor used does not seem to affect the solids distribution profiles. The amount of solids retained in the column increases linearly with decreasing slurry velocity while changes in linear gas velocity does not affect the solids distribution profiles for the conditions studied. It is indicated that withdrawing solids from the bottom of the column results in a decreased amount of solids in the column and the solids concentration profile changes accordingly. It is shown that large particles were preferentially removed by virtue of their faster settling rate. The effects of settled particles and particle/particle interaction on solids accumulation were investigated. It it indicated that the presence of large particles does not influence the accumulation or distribution of fine particles. The column enclosure was completed and tested to identify the organic liquid/liquid which is to be used in the 12 inch diameter column.

  11. Process Flow Sheet Generation & Design through a Group Contribution Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc

    2006-01-01

    Denne afhandling beskriver udviklingen af et framework til opstilling og design af proces flowsheet ved hjælp af en systematisk strategi for Computer Aided Flowsheet Design (CAFD). Det udviklede framework omfatter formulering, løsning og analyse af CAFD problemer baseret på et koncept med procesgrupper som kan repræsentere en enkelt enhedsoperation eller en række enhedsoperationer på samme måde som en molekylgruppe kan repræsentere et atom eller en gruppe af atomer. Flowsheet for kemiske process...

  12. Sensitivity analysis of reacting two-phase flow in nuclear heat-based gasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Marcin Kupecki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current work investigates influence of operating parameters on chemical reactions occuring within two-phase reacting flow. This particular flow analysed, corresponds to processes in coal gasifier unit supplied in heat by a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR.Due to the fact that gasification is a complex process, in which multiphase mixture undergoes chemical reactions, it crucial to answer questions about sensitivity to parameters changes. Performed analysis was dedicated to answer question about the optimal flow parameters. Controll of flow patern, namely the swirl of coal-oxygen mixture traversing the gasifier domain, allowed creating efficiency curve, relating gas composition with non-axial component of the velocity vector.Using numerical model of the process, numbers of simulations were run in order to determine operation point yielding the highest efficiency, defined as a ratio of lower heating values of a syngas product of gasification process and coal feed into the unit.

  13. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  14. Analysis of Burning Processes in Turbulent Mixing Axial and Tangential Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Essmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that in the case of turbulent diffusion flame tongues the burning process of combined multiphase fuel is determined by flow structure and conditions for mixing various types of fuel and distributed oxidizer flows. It has been determined that the ratio of air  supplied for burning through axial and tangential channels governs a shape of the flame tongue, its size and process intensity that allows efficiently to optimize technological parameters.

  15. Predicting the Effects of Common Levels of Variability on Flow Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David STOCKTON; Khalil, Riham; Fresco, John Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The implementation of flow processing is essential to the successful application of lean manufacturing practices since it provides the infrastructure for both pull production to take place and the focussed elimination of waste. With the adoption of lean practices into a broader range of production environments there is an increasing need for flow processing to operate under a wider range of conditions particularly with respect to the sources and levels of variability that ...

  16. Generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration via stochastic flows of partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Clément

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Fleming-Viot processes were defined in 1999 by Donnelly and Kurtz using a particle model and by Bertoin and Le Gall in 2003 using stochastic flows of bridges. In both methods, the key argument used to characterize these processes is the duality between these processes and exchangeable coalescents. A larger class of coalescent processes, called distinguished coalescents, was set up recently to incorporate an immigration phenomenon in the underlying population. The purpose of this article is to define and characterize a class of probability-measure valued processes called the generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration. We consider some stochastic flows of partitions of Z_{+}, in the same spirit as Bertoin and Le Gall's flows, replacing roughly speaking, composition of bridges by coagulation of partitions. Identifying at any time a population with the integers $\\mathbb{N}:=\\{1,2,...\\}$, the formalism of partitions is effective in the past as well as in the future especially when there ar...

  17. Flow pattern and mass transfer characteristics of valve tray in absorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhamidah, Siti; Altway, Ali; Wulansari, Ayu Savitri; Khanifah, Evi Fitriyah

    2015-12-01

    The flow pattern characteristics of valve tray in absorption process which is expressed in pressure drop and the number of equivalent tank in series (N) has an important role to know the efficiency and performance of a process. This study has been done in the absorption column by using water and air as liquid and gas phase, respectively. To observe pressure drop and flow pattern in the column, flow rate of liquid and air has been variated. Flow pattern has been determined by using pulse method and using NaCl as tracer. The experiment results show that the column pressure drop is mainly influenced by the liquid height on the tray. When the water flow rate is high, liquid height on the tray is higher so that the column pressure drops increases. Flow pattern characteristic of fluid on valve tray is affected by water and air flowrates. For high water flow rate, the residence time distribution (RTD) curve is sharper and the number of N is greater and the flow pattern tends to a plug flow. However, the number of N decreases when the air flowrate increases. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficient (kLa') is shown by the following empirical relationship kLa' = 2,607QL0,202Qv0,456.

  18. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  19. Experimental study of air flow rate effects on humidification parameters with preheating and dehumidification process changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad T. Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study experimentally the effect of air flow rate on humidification process parameters. Experimental data are obtained from air conditioning study unit T110D. Results obtained from experimental test, calculations and psychometrics software are discussed. The effect of air flow rate on steam humidification process parameters as a part of air-conditioning processes can be explain in results obtained. Results of the steam humidification process with and without preheating with 5A and 7.5A shows decreasing in dry bulb temperature, humidity ratio, and heat add to moist air with increasing air flow rate, but humidification load, and total energy of moist air increase with increasing air flow rate in the testing tunnel. The steam humidification process with dehumidifying coil shows increase in dry bulb temperature, humidity ratio, humidification load, and heat add to moist air with increasing air flow rate in the testing tunnel, but the total energy decrease as air flow rate increase. These results obtained can be beneficial for controlling comfort air-conditioning processes in buildings.

  20. Genealogy of flows of continuous-state branching processes via flows of partitions and the Eve property

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We encode the genealogy of a continuous-state branching process associated with a branching mechanism $\\varPsi$ – or $\\varPsi\\mbox{-CSBP}$ in short – using a stochastic flow of partitions. This encoding holds for all branching mechanisms and appears as a very tractable object to deal with asymptotic behaviours and convergences. In particular we study the so-called Eve property – the existence of an ancestor from which the entire population descends asymptotically – and give a necessary and su...

  1. On the application of kinematic models to simulate the diffusive processes of debris flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows generally propagate along steep mountain torrents with dynamics primarily governed by gravitational and frictional forces. Thus, debris flows modelling can be successfully performed through the application of kinematic models, which consider only the effects of slope and friction and neglect the remaining terms of the momentum equation. However, the diffusion processes that can be observed in the field, such as the spreading of the debris flow wave as it flows downstream, can not be theoretically predicted by kinematic models, since diffusion is a second-order process neglected in the kinematic approximation. In this paper, this issue is discussed and an application for both a generalized diffusion wave model and a kinematic model is proposed of a debris flow which occurred in an Italian instrumented torrent to identify, in a real case scenario, the effective value of the neglected terms in the kinematic approximation.

  2. Recent results in Ring Diagram analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rabello-Soares, M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and developed quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2 to 30 degrees) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and, for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI (on board SOHO), GONG+ network and more recently HMI (on SDO), many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity; and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progre...

  3. Quantum Fisher information flow and non-Markovian processes of open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We establish an information-theoretic approach for quantitatively characterizing the non-Markovianity of open quantum processes. Here, the quantum Fisher information (QFI) flow provides a measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly analytic solution shows that for each fixed time the QFI flow is decomposed into additive subflows according to different dissipative channels.

  4. Laminar flow and convective transport processes scaling principles and asymptotic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Laminar Flow and Convective Transport Processes: Scaling Principles and Asymptotic Analysis presents analytic methods for the solution of fluid mechanics and convective transport processes, all in the laminar flow regime. This book brings together the results of almost 30 years of research on the use of nondimensionalization, scaling principles, and asymptotic analysis into a comprehensive form suitable for presentation in a core graduate-level course on fluid mechanics and the convective transport of heat. A considerable amount of material on viscous-dominated flows is covered.A unique feat

  5. Farthest-Polygon Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Otfried; Glisse, Marc; Gudmundsson, Joachim; Hornus, Samuel; Lazard, Sylvain; Lee, Mira; Na, Hyeon-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Given a family of k disjoint connected polygonal sites in general position and of total complexity n, we consider the farthest-site Voronoi diagram of these sites, where the distance to a site is the distance to a closest point on it. We show that the complexity of this diagram is O(n), and give an O(n log^3 n) time algorithm to compute it. We also prove a number of structural properties of this diagram. In particular, a Voronoi region may consist of k-1 connected components, but if one component is bounded, then it is equal to the entire region.

  6. Scattering Equations and Feynman Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2015-01-01

    We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in $\\phi^3$-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with $\\phi^p$ interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order $p$. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.

  7. Drawing Graphs in Euler Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Mutton, Paul; Rodgers, Peter; Flower, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We describe a method for drawing graph-enhanced Euler diagrams using a three stage method. The first stage is to lay out the underlying Euler diagram using a multicriteria optimizing system. The second stage is to find suitable locations for nodes in the zones of the Euler diagram using a force based method. The third stage is to minimize edge crossings and total edge length by swapping the location of nodes that are in the same zone with a multicriteria hill climbing method. We show a workin...

  8. Medição do inventário em processo e tempo de atravessamento em manufatura por modelagem em redes de Petri e diagrama de resultados / Measurement of work-in-process and manufacturing leadtime by Petri nets modeling and throughput diagram

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tiago, Facchin; Miguel Afonso, Sellitto.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um método para a medição de inventário em processo e tempo de atravessamento em um sistema de manufatura. O método consiste em modelar a manufatura por redes de Petri, simular o modelo em computador, alimentando-o com a situação de carga inicial dos processos e com um plano de [...] produção, obtendo os momentos simulados de conclusão de cada ordem do plano. Após este procedimento, com o uso do diagrama de resultados e da fórmula do funil, calcula-se o valor médio simulado de inventário em processo que o plano produzirá na manufatura. Ao fim, faz-se uma discussão na qual explora-se como os resultados do método podem ser úteis em decisões de gestão, envolvendo o inventário admitido, pulmões e restrições da manufatura. Abstract in english This paper presents a method to measure work-in-process and leadtime in a manufacturing system. The method consists of modeling manufacturing by Petri nets, providing as input for the model the initial load of the process and a production plan, running it and obtaining from the simulation the moment [...] s of completion of the orders. Using the throughput diagram and the funnel formula, we then calculate the mean simulated value of the work-in-process that the plan will produce in the manufacturing system. Finally, we discuss how the results can be used to underpin management decisions on issues such as actual work-in-process, buffers and manufacturing constraints.

  9. Medição do inventário em processo e tempo de atravessamento em manufatura por modelagem em redes de Petri e diagrama de resultados Measurement of work-in-process and manufacturing leadtime by Petri nets modeling and throughput diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Facchin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um método para a medição de inventário em processo e tempo de atravessamento em um sistema de manufatura. O método consiste em modelar a manufatura por redes de Petri, simular o modelo em computador, alimentando-o com a situação de carga inicial dos processos e com um plano de produção, obtendo os momentos simulados de conclusão de cada ordem do plano. Após este procedimento, com o uso do diagrama de resultados e da fórmula do funil, calcula-se o valor médio simulado de inventário em processo que o plano produzirá na manufatura. Ao fim, faz-se uma discussão na qual explora-se como os resultados do método podem ser úteis em decisões de gestão, envolvendo o inventário admitido, pulmões e restrições da manufatura.This paper presents a method to measure work-in-process and leadtime in a manufacturing system. The method consists of modeling manufacturing by Petri nets, providing as input for the model the initial load of the process and a production plan, running it and obtaining from the simulation the moments of completion of the orders. Using the throughput diagram and the funnel formula, we then calculate the mean simulated value of the work-in-process that the plan will produce in the manufacturing system. Finally, we discuss how the results can be used to underpin management decisions on issues such as actual work-in-process, buffers and manufacturing constraints.

  10. The diagram development for Computer Added Control and Monitoring system of drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Mikhalev, R. S.; Anisimov, A. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper is concerned with the first stage of the extensive research aimed at developing design-automation system and well drilling process control. The proposed system is going to have some advantages over modern analogues, such as economic analysis at all levels, active engineering staff feedback, precedent-related principle for recommendations, etc. It will essentially reduce the risk of human errors and also optimize the well construction process from design to commissioning. The paper considers the results of the first design stage in a form of flow diagrams.

  11. Vadose zone process that control landslide initiation and debris flow propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.

    2015-04-01

    Advances in the areas of geotechnical engineering, hydrology, mineralogy, geomorphology, geology, and biology have individually advanced our understanding of factors affecting slope stability; however, the interactions among these processes and attributes as they affect the initiation and propagation of landslides and debris flows are not well understood. Here the importance of interactive vadose zone processes is emphasized related to the mechanisms, initiation, mode, and timing of rainfall-initiated landslides that are triggered by positive pore water accretion, loss of soil suction and increase in overburden weight, and long-term cumulative rain water infiltration. Both large- and small-scale preferential flow pathways can both contribute to and mitigate instability, by respectively concentrating and dispersing subsurface flow. These mechanisms are influenced by soil structure, lithology, landforms, and biota. Conditions conducive to landslide initiation by infiltration versus exfiltration are discussed relative to bedrock structure and joints. The effects of rhizosphere processes on slope stability are examined, including root reinforcement of soil mantles, evapotranspiration, and how root structures affect preferential flow paths. At a larger scale, the nexus between hillslope landslides and in-channel debris flows is examined with emphasis on understanding the timing of debris flows relative to chronic and episodic infilling processes, as well as the episodic nature of large rainfall and related stormflow generation in headwater streams. The hydrogeomorphic processes and conditions that determine whether or not landslides immediately mobilize into debris flows is important for predicting the timing and extent of devastating debris flow runout in steep terrain. Given the spatial footprint of individual landslides, it is necessary to assess vadose zone processes at appropriate scales to ascertain impacts on mass wasting phenomena. Articulating the appropriate level of detail of small-scale vadose zone processes into landslide models is a particular challenge. As such, understanding flow pathways in regoliths susceptible to mass movement is critical, including distinguishing between conditions conducive to vertical recharge of water through relatively homogeneous soil mantles and conditions where preferential flow dominates - either by rapid infiltration and lateral flow through interconnected preferential flow networks or via exfiltration through bedrock fractures. These different hydrologic scenarios have major implications for the occurrence, timing, and mode of slope failures.

