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Arthroscopic Repair of "Peel-Off" Lesion of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament at the Femoral Condyle  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral “peel-off” injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint.

Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-01-01

2

Arthroscopic repair of "peel-off" lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament at the femoral condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are uncommon, and most occur in association with other lesions. The treatment of PCL injuries remains controversial; in addition, PCL injuries have been documented to have a propensity to heal. In the literature several different patterns of PCL injury have been described including midsubstance tears/injuries, tibial bony avulsions, femoral bony avulsions, and femoral "peel-off" injuries. A peel-off injury is a complete or incomplete soft-tissue disruption of the PCL at its femoral attachment site without associated bony avulsion. In recent years arthroscopic repair of femoral avulsion and peel-off lesions of the PCL has been reported. In most of these articles, a transosseous repair with sutures passed through 2 bone tunnels into the medial femoral condyle has been described. We present a case of a femoral PCL avulsion in a 20-year-old collegiate football player with an associated medial collateral ligament injury, and we report about a novel technique for PCL repair using 2 No. 2 FiberWire sutures and two 2.9-mm PushLock anchors (Arthrex) to secure tensioning the ligament at its footprint. PMID:24749037

Rosso, Federica; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Amendola, Annunziato

2014-02-01

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A rare case of bilateral non-weight bearing posterior aspect of lateral femoral condyle osteochondral fracture and its management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle can be a real challenging injury to diagnose on initial presentation. The authors report a rare case of bilateral involvement of posterior aspect of lateral femoral condyle osteochondral fracture in a young 15-year-old boy. This was managed with excision of these osteochondral fragments, as the site involved was on the posterior non-weight bearing area of the femur along with chronicity of the injury dictating excision as a reasonable choice of management. Good outcome for such injury is based on an early diagnosis and prompt treatment along with an early rehabilitation for such cases. Our patient has an excellent 2?years outcome with a Knee Society score of 95 after undergoing excision of these osteochondral fragments in both knees in succession. PMID:24825555

Shaikh, Aamir Hassan; Stanclik, Jaroslaw; Murphy, Paul G D

2014-01-01

4

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

2010-01-01

5

Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

2010-01-15

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Tratamiento quirúrgico de la fractura posterior del condilo femoral / Femoral condylar posterior fracture: Surgical treatment / Traitement chirurgical de la fracture postérieure du condyle fémoral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las fracturas distales del fémur representan solamente el 6 % de todas las fracturas femorales. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 42 años que sufrió accidente del transito, que le provocó fractura unicondilar del extremo distal del fémur en el plano coronal, conocida como fractura de H [...] offa. Se muestra el tratamiento quirúrgico realizado mediante estudios radiológicos, donde se utilizó tornillo del sistema AO. Con este tipo de proceder se obtuvo reducción y estabilidad de la fractura. Se concluye que una planificación preoperatorio adecuada es necesaria para obtener resultados satisfactorios. Abstract in english Femoral distal fractures accounts for only the 6 % of all femoral ones. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 42 suffered a road accident provoking a unicondylar fracture of femur distal end in coronal plane , known as Hoffa fracture. Surgical treatment by radiological studies is showed, w [...] here we used a screw of AO system. Using this procedure we achieved the fracture reduction and stability. We conclude that an appropriate preoperative planning is necessary to get satisfactory results.

Pérez Rivera, Orlando Manuel; Palanco Domínguez, Lourdes E..

7

Evaluation of the intraosseous and extraosseous blood supply to the distal femoral condyles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteonecrosis of the distal femur occurs more often in the medial femoral condyle than in the lateral femoral condyle, but the vascular supply to these regions has not previously been described. Twelve fresh adult cadaver legs were injected with india ink or latex via the femoral artery and then meticulously dissected to evaluate the extraosseous blood supply. After all soft tissue was removed, the intraosseous blood supply was evaluated using a modified Spateholtz technique. The vascular structures at risk during posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were also identified. The analysis of the extraosseous arterial supply demonstrated that the superior and inferior lateral genicular arteries combine to supply the lateral femoral condyle. The medial femoral condyle is supplied primarily by the superior medial genicular artery and other lesser branches of the popliteal artery. The intraosseous supply to the lateral condyle was shown to consist of an arcade of vessels providing multiple branches to the subchondral bone with no obvious "watershed" region of limited vascularity. The intraosseous supply to the medial condyle appeared to consist of a single nutrient vessel supplying the subchondral bone with an apparent watershed area of limited supply. A potentially significant difference exists between the intraosseous and extraosseous blood supply to the medial and lateral femoral condyles that may explain the higher frequency of ischemic events occurring in the medial femoral condyle. The close proximity of the extraosseous vessels to the medial femoral condyle and the standard femoral tunnel used during posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may explain the occurrence of avascular necrosis after this procedure. PMID:9617405

Reddy, A S; Frederick, R W

1998-01-01

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Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

2002-05-04

9

Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery. Retrospective review of 10 patients who presented with avascular necrosis of the ipsilateral femoral condyle following arthroscopic meniscectomy (9 medial, 1 lateral). The bone lesions were evaluated by radiography and MRI, which were repeated for few patients. MRI allows earlier diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral condyle and offers an evaluation of extent of the lesions whose evolution is variable: 3 patients required a knee prosthesis, the other 7 patients were treated medically. (authors)

1997-04-01

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Autogenous osteochondral grafts for osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle.  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcome following use of osteochondral autografts for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle. METHODS: Clinical, radiographic and arthroscopic findings were evaluated at follow-up. Patients were 14 women and 2 men, with a mean age of 64.9 years (range, 58-74 years. The osteochondral lesion was equivalent to Lotke 1-B in 12 knees, and was equivalent to 1-C in 4 knees. Preoperative femoral tibia angle ranged from 178 degrees to 190 degrees. RESULTS: The follow-up period ranged from 28 months to 111 months (mean, 67 months. Functional scores improved from 60 to 75 preoperatively to 80 to 100 postoperatively, and the grafts were satisfactorily accepted. Patients with a femoral tibia angle of less than 180 degrees in particular were found to respond favourably. CONCLUSION: Transplant surgery using osteochondral autografting appeared effective for the treatment of osteonecrosis of femoral condyle.

Kotani A

2003-12-01

11

Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve conduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is a sensory nerve comprised of fibers originating from the anterior and posterior divisions of the first three sacral segments. It exists the pelvis distal to the piriformis muscle and proceeds distally, superficial to and between the medial and lateral hamstring musculature. The nerve's major cutaneous distribution is the posterior aspect of the thigh and a variable area of the posterior calf. An electrophysiologic technique to assess the peripheral axons of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is described. A recording electrode is placed 6cm proximal to the midpopliteal fossa and the nerve is stimulated supramaximally 12cm proximally on a line between the active electrode and the ischial tuberosity. A ground electrode is placed just proximal to the active recording electrode. The lower extremities of 40 individuals with a mean age of 34 years (20 to 78 years) were examined. The mean peak latency of the response is 2.8 (2.3 to 3.4) msec +/- 0.2msec with a mean amplitude of 6.5 (4.1 to 12.0) microV +/- 1.5 microV. This technique may facilitate the proximal evaluation of lower extremity peripheral neuropathies, lesions of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, or the assessment of the peripheral nervous system in persons with lower extremity amputations. PMID:2241545

Dumitru, D; Nelson, M R

1990-11-01

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IN VIVO MOTION OF FEMORAL CONDYLES DURING WEIGHT-BEARING FLEXION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE USING BIPLANE RADIOGRAPHY  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05, whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05. Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05. Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05. The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°

Kaining Chen

2013-09-01

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Dynamic scintigraphic study of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome and of osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone scintigraphy associated with a dynamic study is being increasingly used in order to improve the specificity of the method. This dynamic study is performed with the injection of a bone seeker 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The method is found to be valuable for early identification of patients with suspected reflex sympathetic distrophy syndrome and with osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle

1985-01-01

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Posterior cruciate ligament mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle: a case report  

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Abstract Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon. On the basis of the site of damage of the PCL, hyperflexion, pretibial trauma, and hyperextension are proposed as mechanisms of PCL injuries. On the other hand, avulsion fractures of the tibial condyle are also rare. We report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by extension-distraction force on the knee that has not been previously...

Ogawa Hiroyasu; Sumi Hiroshi; Shimizu Katsuji

2010-01-01

15

Osteochondritis dissecans in bilateral lateral femoral condyle in knees / Osteocondrite dissecante em côndilo femural lateral bilateral nos joelhos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A osteocondrite dissecante (OCD) é uma patologia de causa desconhecida, que classicamente acomete no joelho a borda lateral do côndilo femural medial. Apresentamos um raro caso de OCD no côndilo femural lateral bilateral. [...] Abstract in english The osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a disease of unknown cause that classically affects the knee lateral border of the medial femoral condyle. We present a rare case of OCD in bilateral lateral femoral condyle. [...

Zekcer, Ari; Silva, Ricardo Soares da; Iwashita, Renato Akira; Carneiro Filho, Mario.

16

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with tibial plateau and femoral condyle insufficiency stress fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to describe the association between spontaneous osteonecrosis and insufficiency stress fractures of the knee. To determine whether insufficiency stress fracture is associated with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and imaging studies of all patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, studied by MR imaging, seen in a tertiary hospital over an 8-year period. Four women (age range 66-84 years) presented spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau. One of these patients also presented a concomitant insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle. Radiographs were diagnostic of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle in three cases, and insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was detected in one case. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the diagnosis of both conditions in all four cases. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee may be associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau. This association provides additional arguments in favor of the traumatic etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of knee. (orig.)

Narvaez, J.A.; Narvaez, J.; Lama, E.De; Sanchez, A. [Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, IDI Hospital Duran i Reynals, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, Gran Via s/n, 08907, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona) (Spain)

2003-08-01

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment neuropathy: operative exposure and technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesion is rare. There have been seven reported cases to date. We report a 51-year-old male with pain in the posterolateral thigh, atypical from the classic anatomical description. Somatosensory evoked potentials were suggestive of a posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesion. We describe our operative exposure and technique for decompression of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and include a comparative anatomical explanation for the unusual area of our patient's pain. PMID:12201406

Mobbs, R J; Szkandera, B; Blum, P

2002-06-01

18

Posterior cruciate ligament mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle: a case report  

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Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon. On the basis of the site of damage of the PCL, hyperflexion, pretibial trauma, and hyperextension are proposed as mechanisms of PCL injuries. On the other hand, avulsion fractures of the tibial condyle are also rare. We report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by extension-distraction force on the knee that has not been previously described in any s...

Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

2010-01-01

19

Posterior cruciate ligament mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL are uncommon. On the basis of the site of damage of the PCL, hyperflexion, pretibial trauma, and hyperextension are proposed as mechanisms of PCL injuries. On the other hand, avulsion fractures of the tibial condyle are also rare. We report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by extension-distraction force on the knee that has not been previously described in any study. This rare case may imply that application of an extension-distraction force to the PCL cause the avulsion fracture.

Ogawa Hiroyasu

2010-09-01

20

Spatial Patterns of Cartilage Loss in the Medial Femoral Condyle in Osteoarthritic Knees: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to develop a technique for analyzing spatial patterns of cartilage loss in the medial femoral condyle (MF), and to study MF cartilage loss in participants of the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Using a 0.7mm sagittal double echo at steady state (DESS) sequence, 160 osteoarthritic knees from 80 participants with varying degrees of medial joint space narrowing were imaged at baseline and 1-year follow-up. MF cartilage was segmented and cartilage loss determined. Rate of change varied significantly (P = 0.0067) along the anterior-posterior extension of the MF, with the greatest changes (?45 ?m, ?2.7%) observed 30–60° posterior to the trochlear notch. The rate was greater in the central MF after excluding peripheral aspects of the MF from analysis. Sensitivity to change was greatest at 45–75° (standardized response mean = ?0.32) but was minimally affected by medial-lateral trimming. In conclusion, the greatest sensitivity to change was achieved when analyzing the posterior aspect of the central, weight-bearing MF.

Wirth, Wolfgang; Benichou, Olivier; Kwoh, C. Kent; Guermazi, Ali; Hunter, David; Putz, Reinhard; Eckstein, Felix

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Necrosis of the femoral condyles in a four-week-old foal: clinical, imaging and histopathological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-week-old Thoroughbred filly foal with a history of sepsis was evaluated for right hindlimb lameness. Bilateral femoropatellar and femorotibial joint effusions were detected. Ultrasonography and radiography of the right stifle revealed signs of joint collapse and periarticular swelling. Computed tomography revealed abnormalities in the bone density of the medial femoral condyle of the right hindlimb and lateral femoral condyle of the left hindlimb. Euthanasia was recommended based on the severity of the lesions. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed extensive separation of the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex from the subchondral bone of the femoral condyles. The histological features suggest an ischaemic aetiology; comparisons are made with lesions of osteochondrosis and avascular necrosis of bone. PMID:22594034

Haggett, E F; Foote, A K; Head, M J; McGladdery, A J; Powell, S E

2012-02-01

22

Isolated injection injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sciatic nerve is by far the most common nerve accidentally injured during intramuscular injection. Despite its close proximity to the sciatic nerve, however, injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is apparently quite rare. In this report, clinical features of a patient with isolated injection injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve are described. PMID:2586740

Iyer, V G; Shields, C B

1989-11-01

23

Autogenous osteochondral graft transplantation for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle: A report of three young patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle is a relatively uncommon condition and is often difficult to select appropriate treatment especially in young patients. Three young men (aged 25, 18, and 24 presented with severe pain and dysfunction of the knee diagnosed as steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs. Full-thickness cartilage defects sized 20 × 10, 15 × 10, and 30 × 20 mm respectively were classified as International Cartilage Repair Society Grade IV lesions and treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation. They were treated successfully with osteochondral autograft transplantation certificated by post-operative MRI and second look arthroscopy.

Fujita Norifumi

2012-04-01

24

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous neuropathy following intragluteal injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesions are rarely encountered. Electrophysiological documentation has only been made in a few cases. In this study we evaluated a 22-year-old woman with sensory loss and pain in the lower buttock and posterior thigh after left gluteal intramuscular injection. We assessed the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve using an accepted conduction technique. The results showed a normal response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side. PMID:19623639

Kim, Jee-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Jung Seok; Kang, Sa-Yoon

2009-11-01

25

Shape and site dependent in vivo degradation of Mg-Zn pins in rabbit femoral condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits' femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics. PMID:24566138

Han, Pei; Tan, Moyan; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Ji, Weiping; Li, Jianan; Zhang, Xiaonong; Zhao, Changli; Zheng, Yufeng; Chai, Yimin

2014-01-01

26

Shape and Site Dependent in Vivo Degradation of Mg-Zn Pins in Rabbit Femoral Condyle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics.

Pei Han

2014-02-01

27

Ectopic bone formation after medial femoral condyle graft to scaphoid nonunion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free vascularized bone graft from the medial femoral condyle has been described as a superior method for treatment of recalcitrant scaphoid nonunion with proximal pole avascularity and humpback deformity. Few complications and high union rates have been reported. In a series of three patients we describe an undesired volar ossification as a potential complication of the method. The risk of developing the ectopic bone formation can be minimized if the surgeon is aware of the strong osteogenic capacity of the periosteum. Meticulous dissection of the vascular bundle to the graft is mandatory to avoid the complication. Caution is warranted so as not to leave a periosteal sleeve under the vessels at the margin of the graft. PMID:24533246

Vedung, Torbjörn; Vinnars, Bertil

2014-02-01

28

Mosaic arthroplasty of the medial femoral condyle in horses - An experimental study.  

Science.gov (United States)

One Arabian and 5 Hungarian half-bred horses were used to study the macroscopic and microscopic survival of autologous osteochondral grafts in the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Grafts were harvested from the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea (MFT) under arthroscopic control. Three of them were transplanted into the weight-bearing surface of the contralateral MFC using an arthrotomy approach. Three months later this transplantation procedure was repeated on the opposite stifle joints in the same animals, but at that time transplantation was performed arthroscopically. Follow-up arthroscopy was carried out 12 months after the first operations, and biopsies were taken from both the recipient and the donor sites for histological examination. During follow-up arthroscopy, the transplanted areas looked congruent and smooth. Microscopically, the characteristics of hyaline cartilage were present in 5 out of the 10 biopsies examined; however, in the other half of biopsies glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss and change in the architecture of the transplanted cartilage was observed. In a 16-year-old horse, all grafts broke during harvesting, and thus transplantation was not performed. No radiological signs of osteoarthritic changes were detected 9 to 12 months after the operations in the donor and recipient joints. Clinically, no lameness or effusion was present three months after the transplantations. PMID:24334083

Bodó, Gábor; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Hangody, László; Módis, László

2014-06-01

29

Intraosseous ganglion in the subchondral region of the lateral femoral condyle in an 11-year-old girl: a case report  

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Abstract We report the case of a patient with intraosseous ganglion in the lateral femoral condyle. An 11-year-old girl presented with right knee pain following a twisting injury. Plain radiographs of the knee showed a small circumscribed radiolucency with a thin sclerotic margin in the subchondral region of the lateral femoral condyle. Although the image findings and location are not typical, the lesion was tentatively diagnosed as osteochodritis dissecans. Six months after the con...

Nakayama Hiroshi; Yagi Masayoshi; Yoshiya Shinichi

2009-01-01

30

Objective assessments of medial osteoarthritic knee severity by MRI: new computer software to evaluate femoral condyle contours  

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An irregular contour of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to indicate the severity of medial-type knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to establish a system to enable objective assessments of OA knee severity using newly developed software that semi-automatically measures irregularity of the MFC. (1) We evaluated 48 patients aged 50–83 years with 55 knees of medial-type OA. The following scores were recorded: Lysholm score, visu...

Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasho, Takahisa; Tahara, Masamichi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Matsuki, Kei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

2010-01-01

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A new automatic landmark extraction framework on ultrasound images of femoral condyles  

Science.gov (United States)

In Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery (CAOS), surgeons have to acquire some anatomical landmarks as inputs to the system. To do so, they use manual pointers that are localized in the Operating Room (OR) space using an infrared camera. When the needed landmark is not reachable through an opening, it is palpated directly on skin and there is a loss of precision that can vary from several millimeters to centimeters depending on the thickness of soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a new framework based on three main steps to register the bone surface and extract automatically anatomical landmarks with an ultrasound probe. This framework is based on an oriented gradient calculation, a simulated-compound and a contour closure using a graph representation. The oriented gradient allows extracting a set of pixels that probably belong to the bone surface. The simulatedcompound step allows using ultrasound images properties to define a set of small segments which may belong to the bone surface, and the graph representation allows eliminating false positive detection among remaining segments. The proposed method has been validated on a database of 230 ultrasound images of anterior femoral condyles (on the knee). The average computation time is 0.11 sec per image, and average errors are: 0.54 mm for the bone surface extraction, 0.31 mm for the condylar line, and 1.4 mm for the trochlea middle.

Masson-Sibut, Agnès; Nakib, Amir; Petit, Eric; Leitner, François

2012-02-01

32

Detection of locking bolt loosening in the stem-condyle junction of a modular femoral stem in revision total knee arthroplasty.  

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We report one case of loosening of the locking bolt in the stem-condyle junction of a constrained modular femoral component in revision total knee arthroplasty. Early detection of loosening of the locking bolt was possible using reconstructed view of computerized tomography scans before complete disengagement and radiographic loosening of the stemmed femoral component. When using the Total Condyle III femoral component with a stem extension, surgeons should keep in mind that stress concentration at the stem-condyle junction can result in failure of the locking bolt although it is rare and that loosening or disengagement of the locking bolt may be a sign of a loose stemmed femoral component. PMID:19682838

Ahn, Jae-Min; Suh, Jeung-Tak

2010-06-01

33

Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve neuropathy and somatosensory evoked potentials.  

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Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) entrapment has only rarely been described in the literature and never documented electrophysiologically. We report an unusual occurrence of such an injury and use somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to explore the extent of the lesion. A 40-year-old woman had localized numbness of the right posterior thigh after a left putamenal hemorrhage four years before this study. She made a complete recovery from her stroke within four months; however, she continued to experience decreased sensation in the right posterior thigh. Normal sural and peroneal nerve latencies, velocities, and amplitudes were obtained in the right leg. Electromyographic examination of right leg and related para spinal musculature was unremarkable. SSEP were then performed with CZ'-FZ (10-20 system) electrode placement. Normal sural, lateral femoral cutaneous, and posterior tibial responses were obtained bilaterally. Response differences consistent with an isolated right PFCN neuropathy were observed. The perfectly symmetric SSEP responses for the sural, lateral femoral cutaneous, and posterior tibial nerves obviate a central, and substantiate a peripheral, cause for the altered right PFCN evoked response. PMID:2827603

Dumitru, D; Marquis, S

1988-01-01

34

An approach to posterior femoral cutaneous nerve block.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach to blocking the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve at the point where its branches emerge from below the medial border of gluteus maximus is described. This is located by inserting the needle at a point one quarter of the distance from the ischial tuberosity to the greater trochanter in the gluteal fold and then feeling two distinct losses of resistance as superficial and deep fascia are penetrated with a short-bevelled needle. PMID:3565724

Hughes, P J; Brown, T C

1986-11-01

35

Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve mononeuropathy: a case report.  

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Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) lesions are rare, with only six cases reported in the modern literature and one case documented with a nerve conduction study. A 25-year-old woman had sensory loss in the posterolateral thigh after two right gluteal intramuscular injections. Nerve conduction studies using Dumitru's technique showed a 9microV response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side, and no abnormalities on needle examination of the back and lower extremities. Although a single case does not prove the validity of a technique, this case provides the rare opportunity to demonstrate the utility of Dumitru's technique. PMID:10943764

Tong, H C; Haig, A

2000-08-01

36

Stability of osteochondral fragments of the femoral condyle: Magnetic resonance imaging with histopathologic correlation in an animal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of surgically induced osteochondral fragments of the femoral condyle was examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences in 7 dogs; contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were also obtained. MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. Two loose and five stable fragments were found after injection of contrast medium. With the loose fragments, a well-defined line of high signal intensity between the fragment and the epiphysis showed marked enhancement. Stable fragments also showed a similar, but irregularly defined line on plain sequences, but no enhancement after injection of contrast medium. Fibrocartilaginous repair at the articular cartilage surface also showed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging allowed an exact delineation of the line of separation of unstable osteochondral fragments in this animal model with differentiation from a similar line occurring in stable fragments. (orig./GDG)

1991-01-01

37

Stability of osteochondral fragments of the femoral condyle: Magnetic resonance imaging with histopathologic correlation in an animal model  

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The stability of surgically induced osteochondral fragments of the femoral condyle was examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences in 7 dogs; contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were also obtained. MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. Two loose and five stable fragments were found after injection of contrast medium. With the loose fragments, a well-defined line of high signal intensity between the fragment and the epiphysis showed marked enhancement. Stable fragments also showed a similar, but irregularly defined line on plain sequences, but no enhancement after injection of contrast medium. Fibrocartilaginous repair at the articular cartilage surface also showed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging allowed an exact delineation of the line of separation of unstable osteochondral fragments in this animal model with differentiation from a similar line occurring in stable fragments. (orig./GDG).

Adam, G.; Buehne, M.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.; Bohndorf, K.; Guenther, R.W. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie); Prescher, A. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Anatomisches Inst.)

1991-11-01

38

Arthroscopic assessment of human cartilage stiffness of the femoral condyles and the patella with a new tactile sensor.  

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We measured the stiffness of the cartilage of the human femoral condyles via an ultrasonic tactile sensor under arthroscopic control. The stiffness and the degeneration of articular cartilage were assessed in 105 knees in 74 patients (39 men, 35 women, age: 9-72 years) who underwent arthroscopic observation or surgery. Twenty-five knees suffered from traumatic cartilage injury, 14 from osteochondritis dissecans, 13 from osteoarthritis, 11 from meniscal injury and six from ligamentous injury, bipartita patellae (three knees), and symptomatic plica synovialis (two knees). The degeneration of cartilage was classified according to Outerbridge's grading system. The relationships between the stiffness and the grade of cartilage degeneration, and gender were analyzed. The stiffness of grade I (softening) and II (fissuring less than 0.5 inches in length) was significantly lower than that of intact cartilage. In contrast, the stiffness of grade IV (exposed subchondral bone) was significantly higher than that of any other group. The cartilage stiffness of the patella in women was significantly lower than that in men. The tactile sensor was useful for determining the intraoperative stiffness of healthy and diseased human cartilage in all grades. PMID:12135651

Uchio, Y; Ochi, M; Adachi, N; Kawasaki, K; Iwasa, J

2002-07-01

39

Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN gel at the bottom of the defect. Methods Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I, 2.5-mm depth (in Group II, or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. Results The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle.

Onodera Shin

2011-02-01

40

A rare case of communicating branch between the posterior femoral cutaneous and the sciatic nerves.  

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During routine dissection of a 75-year-old male cadaver, we observed a communicating branch between the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and the sciatic nerve. The connection was 11 cm below the infrapiriform foramen and was 3 cm long. Excluding this communicating branch, the origin, course and distribution of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve showed no variation. The other branches of the sacral plexus were as usual. PMID:21424057

Tunali, S; Cankara, Neslihan; Albay, S

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The vascularized medial femoral condyle periosteal bone flap for the treatment of recalcitrant bony nonunions.  

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The purpose of this study was to examine our experience with this flap for the treatment of recalcitrant nonunions of the extremities. A retrospective chart review was performed on 11 consecutive patients treated with the medial femoral periosteal bone flap from June 2003 to March 2005. Patient demographics, nonunion characteristics, complications, and long-term outcome based on radiographic and clinical parameters were analyzed. Nine free transfers and 3 pedicled flaps were used for a total of 12 nonunion sites in 11 patients. The average age of the patient population was 49 years (21-64 years). The location of the nonunion sites were femur (n = 4), tibia (n = 2), humerus (n = 3), clavicle (n = 2), and radius (n = 1). The nonunion sites were secondary to traumatic fractures complicated by osteomyelitis (n = 10) and tumor extirpation (n = 2). The time period of nonunion prior to the use of vascularized periosteal bone graft ranged from 10 months to 23 years (median = 23 months). All patients had previous attempts at debridement with or without antibiotic bead placement, and all underwent rigid fixation with or without nonvascularized bone grafts prior to vascularized grafting. Following flap placement, 9 (75%) of the nonunion sites healed primarily without complication at an average period of 3.8 months (2-7 months). Two nonunions healed secondarily following hardware modification. There was only 1 flap failure secondary to arterial thrombosis, resulting in a below-knee amputation. The rate of limb salvage was 91%. Donor-site morbidity was minimal, with postoperative seromas occurring in 3 patients. PMID:18216511

Choudry, Umar H; Bakri, Karim; Moran, Steven L; Karacor, Zeynep; Shin, Alexander Y

2008-02-01

42

Residual posterior femoral condyle osteophyte affects the flexion range after total knee replacement  

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We followed up 92 patients with total knee replacement and a pre-operative knee flexion of at least 90°. The patients were followed up regularly at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. The outcome measured was the amount of maximum passive knee flexion at the end of 1 year after replacement. The potential factors affecting the final flexion range were investigated. After regression analysis, apart from pre-operative knee flexion (p<0.001), the most significant independent surgical factors that pre...