  12. Automating First-Principles Phase Diagram Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    De van Walle, A

    2002-01-01

    Devising a computational tool that assesses the thermodynamic stability of materials is among the most important steps required to build a ``virtual laboratory'', where materials could be designed from first-principles without relying on experimental input. Although the formalism that allows the calculation of solid state phase diagrams from first principles is well established, its practical implementation remains a tedious process. The development of a fully automated algorithm to perform such calculations serves two purposes. First, it will make this powerful tool available to large number of researchers. Second, it frees the calculation process from arbitrary parameters, guaranteeing that the results obtained are truly derived from the underlying first-principles calculations. The proposed algorithm formalizes the most difficult step of phase diagram calculations, namely the determination of the ``cluster expansion'', which is a compact representation of the configurational dependence of the alloy's energ...

  13. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, P.

    2015-01-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry to emulate some of these important conditions found in the real moulding process. The sand flow is simulated with the DEM and compared with corresponding video footages from the interior of the chamber during the moulding process. The effect of the rolling resistance and the static friction coefficient is analysed and discussed in relation to the experimental findings.

  14. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovad, E.; Larsen, P.; Walther, J. H.; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry to emulate some of these important conditions found in the real moulding process. The sand flow is simulated with the DEM and compared with corresponding video footages from the interior of the chamber during the moulding process. The effect of the rolling resistance and the static friction coefficient is analysed and discussed in relation to the experimental findings.

  15. Gaussian Process Regression Approach for modeling subsurface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, G.; Zhang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Inverse modeling involves repeated evaluations of the forward simulation, which can be computationally prohibitive for large numerical models. To reduce the overall computational burden of these simulations, we study the use of Gaussian process (GP) regression models as numerical surrogates. Similar to most reduced order models (ROMs), GP regression models involve using solutions at different sample points within the parameter space to construct an approximate solution at any point within the parameter space. However, since GP regression models are derived from a statistical Bayesian framework, they provide valuable statistical insights that can be incorporated into parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification algorithms. More importantly, we show that the resulting ROMs perform better than look-up tables, particularly when the number of sample points is small. We also show how these sample points can be optimally chosen to minimize computational efforts without user intervention. The GP regression models are currently implemented as part of a family of ROMs within the inverse modeling framework of iTOUGH2. We will demonstrate how GP regression models can be used within the iTOUGH2 framework to improve performance of uncertainty quantification.

  16. Comparative Study of Forward and Backward Flow Forming Process using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Bhatt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow forming is a well known technique to produce cartridge case, rocket nose cones, rocket launcher casing etc. for defense industry. As the flow forming is the non linear plastic deformation process, it is required to understand the forces encountered and the strain distributions during the process for the efficient and successful product manufacturing. As it is a non linear plastic deformation process, still the force and strain distribution prediction is quite difficult. So that an attempt is made to predict the forces, stress, strain distributions in the present work, analysis has been carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit for forward and backward strategies. The work material has been taken as AA6063 due to its lighter weight, higher formability, ease of availability and versatile applications in aerospace and defense industry. The forces (axial, radial and circumferential acting during the process have been obtained and reported along with the strain distribution in the length and thickness. It has been found that the axial and radial forces are higher in forward flow forming. The circumferential force is found higher in backward flow forming. Moreover plastic strain distribution along the thickness is found higher in forward flow forming and along length it is found higher in backward flow forming. The study will help to identify suitable strategy before actual production for different material and process conditions.

  17. Simulación de eventos discretos y líneas de balance, aplicadas al mejoramiento del proceso constructivo de la cimentación de un edificio / Discrete Event Simulation and Line of Balance Diagram, Applied to the Improvement of the Foundation Construction Process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Gómez Cabrera; Natalia, Quintana Pulido; Jorge, Orlando Ávila Díaz.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este trabajo fue establecer propuestas de mejoramiento al proceso de planeación de tiempos y costos en la etapa de cimentación de un edificio, a partir de la integración de herramientas como simulación de eventos discretos, programación con líneas de balance y metodologías Building Info [...] rmation Modeling - BIM. A partir de mediciones en campo se levantó información para la elaboración de un modelo de simulación de eventos discretos que imitara el proceso constructivo real. Se propusieron y modelaron alternativas de mejora, a partir de los principios de la filosofía Lean Construction y la programación de líneas de balance encontrando reducciones en tiempo y costo. También se realizó la animación virtual de las alternativas a partir de metodologías BIM. Se concluye que la integración de las herramientas utilizadas es de gran utilidad en la planeación y toma de decisiones en un proyecto civil. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to propose a new method to enhance the time- and cost-planning process for the construction of building foundations via integration of discrete-event simulation, line-of-balance diagram, and Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools. In order to calibrate a discrete-ev [...] ent simulation model, field measurements of workflow, resource consumption, activity duration, and restrictions were obtained from real construction projects. Based on Lean Construction methods and line-of-balance diagrams, which allow reduction in time and cost, a number of planning alternatives were proposed. In addition, virtual animation of such alternatives was performed through BIM methodologies. It is concluded that planning tool integration is a robust technique for planning and decision-making in civil engineering projects.

  18. Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rosengrant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

  19. ADDiff: Semantic Differencing for Activity Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    MAOZ, Shahar; Ringert, Jan Oliver; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Activity diagrams (ADs) have recently become widely used in the modeling of workflows, business processes, and web-services, where they serve various purposes, from documentation, requirement definitions, and test case specifications, to simulation and code generation. As models, programs, and systems evolve over time, understanding changes and their impact is an important challenge, which has attracted much research efforts in recent years. In this paper we present addiff, a semantic differe...

  20. Numerical determination of the forming limit diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pepelnjak; K. Kuzman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: At present the industrial practice demands a reliable determination of forming limits which assuresthe prediction of properly selecting the forming process in a digital environment. Therefore, technological limitsdefined with the forming limit diagrams (FLDs) have to be known. The experimental evaluation of FLDs forsheet metal is time consuming and demands expensive equipment. The experimental work could be omitted bypredicting the FLD with numerical simulations.Design/methodology/ap...

  1. Interpreter Chart Diagram N-S

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Gaul de Jorge, Marcia; Aballay, Patricia; Zamora, Rodrigo Gabriel; Soria, Marcelo A.

    2009-01-01

    The team of researchers develops and implements technological resources focused on a methodological strategy that supports its use. Our investigation deals with the analysis beginner students’ competences attending the Analisis de Sistema career at the UNSa, in order to solve different computing problems such as the analysis of the design if the diagram N-S and the desktop test. This work describes the process undertaken by the educational software design called Diagramar. Its development and...

  2. Improving Web Database Access Using Decision Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Popel, Denis V.; Al-Hakeem, Nawar

    2002-01-01

    In some areas of management and commerce, especially in Electronic commerce (E-commerce), that are accelerated by advances in Web technologies, it is essential to support the decision making process using formal methods. Among the problems of E-commerce applications: reducing the time of data access so that huge databases can be searched quickly; decreasing the cost of database design ... etc. We present the application of Decision Diagrams design using Information Theory approach to improve ...

  3. Constructing set-valued fundamental diagrams from jamiton solutions in second order traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Benjamin; Kasimov, Aslan R; Rosales, Rodolfo Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental diagrams of vehicular traffic flow are generally multi-valued in the congested flow regime. We show that such set-valued fundamental diagrams can be constructed systematically from simple second order macroscopic traffic models, such as the classical Payne-Whitham model or the inhomogeneous Aw-Rascle-Zhang model. These second order models possess nonlinear traveling wave solutions, called jamitons, and the multi-valued parts in the fundamental diagram correspond precisely to jamiton-dominated solutions. This study shows that transitions from function-valued to set-valued parts in a fundamental diagram arise naturally as intrinsic properties of well-known second order models.

  4. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Chia Swee [High Impact Research, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  5. Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Jessica M H Grund

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis.   In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups. This...... paper argues that, even though the diagrams are not present in the papers, they still play a role in the formulation of the proofs. It is shown that they play a role in concept formation as well as representations of proofs. In addition we note that `visualizaton' is used in different ways. In the first...... sense visualization denotes our inner mental pictures, which enables us to see that a certain fact holds, whereas in the other sense, `visualization' denotes a diagram or representation of something....

  6. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  7. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the traffic states by employing fuzzy logic and the shock wave theory. The model is extended to describe also the propagation of congestion in the motorway sections with ramps by considering the capacity reduction caused by the interaction between the traffic flow of the mainstream and the ramps. This research represents the potential of the macroscopic traffic flow models for the application to online traffic control systems by applying the dynamic flow-density relation. The new modelling approach alleviates a critical problem, i.e. the parameter calibration problem, of existing traffic flow models. (orig.)

  8. A Simulation of Friction-Stir Processing for Temperature and Material Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Carter; W?glowski, Marek Stanis?aw; Dymek, Stanis?aw

    2015-04-01

    Utilizing a tool without a pin, cast AlSi9Mg aluminum alloy was modified by friction-stir processing. Since the tool design specifically targets the microstructure within the surface layers, the process is more appropriately termed friction-stir surfacing. A coupled numerical model of this special friction-stir process was developed to visualize the material flow patterns and temperature distribution. As the tool transports surface material from the leading edge toward the retreating side of the tool, the material follows the scroll of the tool shoulder toward the tool center with each tool rotation. At or near the tool center, the material flows into the workpiece thickness, forming the vortex of a process zone. Depending on the processing conditions, i.e., tool velocity and rotation speed, an upward material flow also develops within the process zone. Due to the flow of cooler, unprocessed material into the process zone, the temperature profile on the tool/workpiece interface is skewed toward the advancing side and leading edge with higher processing temperatures occurring in these locations. However, the process parameters influence the shape and magnitude of the temperature distribution on this surface.

  9. Development of the Log-in Process and the Operation Process for the VHTR-SI Process Dynamic Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VHTR-SI process is a hydrogen production technique by using Sulfur and Iodine. The SI process for a hydrogen production uses a high temperature (about 950 .deg. C) of the He gas which is a cooling material for an energy sources. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Dynamic Simulation Code (KAERI DySCo) is an integration application software that simulates the dynamic behavior of the VHTR-SI process. A dynamic modeling is used to express and model the behavior of the software system over time. The dynamic modeling deals with the control flow of system, the interaction of objects and the order of actions in view of a time and transition by using a sequence diagram and a state transition diagram. In this paper, we present an user log-in process and an operation process for the KAERI DySCo by using a sequence diagram and a state transition diagram

  10. Time exceptions in sequence diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen,Oddleif; Runde, Ragnhild Kobro; Haugen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    UML sequence diagrams partially describe a system. We show how the description may be augmented with exceptions triggered by the violation of timing constraints and compare our approach to those of the UML 2.1 simple time model, the UML Testing Profile and the UML profile for Schedulability, Performance and Time. We give a formal definition of time exceptions in sequence diagrams and show that the concepts are compositional. An ATM example is used to explain and motivate the concepts.

  11. Phase diagrams of magnetic nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical expressions for the total magnetic energy of two characteristic internal configurations of nanometric tubes are calculated. A magnetic phase diagram with respect to the aspect ratio of the tubes is obtained which allows a discussion about the possibility of getting ensembles of nanotubes with low coercive fields. A comparison with recently reported coercive fields of three different cobalt nanotube arrays agrees well with the phase diagram derived here

  12. Sheaf cohomology in twistor diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Huggett, S. A.; Penrose, Roger; Roger Penrose

    1980-01-01

    One of the earlier achievements of twistor theory was the description of free zero rest mass fields on complexified Minkowski space in terms of holomorphic functions on twistor space. Interactions between these fields are given by certain spacetime integrals (represented by Feynmann diagrams), and some of these integrals have been translated into contour integrals in products of twistor spaces (represented by twistor diagrams). The principal advantage of the twistor diag...

  13. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...

  14. K-Means Clustering Method to Classify Freeway Traffic Flow Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ali Silgu; Hilmi Berk Çelikoğlu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, performances of multivariate clustering methods in specifying flow pattern variations reconstructed by a macroscopic flow model are sought. In order to remove the noise in and the wide scatter of traffic data, raw flow measures are filtered prior to modeling process. Traffic flow is simulated by the cell transmission model adopting a two phase fundamental diagram. Flow dynamics specific to the selected freeway test stretch are used to determine prevailing traffic conditions. Th...

  15. Tense and aspect in word problems about motion: diagram, gesture, and the felt experience of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Zolkower, Betina

    2015-09-01

    Word problems about motion contain various conjugated verb forms. As students and teachers grapple with such word problems, they jointly operationalize diagrams, gestures, and language. Drawing on findings from a 3-year research project examining the social semiotics of classroom interaction, we show how teachers and students use gesture and diagram to make sense of complex verb forms in such word problems. We focus on the grammatical category of "aspect" for how it broadens the concept of verb tense. Aspect conveys duration and completion or frequency of an event. The aspect of a verb defines its temporal flow (or lack thereof) and the location of a vantage point for making sense of this durational process.

  16. Total Quality Management (TQM): Training Module on "Focus on Processes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David

    This module for a 1-semester Total Quality Management (TQM) course for high school or community college students contains a brief overview of the definition of processes, a section on process flow diagrams, and a section on process management as well as a description of process variation. Examples are used throughout the module to make processes…

  17. Overview of the Dissertation Process within the Framework of Flow Theory: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Esra; Oztekin, Ozge; Isci, Sabiha; Danisman, Sahin; Uslu, Fatma; Karadag, Engin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the flow of doctoral students who are also research assistants and in the dissertation process. The study was designed using the case study method. The case undertaken in the study was the dissertation process. Eleven participants were selected into the study using maximum variation sampling. Face-to-face,…

  18. Numerical modelling of the nonequilibrium expansion process of argon plasma flow through a nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-temperature thermal and chemical nonequilibrium model is developed and applied to investigate the expansion processes of an argon plasma flow through a Laval nozzle. This model describes in a self-consistent manner the gas flow and heat transfer, the coupling of the electric energy deposited into the plasma, and the reaction kinetics including the contribution of excited species. It is found that the plasma is far from thermodynamic equilibrium in the entire argon plasma flow expansion process through a nozzle. Significant temperature discrepancies between electrons and heavy species are found in the cooler outer region. The dominant chemical kinetic processes in different plasma gas expansion regions are presented and discussed. It is noted that although the number density of excited argon atoms (Ar*) is much lower than that of other species in the argon plasma, Ar* play important roles in the ionization and recombination processes, and in arc attachment to the anode. (paper)

  19. Numerical modelling of the nonequilibrium expansion process of argon plasma flow through a nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fu-Zhi; Wang, Hai-Xing; Murphy, A. B.; Sun, Wei-Ping; Liu, Yu

    2013-12-01

    A two-temperature thermal and chemical nonequilibrium model is developed and applied to investigate the expansion processes of an argon plasma flow through a Laval nozzle. This model describes in a self-consistent manner the gas flow and heat transfer, the coupling of the electric energy deposited into the plasma, and the reaction kinetics including the contribution of excited species. It is found that the plasma is far from thermodynamic equilibrium in the entire argon plasma flow expansion process through a nozzle. Significant temperature discrepancies between electrons and heavy species are found in the cooler outer region. The dominant chemical kinetic processes in different plasma gas expansion regions are presented and discussed. It is noted that although the number density of excited argon atoms (Ar*) is much lower than that of other species in the argon plasma, Ar* play important roles in the ionization and recombination processes, and in arc attachment to the anode.

  20. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  1. Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic fl...

  2. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  3. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  4. Micro-particle image velocimetry measurement of blood flow: validation and analysis of data pre-processing and processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of this paper is to investigate the application of a pre-processing method previously validated on glycerol to blood flows in microchannels and to compare the accuracy of results obtained when applied to a non-homogeneous fluid such as blood with results from previously applied processing methods for blood data. Comparisons of common processing methods are desired for a clear measure of accuracy in order to make recommendations for various flows. It is hypothesized that increasing the correlation window overlap improves the profile prediction. The amount of correlation window overlap and window shape in the processing of data have a significant effect on the results. Image pre-processing is explored to improve the correlation using the ‘image overlapping’ which is extended to the case of blood and the blood-specific pre-processing ‘base-clipping’ or ‘thresholding’ technique currently applied to blood. Both pre-processing methods are tested with multiple processing methods for two channel geometries: a straight rectangular channel and a Y-channel resulting in a controlled shear flow. The resulting profiles and calculations demonstrate that ‘image-overlapping’ is found to achieve a profile closer to the predicted theoretical profile than current blood pre-processing methods when both are applied to the same set of data and both are superior to conventional cross-correlation on its own. In all cases, pre-processing decreases the smoothness of the predicted profile. The use of ‘image-overlapping’ is shown to have greater accuracy when calculating the shear rate at the wall of the channel as well. (paper)

  5. The time course of information extraction from instructional diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina; Schüler, Anne

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated which information is extracted from a brief glance at an instructional diagram to assess its possible contribution for learning with text and diagrams. An experimental paradigm from scene perception research was used to study diagrams. University students (N = 20) saw pictures showing a scene or instructional diagrams for four different presentation times (50 msec. vs 250 msec. vs 1,000 msec. vs 3,000 msec.). Following presentation of a picture or diagram, respectively, participants were asked to verify a statement about its gist, details, and the functioning (for diagrams only). Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to analyze verification accuracy for statements about gist, details, and the functioning as well as the eye movements (i.e., fixation durations and saccade amplitudes) during picture inspection. In both scenes and instructional diagrams, gist but not details were accurately identified from a first glance at the picture (i.e., at 50 msec. and 250 msec.). In contrast, verification accuracy for gist and details increased at a slower rate in instructional diagrams than in scene pictures over presentation times. Moreover, the characteristic function of increasing fixation durations with increasing inspection time was found in scenes, but not in instructional diagrams. Taken together, results suggest that both types of illustrations are processed differently at longer inspection times; however, patterns of early information extraction are similar, namely that the gist but far less information about details is extracted. Results imply people are able to extract an instructional diagram's global spatial structure from a first glance, which may be helpful to learning from text. PMID:23409583

  6. Application of radioisotope techniques to control flow process during artificial coastal aquifer recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques was applied for studying the flow and transport processes in a coastal confined aquifer during an artificial recharge experiment to check the feasibility of controlling salt water intrusion by a hydrodynamic barrier. As no other water source is available, artificial recharge is done using treated wastewaters. Flow and effective velocity, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, diffusivity and effective porosity have been determined by means of I-131 radioisotope in single- and multi-well tests. (author)

  7. Coupled deformation and flow processes of partially saturated soil : experiments, model validation and numerical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Okan

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of the presented thesis lies on realistic simulations of initial-boundary-value problems (IBVP) in the field of geomechanics using a partially saturated soil. To reach this goal, the deformation and flow behaviour of the partially saturated soil has been intensively analysed based on the topics of the experimental investigation, the constitutive modelling, the parameter identification and model validation. Due to the coupled deformation and flow process of partially satura...

  8. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  9. Numerical Analysis on Flow and Solute Transmission during Heap Leaching Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J. Z.; A. X. Wu; L. W. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on fluid flow and rock skeleton elastic deformation during heap leaching process, a deformation-flow coupling model is developed. Regarding a leaching column with 1?m height, solution concentration 1 unit, and the leaching time being 10 days, numerical simulations and indoors experiment are conducted, respectively. Numerical results indicate that volumetric strain and concentration of solvent decrease with bed’s depth increasing; while the concentration of dissolved mineral increases fi...

  10. A Parallel Processing Approach to Transition Prediction for Laminar Flow Control System Design

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. Ford; Poll, D. I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of transport aircraft can be considerably improved if the process by which the wing boundary layer becomes turbulent can be controlled and extensive areas of laminar flow maintained. In order to design laminar flow control systems, it is necessary to be able to predict the movement of the transition location in response to changes in control variables, e.g., surface suction. At present, the technique which is available to industry requires excessively long computational time –...

  11. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs

  12. Flow regime analyses during the filling stage in powder metallurgy processes: experimental study and numerical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Cante Terán, Juan Carlos; Riera Colom, María Dolores; Oliver Olivella, Xavier; Prado Pozuelo, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of powder flow during the die filling stage in powder metallurgy cold compaction processes are presented. An experimental setting consisting of a horizontal pneumatically activated shoe, a vertical die and high-speed video system has been designed. The experiments show the existence of three flow regimes: continuous, transitory and discrete, which are identified in terms of the particle size, the morphology and the speed of the shoe. ...

  13. POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF A CONTINUOUS PROCESS PLANT: (A CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    SMITA ACHARYA, PRAGATI GUPTA, M.A.MUJAWAR

    2013-01-01

    For the continuous evaluation of the performance of the power system, power flow solutions are essential for exhibiting suitable control actions in case of requirement. This case study presents analysis of the electrical power system of continuous process plant having its own captive generation along with the provision of the Grid connectivity. The different power system elements are modeled as per the manufacturer’s data sheet. To evaluate the steady state performance, power flow simulations...

  14. A numerical investigation of the resin flow front tracking applied to the RTM process

    OpenAIRE

    Jeferson Avila Souza; Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha; Sandro Campos Amico; José Viriato Coelho Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is largely used for the manufacturing of high-quality composite components and the key stage during processing is the resin infiltration. The complete understanding of this phenomenon is of utmost importance for efficient mold construction and the fast production of high quality components. This paper investigates the resin flow phenomenon within the mold. A computational application was developed to track the resin flow-front position, which uses a finite volume ...

  15. Dynamic relaxation processes in compressible multiphase flows. Application to evaporation phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Le Métayer O.; Massoni J.; Saurel R.

    2013-01-01

    Phase changes and heat exchanges are examples of physical processes appearing in many industrial applications involving multiphase compressible flows. Their knowledge is of fundamental importance to reproduce correctly the resulting effects in simulation tools. A fine description of the flow topology is thus required to obtain the interfacial area between phases. This one is responsible for the dynamics and the kinetics of heat and mass transfer when evaporation or condensation occurs. U...

  16. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in

  17. Suppression of flow pulsation activity by relaxation process of additive effect on viscous media transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamov, S.; Dedeyev, P.; Meucci, L.; Shenderova, I.; Manastirniy, A.; Usenko, M.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the processes occurring together with the turbulent transfer of impulse in mixture of hydrocarbon fluid and polymer solutions (anti-turbulent additives). The study evaluates complex shear flows by popular theoretical and practical methods. Understanding of hydrodynamic and dissipative effects of laminar-turbulent transition tightening and turbulence suppression is provided. The peculiarities of "thin" flow structure in pipeline zones with complex shape walls are evaluated. Recommendations to forecast the local flow parameters, calculation of hydraulic resistance are given.

  18. Preliminary flashing multiphase flow analysis with application to letdown valves in coal-conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L. J.; Khan, A. A.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's technical support to large coal liquefaction projects, attempts have been made to (1) develop the methodology for characterizing and predicting multicomponent, multiphase, non-Newtonian flow behavior within letdown valves and devices, and (2) analyze the fluid flow in the entire letdown region of the process. An engineering model that can be used in the analysis of multicomponent, multiphase, flashing, flowing systems has been developed. A preliminary version of a user-oriented computer code for this model has been developed and is fully described.

  19. Transient hydraulic characteristic of nuclear reactor coolant pump in variable flow transient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study on the transient hydraulic characteristics and internal flow mechanism of the nuclear reactor coolant pump in the transient process from design operation conditions to off-design conditions, the variable flow transient characteristics of centrifugal pump impeller passageway were simulated by using CFX software. The results show that during the variable flow transition, the distribution of pressure pulsation of the nuclear reactor coolant pump along the circumference direction is non- uniform. The pressure pulsation trends to rise gradually to reach the maximum value and then fall, basically following a sine-shape changing law. The times of transient pressure fluctuation change are equal to the times of rotor-stator interference between the vane and the guide vane. The closer monitoring point to the intersection surface between the vane and the guide blade is, the greater the pressure fluctuation is. Because of the attack angle, the speed of the impeller passageway first falls and then rises. The guide vane not only transfers the kinetic energy to pressure energy, but also effectively reduces the pressure pulsation amplitude. During the transition to small flow, flow reducing causes the secondary backflow to occur near the outlet of impeller and in turn leads the amplitude of flow velocity variation in the flow channel of impeller to increase with flow decrease. (authors)

  20. Towards an optimized flow-sheet for a SANEX demonstration process using centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340 D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Chalmers University of Technology, Nuclear Chemistry, Deparment of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gothenburg (Sweden); Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340 D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Valrho (CEA), DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The design of an efficient process flow-sheet requires accurate extraction data for the experimental set-up used. Often this data is provided as equilibrium data. Due to the small hold-up volume compared to the flow rate in centrifugal contactors the time for extraction is often too short to reach the equilibrium D-ratios. In this work single stage kinetics experiments have been carried out to investigate the D-ratio dependence of the flow rate and also to compare with equilibrium batch experiments for CyMe{sub 4}- BTBP. The first centrifuge experiment was run with spiked solutions while in the second a genuine actinide/lanthanide fraction from a TODGA process was used. Three different flow rates were tested with each set-up. The results show that even with low flow rates, around 8% of the equilibrium D-ratio (Am) was reached for the extraction in the spiked test and around 16% in the hot test (the difference is due to the size of the centrifuges). The general conclusion is that the development of a process flow sheet needs investigation of the kinetic behaviour in the actual equipment used. (authors)

  1. Towards an optimized flow-sheet for a SANEX demonstration process using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an efficient process flow-sheet requires accurate extraction data for the experimental set-up used. Often this data is provided as equilibrium data. Due to the small hold-up volume compared to the flow rate in centrifugal contactors the time for extraction is often too short to reach the equilibrium D-ratios. In this work single stage kinetics experiments have been carried out to investigate the D-ratio dependence of the flow rate and also to compare with equilibrium batch experiments for CyMe4- BTBP. The first centrifuge experiment was run with spiked solutions while in the second a genuine actinide/lanthanide fraction from a TODGA process was used. Three different flow rates were tested with each set-up. The results show that even with low flow rates, around 8% of the equilibrium D-ratio (Am) was reached for the extraction in the spiked test and around 16% in the hot test (the difference is due to the size of the centrifuges). The general conclusion is that the development of a process flow sheet needs investigation of the kinetic behaviour in the actual equipment used. (authors)

  2. Study on the air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process has a great effect on the polymer drawing, the filament diameter and orientation. A numerical simulation of the process is carried out, and the results are compared with the experimental data, showing good accuracy of the numerical prediction. This research lays an important foundation for the optimal design of the drawing conduit in the spunbonding process.