Yau, W. P.; Chiu, K. Y.; Tang, W. M.; Ng, T. P.

2005-01-01

43

Serial contrast-enhanced MRI of the condyle and posterior disk attachment for assessing temporomandibular joint disorders  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (SCE-MRI) in assessing temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). SCE-MRI was performed for 114 patients with TMD. As controls, 50 asymptomatic joints of patients with unilateral symptoms were examined. Peak signal intensity ratio (pSIR) was calculated referring to signal intensity of precontrast images of the condyle (CON) and posterior disk attachment (PDA). Relationships among pSIR, existence of disease, stage of disk displacement, and clinical stages of disease were studied. Mean pSIRs of CON and PDA were significantly higher in affected joints (CON: 1.41±054; PDA 0.97±0.64) than in asymptomatic groups (CON: 1.01±0.42; PDA: 0.60±0.45). Mean pSIRs of CON and PDA were significantly higher in patients with disk displacement without reduction (CON: 1.49±0.58; PDA: 1.07±0.66) than in patients with disk displacement with reduction (CON: 1.25±0.41, PDA: 0.75±0.55). Mean pSIR of CON was significantly lower in stage IIIa (1.17±0.43) than in stage IIIb (1.45±0.56) or IV (1.57±0.53). The pSIR obtained by SCE-MRI reflects clinical symptoms and offers potential diagnostic value in determining clinical stages and in follow-up for patients with TMDs. (author)

2006-03-01

44

Femoral neck narrowing following hip resurfacing using posterior and Ganz approaches at two years.  

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We report a retrospective review of femoral head/neck ratios on post-operative and two year follow-up radiographs following hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The patients were in two matched groups, having had surgery through a posterior approach or via a Ganz trochanteric flip. There was no significant difference in femoral neck narrowing at follow up between the two surgical approaches. However, we found significant narrowing of the femoral neck in both groups by the time of the two year follow-up radiograph. PMID:21948029

Deans, Victoria M; Ho, Ki Wai K; Prakash, Udai; Parsons, Nick; Griffin, Damian R; Foguet, Pedro

2011-01-01

45

Riscos e consequências do uso da técnica transportal na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior: relação entre o túnel femoral, a artéria genicular lateral superior e o epicôndilo lateral do côndilo femoral / Risks and consequences of using the transportal technique in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament: relationships between the femoral tunnel, lateral superior genicular artery and lateral epicondyle of the femoral condyle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Definir zona de segurança para evitar possíveis complicações vasculares e ligamentares durante a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Reconstrução artroscópica com uso de técnica transportal e transtibial em joelhos de cadáver foi realizada seguida de dissecção e mensuração [...] da distância entre o túnel femoral e a inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral e o túnel femoral e a artéria genicular lateral superior. RESULTADOS: A mensuração das distâncias analisadas mostra uma aproximação maior do principal ramo da artéria genicular lateral superior e da inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral com o túnel femoral, realizado com a técnica transportal. CONCLUSÃO: Percebemos que o uso da técnica transportal para reconstrução artroscópica do LCA apresenta maior probabilidade de lesão da artéria genicular lateral e da inserção do ligamento colateral lateral, favorecendo complicações pós-cirúrgicas como instabilidade do joelho, osteonecrose do côndilo femoral lateral e ligamentização do enxerto. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Define a security zone to avoid possibles vascular and ligamentar complications during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial and transportal technique in cadaver knees was performed followed by dissection and measurement of t [...] he distance between the femoral tunnel and the proximal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the femoral tunnel and the lateral superior genicular artery. RESULTS: The measure of the analysed distances show us an aproximation between the major branch of the lateral superior genicular artery and the femoral insertion of the colateral lateral ligament and the femoral tunnel during the transportal technique. CONCLUSION: We realize that the use of technical ship it to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has a higher probability of injury to the lateral geniculate artery and insertion of the lateral collateral ligament, promoting post-surgical complications such as instability of the knee, osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle and ligamentização graft.

Diego Costa, Astur; Vinicius, Aleluia; Ciro Veronese, Santos; Gustavo Gonçalves, Arliani; Ricardo, Badra; Saulo Gomes, Oliveira; Camila Cohen, Kaleka; Moisés, Cohen.

46

Comparative morphological remarks on the origin of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

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The origin and course of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve were observed macroscopically in 38 Japanese adult cadavers which were dissected in the University of Hokkaido, Faculty of Medicine during the years 1971/72 and the results obtained were compared with those from some other mammals (rat, rabbit, dog and cat) and a number of bibliographical findings on the other animals. On the basis of the archetype of the pudendal plexus, the site of origin of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was divided into seven portions as follows: the sciatic nerve or inferior gluteal nerve (I) and its originating roots (RI), the bigeminal nerve (B) and its originating roots (RB), the part of junction of I and B (CIB), the pudendal nerve (P) and its originating roots (RP). According to the arising mode, the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was calssified into seven types: Type A (the sciatic nerve type); the nerve arises from I and RI (horse, rat, bird, frog and salamander). Type B (the sciatic transitional type); the nerve arises from I, RI, CIB, RB and B (MAN AND MONKEY). Type C (the bigeminal nerve type); the nerve arises from CIB, RB and B (gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, cat and sphenodon). Type D (the pudendal transitional type); the nerve arises from CIB, RB, B, RP and P (dog). Type E (the pudendal nerve type); the nerve arises from RP and P (pig, cattle and rabbit). Type F (the mixed type); a mixture of A to E types. These various patterns in the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve may be explained by the comparative anatomical explanation on the limb medial rotation given in Braus' text-book of Anatomy (Bd. I, S. 273). From these descriptions it is reasonable to presume that the main trunk of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the tetrapod below the Aves arises from the sciatic nerve and is analogous to the gluteal branches of mammals, with its main stem still retained in the pudendal nerve. If the cutaneous area supplied by the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve expands to the lateral border of the buttock in company with the lower limb medial rotation, the part between this area and that supplied by the pudendal nerve is enlarged. At first, these expanded areas are probably supplied by the branches of the pudendal nerve, which gradually become independent to become the main stem of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve in mammals. This nerve seems, therefore, to be primarily a division of the pedendal nerve, and so in man has various types of arising patterns, A to E, in accordance with the scheme in the phylogeny. Those hypothetical changes are observed in the human sacral plexus, from which the cutaneous nerve arises with a fan-shaped overlapping. PMID:1275304

Nakanishi, T; Kanno, Y; Kaneshige

1976-01-01

47

Anatomical study and morphometric analyses on the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide an anatomical and morphometric basis for the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in order to aid in the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels in ligament surgical reconstruction. Study design: laboratory controlled study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The macroscopic details of the femoral insertions of the PCL's anterolateral (AL and posteromedial (PM bundles were analyzed in 24 cadaver knees. The specimens were photographed with a digital camera and the images obtained were studied using the software ImageJ. The bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of the structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The PCL's femoral insertion average total area was 87.29 ± 31.42 mm².The mean insertion's areas of the AL and PM bundles were, respectively, 47.13 ± 19.14 and 40.67 ± 16.19 mm². In 95.8% of the examined knees was verified the presence of the medial intercondylar ridge and in 83.3% of the knees was noted the medial bifurcated ridge. The average length of the medial intercondylar ridge was 20.54 ± 2.26 mm and the medial bifurcated ridge's average length was 7.62 ± 2.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The AL had a femoral insertion area larger than the PM bundle; these bundles' insertion areas were lower than those previously described in the literature. There were important individual variations related to the area of the bundles in the samples, suggesting that there should be an individual recommendation for anatomical reconstructions of the PCL with single or double femoral tunnels.

Julio Cesar Gali

2013-04-01

48

Anatomical study and morphometric analyses on the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To provide an anatomical and morphometric basis for the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in order to aid in the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels in ligament surgical reconstruction. Study design: laboratory controlled study. MATE [...] RIAL AND METHODS: The macroscopic details of the femoral insertions of the PCL's anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles were analyzed in 24 cadaver knees. The specimens were photographed with a digital camera and the images obtained were studied using the software ImageJ. The bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of the structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The PCL's femoral insertion average total area was 87.29 ± 31.42 mm².The mean insertion's areas of the AL and PM bundles were, respectively, 47.13 ± 19.14 and 40.67 ± 16.19 mm². In 95.8% of the examined knees was verified the presence of the medial intercondylar ridge and in 83.3% of the knees was noted the medial bifurcated ridge. The average length of the medial intercondylar ridge was 20.54 ± 2.26 mm and the medial bifurcated ridge's average length was 7.62 ± 2.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The AL had a femoral insertion area larger than the PM bundle; these bundles' insertion areas were lower than those previously described in the literature. There were important individual variations related to the area of the bundles in the samples, suggesting that there should be an individual recommendation for anatomical reconstructions of the PCL with single or double femoral tunnels.

Julio Cesar, Gali; Heetor Campora de Sousa, Oliveira; Adriano Bordini, Camargo; Carlos Rodrigo Barbosa, Martins; Phelipe Augusto Cintra da, Silva; Edie Benedito, Caetano.

49

{sup 99m}Tc-HDP Pinhole Bone Scan Features of Undetached Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle: Report of a Case with Radiography, CT, and MRI Correlation  

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OCD may be initiated by arrest of bone growth and subchondral osteosclerosis followed by either cartilage hypertrophy with calcification or enfolding with osteochondral bridging. Diagnosis can be made in most instances using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) or invasive arthroscopy. As to usefulness of conventional radiography (CR) opinions diverge as some held it to be of limited value while others valuable. The controversy seems to be due to semantic confusion of OCD from osteonecrosis (ON) which are different entities. This report will describe a case of undetached OCD occurred in the medial femoral condyle in a middle-aged female. It was free of symptom and incidentally discovered on {sup 99m}Tc-HDP pinhole scan performed for patellar injury. Pinhole scan findings of OCD are correlated to those of CR, CT, and MRI. An electronic search of literature failed to reveal earlier publication of bone scan features of undetached OCD. Pathologically, OCD differs from ON in that the fragment in the former condition comes off from a normal vascular bony bed while that in the latter separates from an avascular bony bed. Indeed, bone fragment in ON is devascularized but that in OCD maintains vascularity until weighted images, respectively and the halo showed low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 images.

Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Hee [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-02-15

50

Evaluation and comparison of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and medial femoral condyle by using morphological MRI and biochemical zonal T2 mapping  

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The objective of this study was to use advanced MR techniques to evaluate and compare cartilage repair tissue after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) in the patella and medial femoral condyle (MFC). Thirty-four patients treated with MACT underwent 3-T MRI of the knee. Patients were treated on either patella (n = 17) or MFC (n = 17) cartilage and were matched by age and postoperative interval. For morphological evaluation, the MR observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used, with a 3D-True-FISP sequence. For biochemical assessment, T2 mapping was prepared by using a multiecho spin-echo approach with particular attention to the cartilage zonal structure. Statistical evaluation was done by analyses of variance. The MOCART score showed no significant differences between the patella and MFC (p ? 0.05). With regard to biochemical T2 relaxation, higher T2 values were found throughout the MFC (p < 0.05). The zonal increase in T2 values from deep to superficial was significant for control cartilage (p < 0.001) and cartilage repair tissue (p < 0.05), with an earlier onset in the repair tissue of the patella. The assessment of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and MFC afforded comparable morphological results, whereas biochemical T2 values showed differences, possibly due to dissimilar biomechanical loading conditions. (orig.)

2009-05-01

51

Evaluation and comparison of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and medial femoral condyle by using morphological MRI and biochemical zonal T2 mapping  

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The objective of this study was to use advanced MR techniques to evaluate and compare cartilage repair tissue after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) in the patella and medial femoral condyle (MFC). Thirty-four patients treated with MACT underwent 3-T MRI of the knee. Patients were treated on either patella (n = 17) or MFC (n = 17) cartilage and were matched by age and postoperative interval. For morphological evaluation, the MR observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used, with a 3D-True-FISP sequence. For biochemical assessment, T2 mapping was prepared by using a multiecho spin-echo approach with particular attention to the cartilage zonal structure. Statistical evaluation was done by analyses of variance. The MOCART score showed no significant differences between the patella and MFC (p {>=} 0.05). With regard to biochemical T2 relaxation, higher T2 values were found throughout the MFC (p < 0.05). The zonal increase in T2 values from deep to superficial was significant for control cartilage (p < 0.001) and cartilage repair tissue (p < 0.05), with an earlier onset in the repair tissue of the patella. The assessment of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and MFC afforded comparable morphological results, whereas biochemical T2 values showed differences, possibly due to dissimilar biomechanical loading conditions. (orig.)

Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Mamisch, Tallal C. [University of Berne, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Quirbach, Sebastian; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Zak, Lukas; Marlovits, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Joints and Cartilage, Department of Trauma Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

2009-05-15

52

Posterior wall capture and resultant common femoral occlusion complicating StarClose access closure.  

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Vascular closure devices have been shown to decrease hemostasis and ambulation time after percutaneous transcatheter procedures. The StarClose Vascular Closure System (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, Calif) is a shape memory clip-mediated device that is designed to provide extraluminal mechanical closure without compromising the arterial lumen. We report a case of iatrogenic arterial occlusion secondary to mechanical closure of the anterior and posterior walls of the common femoral artery with a StarClose device. We provide objective observations from the rescue surgical intervention and discuss potential mechanisms of device failure. PMID:18644491

Stone, Patrick A; Campbell, John E; Andrews, Karinna H; Bates, Mark C

2008-08-01

53

Free inferior gluteal flap harvest with sparing of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

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The free inferior gluteal flap is a major secondary choice of autologous tissue for breast reconstruction if the TRAM flap is not an option. Loss of posterior thigh and popliteal sensibility is a frequent sequela of harvesting the free inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap and the inferior gluteal artery perforator (I-GAP) flap. The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh lies directly on the deep surface of the gluteus maximus muscle, having a very close anatomic relationship with the inferior gluteal artery. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the anatomy of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN), its branches, and their relationship with the inferior gluteal artery (IGA). Eighteen fresh human pelvic halves were dissected for examination during harvesting of the inferior gluteal myocutaneous free flap, to determine if a nerve-sparing approach was possible and how this information might impact on I-GAP flap harvest. Seventeen of 18 pelvic halves had at least some of the PFCN branches intact after isolation of the IGA pedicle and flap elevation. Three of 18 of the pelvic halves had the entire PFCN and its branches intact after flap elevation. One of 18 pelvic halves required complete transection of the PFCN and its branches in order to isolate the IGA pedicle. In 94.5 percent of the pelvic halve dissections, it was possible to maintain at least a portion of the PFCN intact after isolation of the inferior gluteal artery pedicle while harvesting the free inferior gluteal myocutaneous flap. These findings support a nerve-sparing approach to inferior gluteal myocutaneous flap elevation to minimize the sequela of posterior thigh anesthesia. These data also emphasize the intimate relationship of the PFCN and the gluteal artery and the real possibility of injury to the PFCN during I-GAP harvest. PMID:17048132

Zenn, Michael R; Millard, John A

2006-10-01

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The influence of femoral component design in the elimination of patellar clunk in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patellar clunk occurs after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty and is believed to be a design-related complication. This study was undertaken to define the incidence of patellar clunk with an optimized third-generation, posterior-stabilized prosthesis. One hundred ninety three patients with 238 knees were evaluated at a minimum of 2 years after primary total knee arthroplasty with a cemented, NexGen Legacy Posterior-Stabilized prosthesis (Zimmer, Warsaw, Ind). The mean follow-up was 48 months (range, 24-72 months). No patient manifested symptoms of patellar clunk or underwent surgery for any patello-femoral problem. These results support prior evidence that femoral component design is the primary cause of patellar clunk and that modifications incorporated into this third-generation, posterior-stabilized prosthesis has eliminated the problem. PMID:16520202

Clarke, Henry D; Fuchs, Robin; Scuderi, Giles R; Mills, Edward L; Scott, William N; Insall, John N

2006-02-01

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Bone marrow stimulation of the medial femoral condyle produces inferior cartilage and bone repair compared to the trochlea in a rabbit surgical model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the location of cartilage lesions on cartilage repair outcome is incompletely understood. This study compared cartilage and bone repair in medial femoral condylar (MFC) versus femoral trochlear (TR) defects 3 months after bone marrow stimulation in mature rabbits. Intact femurs from adult rabbits served as controls. Results from quantitative histomorphometry and histological scoring showed that bone marrow stimulation produced inferior soft tissue repair in MFC versus TR defects, as indicated by significantly lower % Fill (p?=?0.03), a significant increase in collagen type I immunostaining (p?posterior defect placement in the weight-bearing region. We conclude that the location of cartilage lesions influences cartilage repair, with better outcome in TR versus MFC defects in rabbits. Meniscal degeneration is associated with cartilage damage. PMID:23843172

Chen, Hongmei; Chevrier, Anik; Hoemann, Caroline D; Sun, Jun; Picard, Genevieve; Buschmann, Michael D

2013-11-01

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Posterior Wall Capture and Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Use of StarClose Closing Device: Diagnosis and Therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent

2013-10-01

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Posterior wall capture and femoral artery stenosis following use of StarClose closing device: diagnosis and therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent. PMID:23207656

Stefa?czyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin T; Szubert, Wojciech; Grzelak, Piotr; Szopi?ski, Piotr; Majos, Agata

2013-10-01

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Posterior Wall Capture and Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Use of StarClose Closing Device: Diagnosis and Therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent.

Stefanczyk, Ludomir [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Elgalal, Marcin T., E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech; Grzelak, Piotr [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Vascular Surgery (Poland); Majos, Agata [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland)

2013-10-15

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Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in the patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures associated with dislocations of the hip  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, mostly occured in young patients after traffic accident or fall from heights. Of the all acetabular fractures, posterior wall acetabular fractures are the most often observed. Regarding to mechanism of the injury, about 30% of these fractures are associated with posterior hip dislocation. Material and methods: The incidence of AVN in 18 patients with posterior wall acetabular fractures associated with dislocations of the hip is presented. Thompson-Epstein Scale (type I-V was used as the classification of the injury. Kocher-Langenbeck surgical approach was achieved in all patients. Results: Average following time after surgery was 22,66 months (8-36 months. After that period the incidence of femoral head AVN was observed in 33,3%6. Femoral head AVN was observed in 5,55%1 of patient who was treated by the reduction of hip dislocation in first 24 hours after injury, while in patients with later reduction, femoral head AVN were observed in 27,77%5. Conclusion: Posterior wall acetabular fractures associated with hip dislocation are severe injuries. Urgent, closed reduction of the hip, early definitive stable osteosynthesis of acetabulum and the experience of surgical team are factors that greatly decrease the possibility for AVN occurrence. Later reduction, comminution of posterior wall of the acetabulum (Thompson-Epstein III et IV, impaction, chondral lesion of the femoral head and associated fractures of femoral head, increase the possibility for AVN occurrence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41017: Virtuelni koštano-zglobni sistem ?oveka i njegova primena u pretklini?koj i klini?koj praksi

Milenkovi? Saša

2013-01-01

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Femoral Graft-Tunnel Angles in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Analysis with 3-Dimensional Models and Cadaveric Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare four graft-tunnel angles (GTA), the femoral GTA formed by three different femoral tunneling techniques (the outside-in, a modified inside-out technique in the posterior sag position with knee hyperflexion, and the conventional inside-out technique) and the tibia GTA in 3-dimensional (3D) knee flexion models, as well as to examine the influence of femoral tunneling techniques on the contact pressure between the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel and the graft. Materials and Methods Twelve cadaveric knees were tested. Computed tomography scans were performed at different knee flexion angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 120°). Femoral and tibial GTAs were measured at different knee flexion angles on the 3D knee models. Using pressure sensitive films, stress on the graft of the angulation of the femoral tunnel aperture was measured in posterior cruciate ligament reconstructed cadaveric knees. Results Between 45° and 120° of knee flexion, there were no significant differences between the outside-in and modified inside-out techniques. However, the femoral GTA for the conventional inside-out technique was significantly less than that for the other two techniques (pcontact pressure for the modified inside-out and outside-in technique was significantly lower than that for the conventional inside-out technique (p=0.024 and p=0.017). Conclusion The conventional inside-out technique results in a significantly lesser GTA and higher stress at the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel than the outside-in technique. However, the results for the modified inside-out technique are similar to those for the outside-in technique.

Kim, Sung-Jae; Chun, Yong-Min; Moon, Hong-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Won

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in ?-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P <0.05) increased bladder capacity during slow infusion of saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:22869011

Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

2012-10-01

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Comparative study of the areas of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits treated with gel of sugarcane biopolymer / Estudo comparativo das áreas de defeitos osteocondrais produzidas nos côndilos femorais de coelhos tratados com gel de biopolímero de cana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Mensurar as áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos osteocondrais produzidos em côndilos femorais de coelhos preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar e comparar com o grupo controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, 16 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia com seis [...] a sete meses de idade, entre 2,0 e 2,5 kg de peso. Foram feitos, com trefina, defeitos de 3,2 x 4 mm nos côndilos femorais dos joelhos direito e esquerdo. Como grupo de estudo foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos direito que foram preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açucar. Como grupo controle foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos esquerdos que foram deixados abertos para cicatrização natural. Os defeitos foram analisados nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. Após a eutanásia, os joelhos foram retirados e fixados em solução de Bouin para posterior documentação fotográfica com maquina digital Nikon Coopix® 5400. As áreas cicatrizadas foram mensuradas nos grupos estudo e controle, através das imagens obtidas com o programa Image-J®. A análise estatística foi feita aplicando-se o teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significantes entre as médias das áreas cicatrizadas nos grupos estudo e controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: A dimensão das áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos tratados com o gel do biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar, grupo de estudo foi semelhante as do grupo controle, cicatrizadas naturalmente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To measure the healed areas of osteochondral defects produced in femoral condyles of rabbits filled with biopolymer sugar cane gel and to compare these with those of the control group at 90, 120 and 180 days. METHODS: A study was made of 16 New Zealand rabbits, 6 and 7 months old, weighing [...] between 2 and 2.5 kg. Defects of 3.2 x 4 mm were made, with trephine, in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees. As to the study group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the right knee were used which were filled with Biopolymer Sugar Cane Gel; as to the Control Group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the left t knees were used which were left open for natural healing. The defects were analyzed at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. After euthanasia, the knees were removed and fixed in Bouin's solution for later digital photographic documentation with a digital camera. The areas healed were measured in both the study and control groups using the images obtained from an Image-J® program. Statistical analysis was conducted using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the means of the healed areas in the study and control groups at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. CONCLUSION: The dimension of the healed areas of the defects treated with the biopolymer sugar-cane gel in the study group was similar to those of the control group, which healed naturally.

Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro de, Albuquerque; José Lamartine de Andrade, Aguiar; Saulo Monteiro dos, Santos; Nicodemus, Pontes Filho; Roberto José Vieira de, Mello; Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos, Costa; Clarissa Miranda Carneiro de, Albuquerque; Tarciana Mendonça de S., Almeida; Alessandro Henrique da Silva, Santos; Joacil Carlos da, Silva.

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Comparative study of the areas of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits treated with gel of sugarcane biopolymer Estudo comparativo das áreas de defeitos osteocondrais produzidas nos côndilos femorais de coelhos tratados com gel de biopolímero de cana  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To measure the healed areas of osteochondral defects produced in femoral condyles of rabbits filled with biopolymer sugar cane gel and to compare these with those of the control group at 90, 120 and 180 days. METHODS: A study was made of 16 New Zealand rabbits, 6 and 7 months old, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg. Defects of 3.2 x 4 mm were made, with trephine, in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees. As to the study group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the right knee were used which were filled with Biopolymer Sugar Cane Gel; as to the Control Group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the left t knees were used which were left open for natural healing. The defects were analyzed at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. After euthanasia, the knees were removed and fixed in Bouin's solution for later digital photographic documentation with a digital camera. The areas healed were measured in both the study and control groups using the images obtained from an Image-J® program. Statistical analysis was conducted using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the means of the healed areas in the study and control groups at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. CONCLUSION: The dimension of the healed areas of the defects treated with the biopolymer sugar-cane gel in the study group was similar to those of the control group, which healed naturally.OBJETIVO: Mensurar as áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos osteocondrais produzidos em côndilos femorais de coelhos preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar e comparar com o grupo controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, 16 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia com seis a sete meses de idade, entre 2,0 e 2,5 kg de peso. Foram feitos, com trefina, defeitos de 3,2 x 4 mm nos côndilos femorais dos joelhos direito e esquerdo. Como grupo de estudo foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos direito que foram preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açucar. Como grupo controle foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos esquerdos que foram deixados abertos para cicatrização natural. Os defeitos foram analisados nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. Após a eutanásia, os joelhos foram retirados e fixados em solução de Bouin para posterior documentação fotográfica com maquina digital Nikon Coopix® 5400. As áreas cicatrizadas foram mensuradas nos grupos estudo e controle, através das imagens obtidas com o programa Image-J®. A análise estatística foi feita aplicando-se o teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significantes entre as médias das áreas cicatrizadas nos grupos estudo e controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: A dimensão das áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos tratados com o gel do biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar, grupo de estudo foi semelhante as do grupo controle, cicatrizadas naturalmente.

Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro de Albuquerque

2011-10-01

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Relationship between the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve applicable to flap surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flap surgery in the distal part of the gluteal region has to deal with a lack of detailed descriptions of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The existing papers are mainly clinical studies, based on low numbers of observations. Our study includes 118 cadaveric gluteal regions. The descending branch was present in 91% and gave rise to a cutaneous branch. When the descending branch was absent, this cutaneous branch came from the medial or lateral femoral circumflex artery or as a perforator of the deep artery of the thigh. The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was found in a common sheath of connective tissue with the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery in 72% of cases. Nerve loops around the vessel are present in 29%. Our results show that a cutaneous or fasciocutaneous flap, either local or free, in this region can be reliably lifted on a cutaneous branch of the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery without loss of sensitivity. However, the close relationship of the artery and nerve limits the arc of rotation in the case of a local flap. PMID:12497213

Windhofer, C; Brenner, E; Moriggl, B; Papp, C

2002-12-01

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Combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block versus combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block for ACL reconstruction  

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Full Text Available Ayman I TharwatAin Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: We compared the efficacy of combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block with that of combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block as anesthesia for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, because both block combinations have been recommended for lower limb arthroscopic and reconstructive surgery.Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under local anesthesia were randomized to undergo either combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block (Group 1, or combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block (Group 2. Blocks were performed using nerve stimulation and bupivacaine 0.5% mixed with lignocaine 2%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Quality of anesthesia, motor and sensory block, time to first analgesic use, sedation, and need for general anesthesia were recorded, along with verbal postoperative pain scores, and side effects.Results: No patient in Group 1 and two patients in Group 2 needed general anesthesia. Complete sensory blockade was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. However, complete motor blockade was similar in both groups. In Group 1, verbal pain scores were lower than in Group 2. Time to first analgesic was similar between the two groups. Total analgesic consumption was lower in Group 1. No significant differences were found for heart rate, pulse oximetry, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the groups, and no signs of toxicity were encountered.Conclusion: Combined posterior lumbar plexus–sciatic nerve block provided more comfortable intraoperative anesthesia and better postoperative analgesia than combined femoral–obturator–sciatic nerve block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, local anesthetic, nerve block 

Ayman I Tharwat

2011-02-01

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Anatomical relationships between Wrisberg meniscofemoral and posterior cruciate ligament's femoral insertions / Relacoes anatomicas entre as insercoes femorais dos ligamentos meniscofemoral de Wrisberg e cruzado posterior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e a morfometria do ligamento meniscofemoral de Wrisberg e a relação de suas inserções femorais com aquelas do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP). Desenho do estudo: Estudo laboratorial controlado. MÉTODOS: Foram feitas dissecç [...] 45;es minuciosas das inserções femorais dos ligamentos de Wrisberg (LW) e do LCP em 24 peças anatômicas de joelhos. As peças foram fotografadas com uma câmera digital e marcador milimetrado; o programa Image J foi usado para medir a área das inserções ligamentares, em milímetros quadrados. RESULTADOS: O LW esteve presente em 91,6% das peças estudadas. Nessas, seu formato foi elíptico em 12 peças (54,54%). Em 68% dos joelhos a inserção do LW esteve proximal à crista intercondilar medial, próximo à banda posteromedial do LCP. A área média da inserção femoral do LW foi de 20,46 ± 6,12 mm2 , o que correspondeu a 23,3% da área de inserção do LCP. CONCLUSÕES: O LW é estrutura frequente nos joelhos, com grande variabilidade de sua área média. Proporcionalmente ao LCP, sua área média sugere que esse ligamento pode contribuir para a estabilidade posterior do joelho. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and morphometry of the Wrisberg's ligament and its relationships with the posterior cruciate ligament's femoral insertion. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: 24 unpaired knee pieces, 12 right and 12 left were submitted to a deep dissect [...] ion of the Wrisberg and posterior cruciate ligaments. The pieces were photographed with a digital camera and ruler; the Image J software was used to measure the ligaments' insertion areas, in square millimeters. RESULTS: The Wrisberg ligament was present in 91.6% of the studied pieces. In those its shape was elliptical in 12 pieces (54.54%). In 68% of the knees, the WL insertion was proximal to the medial intercondilar ridge, close to the PCL posteromedial bundle. The average area for the WL was 20.46 ± 6.12 mm2. This number corresponded to 23.3% of the PCL's average area. CONCLUSIONS: WL ligament is a common structure in knees. There is a wide variation of its insertion area. Proportionally to the PCL's insertion area the WL ones suggests that it may contribute to the posterior stability of the knee joint.

Oliveira, Heetor Campora de Sousa; Gali, Julio Cesar; Caetano, Edie Benedito.

67

Bifid hyperplastic mandibular condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condylar hyperplasia is a rare non-neoplastic pathology associated with overgrowth of the mandibular condyle. Presentation of condylar hyperplasia with bifid mandibular condyle has never been reported in literature. Early management of the hyperplastic disorders of the mandibular condyle can prevent occlusal canting and developing asymmetric deformities. We report a case of 'Bifid Hyperplastic Mandibular Condyle' in a 14-year-old male with emphasis on early surgical intervention. To best of our knowledge, the present case is the first reported case of bifid mandibular condyle with condylar hyperplasia and 66th reported case of bifid mandibular condyle in living human population. PMID:24431890

Neelakandan, R S; Bhargava, Darpan

2013-12-01

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A new measurement for posterior tilt predicts reoperation in undisplaced femoral neck fractures: 113 consecutive patients treated by internal fixation and followed for 1 year  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative posterior tilt in undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures is thought to influence rates of reoperation. However, an exact method for its measurement has not yet been presented. We designed a new measurement for posterior tilt on preoperative lateral radiographs and investigated its association with later reoperation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 113 patients, > or = 60 years of age with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures treated with two parallel implants, was assessed regarding patient characteristics, radiographs, and rate of reoperation within the first year. In a subgroup of 50 randomly selected patients, reliability tests for measurement of posterior tilt were performed. RESULTS: Intra- and interclass coefficients for the new measurement were > or = 0.94. 23% (26/113) of patients were reoperated and increased posterior tilt was an accurate predictor of failure (p = 0.002). 14/25 of posteriorly tilted fractures > or = 20 degrees were reoperated, as compared to 12/88 of fractures with less tilt (p or = 20 degrees was the only significant predictor of reoperation (p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: The new measurement for posterior tilt appears to be reliable and able to predict reoperation in patients with undisplaced (Garden I-II) femoral neck fractures.

Palm, Henrik; Gosvig, Kasper

2009-01-01

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Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador / Simplified sciatic nerve approach by the posterior route at the median gluteus-femoral sulcus region, with a neurostimulator / Abordaje simplificado del nervio ciático por vía posterior, en el punto medio del sulco glúteo-femoral, con uso de neuroestimulador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3). Sai da pelve através d [...] o forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps femoral e semitendinoso, até o terço inferior da coxa, onde se divide em dois grandes ramos denominados nervos tibial e fibular comum. Torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados nesta descrição anatômica, desenvolvemos uma abordagem posterior, tendo como vantagens a fácil identificação da anatomia de superfície, superficialidade do nervo nesta localização, provocando menor desconforto ao paciente que outras abordagens e podendo utilizar agulha de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ou III, com idades entre 21 e 79 anos, peso de 55 a 90 kg, submetidos a cirurgias em perna ou pé. Após monitorização, o paciente foi posicionado em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral (dobra da pele entre a nádega e região posterior da coxa), com auxílio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina (300 mg). Avaliou-se latência, tempo de execução do bloqueio, anestesia dos nervos tibial, fibular comum e cutâneo posterior da coxa. Quando necessário, foi também realizado o bloqueio do nervo safeno com 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e concentração usados. Em nenhum paciente ocorreu anestesia do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,58 ± 5,71 min. A latência foi de 5,88 ± 1,6 min. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 4,05 ± 1,1 e 2,9 ± 0,8 horas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Essa nova abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução. Não está indicada se o bloqueio do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa for necessário. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio ciático puede ser realizado por varios abordajes con ventajas y desventajas. El nervio ciático es el mayor nervio del cuerpo humano en diámetro y largura. Es la continuación del fascículo superior del plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 y S3). Sale de la pel [...] vis a través del Fuerone isquiático mayor, pasando por bajo del músculo piriforme, baja entre el trocanter mayor del femur y la tuberosidad isquiática, y al largo del dorso del muslo, anterior a los músculos bíceps femoral y semitendinoso, hasta el tercero inferior del muslo, donde se divide en dos grandes ramos denominados nervios tibial y fibular común. Se torna superficial en la borda inferior del músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados en esta descripción anatómica, desenvolvemos un abordaje posterior, teniendo como ventajas la identificación fácil de la anatomía de superficie, superficialidad del nervio en esta localización, provocando menor incomodidad al paciente que otros abordajes y pudiendo utilizar aguja de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ó III, con edades entre 21 y 79 años, peso de 55 a 90 kg, sometidos a cirugías en piernas o pies. Después de monitorización, el paciente fue posicionado en decúbito ventral y realizado bloqueo en el punto medio del sulco glúteo femoral (dobla de la piel entre la nalga y la región posterior del muslo), con auxilio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sin adrenalina (300 mg). Se evaluó la latencia, tiempo de ejecución del bloqueo, anestesia de los nervios tibial, fibular común y cutáneo posterior del muslo. Cuando necesario, fue también realizado el bloqueo del nervio safeno con 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo anestesia a

Fonseca, Neuber Martins; Ferreira, Fernando Xavier; Ruzi, Roberto Araújo; Pereira, Gulherme Carnaval Souza.

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Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador Abordaje simplificado del nervio ciático por vía posterior, en el punto medio del sulco glúteo-femoral, con uso de neuroestimulador Simplified sciatic nerve approach by the posterior route at the median gluteus-femoral sulcus region, with a neurostimulator  

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Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3. Sai da pelve através do forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps femoral e semitendinoso, até o terço inferior da coxa, onde se divide em dois grandes ramos denominados nervos tibial e fibular comum. Torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados nesta descrição anatômica, desenvolvemos uma abordagem posterior, tendo como vantagens a fácil identificação da anatomia de superfície, superficialidade do nervo nesta localização, provocando menor desconforto ao paciente que outras abordagens e podendo utilizar agulha de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ou III, com idades entre 21 e 79 anos, peso de 55 a 90 kg, submetidos a cirurgias em perna ou pé. Após monitorização, o paciente foi posicionado em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral (dobra da pele entre a nádega e região posterior da coxa, com auxílio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina (300 mg. Avaliou-se latência, tempo de execução do bloqueio, anestesia dos nervos tibial, fibular comum e cutâneo posterior da coxa. Quando necessário, foi também realizado o bloqueio do nervo safeno com 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e concentração usados. Em nenhum paciente ocorreu anestesia do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,58 ± 5,71 min. A latência foi de 5,88 ± 1,6 min. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 4,05 ± 1,1 e 2,9 ± 0,8 horas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Essa nova abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução. Não está indicada se o bloqueio do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa for necessário.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio ciático puede ser realizado por varios abordajes con ventajas y desventajas. El nervio ciático es el mayor nervio del cuerpo humano en diámetro y largura. Es la continuación del fascículo superior del plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 y S3. Sale de la pelvis a través del Fuerone isquiático mayor, pasando por bajo del músculo piriforme, baja entre el trocanter mayor del femur y la tuberosidad isquiática, y al largo del dorso del muslo, anterior a los músculos bíceps femoral y semitendinoso, hasta el tercero inferior del muslo, donde se divide en dos grandes ramos denominados nervios tibial y fibular común. Se torna superficial en la borda inferior del músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados en esta descripción anatómica, desenvolvemos un abordaje posterior, teniendo como ventajas la identificación fácil de la anatomía de superficie, superficialidad del nervio en esta localización, provocando menor incomodidad al paciente que otros abordajes y pudiendo utilizar aguja de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ó III, con edades entre 21 y 79 años, peso de 55 a 90 kg, sometidos a cirugías en piernas o pies. Después de monitorización, el paciente fue posicionado en decúbito ventral y realizado bloqueo en el punto medio del sulco glúteo femoral (dobla de la piel entre la nalga y la región posterior del muslo, con auxilio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sin adrenalina (300 mg. Se evaluó la latencia, tiempo de ejecución del bloqueo, anestesia de los nervios tibial, fibular común y cutáneo posterior del muslo. Cuando necesario, fue también realizado el bloqueo del nervio safeno con 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo anestesia adecuada en todos los casos con el volumen y concentración usados. En ningún paciente ocurrió anest

Neuber Martins Fonseca

2002-11-01

71

Native femoral sulcus as a guide for the position of the femoral component in primary total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study of 420 knees.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effects of using the native femoral sulcus as a guide for the positioning of the femoral component in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially for patellar tracking. Between 2000 and 2002, 420 cases of primary TKA were collected. All the TKAs were performed with the same approach. The cases were randomly separated into two groups. In group 1 (consisting of 202 knees), the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament and the midline of the lateral-medial femoral condyles were used as a guide for the midline position of the femoral component; while in group 2 (consisting of 218 knees), the native femoral sulcus was used as the guide for the femoral component. Intraoperatively, no thumb technique was used to check the patellar tracking. In group 1, 16 knees (7.9%) received lateral retinacular releases, while none received lateral retinacular release in group 2 (Pknees (1%) of lateral tilting of the patella were noted in group 1; while two knees (0.91%) of lateral tilting of the patella were noted in group 2 (P=0.751). In conclusion, native femoral sulcus could be a very effective and simple guide for the medial-lateral position of the femoral component, especially for patellar tracking. The prostheses used in this series were all Nexgen LPS-FLEX PCL Substituting (Zimmer, Warsaw) prostheses. PMID:16133441

Chiu, Fang-Yao

2006-05-01

72

The blood supply to the femoral head after posterior fracture/dislocation of the hip, assessed by CT angiography.  

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The femoral head receives blood supply mainly from the deep branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA). In previous studies we have performed anatomical dissections of 16 specimens and subsequently visualised the arteries supplying the femoral head in 55 healthy individuals. In this further radiological study we compared the arterial supply of the femoral head in 35 patients (34 men and one woman, mean age 37.1 years (16 to 64)) with a fracture/dislocation of the hip with a historical control group of 55 hips. Using CT angiography, we identified the three main arteries supplying the femoral head: the deep branch and the postero-inferior nutrient artery both arising from the MFCA, and the piriformis branch of the inferior gluteal artery. It was possible to visualise changes in blood flow after fracture/dislocation. Our results suggest that blood flow is present after reduction of the dislocated hip. The deep branch of the MFCA was patent and contrast-enhanced in 32 patients, and the diameter of this branch was significantly larger in the fracture/dislocation group than in the control group (p = 0.022). In a subgroup of ten patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, we found a contrast-enhanced deep branch of the MFCA in eight hips. Two patients with no blood flow in any of the three main arteries supplying the femoral head developed AVN. PMID:24151262

Zlotorowicz, M; Czubak, J; Caban, A; Kozinski, P; Boguslawska-Walecka, R

2013-11-01

73

Nontraumatic Fracture of the Femoral Condylar Prosthesis in a Total Knee Arthroplasty Leading to Mechanical Failure  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a case of fatigue fracture of the femoral component in a cruciate-retaining cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A 64-year-old man had undergone a primary TKA for osteoarthritis 10 years previously at another institution using the PFC-Sigma prosthesis. The patient recovered fully and was back to his regular activities. He presented with a history of sudden onset pain and locking of the left knee since the preceding three months. There was no history of trauma, and the patient was mobilizing with difficulty using crutches. Radiographs revealed fracture of the posterior condyle of the femoral prosthesis. Revision surgery was performed as an elective procedure revealing the broken prosthesis. The TC3RP-PFC revision prosthesis was used with a medial parapatellar approach. The patient recovered fully without any squeal. Mechanical failure of the knee arthroplasty prosthesis is rare, and nontraumatic fracture of the femoral metallic component has not been reported before.

Swamy, Girish N.; Quah, Conal; Bagouri, Elmunzar; Badhe, Nitin P.

2014-01-01

74

Bifid mandibular condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old young male patient presented with limited mouth opening and cosmetic disfigurement since childhood. On examination, marked mandibular hypoplasia resulting in a convex facial profile was noted. Further radiographic investigation using orthopantomograph and CT scan with three-dimensional reconstruction revealed bifid mandibular condyle of the right side. PMID:23131544

Katti, Girish; Najmuddin, Mohammed; Fatima, Syeda; Unnithan, Jayesh

2012-01-01

75

Deep Lateral Femoral Notch: A Sign of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Disruption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'deep lateral femoral notch' sign refers to an osteochondral impaction injury of the lateral femoral condyle that is associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). At the time of injury, the tibia translates anteriorly relative to...

L. Folio T. G. Sanders

2007-01-01

76

Macroscopic and microscopic features of the mandibular condyle in autopsied elderly individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have attempted to classify the macroscopic shapes of the mandibular condyle in humans; however, no consensus has yet been reached because the shapes vary. One problem is that classification of macroscopic morphological changes of the condylar surface has been largely based on bones from ancient people, with few bones from modern people covering many different age groups. In this study, 144 condyles from 78 cadavers (40 men, 38 women; age at death: >70 years) were investigated. The macroscopic shapes of the condyles were classified from posterior and lateral views into four types: convex, flattened, angled, and irregular. Of the 144 condyles, 25 were investigated microscopically. On macroscopic examination, in both posterior and lateral views, convex-type condyles were most frequently observed. Most posterior convex-type condyles were also categorized as the lateral convex type. On histological examination, we observed an increase in cartilage cells (7 condyles, 28%), a decrease in cartilage cells (3 condyles, 12%). Increases in cartilage cells were seen only in angled and irregular types (P = 0.001), whereas decreases in cartilage cells were only observed in the flattened type (P = 0.01). A convex macroscopic form appears to be standard for human mandibular condyles, even in the elderly. The histological findings suggest that mandibular condyles tend to not only undergo flattening, but also undergo progressive changes toward protrusion with age due to increased numbers of cartilage cells. In other words, this study suggests that there is potential for progressive alterations in mandibular condyles in the elderly. PMID:22806887

Nakai, Mitsuyoshi; Abe, Masato; Miyazaki, Akihiro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi

2014-04-01

77

A polytrauma patient with an unusual posterior fracture-dislocation of the femoral head: a case report  

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We report a case of a 27-year-old man who was involved in a high-speed car accident. He sustained multiple organ damage including multiple brain petechiae suggesting diffuse axonal damage, aortic dissection, retroperitoneal haematoma and a fracture-dislocation of the right hip with a femoral head fracture and an ipsilateral intertrochanteric fracture. Due to the general condition of the patient, physiological stabilisation was prioritized, and at 2 weeks the fracture-dislocation of the hip w...

Rodriguez-martin, Juan; Pretell-mazzini, Juan; Porras-moreno, Miguel Angel; Hernanz-gonzalez, Yolanda; Resines-erasun, Carlos

2010-01-01

78

Overview of Mandibular Condyle Fracture  

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The mandibular condyle is a region that plays a key role in the opening and closing of the mouth, and because fracture causes functional and aesthetic problems such as facial asymmetry, it is very important to perform accurate reduction. Traditionally, there has been disagreement on how to manage fracture of the mandibular condyle. This review explores the misunderstanding of mandibular condyle fracture treatment and modern-day treatment strategies.

Su-Seong Park; Keun-Cheol Lee; Seok-Kwun Kim

2012-01-01

79

Overview of Mandibular Condyle Fracture  

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Full Text Available The mandibular condyle is a region that plays a key role in the opening and closing ofthe mouth, and because fracture causes functional and aesthetic problems such as facialasymmetry, it is very important to perform accurate reduction. Traditionally, there has beendisagreement on how to manage fracture of the mandibular condyle. This review exploresthe misunderstanding of mandibular condyle fracture treatment and modern-day treatmentstrategies.

Su-Seong Park

2012-07-01

80

Biotribology of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design - Effect of motion restraint on wear, tibio-femoral kinematics and particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of a biphaseal anterior-posterior (AP) and internal-external (IE) motion restraint system on the wear behaviour, tibio-femoral kinematics and particle release of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design in comparison to the widely used linear restraint. in vitro wear simulation was performed using a posterior stabilised total knee replacement with a mobile rotating platform gliding surface design to compare the standard ISO 14243-1:2002 (E) protocol with a linear AP and IE motion restraint and the new ISO 14243-1:2009 (E) protocol with a biphaseal AP and IE motion restraint. For the mobile gliding surfaces, an increase in wear rate by more than a magnitude was measured applying the biphaseal protocol (8.5±1.6mg/million cycles) in a direct comparison to the linear protocol (0.33±0.07mg/million cycles), with statistically significant difference. The amplitudes of AP displacement were 3.22±0.47mm for the biphaseal test, compared to 1.97±0.22mm in the linear test and the amplitudes of the IE rotation angle had mean values of 7.32°±0.91° under the biphaseal setup, compared to 1.97°±0.14° under linear motion restraint test conditions. From our observations, we conclude that the changes in AP translation and IE rotation motion restraints from ISO linear to ISO biphaseal test conditions highly impact the knee joint kinematics and wear behaviour of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design. PMID:24837220

Grupp, Thomas M; Schroeder, Christian; Kyun Kim, Tae; Miehlke, Rolf K; Fritz, Bernhard; Jansson, Volkmar; Utzschneider, Sandra

2014-07-18

 
 
 
 
81

A case report of unilateral hypertrophy of the mandibular condyle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors have observed a rare case of unilateral hypertrophy occurred in the left mandibular condyle of 25 year old man. In the serial roentgenograms, Authors have drawn following conclusions. 1. The patients face is markedly asymmetrical. The asymmetry consisted of elongation and widening of the left mandibular ramus, neck and head of condyle which pushed the chin to the other side. 2. Left mandibular angle is flattened, and mandibular inferior border is lower than right. 3. In the relationship of the left posterior teeth, severe mesioocclusion is occurred.

1977-11-01

82

A radiographic study of mandibular condyle shape and position a comparision of trascranial radiograms and individualized corrected tomograms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to observe mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population. In order to carry out this study, 142 temporomandibular joints in 71 adults (35 males, 36 females), who were asymptomatic for temporomandibular joint disorders and had no history of prosthodontic or orthodontic treatments, were selected, and rad ideograph using the Accurd-200 head holder (Denar Co., U.S.A.) for lateral individualized corrected tomograms. Mandibular condyles were classified morphologically and evaluated in positional relationships with articular fossae and articular eminences at centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In the classification of mandibular condyle shape, the convex type was more prevalent in trascranial radiograms and tomograms taken at medial, central, and lateral locations. 2. In the mandibular condyle position at centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed posterior to the center of articular fossae in trascranial radiograns and anterior to the center of articular fossae in tomograms taken at medi al, central, and lateral locations. 3. In the mandibular condyle position in right and left TMJs at centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed bilateral asymmetric relationships to the articular fossae in trascranial radiograms and tomograms taken at medial, central, and lateral location. 4. In the mandibular condyle position at 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles were placed anterior to the articular eminences in trascranial radiogramas and tomograms taken at central location and posterior to the articular eminences in tomograms taken at medial and lateral locations.

1997-02-01

83

A radiographic study of mandibular condyle shape and position a comparision of trascranial radiograms and individualized corrected tomograms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to observe mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population. In order to carry out this study, 142 temporomandibular joints in 71 adults (35 males, 36 females), who were asymptomatic for temporomandibular joint disorders and had no history of prosthodontic or orthodontic treatments, were selected, and rad ideograph using the Accurd-200 head holder (Denar Co., U.S.A.) for lateral individualized corrected tomograms. Mandibular condyles were classified morphologically and evaluated in positional relationships with articular fossae and articular eminences at centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The obtained results were as follows : 1. In the classification of mandibular condyle shape, the convex type was more prevalent in trascranial radiograms and tomograms taken at medial, central, and lateral locations. 2. In the mandibular condyle position at centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed posterior to the center of articular fossae in trascranial radiograns and anterior to the center of articular fossae in tomograms taken at medi al, central, and lateral locations. 3. In the mandibular condyle position in right and left TMJs at centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed bilateral asymmetric relationships to the articular fossae in trascranial radiograms and tomograms taken at medial, central, and lateral location. 4. In the mandibular condyle position at 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles were placed anterior to the articular eminences in trascranial radiogramas and tomograms taken at central location and posterior to the articular eminences in tomograms taken at medial and lateral locations.

Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwang [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-15

84

Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteochondroma is one of the most common benign tumors of the axial skeletons, but is rarely found in facial bones. When present, the tumor is most often reported to affect the mandibular coronoid process. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare. A case is presented of a massive osteochindroma of mandibular condyle leading to facial asymmetry and disturbed occlusion. The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological and histological examination. (author)

2003-01-01

85

Increased post-operative ischemia in the femoral head found by microdialysis by the posterior surgical approach : a randomized clinical trial comparing surgical approaches in hip resurfacing arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and femoral neck fracture, which may be caused by a decrease in the perfusion of the bone initiated at surgery. Several studies have demonstrated a decreased blood flow during surgery depending on the choice of surgical approach. We investigated the effect of the surgical approach on the blood flow and metabolism in the femoral head and neck in HRA by Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and microdialysis.

Lorenzen, Nina Dyrberg; Stilling, Maiken

2013-01-01

86

The role-share-influence of the posterior tibial slope on rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior tibial slope is one of the most citated factors wich cause rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. The aim of this study was to determine the association of a greather posterior tibial slope on the lateral condyle, that is a lesser posterior tibial slope on the medial condyle, with ACL rupture. Methods. The patients were divided into two groups. The study group included the patients with chronic instability of the knee besause of a previous rupture of ACL. The control group included the patients with knee lesion, but without ACL rupture. Posterior tibial slope measuring was performed by sagittal MR slices supported by lateral radiograph of the knee. We measured posterior tibial slope on lateral and medial condyles of the tibia. Using these values we calculated an average posterior tibial slope as well as the difference between slopes on lateral and medial condyles. Results. Patients with ACL rupture have highly statistically significantly greather posterior tibial slope (p < 0.01 on lateral tibial condyle (7.1° : 4.5° as well as statistically significantly lesser posterior tibial slope (p < 0.05 on medial tibial condyle (5.0° : 6.6° than patients with intact ACL. Conclusion. Great posterior tibial slope on lateral tibial condyle associated with the small posterior tibial slope on the medial tibial condyle, that is a positive differentce between lateral and medial tibial condyles are factors wich may cause ACL rupture.

Stijak Lazar

2012-01-01

87

Bifid mandibular condyle: a rare disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle is a rare disorder and little is known about the etiology and pathogenesis. We reported a patient with left bifid mandibular condyle with a history of trauma. There was no limitation of mouth opening but the patient was complaining of pain while chewing. Underdeveloped lateral head of the bifid condyle was excised at the level of condylar neck under general anesthesia. The patient healed without any problem. Microscopic evaluation of the excised condyle supported a congenital etiology. Although most cases of the bifid condyle discovered by chance it should be recognized and treated by plastic surgeons interested in craniomaxillofacial surgery. PMID:17119433

Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Cavdar, Günay; Mavili, M Emin

2006-11-01

88

Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although osteochondroma is not rare in the axial skeleton and long bones, it is very rare in the jaw. It is a benign chondroma within which partial endochondral ossification occurs. There are two types, the central one and the peripheral one. Peripheral type is more common than central one in the jaw, but it is not frequent. Especially it is rare at the mandibular condyle. When it occurred at the mandibular condyle, it is generally located at the lateral portion of the condyle. In that case, facial asymmetry with occlusal change is the characteristic clinical feature. But it is similar to condylar hyperplasia so that misdiagnosis can sometimes occur. The differential point is as follows : Hyperplasia generally appears as a generalized enlargement of the condylar process with a normal cortical thickness, but osteochondroma usually appears as a focal growth or mass. We report a very rare case of peripheral osteochondroma at the mandibular condyle in a 27-year-old male patient who visited DKUDH with a chief complaint of the facial asymmetry.

Jung, Ki Hun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1993-08-15

89

A radiographic study of mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to observe mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population. Using Accurad-200 head holder (Denar Corp.) for transcranial radiography of the temporomandibular joint region, transcranial radiographs were taken at the centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening in 73 males and females who were asymptomatic for TMJ disturbances, had no severe carious or missing teeth, and no history of prosthodontic or orthodontic treatments. Mandibular condyles were classified morphologically at the centric occlusion and evaluated in positional relationship with mandibular fossa and articular eminence at the centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The results were as follows: 1. In the morphologic classification of mandibular condyle, the convex shape was more prevalent in an asymptomatic population (90.4%), the locally concave shape and wedge were 5.5%, 4.1%. 2. At the centric occlusion, the means of joint space were 3.43 mm superiorly, 2.17 mm anteriorly, and 2.61 mm posteriorly. 3. At the centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed slightly anterior to the center of their fossa. 4. At the 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles were placed anterior to the articular eminence more than posterior to or below top of the articular eminence.