  3. Initiation processes for run-off generated debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Dong, X. J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, G. H.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Hicher, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of huge debris flows greatly increased in the epicenter area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Field investigation revealed that runoff during rainstorm played a major role in generating debris flows on the loose deposits, left by coseismic debris avalanches. However, the mechanisms of these runoff-generated debris flows are not well understood due to the complexity of the initiation processes. To better understand the initiation mechanisms, we simulated and monitored the initiation process in laboratory flume test, with the help of a 3D laser scanner. We found that run-off incision caused an accumulation of material down slope. This failed as shallow slides when saturated, transforming the process into debris in a second stage. After this initial phase, the debris flow volume increased rapidly by a chain of subsequent cascading processes starting with collapses of the side walls, damming and breaching, leading to a rapid widening of the erosion channel. In terms of erosion amount, the subsequent mechanisms were much more important than the initial one. The damming and breaching were found to be the main reasons for the huge magnitude of the debris flows in the post-earthquake area. It was also found that the tested material was susceptible to excess pore pressure and liquefaction in undrained triaxial, which may be a reason for the fluidization in the flume tests.

  4. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  5. Perfect orderings on Bratteli diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bezuglyi, Sergey; Yassawi, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Given a Bratteli diagram B, we study the set O(B) of all possible orderings w on a Bratteli diagram B and its subset P(B) consisting of `perfect' orderings that produce Bratteli-Vershik dynamical systems (Vershik maps). We give necessary and sufficient conditions for w to be perfect. On the other hand, a wide class of non-simple Bratteli diagrams that do not admit Vershik maps is explicitly described. In the case of finite rank Bratteli diagrams, we show that the existence of perfect orderings with a prescribed number of extreme paths affects significantly the values of the entries of the incidence matrices and the structure of the diagram B. Endowing the set O(B) with product measure, we prove that there is some j such that almost all orderings on B have j maximal and minimal paths, and that if j is strictly greater than the number of minimal components that B has, then almost all orderings are imperfect.

  6. Time-distance helioseismology of subsurface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Thompson, Michael J.

    2003-02-01

    We revisit the work of Giles (1999) in an attempt to extend the work on large scale flows using the technique of time-distance helioseismology. The basic process and techniques are discussed and some initial results are shown. The behaviour of the meridional and zonal flows is found to be similar to that found by Giles and separately by ring diagram methods (Haber et al. 2002).

  7. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  8. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, P.; Walther, Jens Honore; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding...

  9. Non-static flow processes in pipelines for liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-static flow processes do not necessarily lead to critical conditions of the pipeline, the pipeline supports and the connected components. Criteria for assessing them are additional stresses in the pipeline caused by shock loads or vibration, and the loads aon pipelin supports and connecting components. The type of superimposition of this additional stress on top of the loads existing in cold or warm operational pipelines and the determination of the safety factors for dimensioning components depend on whether the existing flow processes are classified as operating or fault cases. (orig.)

  10. A new enabling technology for convenient laboratory scale continuous flow processing at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Duncan L; Baumann, Marcus; Harji, Bashir H; Baxendale, Ian R; Ley, Steven V

    2011-07-01

    A new machine for conducting continuous flow processes at low temperatures on a laboratory scale is reported. The use of this cryogenic flow reactor has been demonstrated by the preparation of a variety of (hetero)aromatic boronic acids and esters via lithium halogen exchange chemistry. Furthermore, scale-up of the reaction conditions not only demonstrates the application of this device for the preparation of useful building blocks but also combines the ability to process n-butyllithium directly through pump heads attached to the unit. PMID:21615126

  11. Database design using entity-relationship diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bagui, Sikha

    2011-01-01

    Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database          Phase 2: Specify the Database          Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models     The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional

  12. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: ? Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. ? Weak measurements: what is really measured? ? Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  13. The Use of Diagrams in Solving Non Routine Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantziara, Marilena; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams in a specific problem solving process. Two types of tests were administered to 194, 12 year old students, each of which consisted of six non-routine problems that could be solved with the use of a diagram. In Test A students were asked to respond to the problems in any way they wished whereas in Test B…

  14. An Approach to Code Generation from UML Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal D. Gurad; V. S. Mahalle2

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has now become the de-facto industry standard for object-oriented (OO) software development. UML provides a set of diagrams to model structural and behavioral aspects of an object-oriented system. Automatic translation of UML diagrams to object oriented code is highly desirable because it eliminates the chances of introduction of human errors in the translation process. Automatic code generation is efficient which, in turn, helps the softwar...

  15. Method for coding and documentation of reliability block-diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability block-diagram is a widely used method in risk, availability and reliability analysis. In comparison with the faulttree method it offers many advantages, eg better functional analogy with the analyzed process. This analogy, however, easily disappears if the amount of details to be modelled is large. This paper describes a method, developed during the PRA of TVO 1, which makes it possible to create reliability block-diagrams in a hierarchial way without loosing any essential information

  16. The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsiung Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such as the concentration of a given ligand, temperature or showing the solubility of stable solids. A personal computer is capable of drawing the diagram by utilizing a 3D program, such as ParaView, or VisIt, or MATLAB. Two 3D wireframe volume plots of a Uranium-carbonate system from Garrels and Christ were used to verify the Eh-pH calculation and the presentation from ParaView. Although a two-dimensional drawing is still much clearer to read, a 3D graph can allow one to visualize an entire system by executing rotation, clipping, slicing and making a movie.

  17. Towards an optimized flow-sheet for a SANEX demonstration process using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an efficient process flow-sheet requires accurate extraction data for the experimental set-up used. Often this data is provided as equilibrium data. Due to the small hold-up volume compared to the flow rate in centrifugal contactors the time for extraction is often too short to reach equilibrium D-ratios. In this work single stage kinetics experiments have been carried out to investigate the D-ratio dependence of the flow rate and to compare this with equilibrium batch experiments for a SANEX system based on CyMe4-BTBP. The first centrifuge experiment was run with spiked solutions while in the second a genuine actinide/lanthanide fraction from a TODGA process was used. Three different flow rates were tested with each set-up. The results show that even with low flow rates, only around 9% of the equilibrium D-ratio (Am) was reached for the extraction in the spiked test and around 16% in the hot test (the difference is due to the size of the centrifuges). In the hot test the lanthanide scrubbing was inefficient whereas in the stripping both the actinides and the lanthanides showed good results. Based on these results improvements of the suggested flow-sheet is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Towards an optimized flow-sheet for a SANEX demonstration process using centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Christiansen, B.; Glatz, J.P.; Malmbeck, R.; Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Modolo, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology; Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Valrho (CEA), DRCP/SCPS, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2009-07-01

    The design of an efficient process flow-sheet requires accurate extraction data for the experimental set-up used. Often this data is provided as equilibrium data. Due to the small hold-up volume compared to the flow rate in centrifugal contactors the time for extraction is often too short to reach equilibrium D-ratios. In this work single stage kinetics experiments have been carried out to investigate the D-ratio dependence of the flow rate and to compare this with equilibrium batch experiments for a SANEX system based on CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP. The first centrifuge experiment was run with spiked solutions while in the second a genuine actinide/lanthanide fraction from a TODGA process was used. Three different flow rates were tested with each set-up. The results show that even with low flow rates, only around 9% of the equilibrium D-ratio (Am) was reached for the extraction in the spiked test and around 16% in the hot test (the difference is due to the size of the centrifuges). In the hot test the lanthanide scrubbing was inefficient whereas in the stripping both the actinides and the lanthanides showed good results. Based on these results improvements of the suggested flow-sheet is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Quantitative analysis of flow processes in a sand using synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Hopmans, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Pore-scale multiphase flow experiments were developed to nondestructively visualize water flow in a sample of porous material using X-ray microtomography. The samples were exposed to similar boundary conditions as in a previous investigation, which examined the effect of initial flow rate on observed dynamic effects in the measured pressure-saturation curves; a significantly higher residual and higher capillary pressures were found when the sample was drained fast using a high air-phase pressure. Prior work applying the X-ray microtomography technique to pore-scale multiphase flow problems has been of a mostly qualitative nature and no experiments have been presented in the existing literature where a truly quantitative approach to investigating the multiphase flow process has been taken, including a thorough image-processing scheme. The tomographic images presented here show, both by qualitative comparison and quantitative analysis in the form of a nearest neighbor analysis, that the dynamic effects seen in previous experiments are likely due to the fast and preferential drainage of large pores in the sample. Once a continuous drained path has been established through the sample, further drainage of the remaining pores, which have been disconnected from the main flowing water continuum, is prevented.

  20. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  1. An Approach to Code Generation from UML Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal D. Gurad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unified Modeling Language (UML has now become the de-facto industry standard for object-oriented (OO software development. UML provides a set of diagrams to model structural and behavioral aspects of an object-oriented system. Automatic translation of UML diagrams to object oriented code is highly desirable because it eliminates the chances of introduction of human errors in the translation process. Automatic code generation is efficient which, in turn, helps the software engineers deliver the software on time. However, major challenges in this area include checking consistency of UML models, and ensuring accuracy, maintainability, and efficiency of the generated code. This paper represents an approach to generate efficient and compact executable code from UML diagram. By analyzing the characteristics UML diagram, a coding strategy is proposed, and a structure identification and coding algorithm are put forward for code generation from UML diagram. Based on the coding strategy an algorithm is proposed to generate code from UML diagrams using some intermediate steps. The main objective of this paper is to generate the code from UML diagram.

  2. The Lexis diagram, a misnomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Around 1870, demographers felt the need for a simple chart to present population dynamics. This chart is known as the Lexis diagram, but it is a misnomer. To be useful, this chart must allow for the systematic location on one plane of the three classical demographic co-ordinates, namely: the date, the age and the moment of birth. There are three solutions for this problem. In 1869, Zeuner worked out a first solution. In 1870, Brasche proposed a second one with networks of parallels; it is the version most currently used now. In 1874, Becker proposed the third one. In 1875, certainly after Verwey, Lexis took back the Zeuner's diagram and just added networks of parallels. In spite of all this, the name "Lexis diagram" has imposed itself in a seemingly invincible way.

  3. Correlation potential and ladder diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2008-01-01

    The all-order correlation potential method of accurate atomic structure calculations for atoms with one external electron is extended to include one more class of correlation diagrams to all orders. These are the so-called ladder diagrams which describe residual Coulomb interaction between an external electron and atomic core. This is in addition to the screening of Coulomb interaction by core electrons and the hole-particle interaction in the core polarization operator which are also included in all orders. Calculations of the energies of the lowest $s$, $p$ and $d$ states of cesium and thallium show that inclusion of the ladder diagrams leads to significant improvement of the accuracy of the calculations. The discrepancy between theoretical and experimental energies is reduced to a small fraction of a per cent in all cases. This widens the range of atoms and atomic states for which the correlation potential method can produce very accurate results.

  4. Spatial Density Voronoi Diagram and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To fill a theory gap of Voronoi diagrams that there have been no reports of extended diagrams in spatial density so far. A new concept of spatial density Voronoi diagram was proposed. An important property was presented and proven. And a construction algorithm was presented. Spatial density can be used to indicate factors related to density such as conveyance and the traffic conditions. Some properties of spatial density Voronoi diagram were also introduced. In accordance with discrete construction method, achieved the construction of spatial density Voronoi diagram. Spatial density Voronoi diagram is a developed Voronoi diagram, and planar ordinary Voronoi diagram can be regarded as its special cases. It both perfected the theory about Voronoi diagrams, and extended the range of applications of Voronoi diagrams.

  5. Studies of thermohydrologic flow processes using TOUGH2. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled thermal and hydrologic flow processes have been recognized as important factors in the evaluation of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. As a result, several models and numerical codes such as TOUGH2 have been used to investigate the thermohydrologic conditions near a potential nuclear waste repository. However, very few of these models have been tested through laboratory or field scale studies. This work has therefore focused on modeling well-controlled experiments of non-isothermal flow processes in porous media at different scales to serve two primary objectives: (1) identify processes that are potentially important to thermal and hydrologic transport at Yucca Mountain and (2) build confidence in models and codes through combined experimental and numerical studies of thermohydrologic behavior at different scales and conditions. In this report, three independent studies of thermohydrologic flow processes at laboratory and field scales are presented. The experiments and field studies that are presented here were performed independently of this work. The main focus of this report was to use the numerical code TOUGH2 to simulate the non-isothermal flow behavior observed in each experiment to generate understanding of the thermohydrologic processes and to gain confidence in the code. TOUGH2 was chosen due to its current use in calculations associated with Yucca Mountain and its capability of modeling the coupled transport of air, water, vapor, and heat in porous media

  6. PROBLEMS AND TERMS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF OPTIMAL FLOW PROCESSES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dzobko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the logistics concept concerning the solution of flow processes optimal control problems of industrial enterprises is discussed in the article. Modern tools of logistics make it possible to resolve the existing contradictions in Ukrainian economy by unifying business-structures into a single efficient system.While dealing with enterprise optimal management as a total combination of flow processes, logistics plays the main role as a regulator between an enterprise and resources market on the one hand, and an enterprise and sales market of finished goods on the other hand. Thus, there is a constant exchange (supply of matter, energy and information between the links of a continuous chain (supply chain.Such a definition as "variability" is suggested as a fundamental reason of inconsistency. The concept of variability is explained as any deviation at input / output processes from the desired ideal values. From this points of view the fundamental way to improve system efficiency is to reduce this variability.The current management of an enterprise should take into consideration integration and innovation aspects of economy. It should be based on consistency and compliance of flow processes of an enterprise, and be predictive. The conditions for implementation of optimal (logistics management of flow processes were outlined.

  7. Diagram of Zeolite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  8. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.

    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the...... converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies of...

  9. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles and Ellipses

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The use of Euler diagrams as a basis for visual languages is commonplace and they are often used for visualizing information. The ability to automatically draw these diagrams is, therefore, likely to be of widespread practical use. The Euler diagram drawing problem is recognized as challenging, but the potential pay-off from the derivation of a comprehensive solution, that produces usable and effective diagrams, is significant. Previous research on automated Euler diagram drawing has used var...

  10. 5-colored knot diagram with four colors

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Shin

    2009-01-01

    We study Fox 5-colorings for diagrams of 1- and 2-dimensional knots. We prove that any 5-colorable 1-knot has a non-trivially 5-colored diagram such that exactly four colors of five are assigned to the arcs of the diagram. Moreover, we prove that there is a 5-colorable 2-knot such that, for any non-trivially 5-colored diagram, all five colors are assigned to the sheets of the diagram.

  11. Jerarquización no paramétrica en procesos caracterizados por múltiples indicadores, mediante diagramas de HASSE y conjuntos parcialmente ordenados: Aplicaciones en ingeniería / Non-parametric ranking in multi-indicator processes using HASSE diagrams and partially ordered sets: Enineering applicarions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio M, Rocco S; Elvis, Hernández.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la aplicación de dos enfoques no paramétricos que permiten jerarquizar procesos a partir de los múltiples indicadores que los caracterizan: el diagrama de Hasse y la teoría de conjuntos parcialmente ordenados. Procesos como la evaluación de un conjunto de proyectos de ingeniería [...] , pueden ser caracterizados por diversos atributos o indicadores que miden aspectos técnicos, financieros, sociales y ambientales, entre otros. A diferencia de otras técnicas que buscan determinar una valor agregado de calidad para cada proceso, mediante el uso de información subjetiva, las técnicas no paramétricas no requieren información adicional y permiten realizar un análisis a priori para: a) evaluar si es posible definir una única jerarquía en forma natural; b) si existen jerarquías en determinados subconjuntos de objetos; o c) si es necesario utilizar algún método que permita realizar la jerarquización únicamente mediante la información de la matriz de múltiples indicadores. Las técnicas seleccionadas se ilustran en tres ejemplos relacionados con el área de la ingeniería. Abstract in english This paper presents the application of two non-parametric approaches allowing the ranking of processes characterized by a multi-indicator matrix: the Hasse diagram and the partial order set theory. Processes like the assessment of engineering projects, are described by a set of technical, financial, [...] social and environmental attributes, among others. While parametric techniques try to determine an aggregate value for each process using subjective information, non-parametric approaches do not require additional information allowing an a priori analysis for: a) assessing if it is possible to define a unique natural ranking; b) determining if there are set of objects that could be partially ranked; or c) applying selected techniques for determine a ranking based only in the information provided by a multi-indicator matrix. The selected approaches are illustrated in three examples, related to engineering problems.

  12. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  13. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  14. A novel case tool based on pre-conceptual schemas for automatically obtaining uml diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Carlos; Gelbukh, Alexander; Arango, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Assistance is provided, in software development process, to Analysts in drawing UML diagrams and others by means of CASE tools. However, the task of the Stakeholder discourse understanding, a previous process in diagram drawing, is not supported by traditional CASE tools. In order to complete this task, Natural Language Processing has proposed a new kind of CASE tools, including both natural language interpretation and UML diagrams generation. We introduce, in this paper, UNC–Diagrammer, a ...

  15. Velocity measurement of three-dimensional flow around rotating parallel disks by digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a quantitative multi-point velocity measurement system, which is based on particle tracking with the digital image processing technique, which has been developed for analyzing a three-dimensional unsteady flow field. The measurement system consists of two TV cameras, a digital image processor interfaced with personal computer and originally developed algorithm for three dimensional particle tracking. The particles injected into a complex flow field are tracked consecutively, by using the image processing technique which combined with stereo photogrammetry, and three dimensional velocities are automatically calculated. The present method was applied to three-dimensional measurement of swirling flow around or between a rotating coaxial parallel disks. Nearly 5000 instantaneous velocity vectors were extracted from sets of 100 consecutive images and cross-sectional velocity profiles and angular velocity profiles between disks were calculated from these velocity data. The measurement uncertainty involved in the measurement results was about 8%

  16. On Efficient Multigrid Methods for Materials Processing Flows with Small Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James (Technical Monitor); Diskin, Boris; Harik, VasylMichael

    2004-01-01

    Multiscale modeling of materials requires simulations of multiple levels of structural hierarchy. The computational efficiency of numerical methods becomes a critical factor for simulating large physical systems with highly desperate length scales. Multigrid methods are known for their superior efficiency in representing/resolving different levels of physical details. The efficiency is achieved by employing interactively different discretizations on different scales (grids). To assist optimization of manufacturing conditions for materials processing with numerous particles (e.g., dispersion of particles, controlling flow viscosity and clusters), a new multigrid algorithm has been developed for a case of multiscale modeling of flows with small particles that have various length scales. The optimal efficiency of the algorithm is crucial for accurate predictions of the effect of processing conditions (e.g., pressure and velocity gradients) on the local flow fields that control the formation of various microstructures or clusters.

  17. Hydrodynamic viability of chemical looping processes by means of cold flow model investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Double loop circulating fluidized bed is proposed for chemical looping processes. ? Overview of the cold flow model (CFM) scaling criteria is provided. ? A full scale CFM was built for hydrodynamics validation and scale-up estimations. ? The CFM was tested resembling design conditions, off-design, reforming, etc. ? The CFM performance is described in terms of solids exchange and pressure. -- Abstract: SINTEF Energy Research and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU have proposed a 150 kWth reactor system design aiming at further development of chemical looping processes. It consists of a double loop circulating fluidized bed, meant to be used as a platform to study atmospheric chemical looping combustion configurations, as well as other possible chemical looping processes e.g. gas turbine combustion and reforming. The hydrodynamic viability of the design needs to be tested by means of a cold flow model, operated without chemical reactions. An evaluation of the state of the art within cold flow model testing was done. It led to the choice of building a full scale (i.e. 1:1) cold model of the 150 kWth hot rig design, in order to reduce wall-effects which have considerably larger influence at smaller reactor diameters than on larger ones. The cold flow model was extensively tested and experimental results are presented. The aimed design condition, mirroring a chemical looping combustion process adapted to steam generation, was achieved successfully and in a stable way. The performance of the reactor system was further tested in off-design conditions to define operational guidelines for the hot operation. In addition, attempts were done to resemble other chemical looping processes, getting some understanding of how the reactor system may perform and consequently providing solid hydrodynamic bases to improve the design for those applications. In all cases, stable operational sets were found in order to satisfy the cold flow model hydrodynamic requirements consistently with the actual high temperature processes.

  18. Gas Hydrate Stability and Sampling: The Future as Related to the Phase Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    E. Dendy Sloan; Amadeu K. Sum; Carolyn A. Koh

    2010-01-01

    The phase diagram for methane + water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample preparation and recovery. We discuss an international study for “Round Robin” hydrate sample preparation protocols and testing.

  19. The transient flow in a centrifugal pump during the discharge valve rapid opening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → DES is suitable for transient performance simulation of pump. → Rotor-stator interaction phenomenon in transient process is captured. → The transient performance deviates from the steady performance obviously. → The flow acceleration and vortics revolution influence pump's transient performance. - Abstract: During the rapid opening period of the discharge valve in the pump system commonly used in nuclear reactor operation, the flow-rate of the pump increases impulsively. In this paper, we report on experiment and numerical simulations which were implemented to investigate the external transient hydrodynamic performance and the internal flow mechanism of the pump during this transient process. External and internal characteristics under different flow-rates were measured with an experimental system. The simulation for steady conditions was based on detached eddy simulation (DES) and sliding mesh was verified by comparing the simulation with test results. More importantly, the transient characteristics during the valve's rapid opening process were simulated using a similar method. Results show that the Q-H curve deviates from the steady-state value. The external characteristics are further explained by analyzing the relative velocity on the middle stream surfaces S1m and S2m between blades. The pump performance during the valve's rapid opening process is influenced both by the fluid acceleration and instantaneous evolutions of the vortex structure.

  20. Green catalysis by nanoparticulate catalysts developed for flow processing? Case study of glucose hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Gericke, Dörthe; Ott, Denise, D; Matveeva, Valentina G.; Sulman, Esther; Aho, Atte; Murzin, Dmitry Yu.; Roggan, Stefan; Danilova, Lyudmila; Hessel, Volker; Löb, Patrick; Kralisch, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis, flow chemistry, continuous processing, green solvents, catalyst immobilization and recycling are some of the most relevant, emerging key technologies to achieve green synthesis. However, a quantification of potential effects on a case to case level is required to provide a profound answer, whether they can lead to a superior process compared to the industrial standard. To do so, holistic environmental assessment approaches are very useful tools providing insights and ...

  1. Bacterial transformation and biodegradation processes simulation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using CWM1-RETRASO

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Ribes, Esther; Saaltink, Maarten Willem; Poch, Manel; García Serrano, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The performance and reliability of the CWM1-RETRASO model for simulating processes in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) and the relative contribution of different microbial reactions to organic matter (COD) removal in a HSSF CW treating urban wastewater were evaluated. Various different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. According to the simulations, anaerobic processes were more widespread in the simulated wetland and contributed to a ...

  2. Structure and Microhardness of Steel Samples after Pulse Plasma Flows Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Zhukeshov; Asylgul Gabdullina; Assem Amrenova; Svetlana Pak

    2013-01-01

    The phase structure of surfaces of steel samples, modified by pulse plasma processing, was analyzed using XRD and metallographic methods. It has been shown, that after pulse plasma processing under different conditions a modified structure consisting of three new phases, including austenite, iron nitride and carbide, is formed. The dependence of phase transition and microhardness on plasma flow parameters has been studied. A sharp decrease in the dimensions of ferrite crystallites after the ...

  3. Post-processing of a low-flow forecasting system in the Thur basin (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Joerg-Hess, Stefanie; Bernhard, Luzi; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Low-flows and droughts are natural hazards with potentially severe impacts and economic loss or damage in a number of environmental and socio-economic sectors. As droughts develop slowly there is time to prepare and pre-empt some of these impacts. Real-time information and forecasting of a drought situation can therefore be an effective component of drought management. Although Switzerland has traditionally been more concerned with problems related to floods, in recent years some unprecedented low-flow situations have been experienced. Driven by the climate change debate a drought information platform has been developed to guide water resources management during situations where water resources drop below critical low-flow levels characterised by the indices duration (time between onset and offset), severity (cumulative water deficit) and magnitude (severity/duration). However to gain maximum benefit from such an information system it is essential to remove the bias from the meteorological forecast, to derive optimal estimates of the initial conditions, and to post-process the stream-flow forecasts. Quantile mapping methods for pre-processing the meteorological forecasts and improved data assimilation methods of snow measurements, which accounts for much of the seasonal stream-flow predictability for the majority of the basins in Switzerland, have been tested previously. The objective of this study is the testing of post-processing methods in order to remove bias and dispersion errors and to derive the predictive uncertainty of a calibrated low-flow forecast system. Therefore various stream-flow error correction methods with different degrees of complexity have been applied and combined with the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP) in order to minimise the differences between the observations and model predictions and to derive posterior probabilities. The complexity of the analysed error correction methods ranges from simple AR(1) models to methods including wavelet transformations and support vector machines. These methods have been combined with forecasts driven by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems with different temporal and spatial resolutions, lead-times and different numbers of ensembles covering short to medium to extended range forecasts (COSMO-LEPS, 10-15 days, monthly and seasonal ENS) as well as climatological forecasts. Additionally the suitability of various skill scores and efficiency measures regarding low-flow predictions will be tested. Amongst others the novel 2afc (2 alternatives forced choices) score and the quantile skill score and its decompositions will be applied to evaluate the probabilistic forecasts and the effects of post-processing. First results of the performance of the low-flow predictions of the hydrological model PREVAH initialised with different NWP's will be shown.

  4. Neuraminidase Ribbon Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ribbons is a program developed at UAB used worldwide to graphically depict complicated protein structures in a simplified format. The program uses sophisticated computer systems to understand the implications of protein structures. The Influenza virus remains a major causative agent for a large number of deaths among the elderly and young children and huge economic losses due to illness. Finding a cure will have a general impact both on the basic research of viral pathologists of fast evolving infectious agents and clinical treatment of influenza virus infection. The reproduction process of all strains of influenza are dependent on the same enzyme neuraminidase. Shown here is a segmented representation of the neuraminidase inhibitor compound sitting inside a cave-like contour of the neuraminidase enzyme surface. This cave-like formation present in every neuraminidase enzyme is the active site crucial to the flu's ability to infect. The space-grown crystals of neuraminidase have provided significant new details about the three-dimensional characteristics of this active site thus allowing researchers to design drugs that fit tighter into the site. Principal Investigator: Dr. Larry DeLucas

  5. Effects Of Thermal Exchange On Material Flow During Steel Thixoextrusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, Becker; Guochao, Gu; Laurent, Langlois; Raphaël, Pesci; Régis, Bigot

    2011-01-01

    Semisolid processing is an innovative technology for near net-shape production of components, where the metallic alloys are processed in the semisolid state. Taking advantage of the thixotropic behavior of alloys in the semisolid state, significant progress has been made in semisolid processing. However, the consequences of such behavior on the flow during thixoforming are still not completely understood. To explore and better understand the influence of the different parameters on material flow during thixoextrusion process, thixoextrusion experiments were performed using the low carbon steel C38. The billet was partially melted at high solid fraction. Effects of various process parameters including the initial billet temperature, the temperature of die, the punch speed during process and the presence of a Ceraspray layer at the interface of tool and billet were investigated through experiments and simulation. After analyzing the results thus obtained, it was identified that the aforementioned parameters mainly affect thermal exchanges between die and part. The Ceraspray layer not only plays a lubricant role, but also acts as a thermal barrier at the interface of tool and billet. Furthermore, the thermal effects can affect the material flow which is composed of various distinct zones.