1988-11-01

90

A radiographic study of mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to observe mandibular condyle shape and position in an asymptomatic population. Using Accurad-200 head holder (Denar Corp.) for transcranial radiography of the temporomandibular joint region, transcranial radiographs were taken at the centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening in 73 males and females who were asymptomatic for TMJ disturbances, had no severe carious or missing teeth, and no history of prosthodontic or orthodontic treatments. Mandibular condyles were classified morphologically at the centric occlusion and evaluated in positional relationship with mandibular fossa and articular eminence at the centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The results were as follows: 1. In the morphologic classification of mandibular condyle, the convex shape was more prevalent in an asymptomatic population (90.4%), the locally concave shape and wedge were 5.5%, 4.1%. 2. At the centric occlusion, the means of joint space were 3.43 mm superiorly, 2.17 mm anteriorly, and 2.61 mm posteriorly. 3. At the centric occlusion, the mandibular condyles were placed slightly anterior to the center of their fossa. 4. At the 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles were placed anterior to the articular eminence more than posterior to or below top of the articular eminence.

Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1988-11-15

91

Bifid mandibular condyle: CT and MRI appearance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of bilateral mediolateral bifid condyle in a 24-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation. MRI and CT findings revealed bilateral bifid condyle. PMID:22922936

Tutar, Onur; Bas, Ahmet; Gülsen, Gökçe; Bayraktarov, Elmar

2012-01-01

92

21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device...

2010-04-01

93

The false and the true bifid condyles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bifid mandibular condyle has been described as a condition of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. Many see it as the product of accidental trauma or forceps delivery, with the two heads occurring one behind the other in the sagittal plane. In bioanthropological literature, "bifid condyle" often describes pitting in the sagittal plane, dividing the condyle mediolaterally. We examined 38 male and 16 female pre-European-contact Pacific islanders' adult mandibles, and 24 male and 29 female modern Indian mandibles, recording frequency, prominence and position of any condylar groove in both coronal and sagittal planes. We report the tenth known case of a bilaterally-bifid condyle. A groove was found almost twice as likely to occur on the left condyle of the Indians than of the Pacific Islanders, but equally likely to occur on the right side of both groups. That same finding applied to males and females. In order to avoid terminological ambiguity, we suggest that the term "bifid condyle" should be reserved for describing multiple condyles in the sagittal plane only - the true bifid condyle. An hypothesis is offered for the occurrence of the groove in the sagittal plane. PMID:18417126

Dennison, J; Mahoney, P; Herbison, P; Dias, G

2008-01-01

94

Relationship between the effect of medial rotation of the foot axis by ankle dorsiflexion and the ability to visualize the femoral neck axis in the hip joint anterio-posterior radiography. Evaluation by magnetic resonance images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In scanning of the hip joint anterio-posterior radiography, by changing the lower extremities to the extension position and moving the foot axis (base line of the foot) by medial rotation, the angle of anteversion of the femoral neck is corrected. In this study, we assessed the effects on medial rotation of the femoral neck when keeping the planta vertically-positioned by ankle dorsiflexion (intermediate position of the ankle) and making change of the medial rotation angle of the foot axis by scanning the magnetic resonance (MR) images of knee joints and hip joints. The subjects in this study were 12 males (age: 37.9±13.8, weight: 67.3±5.5 kg) and 7 females (age: 27.6±5.1, weight: 50.0±4.5 kg). We measured the medial rotation angles of knee joints and femoral necks on MR images. Also, differences of these angles between males and females were compared. Although the gender differences were not found in medial rotation angle of both joints at all leg positions (P>0.05), the medial rotation angles increased by approximately 1.5 to 2.0 times larger by putting them at the intermediate position, and there were significant differences between the naturally plantar-flexed position and the intermediate position (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the optimal leg position for correcting the angle of anteversion was 20 degrees medial rotation of the foot axis at the naturally plantar-flexed position, or 10 degrees medial rotation of the foot axis at the intermediate position, regardless of gender. (author)

2012-05-01

95

Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

Citak, Musa; Jagodzinski, Michael; Krettek, Christian; Huefner, Tobias [Hannover Medical School, Trauma Department, Hannover (Germany); Citak, Mustafa [BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Surgery, Bochum (Germany); Kendoff, Daniel; O' Loughlin, Padhraig F. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Orthopaedic Department, New York, NY (United States); Tavassol, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

2009-12-15

96

Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

2009-12-01

97

Hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of unilateral hyperplastic mandibular condyles for some useful preliminary diagnostic recommendations. Clinical records, radiographs and histologic diagnoses of 35 cases with asymmetric mandibular condyles due to apparent unilateral condylar hyperplasia were evaluated retrospectively. Among 35 cases, 28 were true hyperplastic conditions of condyles whereas the remaining 7 were unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side. 17 of the 28 hyperplastic condyles showed a mass or irregular radiographic shadow with histologic diagnosis including osteochondroma and osteoma. Only 5 of these cases showed facial asymmetry. 2 out of ths 17 cases showed hyperplastic round shaped irregular condyles consistent with ankylosis and their histologic diagnoses were osteochondromas. 11 of the 28 cases showed smooth enlargement of condylar head with elongation of the neck causing facial asymmetry, but histologic diagnoses were not available because the surgical operation conserved the condyles. The hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles include not only true hyperplasia, osteochondroma, osteoma, and ankylosis, but also unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side.

Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

98

Hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of unilateral hyperplastic mandibular condyles for some useful preliminary diagnostic recommendations. Clinical records, radiographs and histologic diagnoses of 35 cases with asymmetric mandibular condyles due to apparent unilateral condylar hyperplasia were evaluated retrospectively. Among 35 cases, 28 were true hyperplastic conditions of condyles whereas the remaining 7 were unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side. 17 of the 28 hyperplastic condyles showed a mass or irregular radiographic shadow with histologic diagnosis including osteochondroma and osteoma. Only 5 of these cases showed facial asymmetry. 2 out of ths 17 cases showed hyperplastic round shaped irregular condyles consistent with ankylosis and their histologic diagnoses were osteochondromas. 11 of the 28 cases showed smooth enlargement of condylar head with elongation of the neck causing facial asymmetry, but histologic diagnoses were not available because the surgical operation conserved the condyles. The hyperplastic conditions of the mandibular condyles include not only true hyperplasia, osteochondroma, osteoma, and ankylosis, but also unilateral internal derangement occurring on the short side.

2003-12-01

99

MR Imaging of a Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Diagnostic Accuracy of Various Tear Configurations and Associated Knee Abnormalities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the various tear configurations in a medial meniscal posterior horn root tear and assess whether any correlation exists with other associated knee abnormalities in MR imaging. A retrospective review of 146 preoperative knee MR images were performed by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The tear configuration and other abnormalities were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each configuration in the medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were calculated. A total of 48 medial meniscal posterior horn root tears including 38 full-thickness radial, 7 partial-thickness radial, and 3 complex tears were confirmed during arthroscopy. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were 92% (44/48), 99% (97/98), and 97% (141/146), respectively. For each tear configuration, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82% (31/38), 97% (105/108), and 93% (136/146) for full-thickness radial tears, respectively, and 43% (3/7), 94% (131/139), and 91% (134/146) for partial-thickness radial tears, respectively. The incidence of degenerative joint disease was 85% (41/48) for the tear group, revealing a strong association. In patients with a root tear and with degenerative joint disease, the incidence of high grade cartilage defects involving the medial femoral condyle was at 80% (33/41), compared to 56% (23/41) for the presence of medial meniscal extrusion. In contrast, a similar comparison of incidence for patients with no root tears but with degenerative joint disease was at 68% (17/25) and 26% (8/31), respectively. MR imaging is very sensitive for the detection of medial meniscal root tears, but has reduced the accuracy with regard to each tear configuration. Medial meniscal root tears showed a strong association with degenerative joint disease. High grade cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscal extrusions also reveal a strong association with medial meniscal root tears

Lee, Hyang Mi; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Jae Myeong; Nam, Mee Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15

100

MR Imaging of a Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Diagnostic Accuracy of Various Tear Configurations and Associated Knee Abnormalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the various tear configurations in a medial meniscal posterior horn root tear and assess whether any correlation exists with other associated knee abnormalities in MR imaging. A retrospective review of 146 preoperative knee MR images were performed by one experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The tear configuration and other abnormalities were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each configuration in the medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were calculated. A total of 48 medial meniscal posterior horn root tears including 38 full-thickness radial, 7 partial-thickness radial, and 3 complex tears were confirmed during arthroscopy. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of medial meniscal posterior horn root tear were 92% (44/48), 99% (97/98), and 97% (141/146), respectively. For each tear configuration, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82% (31/38), 97% (105/108), and 93% (136/146) for full-thickness radial tears, respectively, and 43% (3/7), 94% (131/139), and 91% (134/146) for partial-thickness radial tears, respectively. The incidence of degenerative joint disease was 85% (41/48) for the tear group, revealing a strong association. In patients with a root tear and with degenerative joint disease, the incidence of high grade cartilage defects involving the medial femoral condyle was at 80% (33/41), compared to 56% (23/41) for the presence of medial meniscal extrusion. In contrast, a similar comparison of incidence for patients with no root tears but with degenerative joint disease was at 68% (17/25) and 26% (8/31), respectively. MR imaging is very sensitive for the detection of medial meniscal root tears, but has reduced the accuracy with regard to each tear configuration. Medial meniscal root tears showed a strong association with degenerative joint disease. High grade cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscal extrusions also reveal a strong association with medial meniscal root tears

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Bifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bifid mandibular condyle is a rare anomaly. A variety of causes are implicated with its development such as developmental origin and trauma. Because of the lack of epidemiological data, there is little information about the real incidence of this malformation. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bifid mandibular condyle in a 20-year-old woman who referred to a private radiological clinic for routine dental examination. A panoramic radiography incidentally revealed a discrete modification of the left mandibular condyle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was taken and confirmed the diagnostic proposed. PMID:16617199

Ramos, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Filho, José Osmar de Vasconcelos; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de

2006-03-01

102

Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and / or posterior surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar’s test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p < 0.01). Only in identifying the defects located on the posterior surface was it possible to observe the influence of the 1.0 mm protocol thickness and no filter, which showed a significantly lower value. Based on the results of the current study, the technique used was valid for identifying the existence of cavities in the condyle surface. However, the protocol of a 1.0 mm-thick slice and no filter proved to be the worst method for identifying the defects on the posterior surface. (author)

Bastos, Luana Costa; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores, E-mail: bastosluana@ymail.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral e Maxilofacial; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Pontual, Andrea dos Anjos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Camaragibe, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral; Almeida, Solange Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral

2013-11-15

103

Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and / or posterior surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar’s test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p < 0.01). Only in identifying the defects located on the posterior surface was it possible to observe the influence of the 1.0 mm protocol thickness and no filter, which showed a significantly lower value. Based on the results of the current study, the technique used was valid for identifying the existence of cavities in the condyle surface. However, the protocol of a 1.0 mm-thick slice and no filter proved to be the worst method for identifying the defects on the posterior surface. (author)

2013-01-01

104

Femoral hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective study of 18 patients with femoral hernia assessed by herniography is presented. Although a palpable lump was present in 11 patients (61%), the diagnosis of a femoral hernia was not made before herniography. Surgical exploration was performed in 12 patients and a femoral hernia was found and repaired with beneficial outcome in 9 of them. In conclusion: herniography is of value for the diagnosis of a femoral hernia in patients with obscure groin pain. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

1990-01-01

105

Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

2008-03-01

106

Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-15

107

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle is a rarely seen malformation. The aetiology of bifid condyle is not completely understood, although developmental anomaly, traumas, condylar fracture, teratogenic embryopathy and surgical condylectomy may all be causative factors. Although a few studies on human dried skulls tried to shed light on this entity it remains obscure. As most bifid condyle subjects have no complaint related to temporamandibular joint(TMJ), the cases are generally diagnosed through incidental radiographic findings. The case of a 54-year-old female is presented. In a panoramic radiograph obtained after a clinical examination, bilateral bifid mandibular condyle was observed. The open-closed lateral radiograph of the TMJ (obtained using the TMJ-specific program of the panoramic device) demonstrated duplication of the right and left condyles. In order to better evaluate the TMJ morphology and to eliminate pathologies such as fractures that might be missed with conventional radiographs, a computed tomography scan was also obtained. The joint head orientation was observed in the mediolateral direction. The case is discussed in the context of the relevant literature. Until large population-based studies are undertaken and further experimental studies are performed, bifid condyle will remain an incidental finding of anatomic variation rather than a clinically informative observation. PMID:16938108

Açikgöz, A

2006-10-01

108

Computerized tomography in evaluation of decreased acetabular and femoral anteversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computerized tomography has received a new importance. It has been shown that decreased anteversion of femur and acetabulum, when both have decreased angles, are causing pain and osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Operative treatment should be performed before osteoarthritis develops. Exact measurements therefore are necessary. The investigation should be performed in prone position to have the pelvis lying in a defined and normal position. Femoral torsion is measured between the transverse axis of the knee and the femoral neck. The transverse axis for measurement of the femoral anteversion is defined by a rectangular line to the sagittal plane. For evaluation of the femoral anteversion in total the angle of the condyles has to be added to the femoral neck angle when the knee is found in internal rotation. Acetabular anteversion should be measured at the level where the femoral head is still in full contact and congruence with the anterior margin of the acetabulum. (orig.)

2003-09-01

109

Size, shape and age-related changes of the mandibular condyle during childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine age-related differences in the size and shape of the mandibular condyle in children to establish anatomical reference values. A total of 420 mandibular condyles in 210 children (mean age, 7 years) were retrospectively analysed by using computed tomography (CT) imaging. The greatest left-right (LRD) and anterior-posterior (APD) diameters and the anteversion angles (AA) were measured by two readers. An APD/LRD ratio was calculated. The shape of the condyles was graded into three types on sagittal images. Correlations of parameters with the children's age were assessed by using Pearson's correlation analyses. The LRD (mean, 14.1 {+-} 2.4 mm), APD (mean, 7.3 {+-} 1.0 mm) and LRD/APD ratio (mean, 1.9 {+-} 0.3) increased (r{sub LRD} = 0.70, p < 0.01; r{sub APD} = 0.56, p < 0.01; r{sub rat} = 0.28, p < 0.01) while the AA (mean, 27 {+-} 7 ) decreased significantly (r{sub antang} = -0.26, p < 0.001) with age. The condylar shape as determined on sagittal images correlated significantly with age (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). Boys had significantly higher anteversion angles (p < 0.01), greater LRDs (p < 0.05) and greater mean ratios (p < 0.05). The mandibular condyle is subject to significant age-related changes in size and shape during childhood. As the size of the condyles increases with age, the anteversion angles decrease and the shape of the condyle turns from round to oval. (orig.)

Karlo, Christoph A. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Habernig, Sandra; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinics for Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurenmann, Traudel [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

2010-10-15

110

[Subtrochanteric femoral fractures].  

Science.gov (United States)

Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are proximal femoral fractures which are located between the trochanter minor and an area of 3 cm below the minor trochanter on the femoral shaft. About 10-15% of all proximal femoral fractures correspond to this fracture site. Elderly or geriatric patients are generally affected and the injury is often the result of a fall in the home, while high-energy trauma is the cause in a small group of generally younger patients. Clinical evaluation of the affected extremity shows disability of axial weight-bearing and pain during compression and rotation of the hip joint. Basic diagnostics include conventional x-rays of the injured femur in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes. These subtrochanteric femoral fractures are almost always treated surgically due to the inherent high degree of instability. The main goals of surgical intervention are to achieve anatomic fracture reduction and primary full weight-bearing stability of the corresponding leg. Intramedullary interlocking nails are used for primary treatment, while extramedullary implants are often used in revision surgery. Early mobilization and intensive respiratory exercises are necessary to prevent early postoperative complications. PMID:24337553

Ulmar, B; Simon, S; Eschler, A; Mittlmeier, T

2013-12-01

111

Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply

1984-06-05

112

Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and/or posterior [...] surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar's test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p

Luana Costa, Bastos; Paulo Sergio Flores, Campos; Flavia Maria de Moraes, Ramos-Perez; Andrea dos Anjos, Pontual; Solange Maria, Almeida.

113

Modeling of the condyle elements within a biomechanical knee model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development of a computational multibody knee model able to capture some of the fundamental properties of the human knee articulation is presented. This desideratum is reached by including the kinetics of the real knee articulation. The research question is whether an accurate modeling of the condyle contact in the knee will lead to reproduction of the complex combination of flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and tibial rotation observed in the real knee. The model is composed by two anatomic segments, the tibia and the femur, whose characteristics are functions of the geometric and anatomic properties of the real bones. The biomechanical model characterization is developed under the framework of multibody systems methodologies using Cartesian coordinates. The type of approach used in the proposed knee model is the joint surface contact conditions between ellipsoids, representing the two femoral condyles, and points, representing the tibial plateau and the menisci. These elements are closely fitted to the actual knee geometry. This task is undertaken by considering a parameter optimization process to replicate experimental data published in the literature, namely that by Lafortune and his coworkers in 1992. Then kinematic data in the form of flexion/extension patterns are imposed on the model corresponding to the stance phase of the human gait. From the results obtained, by performing several computational simulations, it can be observed that the knee model approximates the average secondary motion patterns observed in the literature. Because the literature reports considerable inter-individual differences in the secondary motion patterns, the knee model presented here is also used to check whether it is possible to reproduce the observed differences with reasonable variations of bone shape parameters. This task is accomplished by a parameter study, in which the main variables that define the geometry of condyles are taken into account. It was observed that the data reveal a difference in secondary kinematics of the knee in flexion versus extension. The likely explanation for this fact is the elastic component of the secondary motions created by the combination of joint forces and soft tissue deformations. The proposed knee model is, therefore, used to investigate whether this observed behavior can be explained by reasonable elastic deformations of the points representing the menisci in the model.

Ribeiro, Ana; Rasmussen, John

2012-01-01

114

Wegener’s Disease Presenting with Occipital Condyle Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tumors or chronic inflammatory lesions of the occipital condyle may cause occipital pain associated with an ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve injury (occipital condyle syndrome). We describe a young woman with recurrent otitis media and occipital condyle syndrome associated with a limited form of Wegener’s disease.

Hornik, Alejandro; Rodriguez-porcel, Federico; Ersahin, Cagatay H.; Kadanoff, Ruth; Biller, Jose?

2012-01-01

115

Bifid mandibular condyle: archaeological case report of a rare anomaly.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an archaeological case of unilateral bifid mandibular condyle is presented. This uncommon anomaly is characterized by a division of the mandibular condylar head. In this case, the left condyle was divided into two articulating surfaces oriented mediolaterally; two articular facets on the anterior wall of the glenoid fossa for the double condyle were observed. The morphological and radiological analysis do not show any evidence of injuries or degenerative pathology. Taking into account the two main causes of bifid condyle suggested in the literature (traumatic and developmental), an embryopathy by teratogenic agents is proposed as a possible aetiology of the bifid condyle reported here. PMID:15533986

Jordana, X; García, C; Palacios, M; Chimenos, E; Malgosa, A

2004-07-01

116

Posterior crossbite - treatment and stability  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Posterior crossbite is defined as an inadequate transversal relationship of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Even when eliminating the etiologic factors, this malocclusion does not have a spontaneous correction, and should be treated with maxillary expansion as early as possible. This treatment aims [...] at providing a better tooth/skeletal relationship, thereby improving masticatory function, and establishing a symmetrical condyle/fossa relationship. Should posterior crossbite not be treated early, it may result in skeletal changes, demanding a more complex approach. Additionally, an overcorrection expansion protocol should be applied in order to improve the treatment stability. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse after maxillary expansion, the goal of this study was to demonstrate excellent stability of the posterior crossbite correction 21 years post treatment.

Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; Marques, Henry Victor Alves.

117

Posterior crossbite - treatment and stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Posterior crossbite is defined as an inadequate transversal relationship of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Even when eliminating the etiologic factors, this malocclusion does not have a spontaneous correction, and should be treated with maxillary expansion as early as possible. This treatment aims at providing a better tooth/skeletal relationship, thereby improving masticatory function, and establishing a symmetrical condyle/fossa relationship. Should posterior crossbite not be treated early, it may result in skeletal changes, demanding a more complex approach. Additionally, an overcorrection expansion protocol should be applied in order to improve the treatment stability. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse after maxillary expansion, the goal of this study was to demonstrate excellent stability of the posterior crossbite correction 21 years post treatment.

Renato Rodrigues de Almeida

2012-04-01

118

Femoral osteochondral fracture--a non-contact injury in martial arts? A case report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A report of a case of osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in a patient doing a karate kick. The problems related to fixation of osteochondral fragments with protruding screws are highlighted and the suitability of Herbert screw fixation noted.

Mbubaegbu, C. E.; Percy, A. J.

1994-01-01

119

The radiologic spectrum of occipital condyle fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) are increasingly diagnosed in survivors of high energy blunt trauma, and may be associated with craniocervical junction disruption.We aimed to describe and classify the imaging appearances of occipital condyle fractures in a large series of trauma patients. We reviewed conventional radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 95 patients with 107 OCFs, who were treated at a level 1 trauma centre (1992-1999). We described fracture patterns according to two current classification systems (Anderson and Montesano, and Tuli), and correlated imaging appearances with clinical findings, neurosurgical management and patient outcome. Fracture morphology and craniocervical junction integrity were best assessed by 1-1.5mm collimation CT. Inferomedial occipital condyle avulsion fractures (Anderson and Montesano type III) were the commonest OCF category, comprising 80/107 (75%). Unilateral OCFs were found in 73/95 (77%) patients, 58 of whom were managed by cervical orthotic brace or collar. Bilateral OCFs or occipito-atlanto-axial joint injuries were seen in the remaining 22/95 (23%) patients. Occipitocervical fusion or craniocervical halo traction were required in 12 patients, all of whom had CT evidence of bilateral occipito-atlanto-axial joint disruption. Associated cervical spine injuries were present in 29/95 (31%) patients. Ten (10/95, 10.5%) patients died in hospital, and 30/95 (32%) showed continuing disability. The remaining 55/95 (57.5%) patients showed good outcome and functional independence at 1 month. Occipital condyle fractures are rare injuries with a wide range of morphology, stability and clinical significance. Thorough radiological evaluation of all components of the occipito-atlanto-axial joint complex must be performed in order to determine the full extent of injury. In this series, most unilateral OCFs were managed by non-operative immobilisation, whereas bilateral occipito-atlanto-axial joint injuries often required neurosurgical stabilisation. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2002-06-01

120

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle is an infrequent and normally asymptomatic morphological alteration of the mandibular condyle. Although the underlying cause is not clear, a number of theories have been proposed, including teratogenic effects in the embryo, vascular alterations during condyle development, and condylar remodeling following fracture. Since Schier first described this anomaly in 1948 in live individuals, further cases have been documented in the literature. We present a new case of bilateral bifid condyle. The disorder was asymptomatic and constituted a casual finding in a young male presenting for the surgical extraction of two impacted molars. PMID:16711276

Espinosa-Femenia, Mireia; Sartorres-Nieto, Marta; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Bifid mandibular condyle: Report of two cases of varied etiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid condyle is a rare anatomic variation of mandibular condyle. It can be symptomatic or diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographic examination. No definite etiologic factor has been identified. It is suggested that bifid condyle could be a developmental anomaly or secondary to trauma. We are reporting two cases of bifid mandibular condyle. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography scan, which additionally revealed the associated pathosis in the angle of the mandible in first patient and the ankylosis of temporomandibular joint in the second patient. PMID:22442558

Faisal, Mohammad; Ali, Iqbal; Pal, U S; Bannerjee, Kalyan

2010-01-01

122

78 FR 9010 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

...Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis AGENCY: Food and...proposed order to reclassify temporary mandibular condyle prosthesis, a preamendments...and rename the device ``temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.''...

2013-02-07

123

EMG activities of two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to mandibular condyle movement and biting force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the superior (SUP) and inferior heads (INF) of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPT) were recorded in humans during voluntary stepwise changes in biting force and jaw position that were adopted to exclude the effects of acceleration and velocity of jaw movements on the muscle activity. The SUP behaved like a jaw-closing muscle and showed characteristic activity in relation to the biting force. It showed a considerable amount of background activity (5-32% of the maximum) even in the intercuspal position without teeth clenching and reached a nearly maximum activity at relatively lower biting-force levels than the jaw-closing muscles during increment of the biting force. Stretch reflexes were found in the SUP, the function of which could be to stabilize the condyle against the biting force that pulls the condyle posteriorly. This notion was verified by examining the biomechanics on the temporomandibular joint. The complex movements of the mandibular condyle in a sagittal plane were decomposed into displacement in the anteroposterior direction (Ac) and angle of rotation (RAc) around a kinesiological specific point on the condyle. In relation to Ac, each head of the LPT showed quite a similar behavior to each other in all types of jaw movements across all subjects. Working ranges of the muscle activities were almost constant (Ac 3 mm for the INF). The amount of EMG activity of the SUP changed in inverse proportion to Ac showing a hyperbola-like relation, whereas that of the INF changed rather linearly. The EMG amplitude of the SUP showed a quasilinear inverse relation with RAc in the hinge movement during which the condyle rotated with no movement in the anteroposterior direction. This finding suggests that the SUP controls the angular relationship between the articular disk and the condyle. On the other hand, the position of the disk in relation to the maxilla, not to the condyle, is controlled indirectly by the INF because the disk is attached to the condyle by tendinous ligaments. PMID:10758122

Hiraba, K; Hibino, K; Hiranuma, K; Negoro, T

2000-04-01

124

Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views

2006-06-01

125

Femoral nerve damage (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

126

Imaging the vascularisation of the femoral head by CT angiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The femoral head receives its blood supply primarily from the medial femoral circumflex artery, with its deep branch being the most important. In a previous study, we performed classical anatomical dissections of 16 hips. We have extended our investigation with a radiological study, in which we aimed to visualise the arteries supplying the femoral head in healthy individuals. We analysed 55 CT angiographic images of the hip. Using 64-row CT angiography, we identified three main arteries supplying the femoral head: the deep branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery and the posterior inferior nutrient artery originating from the medial femoral circumflex artery, and the piriformis branch of the inferior gluteal artery. CT angiography is a good method for visualisation of the arteries supplying the femoral head. The current radiological studies will provide information for further investigation of vascularity after traumatic dislocation of the hip, using CT angiography. PMID:22933487

Zlotorowicz, M; Czubak, J; Kozinski, P; Boguslawska-Walecka, R

2012-09-01

127

Tetrafid mandibular condyle: a unique case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological changes such as bifid and trifid mandibular condyle are rare entities. The aim of the present report is to describe a unique morphological variation of the mandibular condyle which has four separate condylar heads (tetrafid mandibular condyle) and to discuss clinical and radiological differential diagnosis of tetrafid mandibular condyle with advanced imaging techniques. PMID:22065803

Sahman, H; Etöz, O A; Sekerci, A E; Etöz, M; Sisman, Y

2011-12-01

128

Tetrafid mandibular condyle: a unique case report and review of the literature  

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Morphological changes such as bifid and trifid mandibular condyle are rare entities. The aim of the present report is to describe a unique morphological variation of the mandibular condyle which has four separate condylar heads (tetrafid mandibular condyle) and to discuss clinical and radiological differential diagnosis of tetrafid mandibular condyle with advanced imaging techniques.

S?ahman, H.; Eto?z, Oa; S?ekerci, Ae; Eto?z, M.; S?is?man, Y.

2011-01-01

129

Bilateral bifid mandibular condyles diagnosed with three-dimensional reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) are rare anomalies. The overwhelming majority of prior reports described their predominantly unilateral occurrence diagnosed by panoramic radiography. We present an even rarer case of bilateral BMC initially identified by panoramic radiography and confirmed with colour-enhanced three-dimensional CT. These images substantiate the theory that the secondary condyles arise from the neck of the mandible (Lopez-Lopez et al. Bifid condyle: review of the literature of the last 10 years and report of two cases. Cianio 2010; 28: 136-140). PMID:22241877

Tanner, J M; Friedlander, A H; Chang, T I

2012-12-01

130

Radiographic study of morphology of mandibular condyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anatomical anomaly of temporo-mandibular joint and its dysfunction is becoming one of the important problem in dentistry because the number of these cases are increasing rapidly. Applying 'Lateral Transcranial Technic', 'Updegrave method' and 'Denar Accuard 100' to skull and adult with normal occlusion the author obtained following results: 1. Grewcock method combined with cephalos tat as one of 'Lateral Transcranial Technic' revealed clear picture but the image of condyle head was tend to incline downward. 2. Direction of central radiation in 'Updegrave method' should be 2 recommended inch upward from auditorial mearus. 3. For functional analysis and correct diagnosis 'Denar Accuard 100' should be highly recommended.

Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1985-11-15

131

Osteochondroma of condyle: case discussion and review of treatment modalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) forms a synovial articulation between the condyle and the cranium. It is a complex joint and shows hinge and gliding movements. Unlike other articulating heads, condyle grows with intramembranous ossification. TMJ is subjected to excessive loads throughout life as it supports essential functions such as mastication, deglutition, speech and respiration. Traumatic, neoplastic or non-neoplastic pathologies sometimes necessitate joint replacement therapy. Osteochondroma is one such benign tumour originating from condyle which requires surgical replacement of condyle with prosthesis. Various replacement methods have been designed in the past. Alloplastic grafts have been successfully used in joint replacement surgeries like hip joint, knee joint, etc. This case discussion supports the use of titanium-made condylar prosthesis for long-term functional stability of TMJ. PMID:24496065

Arora, Piyush; Deora, Shakti Singh; Kiran, Shital; Bargale, Seema Dinesh

2014-01-01

132

Incomplete (bending) fractures of the mandibular condyle in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete, bending or bowing fractures of the mandibular condyle in children frequently go undetected. The reason is that the bending deformity often is subtle and passes for normal. This is especially true if the fractures are bilateral.

Ahrendt, D.; Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, C.K. Jr.

1984-03-01

133

Panoramic Image of Mandibular Condyle According to Head Position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Panoramic radiography is convenient in clinic and visualizes those areas which other technique do not give. But the technique has limitation of image distortion which results from the relationship of the ramus to the focal trough and from the direction of the central ray. This study is, using 7 dry skulls, to determine the effect of rotation of patient's head on reducing those distortion and determine the magnification ratio of images of mandibular condyle in rotated patient head position. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Generally, in panoramic radiography the anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was best to be visualized. 2. There are no significant difference between the image readability of anteromedial portion and that of antercentral portion of the mandibular condyle. 3. Anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was better visualized in rotated head position by 20 degree or horizontal condylar inclination than in conventional position or in rotated head position by 10 degree. 4. The magnification ratio of the anteroposterior diameter in the image of mandibular condyle was least in the rotated head position by horizontal inclination of the mandibular condyle and was largest by 20 degree.

1990-08-01

134

Panoramic Image of Mandibular Condyle According to Head Position  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Panoramic radiography is convenient in clinic and visualizes those areas which other technique do not give. But the technique has limitation of image distortion which results from the relationship of the ramus to the focal trough and from the direction of the central ray. This study is, using 7 dry skulls, to determine the effect of rotation of patient's head on reducing those distortion and determine the magnification ratio of images of mandibular condyle in rotated patient head position. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Generally, in panoramic radiography the anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was best to be visualized. 2. There are no significant difference between the image readability of anteromedial portion and that of antercentral portion of the mandibular condyle. 3. Anterolateral portion of the mandibular condyle was better visualized in rotated head position by 20 degree or horizontal condylar inclination than in conventional position or in rotated head position by 10 degree. 4. The magnification ratio of the anteroposterior diameter in the image of mandibular condyle was least in the rotated head position by horizontal inclination of the mandibular condyle and was largest by 20 degree.

Kim, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1990-08-15

135

Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incidence of condylar fractures is high,but the management of fractures of the mandibularcondyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, externalfixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonlyused in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsularor intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on theage of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether thecondylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, thestate of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, theco-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;anappropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function oftheuninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, andcomplication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may causelong-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facialheight, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great cautionshould be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture.

Kang-Young Choi

2012-07-01

136

Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up  

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Abstract We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protect...

Vijayan Sridhar; Bentley George

2011-01-01

137

Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft s...

Vijayan, Sridhar; Bentley, George

2011-01-01

138

Bone response and mechanical strength of rabbit femoral defects filled with injectable CaP cements containing TGF-?1 loaded gelatin microparticles  

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This study focused at the potential of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) loaded gelatin microparticles to enhance the bone response and mechanical strength of rabbit femoral defects filled with injectable calcium phosphate (CaP)/gelatin microparticle composites. Therefore, TGF-?1 loaded composites and non-loaded controls were injected in circular defects as created in the femoral condyles of rabbits and were left in place for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The specimens were evaluated mechanicall...

2008-01-01

139

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common adolescent hip disorder. The etiology of SCFE includes biomechanical and biochemical factors. SCFEs are classified as stable and unstable and are more common in boys than girls and in certain racial groups; most children with SCFEs are obese. Bilateral SCFEs may have a simultaneous or sequential presentation. Imaging studies show a posterior slip of the epiphysis relative to the metaphysis, seen early on lateral radiographs. The most common and effective initial treatment for stable SCFEs is in situ central single-screw fixation; other options include epiphysiodesis, and osteotomy with or without surgical dislocation of the hip. Later reconstruction options, typically reserved for the child with functional abnormalities, include proximal femoral osteotomy, or surgical dislocation of the hip with removal of metaphyseal prominent bone to remove the source of femoroacetabular impingement. Unstable SCFEs have an increased risk of osteonecrosis; the role of reduction, methods of fixation, and decompression are controversial. The natural history of untreated SCFEs is associated with the risk of progression and later degenerative joint disease. Based on treatment methods of 30 to 40 years ago, in situ fixation provided the best long-term function with the lowest risk of complications and the most effective delay of degenerative arthritis regardless of the severity of the SCFE. Newer technologies and techniques are allowing the reevaluation of the role of either acute or later reconstructive osteotomy. It has not yet been determined if these improved techniques will result in better outcomes than in the past. Surgical dislocation of the hip with epiphyseal orientation is a considered treatment option for those technically adept at the procedure; however, the long-term outcome compared with in situ fixation is still unknown. PMID:18399603

Loder, Randall T; Aronsson, David D; Weinstein, Stuart L; Breur, Gert J; Ganz, Reinhold; Leunig, Michael

2008-01-01

140

The relation of canine guidance with laterotrusive movements at the incisal point and the working side condyle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of different types of canine guidance on the patterns of laterotrusive tracing at the incisal point and the relationship between the laterotrusive inclinations and the working side condylar movements were investigated in 42 young subjects. The subjects were divided into M and D groups according to their mesial and distal canine guidance, and were also divided into protrusive laterotrusion (PL) and retrusive laterotrusion (RL) groups according to their laterotrusive tracing patterns. No differences of laterotrusive inclinations and working side condylar movements were found between the M and D groups. The laterotrusive tracing pattern had no corresponding association with the type of canine guidance. In relation to the movements of the working side condyles, significant differences were found between the PL and RL groups. The condyles moved laterally and posteriorly in the RL group, but moved lateral and inferior in the PL one. The distance of condylar movement in the X direction was correlated with the horizontal and sagittal inclinations of laterotrusion. The results indicate that the movements of the working side condyle were affected functionally by the laterotrusion, but not by either the mesial or the distal type of canine guidance. PMID:11065027

Yang, Y; Yatabe, M; Ai, M; Soneda, K

2000-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Topographical analysis of the femoral components of ex vivo total knee replacements.  

Science.gov (United States)

With greater numbers of primary knee replacements now performed in younger patients there is a demand for improved performance. Surface roughness of the femoral component has been proposed as a causative mechanism for premature prosthesis failure. Nineteen retrieved total knee replacements were analysed using a non-contacting profilometer to measure the femoral component surface roughness. The Hood technique was used to analyse the wear and surface damage of the matching ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial components. All femoral components were shown to be up to 11× rougher after their time in vivo while 95 % showed a change in skewness, further indicating wear. This increase in roughness occurred relatively soon after implantation (within 1 year) and remained unchanged thereafter. Mostly, this roughness was more apparent on the lateral condyle than the medial. This increased femoral surface roughness likely led to damage of the UHMWPE tibial component and increased Hood scores. PMID:23160912

Scholes, Susan C; Kennard, Emma; Gangadharan, Rajkumar; Weir, David; Holland, Jim; Deehan, David; Joyce, Thomas J

2013-02-01

142

Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.780.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images

2007-09-01

143

Sagittal plane articulation of the contralateral knee of subjects with posterior cruciate ligament deficiency: an observational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to compare the in vivo articulation of the healthy knee to the contralateral knee of subjects with acute and chronic PCL injuries. Methods Magnetic resonance was used to generate sagittal images of 10 healthy knees and 10 knees with isolated PCL injuries (5 acute and 5 chronic. The subjects performed a supine leg press against a 150 N load. Images were generated at 15 degree intervals as the knee flexed from 0 to 90 degrees. The tibiofemoral contact (TFC, and the centre of the femoral condyle (as defined by the flexion facet centre (FFC, were measured from the posterior tibial cortex. Results There was no significant difference in the TFC and FFC between the healthy knee and contralateral knee of subjects with acute and chronic PCL injuries in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest there is no predisposing articulation abnormality to PCL injury, in the setting of chronic injury the contralateral knee does not modify its articulation profile and the contralateral knee can be used as a valid control when evaluating the articulation of the PCL deficient knee.

Chandrasekaran Sivashankar

2012-03-01

144

Osteochondroma of mandibular condyle: A clinic-radiographic correlation  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteochondroma (OC) of temporo mandibular joint is a rare, slow growing, benign tumor that causes a progressive enlargement of the condyle, usually resulting in facial asymmetry, temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, limited mouth opening and malocclusion. Pain is rarely associated with this tumor. OC is composed of cartilaginous and osseous tissues. Radiographically, there is unilaterally enlarged condyle usually with an exophytic outgrowth of the tumor from the condylar head. We present a rare case of osteochondroma of right mandibular condyle in a 45-year-old male who reported with painless swelling over TMJ area and progressive limited mouth opening. Panoramic radiograph and computed tomography (CT) was performed for better evaluation of the pathological condition. This paper describes the clinico-radiographic features and differential diagnosis of OC.

More, Chandramani B.; Gupta, Swati

2013-01-01

145

A clinico-radiologic study of bony remodeling of the fractured condyles in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bony remodeling pattern of condyle fractures in children are different from in adult for growing of condyle, also might affect treatment and prognosis of the condyle fracture. Subjects of this clinical and radiologic study were 26 temporomandibular joints diagnosed as condyle fracture in 23 patients under 15 years old age, They were treated with conservative method at Dental Hospital of Yonsei University from Jan., 1986 to Oct., 1994. Bony remodeling related with fracture pattern was evaluated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female in patients with condyle fracture was 1 : 0.9 and the difference of sex ratio was not noted. Comparing with preschool-age group and school-age group, age frequency was higher in preschool-age group (83%). 2. Fallen down (54%) was the most frequent cause of condyle fractures. Traffic accident and slip down were followed. 3. The most common clinical sign of condyle fractures was tenderness to palpation (19 cases). Mouth opening limitation (17 cases), swelling (7 cases), malocclusion (3 cases) were next in order. 4. According to sites of condyle fractures, unilateral fractures were in 20 patients and bilateral fractures in 3 patients, therefore total 23 patients-26 cases of condyle fracture were observed. According to fracture distribution, condyle fractures were in 10 patients (44%). Condyle fractures with symphysis fracture (9 patients, 39%), condyle fractures with ascending ramus fracture (2 patients, 9%), condyle fracture with mandibular body fracture (1 patient, 4%), and condyle fractures with mandibular angle fracture (1 patient, 4%) were followed. 5. In displacement pattern of fractured fragment of mandibular condyle, displacement (17 cases, 66%) was most common. Dislocation (5 cases, 19%) and deviation (4 cases, 15%) were next in order. 6. During the observation period of fractured condyles, remodeling patterns of fracture sites related with articular fossa were observed with usual congealer shape in 23 cases and with prominently different shape in 3 cases.

1995-08-01

146

Neuropatía femoral post-histerectomía abdominal: informe de 2 casos  

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La neuropatía femoral, como complicación quirúrgica de la cirugía pélvica, se debe al uso inadecuado de los auto-retractores adbominales. No obstante el buen pronóstico en la mayoría de los casos, no deja de ocasionar una incapacidad temporal frustrante en la paciente. Conociendo la anatomía y la etiopatogenia, se pueden aplicar medidas simples que permiten evitar por completo esta complicación. En la presente comunicación, se reportan 2 casos de neuropatía femoral posterior a hist...

1997-01-01

147

Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore  

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A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

2009-01-01

148

Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.

Vijayan Sridhar

2011-03-01

149

Robust femur condyle disambiguation on biplanar X-rays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the skeleton from biplanar X-rays relies on scarce information digitalised by an operator on both frontal and lateral radiographs. In clinical routine, difficulties occur for non-skilled operators to discriminate the medial from the lateral femur condyle on the lateral view. Our study proposes an algorithm able to detect automatically a possible inversion of the two condyles by the operator at an early stage of the reconstruction process. It relies on the computation of two 3D femur surfaces, one directly from the operator digitalisation and the other from the same digitalisation with medial and lateral condyles automatically swapped. Pairs of virtual biplanar X-rays are computed for both reconstructions and the closest pair to the original X-rays is selected on the basis of similarity measures, pointing the correct 3D surface. The algorithm shows a success rate higher than 85% for both asymptomatic and pathological femurs whatever the initial condyle digitalisation of the operator, bringing automatically non-skilled operators acting in clinical routine to the level of skilled operators. This study validates moreover the proof-of-concept of automatic shape adjustments of a 3D surface on the basis of similarity measures in the process of 3D reconstruction from biplanar X-rays. PMID:22349135

Serrurier, Antoine; Quijano, Sergio; Nizard, Remy; Skalli, Wafa

2012-12-01

150

The Osteochondroma of the Mandibular Condyle: report of a case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The osteochondroma, also known as osteocartilagenous exostosis, is one of the most common benign tumors of the axial skeleton, but is rarely found in the facial bones. When present, the tumor is most often reported to affect the mandibular coronoid process. Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle is extremely rare and may cause signs and symptoms like those seen in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Sometimes, differentiation between osteochondroma and condylar hyperplasia is not possible on histologic grounds alone, but the radiographic and intraoperative findings together are usually sufficient to establish a definite diagnosis. This report reviews the literature concerning osteochondroma, especially of the maxillofacial region, and describes a case of osteochondroma of the condyle.

Choi, Wook Jin; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2000-06-15

151

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst, a Lesion of the Mandibular Condyle  

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Benign and malignant tumors of the temporomandibular joint are rare. An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the condyle is even more unusual and usually presents as a slowly enlarging firm swelling which occasionally may be associated with pain and tenderness. Surgical curettage or excision is the treatment of choice, in an attempt to reduce the potential problem of recurrence; we undertook surgical resection of the affected bone. Immediate mandibular reconstruction using autologous bone was deferr...

Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Rana Dharmendrasinh N; Shiva Kumar, H. R.

2012-01-01

152

Detection of bifid mandibular condyle using computed tomography  

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Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) using computed tomography (CT) evaluation. Study Design: A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 550 patients referred to the Medical School of Erciyes University (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. T-tests were used to compare frequency of BMC between the left and right sides and between female and male patients. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and ...

Sahman, Halil; Sisman, Yildiray; Sekerci, Ahmet E.; Tarim-ertas, Elif; Tokmak, Turgut; Tuna, Ibrahim S.

2012-01-01

153

Lateral Femoral Epicondylar Osteotomy: An Extensile Posterolateral Knee Approach  

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Open exposure of the posterolateral corner of the knee is challenged by limitations of posterolateral ligamentous tissues and posterior neurovascular structures. We have used a modification of a lateral femoral epicondyle osteotomy, described historically for surgical management of posterolateral rotatory instability, as an approach to the posterolateral intraarticular structures. The historic technique for ligamentous reconstruction has been abandoned because its nonanatomic fixation does no...

Bowers, Andrea L.; Huffman, G. Russell

2008-01-01

154

Characterization of initial microfracture defects in human condyles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microfracture (MFX) is a cartilage repair technique that depends on cell migration from marrow-rich trabecular bone cavities into the cartilage lesion. This study tested the hypothesis that MFX awls with distinct geometry generate different hole shapes and variable bone marrow access in condyles with Grade III to IV lesions. Lateral and medial condyles from total knee arthroplasty (N = 24 male and female patients, 66 ± 9 years) were systematically microfractured ex vivo to 2 and 4 mm deep and the bone holes analyzed by micro-computed tomography. Subchondral bone in lesional condyles showed different degrees of sclerosis up to 2 mm deep ("porous," sclerotic, extremely dense). MFX holes ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 mm in diameter, and retained the awl shape with evidence of slight bone elastic rebound and bone compaction lining the holes that were increased by wider awl diameter and deeper MFX. Marrow access was significantly diminished by sclerosis for all three awls, with an average marrow access varying from 70% (nonlesional bone) to 40% (extremely dense bone). This study revealed that subchondral bone sclerosis can reach a critical limit beyond which MFX creates bone compaction and fissures instead of marrow access. PMID:23529699

Hoemann, Caroline D; Gosselin, Yoann; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Jun; Hurtig, Mark B; Carli, Alberto; Stanish, William D

2013-10-01

155

Treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis by posterior border of mandibular ramus osteotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis (TMJA) is an anatomic and functional alteration of the TMJ surfaces, caused by the fusion of these surfaces by either bone or fibrous tissue. Several techniques are used for the treatment of TMJA. The following case report describes a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed with TMJA. The treatment of choice is reconstruction of the condyle by sliding the posterior border of the mandibular ramus. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis treatment with vertical ramus osteotomy and mandibular posterior border repositioning offers minimizing the reduction in height or shortening of the mandibular posterior border. The postoperative period requires a multidisciplinary approach with an aggressive physiotherapy. PMID:24469375

Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Paiva, Luis Gustavo Jaime; Rodrigues, Atila Roberto; da Silva, Marcelo Caetano Parreria; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

2014-03-01

156

Magnetic resonance imaging findings of true bifid mandibular condyle with duplicated mandibular fossa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is a rare asymptomatic morphological alteration with no predilection for age group or gender. Its morphology varies from a shallow groove to two condylar heads with separate necks, oriented mediolaterally or anteroposteriorly. This report describes an unusual case of anteroposterior bifid condyle in a 39-year-old female patient with the main complaint of mouth-opening limitation and a deviation of the mandible to the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed a bifid condyle on the left side and duplicated mandibular fossa, with the articular disc over the anterior head. The MRI images in the open-mouth position revealed minimal movement of the condyle. Despite the increased number of mediolateral bifid mandibular condyle cases described in the literature, none of previously reported cases of BMC included an anteroposterior bifid condyle case with two distinct mandibular fossa. PMID:22674644

Melo, S L S; Melo, D P; Oenning, A C C; Haiter-Neto, F; Almeida, S M; Campos, P S F

2012-07-01

157

CT findings of traumatic posterior hip dislocation after reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the CT images of reduced hips after posterior hip dislocation and to propose specific diagnostic criteria based on the CT results. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings on 18 reduced hips from 17 patients with radiographs and clinical histories of traumatic posterior hip dislocations by evaluating 18 corresponding CT scans for joint space asymmetry, intra-articular abnormalities (intra-articular fat obliteration, loose bodies, and joint effusion), changes in posterior soft tissue (capsule, muscles, and adjacent fat), the presence, and location of fractures (acetabulum and femoral head). All 18 hips (100%) showed posterior soft tissue changes. In total, 17 hips (94.4%) had intra-articular abnormalities and 15 hips (83.3%) had joint space asymmetries. In addition, 17 hips (94.4%) had fractures involving the acetabula (15 cases, 88.2%) the femoral head (13 cases, 76.5%), or on both sides (11 cases, 64.7%). The most frequent fracture location was in he posterior wall (13/15, 86.7%) of the acetabulum and in the anterior aspect (10/13, 76.9%) of the femoral head. Patients with a prior history of posterior hip dislocation showed specific CT findings after reduction, suggesting the possibility of previous posterior hip dislocations in patients

2008-06-01

158

Posttraumatic bifid and trifid mandibular condyle with bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifid mandibular condyle is an exceedingly rare entity with only 5 cases reported to date. The etiology of the disorder is unknown, though like bifid mandibular condyle, a correlation with prior trauma is usually seen. We present a case of a 6-year-old child who presented with severe restriction of movements at the temporomandibular joint, with a history of trauma 2 years back. Imaging revealed bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis with trifid and bifid mandibular condyles. PMID:23524825

Jha, Abhishek; Khalid, Mohd; Sahoo, Biswajit

2013-03-01

159

Ensayo clínico de asignación aleatoria, para evaluar la eficacia de dos técnicas de compresión en la disminución de complicaciones en el sitio de acceso vascular femoral, posterior a cateterismo diagnóstico y terapéutico / Randomized, controlled trial, to assess the efficacy of two vascular compression techniques in reducing complications at vascular access sites after therapeutic or diagnostic catheterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Comparar la incidencia de falla en la hemostasia y frecuencia de eventos vasculares, durante y después de la compresión con dos maniobras diferentes. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico de asignación aleatoria a compresión mecánica o compresión manual, para el retiro de introductor en ar [...] teria femoral posterior a cateterismo diagnóstico o terapéutico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 100 pacientes en el grupo de compresión con compresor (grupo uno) y 112 de forma manual (grupo dos). La falla para lograr hemostasia se presentó en 48% del grupo uno vs 19.7% en el grupo dos (p4 cm durante el seguimiento con ultrasonido, en el grupo con compresor 11.4% vs el grupo manual 4.6% (p=0.062). En el análisis de regresión logística sólo se encontró que los factores independientes para falla en la hemostasia fueron: uso de compresor con OR 4.34 (IC 95%, 2.24-8.43, p Abstract in english Objective: To compare the incidence of hemostatic failure and rate of vascular events during and after vascular compression using two different techniques. Methods: Patients were randomized to mechanical or manual compression after a therapeutic or diagnostic catheterization procedure. Results: One [...] hundred patients were enrolled in the mechanical compression group (group one) and 112 patients in the manual compression group (group two). Failed hemostasis was observed in 48% of patients in group 1 and 19.7% in group two (p4cm) formation was found on ultrasound follow-up in group 1 (11.4% vs 4.6%, p=0.062). Logistic regression analysis found that the only independent factors for hemostatic failure were: use of mechanical compression device (OR 4.34, 95% CI 2.24-8.43, p

Álvaro Eduardo, Ramírez-Gutiérrez; Guering, Eid-Lidt; Juan Carlos, Esquinca-Vera; Félix, Damas-de los Santos; Alberto, Pérez-González; Eric, Kimura-Hayama; Ulises, Bacilio-Pérez; Jorge, Gaspar-Hernández.

160

Computed tomography imaging findings of simultaneous bifid mandibular condyle and temporomandibular joint ankylosis: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity described in the literature as having a controversial etiology. Despite the absence of clinical symptomatology, the radiologist must be aware and should have some knowledge of this abnormality, as well its implications regarding functional and morphological changes. TMJ ankylosis is a disabling disease with involvement of the mandibular condyle, articular fossa and base of the skull. The association of bifid condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis is rare and must be carefully evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of simultaneous bifid mandibular condyle and temporomandibular joint ankylosis and to describe its computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:17639206

Sales, Marcelo Augusto Oliveira; Oliveira, Jefferson Xavier; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Proximal femoral replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction of the proximal femur after extensive bone loss is clinically challenging. Options for reconstruction depend on the classification and extent of the proximal femoral defect. Although reconstitution of the native proximal femoral bone stock are the traditional goals of most revision techniques for the proximal femur, these techniques lose their effectiveness after numerous revisions due to the severe loss of a sufficient amount of structural bone needed to reconstruct the femur and abductor attachment. Consequently, the proximal femoral bone becomes fragile with extensive bone loss despite bone grafting. Techniques that use allograft-prosthetic composite and femoral megaprosthesis can successfully restore a patient's ambulatory ability despite the absence of significant portions of the proximal femur. PMID:12008848

Cheng, Edward Y; Thompson, Roby C

2002-04-01

162

The arterial vascularization of the lateral tibial condyle: anatomy and surgical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of the inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) and the anterior tibial recurrent artery (ATRA) in the arterial supply of the lateral tibial condyle (LTC) has not been comprehensively studied and remains controversial. Eleven knee joints were injected with colored latex and the arteries were dissected macroscopically. The ATRA yielded several osseous branches supplying the tibial metaphysis and the anterior part of the tibial epiphysis and several rami supplying the anterior tibial tuberosity and the lower part of the patellar tendon. The ILGA ran under the lateral collateral ligament and had a horizontal direction towards the retro-patellar fat pad. The ILGA yielded 4-6 branches ascending or descending perpendicularly to its main direction. Full anastomoses between branches derived from the ATRA and the ILGA were observed in front and behind the lateral intercondylar tubercle in all the specimens, but each vessel seemed to provide predominantly the blood supply to a specific area. The anterior part of the LTC drew its blood supply from the ATRA, the posterior part from the ILGA and the mid-portion from both arteries. The standard anterolateral approach to LTC fractures with sub-meniscal arthrotomy appears particularly harmful to epiphyseal vascularization since it interrupts many of the branches deriving from the ILGA and ATRA. The recent development of arthroscopy in the treatment of LTC fractures may be particularly advantageous as it spares the vascularization of the LTC. PMID:16211319

Hannouche, Didier; Duparc, Fabrice; Beaufils, Philippe

2006-03-01

163

Bioabsorbable interference screw versus bioabsorbable cross pins: influence of femoral graft fixation on the clinical outcome after ACL reconstruction  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and differences in anterior–posterior laxity of ACL reconstruction using a bioabsorbable interference screw for femoral graft fixation when compared to femoral bioabsorbable cross pin fixation.Clinical outcome was evaluated among 59 patients 1 year after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with hamstrings graft in a prospective, non-randomised study. In 31 cases, femoral fixation of the graft was performed using a bioabsorbable interfe...