  6. Higher Order City Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Gemsa, Andreas; Liu, Chih-Hung; Wagner, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    We investigate higher-order Voronoi diagrams in the city metric. This metric is induced by quickest paths in the L1 metric in the presence of an accelerating transportation network of axis-parallel line segments. For the structural complexity of kth-order city Voronoi diagrams of n point sites, we show an upper bound of O(k(n - k) + kc) and a lower bound of {\\Omega}(n + kc), where c is the complexity of the transportation network. This is quite different from the bound O(k(n - k)) in the Euclidean metric. For the special case where k = n - 1 the complexity in the Euclidean metric is O(n), while that in the city metric is {\\Theta}(nc). Furthermore, we develop an O(k^2(n + c) log n)-time iterative algorithm to compute the kth-order city Voronoi diagram and an O(nc log^2(n + c) log n)-time divide-and-conquer algorithm to compute the farthest-site city Voronoi diagram.

  7. The diagram for phyllotactic series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szymanowska-Pu?ka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many authors studying phyllotaxis in various plant species have reported the occurrence of many different numbers of contact parastichy pairs that are members of different Fibonacci-like series. On the basis of these reports a diagram was constructed in which any theoretically possible series was represented by the two first members of a given series.

  8. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...

  9. Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel...

  10. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Besenbacher, Flemming

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign of...

  11. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  12. Class Diagram Restructuring with GROOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wietse Smid; Arend Rensink

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the GROOVE solution to the "Class Diagram Restructuring" case study of the Tool Transformation Contest 2013. We show that the visual rule formalism enables the required restructuring to be formulated in a very concise manner. Moreover, the GROOVE functionality for state space exploration allows checking confluence. Performance-wise, however, the solution does not scale well.

  13. Algebraic Generalization of Venn Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Smarandache

    2010-01-01

    It is easy to deal with a Venn Diagram for 1 ≤ n ≤ 3 sets. When n gets larger, the picture becomes more complicated, that's why we thought at the following codification. That’s why we propose an easy and systematic algebraic way of dealing with the representation of intersections and unions of many sets.

  14. Algorithmic approach to diagram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithmic approach to diagram techniques of elementary particles is proposed. The definition and axiomatics of the theory of algorithms are presented, followed by the list of instructions of an algorithm formalizing the construction of graphs and the assignment of mathematical objects to them. (T.A.)

  15. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  16. Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

  17. An experimental study of fluvial processes at asymmetrical river confluences with hyperconcentrated tributary flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanfeng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Baosheng; Hou, Suzhen

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports findings from experimental studies of sediment transport and bed morphology at asymmetrical confluences with hyperconcentrated tributary flows in the upper Yellow River. The results indicate that the hyperconcentrated flow confluence can be divided into four hydraulic regions, including the backwater zone above the upstream junction corner, the maximum velocity area, the separation flow zone, and the post-confluence region downstream of the junction corner. The bed morphology also consists of four basic elements, including the sandbar in the backwater zone, the bar in the separation flow zone, the thalweg for flow conveyance and sediment transport, and bars in the reach downstream of the separation zone. The sediment load of the hyperconcentrated flow from the tributary was the most important control on fluvial processes at such confluences. The increase in deposition in the backwater zone as the sediment load increased was almost linear, and the depth of sediment deposition in the backwater zone was approximately normal in distribution. The validity of a conceptual model for discriminating the status of the backwater effect, developed earlier from field data using the relationship between the sediment load and water volume of hyperconcentrated flows, was confirmed by the experiments. Deposition in the reach downstream of the junction, sandbar height in the backwater zone, and the width and length of the separation zone bar all tended to increase as the sediment load in the tributary increased. An obvious upstream-directed density current occurred in the backwater zone when the sediment concentration of the hyperconcentrated flow exceeded a critical value. The travel distance of the density current increased as the sediment load in the tributary increased. A formula was proposed, based on sediment continuity, for estimating the deposition volume in the reach downstream of the junction. Compared with ordinary sediment-laden flow confluences, hyperconcentrated flow confluences have a sandbar in the backwater zone associated with an upstream-directed density current that may sometimes block the main channel. Hyperconcentrated flow confluences have a thalweg, and so are different from debris flow confluences, which have a fan-shaped deposit.

  18. GIS-based modeling of debris flow processes in an Alpine catchment, Antholz valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmeier, Christine; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    Debris flows are frequent natural hazards in mountain regions, which seriously can threat human lives and economic values. In the European Alps the occurrence of debris flows might even increase with respect to climate change, including permafrost degradation, glacier retreat and variable precipitation patterns. Thus, detailed understanding of process parameters and spatial distribution of debris flows is necessary to take appropriate protection measures for risk assessment. In this context, numerical models have been developed and applied successfully for simulation and prediction of debris-flow hazards and related process areas. In our study a GIS-based model is applied in an alpine catchment to address the following questions: Where are potential initiating areas of debris flows? How much material can be mobilized? What is the influence of topography and precipitation? The study area is located in the Antholz valley in the eastern Alps of Northern Italy. The investigated catchment of the Klammbach creek comprises 6.5 km² and is divided into two sub-catchments. Geologically it is dominated by metamorphic rock and altitudes range between 1310 and 3270 m. In summer 2005 a debris flow of more than 100000 m³ took place, originating from a steep, sparsely vegetated debris cone in the western part of the catchment. According to a regional study, the lower permafrost boundary in this area has risen by 250 m. In a first step, during a field survey, geomorphological mapping was performed, several channel cross-sections were measured and sediment samples were taken. Using mapping results and aerial images, a geomorphological map was created. In further steps, results from the field work, the geomorphological map and existing digital data sets, including a digital elevation model with 2.5 m resolution, are used to derive input data for the modeling of debris flow processes. The model framework ‘r.debrisflow' based on GRASS GIS is applied (Mergili, 2008*), as it is capable of simulating the potential spatial patterns of debris flow deposition, as well as their initiation and movement. Furthermore it is a freely available and opensource software and can thus be improved and extended. ‘r.debrisflow' couples a hydraulic, a slope stability, a sediment transport and a debris flow runout model, which are combined differently in 6 simulation modes. In a first step, model parameters are calibrated using the runout only mode with known parameters of the 2005 debris flow. Finally, the full mode will be used to evaluate the debris-flow potential of the whole catchment. First results from the geomorphological mapping reveal numerous surface forms, like levees, debris flow lobes or scars that indicate past and recent debris flow activity in the area. In both sub-catchments, there are large areas of unconsolidated, sparsely or unvegetated sediments, surrounded by high rock walls, which conduct precipitation rapidly into the debris. The two sub-catchments, however, have different topographic characteristics, which can be analyzed with the model in more detail. In a next step, the potential starting areas of future debris flows shall be identified and the potential amount of mobilized material shall be estimated by the model. *Mergili, M. (2008): Integrated modelling of debris flows with Open Source GIS. Ph.D. thesis. University of Innsbruck. http://www.uibk.ac.at/geographie/personal/mergili/dissertation.pdf

  19. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact that, faced with the tedium of everyday, real, lived experience, of the scientificillusion, of work and production, the world of art appears as a kind of last preserve of reality,where human beings can still find sustenance. Art is understood as being a space in whichthe fatigue of the contemporary subject can be salved away.3

  20. Regional scale analysis of the topographic signatures of landslide/debris flow dominated processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Righetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of alpine headwater basins is strongly influenced by erosion processes. The relationship between landforms and erosion processes has been analyzed based on the relationship between slope and drainage area (Montgomery and Foufoula-Georgiou, 1993), because among parameters derived from a DTM (Digital Terrain Model), slope and drainage area are deemed to be pertinent for studying overall erosion dynamics. Thanks to LiDAR and high resolution topography now is possible to reach a better representation of hillslope morphology, and then recognize in detail the topographic signature of valley incision by landslides and debris flows (Tarolli and Dalla Fontana, 2009). In this work we present a tentative of a regional scale analysis of such signature. In the analysis we derived the slope-area relationship using high-resolution DTMs with 2.5 m cells derived from LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. We considered 23 catchments, characterized by soil-mantled landscape, and where several debris flows occurred in the year 2009. The results showed that in 83% catchments the topographic signature of debris flow processes is clearly present, while in the remaining catchments only hillslopes, unchanneled valleys and alluvial channels regions are recognized. The slope-area relationships of few catchments where no debris flows were observed during 2009 events, nor reported in the historical database, were then analyzed. For these basins the slope-area relationship does not evidence the topographic signature of debris flow processes. According to these results the presented methodology really can help for a right preliminary analysis and classification of alpine catchments based on their dominant geomorphological processes. The methodology should be used for a first and quick interpretation, in support to field surveys and more complex physically based modeling analysis.

  1. A multi-component two-phase flow algorithm for use in landfill processes modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J K; Nayagum, D; Beaven, R P

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the finite difference algorithm that has been developed for the flow sub-model of the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model LDAT. The liquid and gas phase flow components are first decoupled from the solid phase of the full multi-phase, multi-component landfill process constitutive equations and are then rearranged into a format that can be applied as a calculation procedure within the framework of a three dimensional array of finite difference rectangular elements. The algorithm contains a source term which accommodates the non-flow landfill processes of degradation, gas solubility, and leachate chemical equilibrium, sub-models that have been described in White and Beaven (2013). The paper includes an illustration of the application of the flow sub-model in the context of the leachate recirculation tests carried out at the Beddington landfill project. This illustration demonstrates the ability of the sub-model to track movement in the gas phase as well as the liquid phase, and to simulate multi-directional flow patterns that are different in each of the phases. PMID:24925875

  2. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing "to buy" or "not to buy," participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the "not to buy" stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  3. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  4. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes – a laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boisson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min−1, while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate and an electron donor (carbon coming from an immobile phase (tube that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  5. Recleaning of HEPA filters by reverse flow - evaluation of the underlying processes and the cleaning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEPA filter operation at high concentrations of fine dusts requires the periodic recleaning of the filter units in their service locations. Due to the low mechanical stress induced during the recleaning process the regenration via low pressure reverse flow is a very suitable technique. Recleanability of HEPA filter had been attained for particle diameter >0,4 ?m at air velocities up to 1 m/s, but filter clogging occurred in case of smaller particles. The recleaning forces are too weak for particles <0,4 ?m. With respect to the low tensile strength of HEPA filter media higher flow velocities are excluded. The analysis of reverse flow recleaning in a single pleat device showed extremly non uniform flow pattern in conventional deep-pleat pack geometries. More uniform flow conditions are attained by changing the pleat geometry. The realisation of high flow velocities at the glas fiber medium inside the filter pack requires shortening of the pleates to some 150 mm and the adaptation of the distance between filter pack and the recleaning device with respect to the nozzle diameter and the width of the filter pleats. (orig.). 44 figs., 36 refs

  6. Flow behavior of polymers during the roll-to-roll hot embossing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yujun; Yi, Peiyun; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin; Lin, Zhongqin

    2015-06-01

    The roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing process is a recent advancement in the micro hot embossing process and is capable of continuously fabricating micro/nano-structures on polymers, with a high efficiency and a high throughput. However, the fast forming of the R2R hot embossing process limits the time for material flow and results in complicated flow behavior in the polymers. This study presents a fundamental investigation into the flow behavior of polymers and aims towards the comprehensive understanding of the R2R hot embossing process. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model based on the viscoelastic model of polymers is established and validated for the fabrication of micro-pyramids using the R2R hot embossing process. The deformation and recovery of micro-pyramids on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film are analyzed in the filling stage and the demolding stage, respectively. Firstly, in the analysis of the filling stage, the temperature distribution on the PVC film is discussed. A large temperature gradient is observed along the thickness direction of the PVC film and the temperature of the top surface is found to be higher than that of the bottom surface, due to the poor thermal conductivity of PVC. In addition, creep strains are demonstrated to depend highly on the temperature and are also observed to concentrate on the top layer of the PVC film because of high local temperature. In the demolding stage, the recovery of the embossed micro-pyramids is obvious. The cooling process is shown to be efficient for the reduction of recovery, especially when the mold temperature is high. In conclusion, this research advances the understanding of the flow behavior of polymers in the R2R hot embossing process and might help in the development of the highly accurate and highly efficient fabrication of microstructures on polymers.

  7. Power Network Voronoi Diagram and Dynamic Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Tan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Voronoi diagrams are important in many fields in a series of sciences. Network Voronoi diagrams are useful to investigate dominance regions in a grid street system or a radial-circular street system. However, all generators may have different effect. To deal with a network Voronoi diagram with varied functions of generators, it must be worth formulating a power network Voronoi diagram. Method Adding weight value on generators, which is used to indicate factors related to are difficult to construct when the position relation of generators.  Results A new concept of power network Voronoi diagram are proposed. In accordance with discrete construction method, achieved the construction of power network Voronoi diagram. Conclution The application example shows that the algorithm is both simple and useful, and it is of high potential value in practice.  Power network Voronoi diagram both perfected the theory about Voronoi diagrams, and extended the range of applications of Voronoi diagrams.

  8. Kinematical Diagrams for Conical Relativistic Jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal-Krishna; Pronoy Sircar; Samir Dhurde

    2007-03-01

    We present diagrams depicting the expected inter-dependences of two key kinematical parameters of radio knots in the parsec-scale jets of blazars, deduced from VLBI observations. The two parameters are the apparent speed (app = capp) and the effective Doppler boosting factor (eff) of the relativistically moving radio knot. A novel aspect of these analytical computations of – diagrams is that they are made for parsecscale jets having a conical shape, with modest opening angles ( up to 10°), in accord with the VLBI observations of the nuclei of the nearest radio galaxies. Another motivating factor is the recent finding that consideration of a conical geometry can have important implications for the interpretation of a variety of radio observations of blazar jets. In addition to uniform jet flows (i.e., those having a uniform bulk Lorentz factor, ), computational results are also presented for stratified jets where an ultra-relativistic central spine along the jet axis is surrounded by a slower moving sheath, possibly arising from a velocity shear.