Frosch, Stephan; Rittstieg, Anne; Balcarek, Peter; Walde, Tim A.; Schu?ttrumpf, Jan; Wachowski, Martin M.; Stu?rmer, Klaus; Frosch, Karl-heinz

2012-01-01

164

MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-07-15

165

MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective (? = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

2012-07-01

166

The Structure of the Mandibular Condyle in the Panoramic Radiograph  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author has evaluated the panoramic image of the mandibular condyle according to its horizontal condylar angle (0 degree, 10 degree, 20 degree, 30 degree, 40 degree) and mandibular position (standard, 25 mm forward and reverse position). The results were as follows: 1. The larger the horizontal condylar angle was, the larger the horizontal magnification was in all positions. 2. In case of small horizontal condylar angle, profile view could be obtained in 25 mm forward and reverse position. 3. In case of large horizontal condylar angle, profile view could not be obtained in any positions.

Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1990-08-15

167

Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

Palanivelu S

2009-01-01

168

Importance of sagittal MR imaging in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis, characterization of femoral head collapse is important in staging disease progression and planning treatment. Few prior studies have quantitatively compared the ability of sagittal and coronal MR images to detect femoral head collapse. We hypothesized that sagittal MR images show a greater degree and angular span of femoral head collapse than coronal images. We reviewed 38 hip MRI scans of nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis from 34 pediatric patients. In both sagittal and coronal images, the maximal extent and angular location along with the angular span of the femoral head collapse were measured. Differences were evaluated using a paired t-test. The extent of bone and cartilage loss from the femoral head was evaluated. Sagittal MR images showed 29% maximal femoral head radius collapse, whereas coronal images showed 16% collapse (P<0.001). Sagittal images showed a larger angular span of collapse (115 ) than coronal images (55 , P<0.001). Sagittal images showed greater epiphyseal bone loss in the anterior than in the posterior portion (P<0.001), whereas coronal images did not show a significant difference in bone loss between the medial and lateral portion (P=0.32). Sagittal images show greater femoral head collapse than coronal images in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. (orig.)

2008-11-01

169

Importance of sagittal MR imaging in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis, characterization of femoral head collapse is important in staging disease progression and planning treatment. Few prior studies have quantitatively compared the ability of sagittal and coronal MR images to detect femoral head collapse. We hypothesized that sagittal MR images show a greater degree and angular span of femoral head collapse than coronal images. We reviewed 38 hip MRI scans of nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis from 34 pediatric patients. In both sagittal and coronal images, the maximal extent and angular location along with the angular span of the femoral head collapse were measured. Differences were evaluated using a paired t-test. The extent of bone and cartilage loss from the femoral head was evaluated. Sagittal MR images showed 29% maximal femoral head radius collapse, whereas coronal images showed 16% collapse (P<0.001). Sagittal images showed a larger angular span of collapse (115 ) than coronal images (55 , P<0.001). Sagittal images showed greater epiphyseal bone loss in the anterior than in the posterior portion (P<0.001), whereas coronal images did not show a significant difference in bone loss between the medial and lateral portion (P=0.32). Sagittal images show greater femoral head collapse than coronal images in nontraumatic femoral head osteonecrosis. (orig.)

Ha, Alice S. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2008-11-15

170

[Trochanteric femoral fractures].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (pPseudoarthrosis or varus malalignment in a healed hip should be managed by valgus osteotomy. When the femoral head or the acetabulum is damaged, total hip arthroplasty is indicated. A prerequisite for successful surgical outcome is urgently and correctly performed osteosynthesis allowing for early rehabilitation and mobilisation of the patient. PMID:23452417

Douša, P; ?ech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

2013-01-01

171

Morphologic features of the fetal mandibular condyle: layers, canals and microvascular pattern.  

Science.gov (United States)

During organogenesis the mandibular condyle is divided by a fibrovascular septum, the persistence of which in the growing cartilage can lead to a bifid condyle. In this study we have evaluated the morphology of 3rd trimester human fetal temporomandibular (TMJ) specimens in order to determine the pattern of the vascular morphology associated with the layers and vascular canals (VCs) of the developing condyle (covering layers and condyle proper). Eleven human fetuses of 27-38cm crown-rump length were used for histological (hematoxylin-eosin, Van Gieson stain) and immunohistochemical evaluation (antibodies for bcl2 and CD34) and another two of 24 and 31cm, for TMJ microvasculature studies after black ink injections. With increasing fetal age, the intermediate loose lamina (LL) of the condylar proliferative layer evolves from a vascular-mesenchymal to a fibrillar pattern, via a transitory stage of a clear space that may be misdiagnosed as lower joint cavity (LJC). Within the condyle proper VCs may be present on its entire sagittal length, deepening variably towards the erosive zone and opened superiorly in the LL loose layer. Vessels of the evolving LL enter the condyle, directly or through the VCs; these vessels retract peripherally with increasing age and the intrinsic vessels of the condyle supplied from the erosive zone become prevalent. Vascular morphogenesis at the level of the LL seems comparable to that at the level of the LJC where characteristic glomeruli regress with increasing age. Lack of vascular regression and closure of central V-shaped defects of the condyle, as observed in 2/22 condyles, may represent a developmental substrate for condylar bifidism or a predisposing condition weakening the condyle, and making it more sensitive to trauma in childhood. PMID:21530206

Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Pop, Florinel; Leonardi, Rosalia; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Jianu, Adelina Maria

2011-10-20

172

Prevalence of bifid mandibular condyle in a Turkish population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) using panoramic radiographs supported by different radiographic techniques. A retrospective study was carried out by evaluating panoramic radiographs of 18,798 patients referred to the Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMC between left and right sides and between female and male patients. In this study, 98 patients (0.52%) were found to have BMC. Of these patients, 51 (52%) were females and 47 (48%) were males. Of the 98 patients, 71 (72.4%) had unilateral and 27 (27.6%) had bilateral BMC. A total of 125 BMCs were found in 98 patients. No statistically significant differences were found between the right and left BMCs or between female and male patients (P > 0.05). Because symptoms associated with BMC are either absent or minimal, it is usually discovered as an incidental finding during routine radiographic examination. Different appearances of BMC can be seen on panoramic radiographs. The exact orientation of the condyles can only be determined using 3D imaging techniques. BMC may be a more frequent condition in the Turkish population. PMID:22167027

Sahman, Halil; Sekerci, Ahmet E; Ertas, Elif T; Etoz, Meryem; Sisman, Yildiray

2011-12-01

173

Anatomic variations in femoral head circulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this cadaveric study was to clearly define the blood supply to the femoral head to help further reduce the incidence of iatrogenic avascular necrosis (AVN). Thirty-five hips of twenty-eight fresh cadavers were injected with colored silicone. Anterior and posterior dissection was performed to assess the vessels contributing to femoral head vascularity. The medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA) was found to be the main blood supply to the hip in twenty-nine specimens; the inferior gluteal artery (IGA) was found to be the main blood supply in six. The MFCA consistently provided at least one smaller-calibre inferomedial retinacular artery. The foveal artery provided no significant vascular contribution in any specimen. The quantity and calibre of superior retinacular vessels demonstrated their dominance in head vascularity, although inferior retinacular arteries were consistently present. To reduce the risk of iatrogenic AVN, branches of both the IGA and MFCA traversing the interval between the quadratus femoris and piriformis muscles must be protected during surgery. Since all intracapsular vessels penetrated the capsule near its distal attachment, distal capsulotomy carries a significantly higher risk of AVN than proximal capsulotomy, particularly posterolaterally and inferomedially. PMID:22740271

Kalhor, Morteza; Horowitz, Kevin; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Beck, Martin; Ganz, Reinhold

2012-01-01

174

Femoral shaft fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

1985-01-01

175

Bifid mandibular condyle: CT and MR imaging appearance in two patients: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe two cases of a bifid mandibular condyle. The first case is a 48-year-old woman with headaches and a pain and clicking sensation in her right jaw during mastication. The second case is an asymptomatic 17-year-old woman with a history of bilateral microtia and hemifacial microsomia. In both patients, the bifid condyle was first identified by CT and affected the temporomandibular joint. The imaging findings of both patients' bifid mandibular condyles led us to conclude that both patients likely had an abnormal development of the mandibular condyles. We believe that an intervening fibrous or vascular structure may have split the condyle into two heads. PMID:16091546

Shriki, Jabi; Lev, Raisa; Wong, Brian F; Sundine, Michael J; Hasso, Anton N

2005-08-01

176

A study of the mandibular condyle shape on the individualized corrected the tomograph and submentovertex radiograph  

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The purpose of this study was to observe mandibular condyle shape in an asymptomatic population. In order to carry out this study, 96 temporomandibular joints in 48 adults (22 males, 26 females), who were asymptomatic for temporomandibular disturbances and had no history of prosthodontic or orthodontic treatments, were selected, and radiographed using the Sectograph(Denar Co., U.S.A.) for lateral and frontal individualized corrected TMJ tomograph and submentovertex radiograph. Mandibular condyles were classified morphologically, and measured mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions and condylar angulation. The obtained results were as follows. 1. In the classification of condyle shape on lateral tomographs, 94.8% were convex type and 5.2% were angled type. 2. In the classification of condyle shape on frontal tomographs, 45.3% were convex type, 32.0% were round type, 16.0% were flat type, and 6.7% were angled type. 3. In the classification of condyle shape on submentovertex radiographs, 34.5% were flat-convex type, 22.9% were flat-flat type, 20.8% were concave-convex type, 19.8% were convex-concave type, and flat-concave type were not observed. 4. The average mediolateral length of the condyle was 19.3 mm and the average anteroposterior length was 9.4 mm. The average angle between the long axis of condyle and the coronal plane made on submentovertex view was 19.6 degrees.

Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-08-15

177

Biomechanical and morphometric evaluation of occipital condyle for occipitocervical segmental fixation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two recent novel techniques of occipital fixation are the occipitoatlantal (C0-C1) transarticular screw technique and the direct occipital condyle screw technique. The present study evaluated and compared the biomechanical stability of the direct occipital condyle screw and C0-C1 transarticular screw with the established method for craniocervical spine fixation using the midline occipital keel screw and C1 lateral mass screw. Morphometric evaluation of the occipital condyle and the hypoglossal canal was performed to avoid hypoglossal nerve injury during the screw placement. Thirteen recently frozen cadaveric specimens were used. The occipital condyle anatomy and the hypoglossal canal dimension were measured using reconstructed computed tomography images. Insertion torque and pullout strength were evaluated to compare the midline occipital keel screw, C0-C1 transarticular screw, C1 lateral mass screw, and direct occipital condyle screw. The dimensions of the occipital condyle allow use of a 3.5 or 4.0-mm diameter screw. Mean pullout strength was 1619.6 N for the midline occipital keel screw, 870.7 N for the C0-C1 transarticular screw, 707.0 N for the C1 lateral mass screw, and 431.7 N for the direct occipital condyle screw. Mean insertion torque was 0.55 Nm for the midline occipital keel screw, 0.32 Nm for the C0-C1 transarticular screw, 0.14 Nm for the C1 lateral mass screw, and 0.11 Nm for the direct occipital condyle screw. The condylar anatomy allows direct insertion of the occipital condyle screw and C0-C1 transarticular screw. These techniques are suitable options for the treatment of craniovertebral junction instabilities in selected patients. (author)

2011-10-01

178

The knee skyline radiograph: its usefulness in the diagnosis of patello-femoral osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the skyline radiograph in the diagnosis of patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Additionally, we wanted to assess the usefulness of patello-femoral crepitus as a clinical sign of this condition. Seventy-seven patients scheduled to undergo knee surgery had standard antero-posterior, lateral and skyline X-rays of their affected knee. The presence of clinical patello-femoral crepitus was also documented preoperatively. At the operation, their pa...

Bhattacharya, R.; Kumar, V.; Safawi, E.; Finn, P.; Hui, A. C.

2007-01-01

179

Recurrent simple bone cyst of the mandibular condyle: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cysts of the mandibular condyle are rare and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Clinically, a simple bone cyst is asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally on routine radiographic examination. This report shows an atypical simple bone cyst occurring in the mandibular condyle showing recurrence after surgical curettage. Radiologically, this lesion involving the mandibular condyle should be distinguished from other similar lesions such as a chondriome, a central giant cell granuloma, and an aneurysmal bone cyst. Radiographic assessment was useful for forecasting the prognosis of a simple bone cyst. Possible reasons for the recurrence were discussed radiographically.

2013-03-01

180

Recurrent simple bone cyst of the mandibular condyle: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cysts of the mandibular condyle are rare and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Clinically, a simple bone cyst is asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally on routine radiographic examination. This report shows an atypical simple bone cyst occurring in the mandibular condyle showing recurrence after surgical curettage. Radiologically, this lesion involving the mandibular condyle should be distinguished from other similar lesions such as a chondriome, a central giant cell granuloma, and an aneurysmal bone cyst. Radiographic assessment was useful for forecasting the prognosis of a simple bone cyst. Possible reasons for the recurrence were discussed radiographically.

Kim, Kyung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

 
 
 
 
181

Dual mobility cup reduces dislocation rate after arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components. Methods We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively. Results There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01. The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution. Conclusions We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.

Robertsson Otto

2010-08-01

182

Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head  

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This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2012-06-15

183

Occipital condyle fracture in a victim of a motor vehicle collision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occipital condyle fractures are rarely reported in the Emergency Medicine literature. It is unclear whether these fractures are rare or under-diagnosed. Occipital condyle fractures are associated with high-energy blunt trauma with significant cranial-cervical torque or axial loading. We report a case of a female patient with an occipital condyle fracture. The patient only complained of shoulder pain, but was found to have high cervical spine tenderness, after a moderate-speed front-end motor vehicle collision. Initial cervical spine radiographs were non-diagnostic. Computed tomography of the cervical spine demonstrated a non-displaced occipital condyle fracture. Conservative management with a semi-rigid cervical collar was successful in treating this patient's fracture. A review of the literature covers the diagnosis, radiographic findings, and management of this fracture. PMID:16982357

Mowafi, Hani O; Hickey, Kenneth S

2006-10-01

184

Radiological analysis on femoral tunnel positioning between isometric and anatomical reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament / Análise radiológica do posicionamento do túnel femoral com as técnicas de reconstrução isométrica ou de reconstrução anatômica do LCA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiologicamente a posição do túnel femoral na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior pelas técnicas isométrica e anatômica. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo analítico prospectivo em pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA), por meio da técnica iso [...] métrica e anatômica, com o uso de enxerto de tendões flexores do joelho ou de tendão patelar. Foram captados 28 pacientes, em pós-operatório imediato, no ambulatório de cirurgia do joelho da FCMMG-HUSJ. Foram feitas radiografias do joelho operado nas incidências em anteroposterior (AP) com apoio bipodálico e perfil em 30? de flexão. Foram traçadas as linhas e medidos os ângulos e as distâncias na radiografia em perfil para avaliar o plano sagital. Foi medida a distância do centro do parafuso à cortical posterior do côndilo lateral e dividido pela linha de Blumensaat. Com relação à altura do parafuso, foi medida a distância do centro dele até a superfície articular do côndilo lateral do joelho. Na radiografia em AP, que avalia o plano coronal, mede-se a angulação entre o eixo anatômico do fêmur e uma linha traçada no centro do parafuso. RESULTADOS: Pelos testes, o p-valor (0,4213) é maior do que o nível de significância adotado (0,05), a hipótese nula não é rejeitada e pode ser afirmado que não há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as técnicas anatômica (TAN) e isométrica (TIS) no que diz respeito à Medida P (posteriorização do parafuso de interferência). Como o p-valor (0,0006) observado é menor do que o nível de significância adotado (0,05), rejeita-se a hipótese nula e pode ser afirmado que há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a TAN e a TIS no que diz respeito à Medida H (altura do parafuso em relação à cortical inferior do joelho). Pode-se concluir que essa diferença ocorre porque a TIS gera valores maiores para a Medida H do que a TAN. Como o p-valor observado (0,000) é menor do que o nível de significância (5%), rejeitou-se a hipótese nula e afirmamos com 95% de confiança que há diferença significativa entre a TAN e a TIS no que diz respeito à variável MED (posição do parafuso na radiografia em AP). Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na avaliação radiológica do túnel femoral, tanto no plano sagital como no coronal, entre as técnicas de reconstrução do LCA. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the femoral tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions using the isometric and anatomical techniques. METHODS: a prospective analytical study was conducted on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction by mean [...] s of the isometric and anatomical techniques, using grafts from the knee flexor tendons or patellar tendon. Twenty-eight patients were recruited during the immediate postoperative period, at the knee surgery outpatient clinic of FCMMG-HUSJ. Radiographs of the operated knee were produced in anteroposterior (AP) view with the patient standing on both feet and in lateral view with 30? of flexion. The lines were traced out and the distances and angles were measured on the lateral radiograph to evaluate the sagittal plane. The distance from the center of the screw to the posterior cortical bone of the lateral condyle was measured and divided by the Blumensaat line. In relation to the height of the screw, the distance from the center of the screw to the joint surface of the lateral condyle of the knee was measured. On the AP radiograph, evaluating the coronal plane, the angle between the anatomical axis of the femur and a line traced at the center of the screw was measured. RESULTS: with regard to the p measurement (posteriorization of the interference screw), the tests showed that the p-value (0.4213) was greater than the significance level used (0.05); the null hypothesis was not rejected and it could be stated that there was no statistically significant d

Rodrigo Barreiros, Vieira; Leonardo Augusto de Pinho, Tavares; Rodrigo Campos Pace, Lasmar; Fernando Amaral da, Cunha; Lucas Araujo de Melo, Lisboa.

185

Acquired posterior keratoconus.  

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A case of acquired posterior keratoconus is presented. As in developmental cases the vision was moderately reduced and the condition was not progressive. Posterior keratoconus is usually developmental in origin, but trauma has been implicated in some cases.

Williams, R

1987-01-01

186

Posterior fossa malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding embryologic development of the cerebellum and the 4th ventricle is essential for understanding posterior fossa malformations. Posterior fossa malformations can be conveniently classified into those that have a large posterior fossa and those with normal or small posterior fossa. Disorders associated with a large posterior fossa include classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Blake's pouch cyst, mega cisterna magna, and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. Disorders associated with normal or small posterior fossa include Dandy-Walker variant, Joubert syndrome, tecto-cerebellar dysraphia, rhombencephalosynapsis, the neocerebellar hypoplasias, and cerebellar atrophy. Neuro-imaging features should enable the imager to provide the referring physician a logical approach to these complex posterior fossa malformations. PMID:21596278

Shekdar, Karuna

2011-06-01

187

Change in condylar position in posterior bending osteotomy minimizing condylar torque in BSSRO for facial asymmetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the correction of an asymmetric mandible with sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), bony interference between the proximal and distal segments inevitably occurs. This results in positional change of the condyle. In order to avoid this, a posterior bending osteotomy (PBO) has been introduced. This is an additional vertical osteotomy posterior to the second molar after SSRO. To investigate the change in condylar position after SSRO with PBO, 22 patients with facial asymmetry were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the surgical method used to remove the bony interference after SSRO: PBO (n = 13) and the grinding method (n = 9). Each group was subdivided into large and small bony interference groups by estimating the volume of bony interference with simulation surgery. Condylar displacement was evaluated by three-dimensional superimposition and the amount of condylar displacement was calculated. The positional changes of the condyles were variable in each patient. When comparing patients with large bony interference in the PBO and grinding groups, the condyles were significantly inwardly rotated in the grinding group (p < 0.05). The grinding method can be used to remove small bony interferences with tolerable condylar torque. However, PBO would be beneficial in correcting large bony interferences while minimizing condylar torque. PMID:23816144

Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

2014-06-01

188

Radiation induced femoral palsy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report four cases of femoral palsy due to compressive fibrosis, after pelvic radiation therapy. Three patients had Hodgkin's disease, and one testicular seminoma. Prominent clinical features include major groin induration and underlying swelling. Unlike what is usually seen in tumoral relapse, little or no pain is associated with these neuropathies. The femoral post-radic palsy develops earlier and faster than brachial plexus palsy of same aetiology. In one case, progressive aggravation led to surgical neurolysis which resulted in dramatic and long lasting improvement. The principal preventive and therapeutic management methods are discussed: since compressive fibrosis is related to the use of isolated and massive electron beam therapy, various associations of cobalt and electron beam therapy are designed to best prevent the side effects of each of these methods. The early treatment of developing fibrosis by D. penicillamine is discussed.

Aranda, B.; Esnault, S.; Brunet, P. (Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France))

1982-01-01

189

Acute femoral neck fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten patients with traumatic femoral neck fracture were studied with MR imaging (0.5 T, Magnetom, Siemens): unenhanced (multiecho, TR/TE = 1,600/30--240 [repetition time/echo time, msec]; gradient echo, TR/TE = 315/14, ? = 90 degrees) and Gd-DTPA enhanced (0.1 mM/kg body weight, Magnevist, Schering; gradient echo, TR/TE = 315/14, ? = 90 degrees). MR images were compared with clinical-radiographic findings. Digital subtraction angiography of the femoral head (FH) in five patients showed complete interruption of blood supply to the FH in three patients (signal intensity of FH did not increase on postcontrast images) and intact FH arteries in two patients (FH signal increased on postcontrast images, as did the healthy-side signal)

1989-12-01

190

Iodixanol in femoral arteriography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two contrast media, iodixanol (Visipaque, Nycomed) 270 mg I/ml and iohexol (Omnipaque, Nycomed) 300 mg I/ml, were compared in femoral arteriography, in 147 patients. Both contrast media were diagnostically effective for use in femoral arteriography, without any significant difference. Pain was reported in connection with injection of iohexol by 36% of the patients, after injection of iodixanol none reported pain. Seventy-two percent of the patients in the iodixanol group reported a sensation of warmth in connection with contrast injection versus 90% in the iohexol group. The average intensity of the warmth was greater with iohexol than with iodixanol. Fourteen percent of patients in the iodixanol group and 1% in the iohexol group reported one or more subjective adverse events. (orig.).

Thorstensen, Oe. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Albrechtsson, U. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Calissendorff, B. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Larusdottir, H. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Norgren, L. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Tengvar, M. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Bolstad, B. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Aspelin, P. [Depts. of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)]|[Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway)

1994-11-01

191

Bilateral Bifid Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report Proceso Condilar Bífido Bilateral: Reporte de Caso  

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The bifid mandibular condyle is an exceedingly rare anomaly, frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding in a panoramic radiograph. Its etiology and pathogenesis are unknown, though the most acceptable theory suggests that trauma is at the origin of the condition. This article reports a new case of bilateral bifid condyle in a 21-year-old female with history of trauma in childhood.El proceso condilar bífido es una anomalía muy rara. Se diagnostica como un hallazgo accidental en una ra...

2011-01-01

192

Posterior Fossa Epidural Hematomas  

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Posterior fossa epidural hematomas are much less common than supratentorial epidural hematomas. The incidence of posterior fossa epidural hematomas among intracranial epidural hematomas has been reported to be 4-7%. Seven cases of posttrau-matic posterior fossa epidural hematomas diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) are reported with radiological and clinical findings. This study consisted of 7 posterior fossa epidural hematoma cases, out of 585 severe head trauma patients admitted and hospi...

Shakeri Bavil, M.

2008-01-01

193

Técnicas de cimentação femoral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A artroplastia da anca tornou-se na última metade do século 20 na intervenção com mais sucesso no alívio da dor e restauro da função articular para os doentes com artrose da anca. Os bons resultados são consequência da melhoria nas técnicas cirúrgicas e na qualidade dos implantes utilizados. O uso d [...] o componente femoral cimentado tem sido o padrão de ouro ao longo dos últimos cinquenta anos, havendo séries que reportam uma longevidade do implante de 96% aos 10 anos. O conhecimento das propriedades do cimento utilizado, a sua correcta forma de preparação e aplicação são determinantes para o bom desempenho da artroplastia. Este trabalho faz uma revisão sobre a evolução das técnicas de cimentação femoral, explica as diferentes fases pelas quais o cimento passa no seu processo de elaboração e descreve as principais etapas da técnica de cimentação de terceira geração. Abstract in english In the later half of the 20th century, hip replacement surgery became the most successful procedure to relieve pain and restore function for patients with hip osteoarthritis. These good results are a byproduct of improvements both in surgical technique and implant properties. Cemented femoral stems [...] have been considered the gold standard for the last fifty years, with studies showing implant survival rates of up to 96% after 10 years. The success of an arthroplasty is dependent on the understanding of the properties, preparation and usage of cement. This article will review the evolution of femoral cementing techniques, the different stages of cement preparation and the main steps of third-generation cementing.

Pedro, Jordão; André, Bahute; Ugo, Fontoura; Pedro, Marques.

194

Femoral Stress Fracture  

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The following case report describes the history of a high school football player who complained of right anterior thigh pain, which worsened during the season. The team orthopedic surgeon made an initial diagnosis of a right rectus femoris strain. The athlete was treated and improved quickly. One week later, his condition worsened and he reported signs and symptoms similar to those experienced initially. A follow-up examination by the orthopedic surgeon revealed a femoral stress fracture to t...

Casterline, Mark; Osowski, Shawn; Ulrich, Gary

1996-01-01

195

Bifid condyle: review of the literature of the last 10 years and report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle is a rare anomaly; there are several theories about its etiology, and it has been studied in both prehistoric and historic skulls, as well as in living human beings. It is a frequent, although unexpected, finding in asymptomatic individuals during radiological treatment. Presented here is a review of the literature over the past 10 years and two new cases of unilateral bifid condyle. Computerized tomography is usually considered the test of choice for establishing the differential diagnosis, although in certain cases, its use seems questionable. The distinction between bifid condyle and condylar notch or cleft has been described in the literature, it is proposed a criteria for defining bifid condyle depending on the level of the two heads. It is suggested that further testing such as MRI or CT be carried out only in cases where the therapeutic approach involves an active treatment. It is proposed that bifid condyle is described as that which presents two condylar heads emerging from the neck of the condyle or further down. PMID:20491236

López-López, José; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Salas, Enric Jané; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier

2010-04-01

196

Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

A. Zurutuza

2011-08-01

197

Escleritis posterior bilateral / Bilateral posterior scleritis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías [...] asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática. Abstract in english Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but [...] in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

A., Zurutuza; J., Andonegui; L., Berástegui; N., Arruti.

198

Bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis in a 3-year-old child: A rare presentation and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis is an extremely rare condition and may arise as a developmental or traumatic defect. It may be associated with ankylosis. We here report a case of unilateral bifid mandibular condyle with ankylosis in a 3-year-old child. This is the youngest patient reported with the condition making it one of its first kind in the literature. The detailed description of the case, its radiological findings, and the literature on bifid condyles are reviewed. PMID:22114377

Mainali, Sneedha; Tandon, Shobha

2010-01-01

199

Knee arthroscopy - series (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The knee is a complex joint made up of the distal end of the femur (femoral condyles) and the ... between the femur and the tibia in the knee joint. The anterior cruciate ligament, the posterior cruciate ...

200

Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.

Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

202

Subcapital Correction Osteotomy for Malunited Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), causing posterior and inferior displacement and retroversion of the femoral head, is a well-recognized etiology for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and can lead to premature arthritis in the young adult. The treatment of malunited SCFE remains controversial. Surgical dislocation and subcapital correction osteotomy (SCO) has been described as a powerful method to correct the proximal femoral deformity. Methods Between January 2003 and January 2010, 11 patients (12 hips) with closed femoral physes and symptomatic FAI from malunited SCFE were treated with surgical dislocation and SCO. We performed a retrospective review of patient histories, physical exams, operative findings, and pre and postoperative anteroposterior (AP) and groin lateral (GLat) radiographs. Mean follow-up was 61 months. Results There were 4 female and 7 male patients with an average age of 15 years at the time of SCO. On the AP radiograph the mean inferior femoral head displacement (AP epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-26° to -6°, pAVN in two patients, a worse postoperative HHS in one patient, and failure of fixation treated successfully with revision open reduction internal fixation in one patient. Conclusions Subcapital correction osteotomy as an adjunct to surgical dislocation and osteochondroplasty can be used to correct the deformity of the proximal femur associated with malunited SCFE. Normalization of proximal femoral anatomy may postpone progression to severe osteoarthritis and thus delay the need for arthroplasty in this young patient population. However, surgeons and patients should be aware that the risks of this procedure in this population are significant.

Anderson, Lucas A.; Gililland, Jeremy; Pelt, Christoper; Peters, Christopher L.

2013-01-01

203

[Slipped capital femoral epiphysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder in adolescence and should be diagnosed and treated surgically as soon as possible. The etiology, biomechanical, biochemical and hereditary factors are still under investigation. The classification of SCFE is based on the acuteness, clinical and radiomorphological findings. Avascular necrosis of the epiphysis (AVN) and chondrolysis occur more often in operated than in non-operated patients. Medium and long-term sequelae of SCFE are loss of function and degenerative joint disease due to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or consequences from complications such as AVN and chondrolysis. For mild slips the long-term prognosis is better than for moderate or severe slips. Higher grade unstable SCFE may benefit from reduction while in chronic slips corrective osteotomy may be indicated. Traditional osteotomy procedures, such as Imhäuser or Southwick intertrochanteric osteotomy are safe procedures but correct the deformity distant from the site of the deformity. The surgical dislocation with modified Dunn osteotomy according to Ganz allows the preparation of an extended retinacular soft tissue flap and offers an extensive subperiosteal exposure of the circumference of the femoral neck before reducing the slipped epiphysis anatomically. In cases of FAI due to mild deformities restoration of the head-neck offset via hip arthroscopy or surgical dislocation should be considered before higher grade cartilage damage occurs. PMID:20830467

Zilkens, C; Jäger, M; Bittersohl, B; Kim, Y-J; Millis, M B; Krauspe, R

2010-10-01

204

Posterior knee pain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Posterior knee pain is a common patient complaint. There are broad differential diagnoses of posterior knee pain ranging from common causes such as injury to the musculotendinous structures to less common causes such as osteochondroma. A precise understanding of knee anatomy, the physical examination, and of the differential diagnosis is needed to accurately evaluate and treat posterior knee pain. This article provides a review of the anatomy and important aspects of the history and physical ...

English, S.; Perret, D.

2010-01-01

205

Posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion complicating locked posterior shoulder dislocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case presents the imaging features of a posterior shoulder dislocation complicated by a rare but surgically relevant lesion of the posterior labrum. Due to the attachment of the posterior capsule to the posterior portion of the labrum, which in itself is attached to the posterior scapular periosteum, stripping of the labrum by the posterior capsule resulted in a posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion. (orig.)

1998-10-01

206

Posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion complicating locked posterior shoulder dislocation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case presents the imaging features of a posterior shoulder dislocation complicated by a rare but surgically relevant lesion of the posterior labrum. Due to the attachment of the posterior capsule to the posterior portion of the labrum, which in itself is attached to the posterior scapular periosteum, stripping of the labrum by the posterior capsule resulted in a posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion. (orig.) With 4 figs., 5 refs.

Simons, P. [Department of Radiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital, Aalst (Belgium)]|[Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Joekes, E.; Bloem, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Nelissen, R.G.H.H. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre (Netherlands)

1998-10-01

207

Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ region. The Computed Tomography (CT scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT using two protocols: 1 axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR; and 2 sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill # 1. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis.

Alexandre Perez Marques

2010-12-01

208

Long-term evaluation of the stability of reconstructed condyles by transport distraction osteogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective longitudinal study evaluated the long-term stability of reconstructed condyles by transport distraction osteogenesis of the mandibular ramus in patients with unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. 7 patients were followed up for 16-92 months (mean 39.4 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of distraction was 22.9 years (range 7-44 years). Maximal mouth opening and panoramic radiographs were recorded preoperatively, at the time of device removal and several years after removal of distraction device. At follow-up, cone beam CT images of the TMJ were obtained to confirm the changes of the reconstructed condyle. Absolute height (Co-Inc) and relative height (Co-Inc/Co-Go) of the reconstructed condyle and the asymmetric difference ratio (AR) were examined to assess the changes of condylar height and mandibular symmetry. The mean maximal mouth opening was stable during the period of follow-up. The mean absolute height and relative height of the reconstructed condyle decreased significantly (P<0.05). Although no significant difference was found, the mandibular asymmetry difference ratio increased by 16.7%. These results suggested that the heights of reconstructed condyles were not stable in the long-term, and the mandible tended to be asymmetrical. PMID:22510343

Xiao, E; Zhang, Y; An, J; Li, J; Yan, Y

2012-12-01

209

Sex determination using discriminant analysis of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur in Koreans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proximal and distal parts of the femur show the differences between the sexes. Head diameter and the breadth of the epicondyle of the femur are known to distinguish males from females. The proximal end of the femur is studied to determine sex using discriminant analysis but; its distal end is not done. This study aims to develop an equation specific to Koreans by using the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and to demonstrate the usefulness of equations for specific population groups. We used three-dimensional images from 202 Korean femurs. Twelve variables were measured with a computer program after the femurs were in alignment. Eleven variables showed a statistically significant difference between the sexes (P<0.01). The most accurate equation used width of the medial and lateral condyles (WDC), with of the medial condyle (WMC), depth of the lateral condyle (DLC), and depth of the intercondylar notch (DIN) (94.1%), and is as follows: D = 0.336 × WDC + (-0.097) × WMC + (-0.153) × DLC + 0.372 × DIN - 20.912. The second highest accuracy was 90.1% for the width dimensional group and WDC. This study shows that the medial and lateral condyles of the femur should be helpful for sex determination in situations where the skull and pelvis are missing and part of the femur is available. The study also demonstrates the need for different equations for different population groups. PMID:24314510

Kim, Deog-Im; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Seung-Ho

2013-12-10

210

Volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The aim was to determine the accuracy of volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Five dry mandibles containing 9 condyles were used. CBCT scans of the mandibles and an impression of each condylar area were taken. The physical volumes of the condyles were calculated as the gold standard using the water displacement technique. After isolating, the condylar volume was sectioned in the sagittal plane, and 0.3 mm thick sections with 0.9 mm intervals were obtained from 3D reconstructions. Using the Cavalieri principle, the volume of each condyle was estimated from the CBCT images by three observers. The accuracy of the CBCT volume measurements and the relation agreements between the results of the three observers were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Pearson correlation test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were highly significant positive correlations between the observers’ measurements. According to the results of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test comparing the physical and observers’ measurements, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The Cavalieri principle, used in conjunction with a planimetry method, is a valid and effective method for volume estimation of the mandibular condyle on CBCT images.

2012-08-01

211

Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

Marques, Alexandre Perez; Perrella, Andreia; Arita, Emiko Saito; Pereira, Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso, E-mail: alexperez34@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

2010-10-15

212

Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

2010-01-01

213

A comparison of transcranial with panoramic TMJ radiographs to assess the movement of the mandibular condyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the difference of the movement of the mandibular condyles between transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs to view the movement of the mandibular condyles. Thirty-four paired transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs of patients were used to evaluate the movement of the mandibular condyle. The distances, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, were measured. The measurements were taken at closed state and maximum opening state of each radiograph on both side. Differences between matched pairs were analysed by paired t-test, with significance established at P<0.05. The mean distance, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, was statistically different at each side (P<0.05). At closing state, the mean distance measured on panoramic TMJ radiographs was longer than on transcranial radiographs (0.85 mm at right side, 1.20 mm at left side). But at maximum opening state, the mean distance on transcranial radiographs was longer (1.00 mm at right side, 0.62 mm at left side) than panoramic TMJ radiographs.

Oh, Jong Hwa; Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2008-06-15

214

A comparison of transcranial with panoramic TMJ radiographs to assess the movement of the mandibular condyle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the difference of the movement of the mandibular condyles between transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs to view the movement of the mandibular condyles. Thirty-four paired transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs of patients were used to evaluate the movement of the mandibular condyle. The distances, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, were measured. The measurements were taken at closed state and maximum opening state of each radiograph on both side. Differences between matched pairs were analysed by paired t-test, with significance established at P<0.05. The mean distance, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, was statistically different at each side (P<0.05). At closing state, the mean distance measured on panoramic TMJ radiographs was longer than on transcranial radiographs (0.85 mm at right side, 1.20 mm at left side). But at maximum opening state, the mean distance on transcranial radiographs was longer (1.00 mm at right side, 0.62 mm at left side) than panoramic TMJ radiographs.

2008-06-01

215

Percutaneous distal perfusion of the lower extremity following femoral cannulation for venoarterial ECMO in a small child  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Femoral cannulation in pediatric patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is commonly associated with distal limb ischemia. Authors have previously reported successful lower limb perfusion using various open techniques to cannulate a distal lower extremity artery at the time of initial ECMO cannulation. These procedures include open femoral artery antegrade cannulation and distal posterior tibial artery retrograde cannulation in older children and adults. Such approaches ...

Haley, Mary Jo; Fisher, Jason C.; Ruiz-elizalde, Alejandro R.; Stolar, Charles J. H.; Morrissey, Nicholas J.; Middlesworth, William

2009-01-01

216

The effect of surgical approach on the histology of the femoral head following resurfacing of the hip  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of surgical approach on the histology of the femoral head following resurfacing of the hip. Methods We performed a histological assessment of the bone under the femoral component taken from retrieval specimens of patients having revision surgery following resurfacing of the hip. We compared the number of empty lacunae in specimens from patients who had originally had a posterior surgical approach with the number in patients having alternative surgical approaches. Results We found a statistically significant increase in the percentage of empty lacunae in retrieval specimens from patients who had the posterior approach compared with other surgical approaches (p < 0.001). Conclusions This indicates that the vascular compromise that occurs during the posterior surgical approach does have long-term effects on the bone of the femoral head, even if it does not cause overt avascular necrosis. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:200–5.

Amarasekera, H. W.; Campbell, P. C.; Parsons, N.; Achten, J.; Masters, J.; Griffin, D. R.; Costa, M. L.

2013-01-01

217

Posterior mediastinal goiter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most mediastinal goiters are retrosternally situated in the anterior mediastinal compartment. Posterior mediastinal goiters, either retrotracheal or retroesophageal, are rare. We herein describe a case involving a retrotracheal goiter in the right posterior mediastinum, which was excised using a combined cervico-partial sternotomy and right thoracotomy approach. PMID:15353470

Chong, Chee-Fui; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Sin, Fai-Lam; Wong, Poo-Sing

2004-09-01

218

Subarticular, cystlike lesion associated with avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle, which is necrosis of the epiphyseal or subarticular bone secondary to a diminished or disrupted blood supply in the absence of infection. We present a case of a large subarticular cystlike lesion that was found using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). There was an absence of osteoarthrosis, and the condylar articular surface was relatively intact. The patient's history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance images supported the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle. After 4 months of conservative therapy, new bone was observed in the cystlike marrow lesion, and a smooth articular surface was reestablished. Subarticular cystlike lesions without the collapse of the articular surface of mandibular condyles may be an early indicator of avascular necrosis. PMID:23375505

Lei, Jie; Liu, Mu-Qing; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Fu, Kai-Yuan

2013-03-01

219

Analysis of patterns and treatment strategies for mandibular condyle fractures: review of 175 condyle fractures with review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate incidence, patterns and epidemiology of mandibular condylar fractures (MCF) to propose a treatment strategy for managing MCF and analyze the factors which influence the outcome. One hundred and seventy-five MCF's were evaluated over a four year period and their pattern was recorded in terms of displacement, level of fracture, age of incidence and dental occlusion. Of the 2,718 facial bone fractures, MCF incidence was the third most common at 18.39 %. Of 175 MCF 58.8 % were unilateral and 41.12 % were bilateral. 67 % of bilateral fractures and 43.8 % of unilateral fractures were associated with midline symphysis and contralateral parasymphysis fractures respectively. Most of the MCF was seen in the age group of above 16 years and 50 % of them were at subcondylar level (below the neck of the condyle). Majority of MCF sustained due to inter personal violence were undisplaced (72.7 %) and contrary to this majority of MCF sustained during road traffic accident were displaced. 62.9 % of total fractures required open reduction and rigid fixation and 37.1 % were managed with closed reduction. 80 % of MCF managed with closed reduction were in the age group of below 16 years. From this study it can be concluded that the treatment algorithm proposed for managing MCF is reliable and easy to adopt. We observed that absolute indication for open reduction of MCF is inability to achieve satisfactory occlusion by closed method and absolute contraindication for open reduction is condylar head fracture irrespective of the age of the patient. PMID:24431859

Reddy, N Viveka V; Reddy, P Bhaskar; Rajan, Ritesh; Ganti, Srinivas; Jhawar, D K; Potturi, Abhinand; Pradeep

2013-09-01

220

Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder using magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphological changes of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were studied. The subjects were 420 patients (103 males and 317 females, 8 to 80 years of age, mean age 39.8 years) who were clinically diagnosed as temporomandibular joint disorder. MR imaging was performed with a GE-Signa 1.5 Tesla MR imaging system using the body coil as a transmitter and 3-inch bilateral surface coils. The patients were examined by a multiplanar gradient echo technique in a closed-loop cine fashion on both sagittal and coronal planes. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle were detected in 47.0% of the patients. The predominant morphological changes were then formation of osteophyte and marginal proliferation (65.8%). 2) The incidence of morphological changes in the mandubular condyle did not show any significant difference between male and female, and tended to be higher in patients over 40 years of age, and the incidence in patients under 20 years of age was lower, compared to that in patients from 20 to 39 years of age. 3) The incidence of morphological changes in patients with anterior disk displacement without reduction was higher than in those with anterior disk displacement with reduction (P<0.001). The incidence of morphological changes in patients with rotational disk displacement was higher than in those with medial disk displacement (P<0.001). 4) The anterior translation of mandibular condyle was influenced more by anterior disk displacement rather than by morphological changes. From these results. it is suggested that simultaneous bilateral condyle pseudodynamic MR imaging was useful in the diagnosis of internal derangement, evaluation of morphological changes and assessment of motional abnormality of the condyle. (author)

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Estudio de corrosión en implante femoral / Study of corrosion in femoral implant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las condiciones en las que tienen que actuar los bioimplantes en el cuerpo humano son muy severas, ya que entran en contacto con un medio el cual tiene predisposición a producir corrosión en los metales de estos dispositivos. En condiciones normales, los fluidos extracelulares del cuerpo humano, se [...] pueden considerar como una disolución acuosa de oxigeno, diversos complejos de sales y glucosa. Se trata, de un medio electrolítico que contiene iones cloruro y conduce electrones, lo que facilita que puedan producirse fenómenos electroquímicos de corrosión, que interfieren con el funcionamiento óptimo del implante o perturban la interrelación del implante con el hueso. El objetivo del trabajo es el estudio de un componente femoral y cabeza del componente femoral extraído de paciente femenina, quien posterior a fractura del cuello femoral izquierdo (1997), resultó intervenida, practicándosele artroplastia total de cadera izquierda, cementada. En el momento de la extracción del implante, se observó in situ corrosión generalizada que fue analizada por microscopia óptica, microscopia electrónica de barrido analítica (MEB-EDX) y espectroscopia infrarroja con transformada de Fourier, confirmándose el proceso de corrosión por los fluidos celulares del cuerpo humano debido a la presencia de compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos presentes. Abstract in english Bioimplants are subject to severe conditions in the human body as they must coexist with tissue environment that makes their metallic parts susceptible to corrosion. Extracellular tissue fluids constitute an oxygenated aqueous solution containing different salts and glucose, an electron-conducting m [...] edium of chloride ions that elicits electrochemical corrosion phenomena and interferes with the optimum performance of implants by disturbing their interrelation with bone tissue. The intense wear and tear of implants may require surgical removal and replacement. This paper reports on the corrosion sustained by a femoral prosthesis that had been implanted in a female patient during total cemented arthroplasty due to a left femoral neck fracture in 1997. Generalized in situ corrosion was observed upon implant retrieval, prompting analysis by both optic and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as by infrared spectroscopy with a Fourier transform. The analysis confirmed the ongoing corrosion process brought about by the contact of the prosthetic component with organic and inorganic compounds in the cellular fluids.

Yelitza, Figueroa de Gil; Glorys, López; Carlos, Palomo; José Luis, Prin; Alberto, Albornoz.

222

[Intracranial penetration of the mandibular condyle: report on three cases (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cases of intracranial penetrations of the mandibular condyle condyle are reported, the published literature reviewed, and therapy discussed. Often unrecognized during initial examinations, they are diagnosed when the patient is seen several months later with permanent constriction of the jaws. Frontal and sagittal tomographic examinations should therefore be performed in the articular region in all cases when it is involved in injuries. Orthopedic reduction gives good results in recent injuries, long-standing cases with temporomandibular ankylosis requiring sub-condylar resection by the pre-auricular approach. PMID:7337361

Lachard, J; Guilbert, F; Gola, R; Blanc, J L; Bertrand, J C; Rocca, A; Desbrosse, B; le Retraite, G

1981-01-01

223

Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old child.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report the case of a traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old boy. After a fall in the garden, the boy was brought to our emergency department where an x-ray confirmed a posterior dislocation of his right hip. A successful prompt reduction was performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. This uncommon injury represents an orthopedic emergency and requires prompt reduction to lessen the risk of complications including avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

Forde, James C

2012-02-01

224

Surgical Treatment of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful posterior cruciate ligament (PCL reconstructionis challenging because of the complex structures and difficultreconstruction techniques that are required. The reportedresults have been inconsistent. Variables that affect the resultsof surgery to restore PCL function include combined associatedligaments injury, difficulty to duplicate PCL anatomy, widevariation in broad femoral insertion footprint, difficulty inaccurate placement of the transtibial tunnel, tunnel erosion,high internal graft stresses and graft elongation. The outcomeof conservative treatment of isolated PCL injuries with mild ormoderate laxity is generally acceptable. However, more severestraight posterior laxity or combined injury patterns usuallylead to a worse prognosis. Surgical reconstruction for PCL canachieve satisfactory results for most patients if adequate surgicalprinciples and techniques are followed. Recent studies onthe anatomy and the biomechanics of PCL have led to a better understanding of its biomechanicalproperties for the reconstruction. It has been generally agreed that surgical reconstructionis indicated for symptomatic severe posterior knee instability and multiple ligamentinjuries for better functional recovery after PCL injuries. Accepted surgical techniques forthe treatment of PCL tears include primary repair for PCL avulsion fracture, as well as openor arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial or tibial inlay technique. Controversycontinues over the choice of graft tissue, one or two bundle reconstruction, location of tunnelplacement, knee position when securing the graft, and fixation technique. From the accumulatedclinical experience and surgical concepts in clinical practice, we have developedvarious surgical techniques to improve the outcomes of reconstruction.

Chih-Hwa Chen

2007-12-01

225

MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is increasing awareness of the clinical importance of early detection and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injury. We evaluate the usefulness of Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging in the diagnosis of PCL injury. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 140 cases with clinically suspected knee injury. Arthroscopic or surgical correlation was available in 63 cases. We observed the finding and extent of PCL injury and other associated abnormalities. The frequency of anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligament was evaluated. Eleven PCL injuries were observed, six midsubstance tears, two tibial attachment tears, two femoral attachment tear, one laxity. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging diagnosis are 100%, 98.1%, 98.4%. MR findings of PCL injury are discontinuity and focal mass formation, irregular increased signal intensity, detachment or redundancy of the ligament with avulsed bony fragment. In all cases of injured PCL, other associated abnormalities of adjacent structures were observed. Accessory anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments were observed in 67.4%(87/129). MR imaging is useful in evaluation of presence or absence of PCL injury, accurate extent of PCL injury and other important associated abnormalities of adjacent structures.

Cho, Young Ja; Park, Yang Hee; Lee, Jee Yean; Jee, Keum Nahn; Lee, Kyung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-11-15

226

MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is increasing awareness of the clinical importance of early detection and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injury. We evaluate the usefulness of Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging in the diagnosis of PCL injury. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 140 cases with clinically suspected knee injury. Arthroscopic or surgical correlation was available in 63 cases. We observed the finding and extent of PCL injury and other associated abnormalities. The frequency of anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligament was evaluated. Eleven PCL injuries were observed, six midsubstance tears, two tibial attachment tears, two femoral attachment tear, one laxity. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging diagnosis are 100%, 98.1%, 98.4%. MR findings of PCL injury are discontinuity and focal mass formation, irregular increased signal intensity, detachment or redundancy of the ligament with avulsed bony fragment. In all cases of injured PCL, other associated abnormalities of adjacent structures were observed. Accessory anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments were observed in 67.4%(87/129). MR imaging is useful in evaluation of presence or absence of PCL injury, accurate extent of PCL injury and other important associated abnormalities of adjacent structures

1994-11-01

227

Avaliação por tomografia computadorizada helicoidal dos efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional Evaluation with helicoidal computed tomography of rapid maxillary expansion effects in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo clínico avaliou, por meio da tomografia computadorizada helicoidal, os efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar de pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional na fase da dentadura mista. MÉTODOS: dez pacientes com faixa etária entre os 7 anos e 2 meses e os 11 anos e 2 meses - apresentando mordida cruzada posterior funcional, com desvio da linha média de pelo menos 2,5mm para o lado do cruzamento - foram tratados com expansão rápida da maxila. Após a obtenção de cortes tomográficos sagitais da articulação temporomandibular, as medidas dos espaços articulares anterior, posterior e superior foram realizadas e o posicionamento relativo do côndilo foi calculado. Utilizando-se cortes tomográficos axiais, avaliou-se o posicionamento anteroposterior e transversal dos côndilos em relação às estruturas da base craniana. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas diferenças significativas, antes do tratamento, entre os espaços articulares posteriores, na posição relativa do côndilo e um posicionamento mais anterior e mais próximo ao plano sagital mediano do côndilo do lado não-cruzado. Após o tratamento, não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas nessas medidas. CONCLUSÕES: após a expansão rápida da maxila, um posicionamento mais centralizado dos côndilos nas fossas articulares foi observado, além de uma maior simetria anteroposterior e transversal entre os mesmos.AIM: This clinical study evaluated, through helicoidal computed tomography (CT, the effects of rapid maxillary expansion in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite in mixed dentition stage. METHODS: Ten patients aged between 7 years and 2 months and 11 years and 2 months were selected. This patients which presented functional unilateral posterior crossbite with mandibular midline deviation of at least 2.5mm to the crossbite side were submitted to rapid maxillary expansion. After obtaining sagittal CT slices of the temporomandibular joints, measurements of the anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces were carried out and the relative positioning of the condyle was calculated. Axial slices of the temporomandibular joint were also used to evaluate the anteroposterior and transversal position of the condyles in relation to the cranial base structures. RESULTS: Before treatment, significant differences were observed in the posterior joint spaces, in the relative positioning of the condyle and with the non-crossbite side condyle displaced more anteriorly and medially in relation to midsagittal line. After treatment there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: After the rapid maxillary expansion, a more centralized position of the condyles in the joint cavities was observed, and a greater anteroposterior and transverse symmetry between them.

Edgard Norões Rodrigues da Matta

2009-10-01

228

Avaliação por tomografia computadorizada helicoidal dos efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional / Evaluation with helicoidal computed tomography of rapid maxillary expansion effects in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo clínico avaliou, por meio da tomografia computadorizada helicoidal, os efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar de pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional na fase da dentadura mista. MÉTODOS: dez pacientes com faixa etária entre os 7 anos e 2 me [...] ses e os 11 anos e 2 meses - apresentando mordida cruzada posterior funcional, com desvio da linha média de pelo menos 2,5mm para o lado do cruzamento - foram tratados com expansão rápida da maxila. Após a obtenção de cortes tomográficos sagitais da articulação temporomandibular, as medidas dos espaços articulares anterior, posterior e superior foram realizadas e o posicionamento relativo do côndilo foi calculado. Utilizando-se cortes tomográficos axiais, avaliou-se o posicionamento anteroposterior e transversal dos côndilos em relação às estruturas da base craniana. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas diferenças significativas, antes do tratamento, entre os espaços articulares posteriores, na posição relativa do côndilo e um posicionamento mais anterior e mais próximo ao plano sagital mediano do côndilo do lado não-cruzado. Após o tratamento, não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas nessas medidas. CONCLUSÕES: após a expansão rápida da maxila, um posicionamento mais centralizado dos côndilos nas fossas articulares foi observado, além de uma maior simetria anteroposterior e transversal entre os mesmos. Abstract in english AIM: This clinical study evaluated, through helicoidal computed tomography (CT), the effects of rapid maxillary expansion in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite in mixed dentition stage. METHODS: Ten patients aged between 7 years and 2 months and 11 years and 2 mont [...] hs were selected. This patients which presented functional unilateral posterior crossbite with mandibular midline deviation of at least 2.5mm to the crossbite side were submitted to rapid maxillary expansion. After obtaining sagittal CT slices of the temporomandibular joints, measurements of the anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces were carried out and the relative positioning of the condyle was calculated. Axial slices of the temporomandibular joint were also used to evaluate the anteroposterior and transversal position of the condyles in relation to the cranial base structures. RESULTS: Before treatment, significant differences were observed in the posterior joint spaces, in the relative positioning of the condyle and with the non-crossbite side condyle displaced more anteriorly and medially in relation to midsagittal line. After treatment there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: After the rapid maxillary expansion, a more centralized position of the condyles in the joint cavities was observed, and a greater anteroposterior and transverse symmetry between them.

Matta, Edgard Norões Rodrigues da; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Sant' Anna, Eduardo Franzotti de; Silva, Silvio Chagas da.

229

Posterior mediastinal hemangioma  

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We report posterior mediastinal hemangiomas in a 4-month-old and a 6-month-old girl. The masses were identified on radiographs of the chest followed by contrast-enhanced CT. Histological evaluation of the surgical specimens established the final diagnosis. Although mediastinal hemangiomas have been described, they remain a rare entity. A diagnosis can be suggested by relatively high attenuating masses on contrast-enhanced CT. Posterior mediastinal hemangiomas sometimes mimic neuroblastomas, which is the most common posterior mediastinal in this age group. (orig.)

Sabharwal, Gauravi K.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2005-12-01

230

Suction posterior capsulorhexis.  