  9. An efficient continuous flow process for the synthesis of a non-conventional mixture of fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Paolo; Tamborini, Lucia; Cazzamalli, Samuele; Pinto, Andrea; Arioli, Stefania; Balzaretti, Silvia; Plou, Francisco J; Fernandez-Arrojo, Lucia; Molinari, Francesco; Conti, Paola; Romano, Diego

    2016-01-01

    A sustainable and scalable process for the production of a new mixture of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was developed using a continuous-flow approach based on an immobilized whole cells-packed bed reactor. The technological transfer from a classical batch system to an innovative flow environment allowed a significant improvement of the productivity. Moreover, the stability of this production system was ascertained by up to 7 days of continuous working. These results suggest the suitability of the proposed method for a large-scale production of the desired FOS mixture, in view of a foreseeable use as a novel prebiotic preparation. PMID:26213017

  10. Simulation of the physicochemical processes of erosion-corrosion of metals in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One elaborated calculation model of erosion-corrosion (RAMEK-2) of power equipment metals in two-phase flows. Paper presents in three-dimensional representation the calculation results of dependence of intensity of structural steel erosion-corrosion on thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and water-chemistry parameters of those flows in process channels of TEPPs and NPPs. On the basis of mathematical model one elaborated software enabling to predict erosion-corrosion life and to optimize regulations for diagnostics and preventive measures of erosion-corrosion of power plant moist steam channel elements

  11. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs

  12. TERRAIN: A computer program to process digital elevation models for modeling surface flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, P.M.; Levine, D.A.; Hunsaker, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This document provides a step by step procedure, TERRAIN, for processing digital elevation models to calculate overland flow paths, watershed boundaries, slope, and aspect. The algorithms incorporated into TERRAIN have been used at two different geographic scales: first for small research watersheds where surface wetness measurements are made, and second for regional water modeling for entire counties. For small areas methods based on flow distribution may be more desirable, especially if time-dependent flow models are to be used. The main improvement in TERRAIN compared with earlier programs on which it is based is that it combines the conditioning routines, which remove depressions to avoid water storage, into a single process. Efficiency has also been improved, reducing run times as much as 10:1 and enabling the processing of very large grids in strips for regional modeling. Additionally, the ability to calculate the nutrient load delivered any cell in a watershed has been added. These improvements make TERRAIN a powerful tool for modeling surface flow.

  13. Parameter-Level Data Flow Modeling Oriented to Product Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen; Shao, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Zhi Hua; Ge, Xiao Bo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of data flow modeling for a product design process oriented to data parameter is proposed. The data parameters are defined, which are classified as the basic data parameters and complex data parameters. The mechanism of the mapping relationship between different forms of documents and some basic data parameters, and a data transmission based on parameters, are constructed. Aiming at the characteristics of the iterative design process, the parameters version mechanism including node modification and iteration information is proposed. The data parameters transmission relationships are represented by a parameters network model (PNM) based on a directed graph. Finally, through the table of data parameters mapping onto the workflow node and PNM, the data ports and data links in the data flow model are generated automatically by the program. Validation in the 15-meter-diameter S/Ka frequency band antenna design process of the “Reflector, Back frame and Center part design” data flow model shows that the method can effectively shorten the time of data flow modeling and improve the data transmission efficiency.

  14. Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewhart, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

  15. A Signal Pre-processing Algorithm Applied for Ultrasonic Flow-Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rang-ding Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of time difference ultrasonic flow meter’s low accuracy, against the basic characteristics of the sample data, a data-processing algorithm is proposed. First, we use shell sort do a data pre-processing to the samples, then remove the error of the sample space by complex digital filter, and use the error compensation algorithm to get the final sample results. Among them, the complex digital filter is mainly composed by median filtering algorithm, sliding window, Peters algorithm and the weighted average algorithm. This kind of data processing algorithm can effectively filter out the error of the sample space. It can also make a large improvement to the accuracy of ultrasonic flow meter while ensure the stability and real-time.

  16. Application of Artificial Vision in flow redirection during filling of Liquid Composite Molding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montés, N.; Sanchez, F.; García, J. A.; Falcó, A.; Tornero, J.; Chinesta, F.

    2007-04-01

    The control techniques applied in Liquid Composite Molding processes have been extensively worked out by many different research groups abroad. In this work, the original use of artificial vision technology in order to redirect the flow path during mold filling appears as a major objective of online control strategy. In this study, a process performance index developed in a previous work is used to define the mold gate opening sequence. The Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) have been selected as the main processes of study. The expert system will make use of numerical simulation in order to obtain a previous physical understanding of the flow behaviour in different manufacturing conditions. Some examples of the installation are presented and discussed.

  17. Benchmark initiative on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisch, K.; Annewandter, R.; Olden, P.; Mackay, E.; Bauer, S.; Geiger, S.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers involves multiple strongly interacting processes such as multiphase flow and geomechanical deformation, which threat to the seal integrity of CO2 repositories. Coupled simulation codes are required to establish realistic prognoses of the coupled process during CO2 injection operations. International benchmark initiatives help to evaluate, to compare and to validate coupled simulation results. However, there is no published code comparison study so far focusing on the impact of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics on the long-term integrity of repositories, which is required to obtain confidence in the predictive capabilities of reservoir simulators. We address this gap by proposing a benchmark study. A wide participation from academic and industrial institutions is sought, as the aim of building confidence in coupled simulators become more plausible with many participants. Most published benchmark studies on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes have been performed within the field of nuclear waste disposal (e.g. the DECOVALEX project), using single-phase formulation only. As regards CO2 injection scenarios, international benchmark studies have been published comparing isothermal and non-isothermal multiphase flow processes such as the code intercomparison by LBNL, the Stuttgart Benchmark study, the CLEAN benchmark approach and other initiatives. Recently, several codes have been developed or extended to simulate the coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes (OpenGeoSys, ELIPSE-Visage, GEM, DuMuX and others), which now enables a comprehensive code comparison. We propose four benchmark tests of increasing complexity, addressing the coupling between multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection. In the first case, a horizontal non-faulted 2D model consisting of one reservoir and one cap rock is considered, focusing on stress and strain regime changes in the storage formation and the cap rock. For the second case, a fault is introduced to investigate the risk of fault reactivation and fracturing due to CO2 injection for a single and a multiple cap rock system, respectively. A multiple injector setting exposed to different tectonic stress regimes is proposed for the third case. Hereby, a 3D model is used compartmentalized by low permeability faults, which become permeable due to injection. Injection scenarios will be evaluated for extensional and compressive stress regimes. All model set-ups are based on already published simulation results of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection. To end with, a real site geometry including parameterization and realistic reservoir conditions is provided. The benchmark design and cases will be presented as well as some preliminary simulation results for the first cases. Interested institutions and researchers are invited to discuss and to participate in the study.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MULTISCALE AND MULTIPHASE FLOW, TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN HEAVY OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yannis C. Yortsos

    2003-02-01

    This is final report for contract DE-AC26-99BC15211. The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress. The report consists mainly of a compilation of various topical reports, technical papers and research reports published produced during the three-year project, which ended on May 6, 2002 and was no-cost extended to January 5, 2003. Advances in multiple processes and at various scales are described. In the area of internal drives, significant research accomplishments were made in the modeling of gas-phase growth driven by mass transfer, as in solution-gas drive, and by heat transfer, as in internal steam drives. In the area of vapor-liquid flows, we studied various aspects of concurrent and countercurrent flows, including stability analyses of vapor-liquid counterflow, and the development of novel methods for the pore-network modeling of the mobilization of trapped phases and liquid-vapor phase changes. In the area of combustion, we developed new methods for the modeling of these processes at the continuum and pore-network scales. These models allow us to understand a number of important aspects of in-situ combustion, including steady-state front propagation, multiple steady-states, effects of heterogeneity and modes of combustion (forward or reverse). Additional aspects of reactive transport in porous media were also studied. Finally, significant advances were made in the flow and displacement of non-Newtonian fluids with Bingham plastic rheology, which is characteristic of various heavy oil processes. Various accomplishments in generic displacements in porous media and corresponding effects of reservoir heterogeneity are also cited.

  19. The Impact of Rhizosphere Processes on Water Flow and Root Water Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Nimrod; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudate and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. Ultimately, this model will enhance our understanding on the impact of processes occurring in the rhizosphere on water flow and root water uptake. To achieve this objective, we coupled R-SWMS, a detailed 3D model for water flow in soil and root system (Javaux et al 2008), with the rhizosphere model developed by Kroener et al (2014). In the new Rhizo-RSWMS model the rhizosphere hydraulic properties differ from those of the bulk soil, and non-equilibrium dynamics between the rhizosphere water content and pressure head is also considered. We simulated a wetting scenario. The soil was initially dry and it was wetted from the top at a constant flow rate. The model predicts that, after infiltration the water content in the rhizosphere remained lower than in the bulk soil (non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. These results are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data on water dynamics in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the results show that rhizosphere processes affect the spatial distribution of root water uptake. This suggests that rhizosphere processes effect root water uptake at the plant scale. Overall, these preliminary results demonstrate the impact of rhizosphere on water flow and root water uptake, and the ability of the Rhizo-RSWMS to simulate these processes. References Javaux, M., Schröder, T., Vanderborght, J., & Vereecken, H. (2008). Use of a three-dimensional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone Journal, 7(3), 1079-1088.? Kroener, E., Zarebanadkouki, M., Kaestner, A., & Carminati, A. (2014). Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils. Water Resources Research, 50(8), 6479-6495.?

  20. Application of the radiotracer method of molten glass flow process identification for optimization of tank furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of application of the mathematical flow model proposed by Wolf and Resnick for the glass melting process optimization have been presented. The model description of the process was verified experimentally. The tracer selection criteria have been discussed. The method of radiotracer injection and the tracer detection have been described. Parameters for the tank furnace operation have been calculated for different layouts of the furnace. From the results obtained general conclusions have been drawn and recommendations for optimizing the glass production process are presented. (author)

  1. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matysiak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM. The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

  2. Transformation of BPMN Diagrams to YAWL Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN is the de facto standard for modeling business processes on a conceptual level. However, BPMN lacks a formal semantics and many of its features need to be further interpret, Consequently that hinders  BPMN as a standard to statically check the semantic correctness of models. YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language allows the specification of executable workflow models. A transformation between these two languages enables the integration of different levels of abstraction in process modeling. This paper discusses how to transform BPMN diagrams to YAWL nets. The benefits of the transformation are threefold. Firstly, it clarifies the semantics of BPMN via a mapping to YAWL. Secondly, the deployment of BPMN business process models is simplified. Thirdly, BPMN models can be analyzed with YAWL verification tools.

  3. Globular realization and cubical underlying homotopy type of time flow of process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Gaucher, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    We construct a small realization as flow of every precubical set (modeling for example a process algebra). The realization is small in the sense that the construction does not make use of any cofibrant replacement functor and of any transfinite construction. In particular, if the precubical set is finite, then the corresponding flow has a finite globular decomposition. Two applications are given. The first one presents a realization functor from precubical sets to globular complexes which is characterized up to a natural S-homotopy. The second one proves that, for such flows, the underlying homotopy type is naturally isomorphic to the homotopy type of the standard cubical complex associated with the precubical set.

  4. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions

  5. Experimental determination of the flow capacity coefficient for control valves of process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Aragón-Camarasa; G., Aragón-González; A., Canales-Palma; A., León-Galicia.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A test bench was conceived in order to determine experimentally the flow coefficient [C V] for process control valves, operating with compressible fluids, under established regulations by the standards ANSI/ISA-75.02-1996 and ANSI/ISA-75.01.01-2002. This test bench is used to verify the calibration [...] of valves with continually variable opening, after they have been repaired. The measurements in the test bench allow establishing the C V of these valves for various opening percentages. It was necessary to go through the C V equation for compressible fluids, to proceed with the flow sensor selection. This equation was obtained under similarity conditions by the equality of Euler numbers between prototype and model (test specimen). It is also described the electronic instrumentation for measuring flow, temperature and pressure difference, the design and the development of electronic circuits which control the instrumentation, and the algorithms for the operation and acquisition of measurements.

  6. Trigeneration System: Visualization through Ternary Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous production of power, heat and refrigeration in trigeneration plants is potentially more efficient than producing these same utilities in separate facilities, mainly due to the increased opportunities for process integration. Hence, trigeneration is also inherently more cost-effective and thermodynamically efficient, resulting in lower CO2 footprint. Various methods have been developed for the synthesis of such plants. In this study, we propose a graphical approach where power, heat and refrigeration or cooling form the vertices of a ternary diagram. A thermal process unit may thus be represented as a point within the ternary diagram, with its coordinates denoting the ratios of its heat, power and cooling outputs. Thus, units producing two streams lie along the edges of the triangular field while those producing three streams fall inside it. Subsequently sizing of such process units that make up a trigeneration plant can be accomplished using lever-arm mixing rules within this triangular coordinate system. The use of the graphical methodology is illustrated with two case studies.

  7. Signal processing and statistical descriptive reanalysis of steady state chute-flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    truong, hoan; eckert, nicolas; keylock, chris; naaim, mohamed; bellot, hervé

    2014-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of snow rheology is needed for the mitigation against avalanche hazard. Indeed snow avalanches have a significant impact on the livelihoods and economies of alpine communities. To do so, 60 small-scale in-situ flow experiments were performed with various slopes, temperatures and flow depths. The investigation of these data previously seemed to show the dense flow of dry snow may be composed of two layers; a sheared basal layer made of single snow grains and a less sheared upper layer made of large aggregates. These outcomes were mainly based on the mean velocity profile of the flow and on interpretation in terms of rheological behavior of granular materials and snow microstructure [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007]. Here, the main objective remains the same, but the rheological and physical viewpoints are put aside to extract as much information contained in the data as possible various using signal processing methods and descriptive statistics methods as the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), transfer entropy (TE) and maximum cross-correlation (MCC). Specifically, we aim at the improving the velocity estimations as function of the depth particularly the velocity fluctuations around the mean profile to better document the behavior of dense dry snow flows during a steady and uniform chute regime. The data are composed of pairs of voltage signals (right and left), which makes that the velocity is known indirectly only. The MCC method is classically used to determine the time lag between both signals. Previously, the MCC method that showed the mean velocity profile may be fitted by a simple bilinear function [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007], but no interesting temporal dynamics could be highlighted. Hence, a new process method was developed to provide velocity series with much better temporal resolution. The process is mainly made of a MODWT-based denoising method and the choice of window size for correlation. The results prove to be good enough in term of reasonable variability and measurement numbers. A statistical descriptive analysis of the velocity results shows a disagreement with the previous outcomes. Indeed, the clustering method and the empirical probability distribution functions show that the vertical velocity profile may reflect three different behaviors, possibly corresponding to three layers and/or to transient flow layers. These flow layers are located at different heights depending on initial conditions of flow experiments (temperature, slope and depth). Keywords: Maximum cross correlation, MODWT, probability distribution function

  8. Developing a method for digital image processing of two phase fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new image processing technique was developed in the current study to understand the effects of various hydrodynamics and geometric parameters on local phase distribution phenomena in non-equilibrium two-phase flow systems. While image processing has been employed extensively in velocimetry, its application to explain the two-phase flow phenomena is new. The present study consisted of developing the technique and using it to extract phase distribution data. This, technique presents an advantage of providing measurements and extracting the bubbles of the two-phase bubbly flow compared with the traditionally used methods: point by point measurement technique or digitization. The image processing method proposed in this study is based on the detachment and tracing of the edges of the bubbles and their background. The conclusions are summarized below. (i) High speed photographic results show different behaviors of the bubbles. Some bubbles slide along the wall and detach by rapid ejection into the flow. The motion of these bubbles into the liquid core cause a violent agitation of the liquid near the heated surface. It was also noted that some bubbles detach the surface and sweep downstream and recondensing slowly in the bulk flow. This difference in bubble behavior indicates that the ejection mechanism is influenced by hydrodynamics or thermal condition and will be of interest for further study. (ii) Vapor bubble departure diameters in forced convection subcooled boiling, have been experimentally obtained over a range of mass flux, D, and heat flux, qw, for the subcooled flow boiling region. (iii) For the flow conditions experimentally investigated, the overwhelming majority of the bubbles leave the nucleation sites by sliding a finite distance along the heating surface lifting off the wall. The results can be utilized in explaining the mechanism of subcooled nucleate flow boiling especially in determining the dynamics of the local void distribution and void behavior, particularly, near the point of net vapor generation. The values of the bubble size and shape, interfacial area, information about void formation. bubble growth or collapse and its size and position as well as the velocity of the bubbles for particular conditions, are also evaluated. (Original)

  9. GDS-based Mask Data Preparation Flow: Data Volume Containment by Hierarchical Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Steffen F.; LaCour, Pat; Buck, Peter D.

    2002-12-01

    As the industry enters the development of the 65nm node the pressure on the data path and tapeout flow is growing. Design complexity and increased deployment of resolution enhancement techniques (RET) result in rapidly growing file sizes, which turns what used to be the relatively simple task of mask data preparation into a real bottleneck. This discussion introduces the data preparation scheme in the mask house and analyzes its evolution. Mask data preparation (MDP) has evolved from a flow that only needed to support a single mask lithography tool data format (MEBES) with minimal data alteration steps to one which requires the support of many mask lithography tool data formats and at the same time requires significant data alteration to support the increased precision necessary for today"s advanced masks.. However, the MDP flow developed around the MEBES format and it"s derivatives still exists. The design community has migrated towards the use of hierarchical data formats and processes to control file size and processing time. MDP, which from a file size and process complexity point of view is beginning to look more and more like the advanced RET operations performed on the data prior to mask manufacturing, is still standardized on a flat data format that is poorly optimized for a growing number of mask lithography tools. Based on examples it will be shown how this complicates the data handling further. An alternate data preparation flow accommodating the larger files and re-gaining flexibility for turnaround time (TAT) and throughput management is suggested. This flow utilizes the hierarchical GDS-II format as the exchange format for mask data preparation. It complements the existing flow for the most complex designs. The introduction of a hierarchical exchange format enables the transfer of a number of necessary data preparation steps into the hierarchical domain. Data processing strategies are discussed. The paper illustrates the benefit of hierarchical processing based on GDS-II files with experimental data on file size reduction and TAT improvement for direct format conversions vs. re-fracturing as well as other processing steps. The implications for the established data preparation approaches and potential alternatives for the communication between the mask manufacturer and the customer will be discussed. The potential for further enhancements by converting to a hierarchical format that has a more efficient data representation than the commonly used GDS-II format will be discussed and illustrated.

  10. Numerical simulations of the laminar-turbulent transition process in plane Poiseuille flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminar-turbulent transition in plane Poiseuille flow is simulated by numerical integration of the time-dependent three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. The mathematical model of a spatially periodic, timewise developing flow in a moving frame of reference is used to match vibrating-ribbon experiments of Nishioka et al. The numerical discretisation is based on a spectral method with Fourier and Chebyshev polynomial expansions in space and second order finite differences in time. The pressure is calculated using a new method which enforces incompressibility and boundary conditions exactly. This is achieved by deriving the correct boundary conditions for the pressure Poisson equation. The numerical results obtained for two-dimensional finite amplitude disturbances are consistent with nonlinear stability theory. The time-periodic secondary flow is attained by the time-dependent calculation with reasonable accuracy after a long quasi-steady state. No sign of two-dimensional instability, but strong three-dimensional instability as well of the periodic secondary flow as of the quasi-steady state is found. This secondary three-dimensional instability is shown to be responsible for transition. It is shown that the three-dimensional simulations presented here reproduce the experimentally observed transition process up to the spike stage. Detailed comparisons with measurements of mean velocity, rms-values of fluctuation and instantaneous velocity distribution reveal very satisfactory agreement. The formation of peak-valley structure, longitudinal vortices, local high-shear layers and distinct spike-type signals is shown. In addition, the three-dimensional flow field structure before breakdown is investigated. An array of horseshoe vortices similar to those inferred from boundary layer flow visualization experiments is found. Spike signals are produced by local accumulations of low-speed fluid in the downstream loops of these vortices. (orig.)

  11. Coupled turbulent flow, heat transport in twin-roll casting stainless strip process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully coupled fluid flow, heat transport model was developed to analyze turbulent flow, solidification in twin-roll casting stainless strip process. Transport equations of the total mass, momentum, energy for the system were solved using a continuum model, wherein the equations are valid for the solid, liquid, and mushy zones in the casting process. A new version of the low-Reynolds number k-· model was adopted to incorporate turbulent effects on transport processes in the system. A control-volume-based finite element method was employed to solve the conservation equations associated with appropriate boundary conditions. Because of the high nonlinearity of the equations, a number of techniques were used to accelerate the convergence processes. The effects of the factors such as roll-casting speed, steel grade, nozzle configuration on the flow pattern, solidification profile, heat flux changing between the sump and the roll and the temperature of the strip face were calculated. Some of the calculated results were compared with available experimental measurements, and they are in reasonable agreements. The effect of the factors such as casting temperature, casting speed on as-cast structures of the stainless strips were also analyzed by some metallographic photos. Some important parameters were obtained. (author)

  12. Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of constructed wetland. Key words: clogging; plant root; salt tracers; hydraulic performance; subsurface flow constructed wetlands

  13. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  14. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  15. A numerical investigation of the resin flow front tracking applied to the RTM process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Avila Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resin Transfer Molding (RTM is largely used for the manufacturing of high-quality composite components and the key stage during processing is the resin infiltration. The complete understanding of this phenomenon is of utmost importance for efficient mold construction and the fast production of high quality components. This paper investigates the resin flow phenomenon within the mold. A computational application was developed to track the resin flow-front position, which uses a finite volume method to determine the pressure field and a FAN (Flow Analysis Network technique to track the flow front. The mass conservation problem observed with traditional FE-CV (Finite Element-Control Volume methods is also investigated and the use of a finite volume method to minimize this inconsistency is proposed. Three proposed case studies are used to validate the methodology by direct comparison with analytical and a commercial software solutions. The results show that the proposed methodology is highly efficient to determine the resin flow front, showing an improvement regarding mass conservation across volumes.

  16. Flow-dependent entrapment of large bioparticles in porous process media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilisky, Egor I; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    The need for purification of biomolecules extends to larger bioparticles as well. For example, virus purification is required for production of many vaccines and gene delivery vectors, and understanding virus removal in porous media is also important in downstream processing of therapeutic proteins and in purification of water in soils. A convective entrapment mechanism for retention of large bioparticles is discussed here based on retention of such bioparticles in pore constrictions at high enough flow rates, even under non-binding conditions. A simple equation to predict whether such entrapment is expected to occur in a given system is derived based on a Péclet number that is proportional to the flow rate and to the cube of the bioparticle diameter. To test the theory, adenovirus was spiked onto chromatographic beds. As expected from the theory, under non-interacting conditions a progressively larger amount of virus becomes trapped with increasing flow rate. The entrapment is reversible upon flow rate reduction, which, within the proposed model, is based on the possibility of diffusive escape from pore constrictions. This mechanism can be exploited for virus purification or removal, and the theory is also consistent with the anecdotal evidence that monoliths and membranes are more difficult to clean than conventional chromatographic beds, especially at high flow rates. PMID:19459138

  17. A numerical investigation of the resin flow front tracking applied to the RTM process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeferson Avila, Souza; Luiz Alberto Oliveira, Rocha; Sandro Campos, Amico; José Viriato Coelho, Vargas.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is largely used for the manufacturing of high-quality composite components and the key stage during processing is the resin infiltration. The complete understanding of this phenomenon is of utmost importance for efficient mold construction and the fast production of high [...] quality components. This paper investigates the resin flow phenomenon within the mold. A computational application was developed to track the resin flow-front position, which uses a finite volume method to determine the pressure field and a FAN (Flow Analysis Network) technique to track the flow front. The mass conservation problem observed with traditional FE-CV (Finite Element-Control Volume) methods is also investigated and the use of a finite volume method to minimize this inconsistency is proposed. Three proposed case studies are used to validate the methodology by direct comparison with analytical and a commercial software solutions. The results show that the proposed methodology is highly efficient to determine the resin flow front, showing an improvement regarding mass conservation across volumes.

  18. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  19. Research on fracture analysis, groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Due to increasing demand for numerous industrial facilities including nuclear power plants and waste repositories, the feasibility of rocks masses as sites for the facilities has been a geological issue of concern. Rock masses, in general, comprises systems of fractures which can provide pathways for groundwater flow and may also affect the stability of engineered structures. such properties of fractures stimulate a synthetic study on (1) analyses of fracture systems, and (2) characterization of groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks to establish a preliminary model for assessing suitable sites for industrial facilities. The analyses of fracture systems cover (1) reconstruction of the Cenozoic tectonic movements and estimation of frequency indices for the Holocene tectonic movements, (2) determination of distributions and block movements of the Quaternary marine terraces, (3) investigation of lithologic and geotechnical nature of study area, and (4) examination of the Cenozoic volcanic activities and determination of age of the dike swarms. Using data obtained from above mentioned analyses along with data related to earthquakes and active faults, probabilistic approach is performed to determine various potential hazards which may result from the Quaternary or the Holocene tectonic movements. In addition, stepwise and careful integration of various data obtained from field works and laboratory experiments are carried out to analyze groundwater flow in fractures rocks as follows; (1) investigation of geological feature of the site, (2) identification and characterization of fracture systems using core and televiewer logs, (3) determination of conductive fractures using electrical conductivity, temperature, and flow logs, (4) identification of hydraulic connections between fractures using televiewer logs with tracer tests within specific zones. The results obtained from these processes allow a qualitative interpretation of groundwater flow patterns in the study area. Column experiments of some reactive radionuclides are also performed to examine sorption processes of the radionuclides including retardation coefficients. (author). 118 refs., 18 tabs., 35 figs.

  20. Research on fracture analysis, groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Ha; Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Seung-Gu [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Due to increasing demand for numerous industrial facilities including nuclear power plants and waste repositories, the feasibility of rocks masses as sites for the facilities has been a geological issue of concern. Rock masses, in general, comprises systems of fractures which can provide pathways for groundwater flow and may also affect the stability of engineered structures. For the study of groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks, five boreholes were drilled. A stepwise and careful integration of various data obtained from field works and laboratory experiments were carried out to analyze groundwater flow in fractured rocks as follows; (1) investigation of geological feature of the site, (2) identification and characterization of fracture systems using core and televiewer logs, (3) determination of hydrogeological properties of fractured aquifers using geophysical borehole logging, pumping and slug tests, and continuous monitoring of groundwater level and quality, (4) evaluation of groundwater flow patterns using fluid flow modeling. The results obtained from these processes allow a qualitative interpretation of fractured aquifers in the study area. Column experiments of some reactive radionuclides were also performed to examine sorption processes of the radionuclides including retardation coefficients. In addition, analyses of fracture systems covered (1) reconstruction of the Cenozoic tectonic movements and estimation of frequency indices for the Holocene tectonic movements, (2) determination of distributions and block movements of the Quaternary marine terraces, (3) investigation of lithologic and geotechnical nature of study area, and (4) examination of the Cenozoic volcanic activities and determination of age of the dike swarms. Using data obtained from above mentioned analyses along with data related to earthquakes and active faults, probabilistic approach was performed to determine various potential hazards which may result from the Quaternary or the Holocene tectonic movements. (author). 223 refs., 55 tabs., 144 figs.