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A technique for creating a posterior capsulorhexis during phacoemulsification is presented. It can be used in cases with posterior capsule tears or opacities. The free edge of the capsule is grasped with suction using a 2 mL syringe and a 27 gauge Rycroft cannula introduced via the paracentesis. The edge is then manipulated to produce a continuous curvilinear opening in the posterior capsule. The combination of a closed eye plus the use of a viscoelastic agent in the anterior chamber and capsular bag minimizes the possibility of vitreous prolapse during the maneuver. Occlusion of the cannula tip by the posterior capsule reduces the risk of vitreous aspiration. In-the-bag intraocular lens implantation is readily achieved. PMID:10476499

Hugkulstone, C E

1999-09-01

231

Is there added risk in resurfacing a femoral head with cysts?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral head cysts have been identified as a risk factor for early femoral failures after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA based on limited scientific data. However, we routinely performed HRA if less than 1/3 of the femoral head appeared destroyed by cysts on the preoperative radiograph. This study was undertaken to analyze whether there was an added risk of early femoral failures in HRA when femoral head cysts were present. Methods This retrospective case-control study included 939 MOM HRAs operated by a single surgeon with use of the posterior minimally invasive surgical (MIS approach between November 2005 and January 2009. Patients with all diagnoses except osteonecrosis were included. Among them, 117 HRAs had femoral head cysts ? 1 cm identified in surgery. All cysts were treated with bone grafting using acetabular reamings packed into the cavitary defect (instead of filling the cysts with cement. The control group, which had no cyst observed at the time of surgery, was randomly selected from our database using computer algorithms to match those cases in the study group for the parameters of surgical date, age, gender, body mass index, diagnosis, femoral fixation method, and the size of the femoral component. Results The minimum follow-up was 24 months for both groups. The early femoral failure rate in the study group was 3/117 (2.6% and 0/117 in the control group; there was no statistical difference between these two groups (P = 0.08. In the study group, there were two femoral neck fractures (revised: both occurred in patients having a cyst size of 1 cm3; and there was one femoral component loosening at 3-year follow up in a patient having a cyst size of 2 cm3. Conclusion Although the risk of early femoral failures among the group with cysts appeared higher than the group without cysts, we could not demonstrate a significant statistical difference between the two groups. It is possible that bone grafting cysts rather than cementing them may account for the low failure rate, and that this technique may minimize the risk of resurfacing a femoral head with cysts.

Liu Fei

2011-10-01

232

Posterior Fossa Epidural Hematomas  

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Full Text Available Posterior fossa epidural hematomas are much less common than supratentorial epidural hematomas. The incidence of posterior fossa epidural hematomas among intracranial epidural hematomas has been reported to be 4-7%. Seven cases of posttrau-matic posterior fossa epidural hematomas diagnosed by computed tomography (CT are reported with radiological and clinical findings. This study consisted of 7 posterior fossa epidural hematoma cases, out of 585 severe head trauma patients admitted and hospitalized in an 18-month period. The patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, type of trauma, cranial CT and Glasgow coma score in admittance, treatment and follow-up. Average age was 24.2 years and 85.7% of the cases were male. All cases had occipital fracture. Fifty-seven percent of the cases had only occipital fracture and posterior fossa epidural hematoma. All of the cases in this group were neurologically intact except for one who had a Glasgow coma score of 9 in admission. Two cases of this group were conservatively treated. In the others posterior fossa epidural hematomas got larger and they were treated surgically; these 2 cases recovered after surgery. Three of the 7 cases had the supratentorial region lesions; one of these cases died before operation. Two of them were treated surgically, one of them died and the other showed recovery after surgery.

2008-01-01

233

Computed tomography imaging findings of simultaneous bifid mandibular condyle and temporomandibular joint ankylosis: case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O côndilo mandibular bífido (BMC) é uma entidade incomum descrita na literatura e de etiologia controversa. Apesar da ausência de sintomatologia clínica, o radiologista deve estar alerta e deve ter conhecimento a respeito desta anormalidade, bem como suas implicações funcionais e mudanças morfológic [...] as. A anquilose de articulação temporomandibular é uma patologia incapacitante com envolvimento do côndilo mandibular, fossa articular e base do crânio. A associação entre côndilo mandibular bífido e anquilose temporomandibular é rara e deve ser avaliada cuidadosamente. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso simultâneo de côndilo mandibular bífido (BMC) e anquilose temporomandibular e descrever seus achados em tomografia computadorizada (CT). Abstract in english Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity described in the literature as having a controversial etiology. Despite the absence of clinical symptomatology, the radiologist must be aware and should have some knowledge of this abnormality, as well its implications regarding functional and morpholog [...] ical changes. TMJ ankylosis is a disabling disease with involvement of the mandibular condyle, articular fossa and base of the skull. The association of bifid condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis is rare and must be carefully evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of simultaneous bifid mandibular condyle and temporomandibular joint ankylosis and to describe its computed tomography imaging findings.

Marcelo Augusto Oliveira, Sales; Jefferson Xavier, Oliveira; Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso, Cavalcanti.

234

Central giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle: Case-report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This case report describes a 19-year-old female patient with a central giant cell granuloma in the left mandibular condyle, treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with fibula graft. This occurrence is considered very unusual. [...

J, Munzenmayer; P, Tapia; J, Zeballos; A, Martínez; Á, Compan; A, Urra; ML, Spencer.

235

Ectopic third molar in the mandibular condyle: A review of the literature  

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Objectives: To evaluate the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, therapeutic options, and surgical approaches for removal of ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on ectopic third molars in the mandibular condyle from 1980 to 2011. 14 well-documented clinical cases from the literature were evaluated together with a new clinical case provided by the authors, representing a sample of 15 patients. Results: We found a mean age at diagnosis of 48.6 years and a higher prevalence in women. In 14 patients, associated radiolucent lesions were diagnosed on radiographic studies and confirmed histopathologically as odontogenic cysts. Clinical symptoms were pain and swelling in the jaw or preauricular region, trismus, difficulty chewing, cutaneous fistula and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Treatment included conservative management in one case and in the other cases, surgical removal by intra- or extraoral approaches, the latter being the most common approach carried out. In most reported cases, serious complications were not outlined. Conclusions: The etiopathogenic theory involving odontogenic cysts in the displacement of third molars to the mandibular condyle seems to be the most relevant. They must be removed if they cause symptoms or are associated with cystic pathology. The surgical route must be planned according to the location and position of the ectopic third molar, and the possible morbidity associated with surgery. Key words:Third molar, ectopic tooth, condyle, mandible.

Iglesias-Martin, Fernando; Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Prats-Golczer, Victoria-Eugenia; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto

2012-01-01

236

Abnormal cartilage from the mandibular condyle of stumpy (stm) mutant mice.  

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The mammalian mandibular condyle is composed of secondary cartilage and may thus be susceptible to genes causing achondroplasia and which result in abnormal++ primary cartilage formation. This paper describes the secondary cartilage in the mandible of the stumpy achondroplastic mutation in the mouse: both primary and secondary cartilage are affected by the gene.

Johnson, D. R.

1983-01-01

237

[Alloplastic augmented femoral reinserted anterior cruciate liganent. Value of 2 channel augmentation for postoperative rehabilitation].  

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The rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) near its femoral origin is a common injury of the knee and can lead to lesions of the meniscus due to instability and to early gonarthrosis. One procedure applied in current orthopaedic practice to prevent such impairment of knee joint function is ACL repair reinforced with a synthetic intraarticular ligament. In this study we used twelve knees of cadavers and after sectioning the ACL in each repaired it according the Marshall technique with USP 1 PDS II sutures. We augmented the repair in each case with a 3-mm PET (Trevira hochfest) band inserted by the through-the-condyle (TTC) procedure and attached without preload to the femoral and tibial condyle with a 4-mm staple. We then measured the length of the ACL, the length of the Marshall sutures-ACL complex, the partial lengths, and the deviation angles and adherence-friction force of the 3-mm PET augmentation device, and applied the law of Hooke to calculate the load-sharing between the USP 1 PDS II sutures-ACL complex and the 3-mm PET band and between the ACL and the 3-mm PET band, respectively. We also evaluated the load on the femoral and the tibial fixation of the augmentation device. The results showed that the 3-mm PET band took over 60% of an externally applied load on the knee during the hypothetic period of ACL healing and 27% of the force acting on the knee thereafter. It was calculated that a maximum of 75% of the load taken over by the augmentation device was at the tibial staple and only up to 45% of the force at the femoral one. With due consideration for the requirement for absolute protection ("stress shielding") of the healing ACL but also for the aim of early postoperative accelerated functional rehabilitation without casts, splints or other restrictions of joint movement, we believe that a pretensioned 3-mm PET band is the best choice, since augmentation without preload cannot fulfil these requirements. PMID:8717169

Seitz, H; Wielke, B; Schlenz, I; Pichl, W; Vecsei, V

1996-01-01

238

Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the [...] present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: 1) axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and 2) sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill # 1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis.

Alexandre Perez, Marques; Andréia, Perrella; Emiko Saito, Arita; Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos, Pereira; Marcelo de Gusmão Paraíso, Cavalcanti.

239

Cóndilo Mandibular Bífido: Un Desafío Diagnóstico / Bífid Mandibular Condyle: a Diagnostic Challenge  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cóndilo mandibular bífido es una condición rara, observada frecuentemente como hallazgo radiográfico, caracterizada por la división de la cabeza de la mandíbula. Su prevalencia varía entre 0,0018% a 0,3%, donde múltiples causas han sido sugeridas en la literatura para justificar su desarrollo, si [...] n embargo no hay concordancia entre los estudios acerca del factor causal principal. El objetivo de este artículo es relatar un caso de cóndilo mandibular bífido observado en una mujer de 21 años de edad, el cual fue revelado por una radiografía panorámica donde se observó hipoplasia del cóndilo mandibular izquierdo, con presencia de una aparente calcificación en la región de la articulación temporomandibular izquierda; otros exámenes convencionales fueron realizados (radiografía postero-anterior, con apoyo frente-nasion en boca abierta, transcraniana y panorámica), sin embargo, apenas en la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico, fue posible obtener el diagnóstico de cóndilo mandibular bífido. Abstract in english The mandibular bifid condyle is a rare condition, frequently observed in routine X-rays, characterized by division of the mandible head. According to the literature, the prevalence varies from 0.018% to 0.3%. Several causes have been suggested to justify the development of bifid mandibular condyle, [...] however there is no agreement between studies about the main causative factor. The aim of this paper is to report a case of mandibular bifid condyle in a 21-years-old girl. The panoramic radiograph showed hypoplasia of the left mandibular condyle, with an apparent presence of calcification in the left temporomandibular joint. Other conventional extraoral radiographs were performed (postero-anterior with fronto-nasal support, open mouth; panoramic and trascranial radiographs), however, only in the cone beam computed tomography ir was possible to obtain the diagnosis of mandibular bifid condyle.

Frederico, Sampaio Neves; Laura Ricardina, Ramirez-Sotelo; Deborah, Queiroz de Freitas; Francisco, Haiter-Neto; Frab Norberto, Bóscolo.

240

Fracture of the occipital condyle as an incidental finding during CT-evaluation of a maxillary fracture  

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A 43-year-old male presented with blunt facial trauma after a motor-vehicle accident. CT-evaluation revealed a right-sided maxilary fracture and a fracture of the left occipital condyle. The fracture of the occipital condyle is potentially unstable and fatal cases have been described. Plain radiographs are not diagnostic. This occipital condyle fracture was an incidental finding during CT-evaluation of a maxillary fracture and is probably the first case with coronary CT scans of this type of fracture. (orig.)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral com celulas progenitoras autólogas em anemia falciforme Femoral Head Necrosis treatment with autologous stem cells in sickle cell disease  

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OBJETIVO: Avaliação da segurança e eficácia do uso de células progenitoras autólogas da medula óssea (CMMO) no tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral (OCF) de pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 8 pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme, com OCF nos estágios I e II (classificação de Ficat e Arlet). As CMMO retiradas da crista ilíaca posterior foram concentradas e reinfundidas na área central da osteonecrose. Os principais parâmetros avali...

2008-01-01

242

Tratamiento conservador de las fracturas del cóndilo: Evaluación radiológica y clínica Conservative treatment of condyle fractures: Radiological and clinical evaluation  

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Full Text Available Las ventajas del tratamiento quirúrgico de las fracturas del proceso condilar hasta la fecha han despertado controversia en la literatura. El tratamiento conservador es el método de elección en nuestra clínica, por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio es evaluar los resultados obtenidos en un grupo de nuestros pacientes, seleccionados y aleatorizados, que recibieron un tratamiento conservador de fracturas del proceso condilar. Se evaluaron las intervenciones terapéuticas entre 1997 y 2000 en 30 pacientes (18 varones, 12 mujeres, edad media de 25 años con fracturas del cóndilo y un tiempo de seguimiento medio de 12 meses. Se incluyó un total de 35 fracturas del cóndilo en este estudio. El tratamiento utilizado fue la fijación maxilomandibular (FMM, que se aplicó durante 2 semanas en las fracturas unilaterales y durante 3 a 4 semanas en las fracturas bilaterales. Se realizó una evaluación radiológica inicial del ángulo del proceso condilar fracturado y del acortamiento de la rama ascendente. Se evaluaron las exploraciones clínicas y radiológicas a intervalos regulares (6 semanas y 3, 6 y 12 meses. Cinco pacientes presentaron fracturas bilaterales; todos con luxación anterior. En el grupo de las fracturas unilaterales, 12 pacientes presentaron luxación anterior (valor medio 23° en la radiografía panorámica. Trece pacientes presentaron luxación posterior (valor medio 10°. En la proyección posteroanterior se observó la luxación medial en 12 fracturas (valor medio 14° y luxación lateral en 4 fracturas (valor medio 6°. El acortamiento de la rama ascendente alcanzó un valor medio de 5,40 mm. Se logró una funcionalidad y movilidad satisfactorias en todos los pacientes tratados. Las secuelas postraumáticas fueron el chasquido de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM (5 de 29, la desviación de la boca al abrirse (14 de 27, la reducción de los movimientos laterales y de la protrusión (15 de 29 y finalmente un rango de apertura de la boca de 30 a 60 mm. Para concluir, el tratamiento conservador de las fracturas del proceso condilar es un método de tratamiento seguro que evita la cirugía y produce fiablemente buenos resultados. El grado de desplazamiento o de acortamiento de la rama ascendente no precluyó obtener buenos resultados en este estudio.Benefits of surgical treatment for condylar fractures are to date discussed controversially in the literature. As conservative treatment is the method of choice in our clinic, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a randomised selected group of our patients who received conservative treatment for condylar fractures. The acts of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females, mean age of 25 years treatment for condylar fractures between 1997 and 2000 with a mean follow up time of 12 months have been assessed. A total of 35 condyle fractures were included in this study. The treatment applied was maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF for 2 weeks on unilateral fractures, and 3 - 4 weeks on bilateral fractures. Initial radiological evaluation of the broken condyles angulations and shortening of the ascending ramus was performed. Clinical and radiological examinations were assessed in regular intervals (6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months. 5 patients presented bilateral fractures; all of them had anterior dislocation. In the unilateral fracture group 12 presented anterior dislocations (mean value of 23° on the panoramic x-ray. 13 cases presented posterior dislocation (mean value of 10°. On the (PA projections 12 fractures presented medial dislocation (mean value of 14°, 4 presented lateral dislocation (mean value of 6°. Ascending ramus shortening reached a mean value of 5.40 mm. Satisfactory function and mobility were observed in all the treated cases. Posttraumatic sequels as TMJ clicking (5 of 29, deviation by mouth opening (14 of 27, reduction of lateral movements and protrusion (in 15 of 29 and finally mouth opening ranged 30 to 60 mm. In conclusion, conservative treatment of condylar fractures is a safe treatment method avoiding surg

A. Wassouf

2005-04-01

243

Tratamiento conservador de las fracturas del cóndilo: Evaluación radiológica y clínica / Conservative treatment of condyle fractures: Radiological and clinical evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las ventajas del tratamiento quirúrgico de las fracturas del proceso condilar hasta la fecha han despertado controversia en la literatura. El tratamiento conservador es el método de elección en nuestra clínica, por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio es evaluar los resultados obtenidos en un grup [...] o de nuestros pacientes, seleccionados y aleatorizados, que recibieron un tratamiento conservador de fracturas del proceso condilar. Se evaluaron las intervenciones terapéuticas entre 1997 y 2000 en 30 pacientes (18 varones, 12 mujeres, edad media de 25 años) con fracturas del cóndilo y un tiempo de seguimiento medio de 12 meses. Se incluyó un total de 35 fracturas del cóndilo en este estudio. El tratamiento utilizado fue la fijación maxilomandibular (FMM), que se aplicó durante 2 semanas en las fracturas unilaterales y durante 3 a 4 semanas en las fracturas bilaterales. Se realizó una evaluación radiológica inicial del ángulo del proceso condilar fracturado y del acortamiento de la rama ascendente. Se evaluaron las exploraciones clínicas y radiológicas a intervalos regulares (6 semanas y 3, 6 y 12 meses). Cinco pacientes presentaron fracturas bilaterales; todos con luxación anterior. En el grupo de las fracturas unilaterales, 12 pacientes presentaron luxación anterior (valor medio 23°) en la radiografía panorámica. Trece pacientes presentaron luxación posterior (valor medio 10°). En la proyección posteroanterior se observó la luxación medial en 12 fracturas (valor medio 14°) y luxación lateral en 4 fracturas (valor medio 6°). El acortamiento de la rama ascendente alcanzó un valor medio de 5,40 mm. Se logró una funcionalidad y movilidad satisfactorias en todos los pacientes tratados. Las secuelas postraumáticas fueron el chasquido de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) (5 de 29), la desviación de la boca al abrirse (14 de 27), la reducción de los movimientos laterales y de la protrusión (15 de 29) y finalmente un rango de apertura de la boca de 30 a 60 mm. Para concluir, el tratamiento conservador de las fracturas del proceso condilar es un método de tratamiento seguro que evita la cirugía y produce fiablemente buenos resultados. El grado de desplazamiento o de acortamiento de la rama ascendente no precluyó obtener buenos resultados en este estudio. Abstract in english Benefits of surgical treatment for condylar fractures are to date discussed controversially in the literature. As conservative treatment is the method of choice in our clinic, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a randomised selected group of our patients who received conservati [...] ve treatment for condylar fractures. The acts of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females, mean age of 25 years) treatment for condylar fractures between 1997 and 2000 with a mean follow up time of 12 months have been assessed. A total of 35 condyle fractures were included in this study. The treatment applied was maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF) for 2 weeks on unilateral fractures, and 3 - 4 weeks on bilateral fractures. Initial radiological evaluation of the broken condyles angulations and shortening of the ascending ramus was performed. Clinical and radiological examinations were assessed in regular intervals (6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months). 5 patients presented bilateral fractures; all of them had anterior dislocation. In the unilateral fracture group 12 presented anterior dislocations (mean value of 23°) on the panoramic x-ray. 13 cases presented posterior dislocation (mean value of 10°). On the (PA) projections 12 fractures presented medial dislocation (mean value of 14°), 4 presented lateral dislocation (mean value of 6°). Ascending ramus shortening reached a mean value of 5.40 mm. Satisfactory function and mobility were observed in all the treated cases. Posttraumatic sequels as TMJ clicking (5 of 29), deviation by mouth opening (14 of 27), reduction of lateral movements and protrusion (in 15 of 29) and finally mouth opening ranged 30

A., Wassouf; R., Verdeja; K.W., Grätz.

244

Ceramic femoral head retrieval data.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1970s it was first realized that the properties of alumina ceramics could be exploited to provide better implants for orthopaedic applications. Applications depend on the fact that ceramics provided wear characteristics suitable for bearing surfaces in total hip replacement. Resultant orthopaedic use had more than 20 years' clinical success. To date more than 2.5 million alumina femoral heads have been implanted. Published reports of fracture rates of the alumina heads range between 0% for ceramics manufactured after 1990 and 13.4% for ceramics manufactured before 1990. These high fracture rates were caused by materials manufactured by companies that are not on the market today. These old aluminas had a low density, had a very coarse microstructure, and were not in compliance with specifications that are valid today. Materials scientists have substantially improved the mechanical strength of alumina. There are three generations of medical grade aluminas. The latest generation is an alumina that is hot isostatic pressed, laser marked, and proof tested. This material has been on the market since 1994. The fracture rates of the most commonly used ceramics have been analyzed by various groups, and are based on .5 million femoral heads to 1.5 million femoral heads. The fracture rate of ceramic Biolox femoral heads are 0.026 % for first generation alumina, 0.014% for second generation alumina, and 0.004% for femoral heads manufactured after 1994. Analyzing the clinical experience of more than 20 years, it can be concluded that all the improvements have produced reliable ceramic femoral heads. PMID:11039788

Willmann, G

2000-10-01

245

Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head  

Science.gov (United States)

Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a relatively uncommon complication following an extracapsular hip fracture. Although it can occur following fixation of unstable 3-part or 4-part intertrochanteric fractures with significant posteromedial and posterolateral comminution, it remains a rare complication. We present a case of AVN of the femoral head following fixation of a stable 2-part intertrochanteric fracture in spite of good healing at the hip fracture site. This is a rare but eminently treatable cause of persisting hip pain after hip fracture surgery, and primary or secondary care physicians should be aware of this possibility.

Mallina, Ravi; Dinah, Feroz

2013-01-01

246

Posterior shape models.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method to compute the conditional distribution of a statistical shape model given partial data. The result is a "posterior shape model", which is again a statistical shape model of the same form as the original model. This allows its direct use in the variety of algorithms that include prior knowledge about the variability of a class of shapes with a statistical shape model. Posterior shape models then provide a statistically sound yet easy method to integrate partial data into these algorithms. Usually, shape models represent a complete organ, for instance in our experiments the femur bone, modeled by a multivariate normal distribution. But because in many application certain parts of the shape are known a priori, it is of great interest to model the posterior distribution of the whole shape given the known parts. These could be isolated landmark points or larger portions of the shape, like the healthy part of a pathological or damaged organ. However, because for most shape models the dimensionality of the data is much higher than the number of examples, the normal distribution is singular, and the conditional distribution not readily available. In this paper, we present two main contributions: First, we show how the posterior model can be efficiently computed as a statistical shape model in standard form and used in any shape model algorithm. We complement this paper with a freely available implementation of our algorithms. Second, we show that most common approaches put forth in the literature to overcome this are equivalent to probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA), and Gaussian Process regression. To illustrate the use of posterior shape models, we apply them on two problems from medical image analysis: model-based image segmentation incorporating prior knowledge from landmarks, and the prediction of anatomically correct knee shapes for trochlear dysplasia patients, which constitutes a novel medical application. Our experiments confirm that the use of conditional shape models for image segmentation improves the overall segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:23837968

Albrecht, Thomas; Lüthi, Marcel; Gerig, Thomas; Vetter, Thomas

2013-12-01

247

Reproducibility of radiographic assessment of femoral implant position after hip resurfacing arthroplasty: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether femoral implant position can be reproducibly measured on plain digital radiographs, we prospectively studied 40 patients after hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Three observers performed double blinded randomized analysis of calibrated digital radiographs meeting strict quality criteria. The implant stem-shaft angle and femoral anteversion angle were measured by the trapezoid method of axis determination using OsiriX software. The upper and lower offset and the anterior and posterior offset were measured. The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation tests (intra-observer reproducibility) and Fisher F tests (inter-observer reproducibility). Intra-observer reproducibility was very good for all parameters and all observers. Inter-observer reproducibility was excellent except for superior offset measurement. Thus, this study validates a radiographic method for assessing the femoral implant position in hip resurfacing. We believe this could be useful for future studies on hip resurfacing devices. PMID:23558663

Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Ancelin, David; Cavaignac, Etienne; Maubisson, Laurent; Sharma, Akash; Chiron, Philippe

2014-05-01

248

Bilateral Bifid Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report Proceso Condilar Bífido Bilateral: Reporte de Caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bifid mandibular condyle is an exceedingly rare anomaly, frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding in a panoramic radiograph. Its etiology and pathogenesis are unknown, though the most acceptable theory suggests that trauma is at the origin of the condition. This article reports a new case of bilateral bifid condyle in a 21-year-old female with history of trauma in childhood.El proceso condilar bífido es una anomalía muy rara. Se diagnostica como un hallazgo accidental en una radiografía panorámica. Su etiología y patogenia son desconocidas, aunque la teoría más aceptada sugiere que el trauma está en el origen de esta condición. Este artículo presenta un nuevo caso de proceso condilar bífido bilateral en una mujer de 21 años de edad con antecedentes de trauma en la infancia.

Suzana Lubambo de Melo

2011-09-01

249

Bilateral Bifid Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report / Proceso Condilar Bífido Bilateral: Reporte de Caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El proceso condilar bífido es una anomalía muy rara. Se diagnostica como un hallazgo accidental en una radiografía panorámica. Su etiología y patogenia son desconocidas, aunque la teoría más aceptada sugiere que el trauma está en el origen de esta condición. Este artículo presenta un nuevo caso de p [...] roceso condilar bífido bilateral en una mujer de 21 años de edad con antecedentes de trauma en la infancia. Abstract in english The bifid mandibular condyle is an exceedingly rare anomaly, frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding in a panoramic radiograph. Its etiology and pathogenesis are unknown, though the most acceptable theory suggests that trauma is at the origin of the condition. This article reports a new case o [...] f bilateral bifid condyle in a 21-year-old female with history of trauma in childhood.

Suzana Lubambo de, Melo; Joanna Martins Novais, Barbosa; Aline Carvalho, Peixoto; Thiago de Santana, Santos; Marleny, Gerbi.

250

Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

2007-01-01

251

The effects of the low calcium diet and irradiation on the mandibular condyle of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to investigate the changes of mandibular condyle by low diet and the effects of irradiation on the bone in ofteoporotic state. In order to carry out this experiment, 80 served-week old Sprague-Dawley strain rats about 150gm were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group were then subdivided into two group and exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20 Gy on the jaw area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially terminated by fours on the 3rd, the 7th, the 14th, and the 21st day after irradiation. After termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular condyle were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. The bone mineral density of mandibular condle was measured by use of dual energy X-ray with Hitex HA-80 (Hitex Co., Japan). Thereafter, the obtained radiographs were observed, and the mandibular condyle was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as the general method. The specimen sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, PAS and Rabbit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-? observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In the non-irradiated group with low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days, and decrease the number of trabeculae of the condyle and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone were observed after 3 days. On microscopic observation, the number and size of trabecular were decreased after 7 days of experiment. 2. In the irradiated group with the low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone and decrease the number and coarse of the trabeculae of the condyle were observed. These findings were extended rather than in non-irradiated group with low calcium diet. On microscopic observations, many osteoclasts were detected and the number and size of trabeculae were somewhat decreased after 7 days. Also there was degenerative changes of tissues of bone marrow on the 14th day but that condition was restored on the 21st day of experiment. 3. In the irradiated group with normal diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was somewhat decreased with times and degree of decrease of the number of trabeculae was somewhat larger than in the non-irradiated group with normal diet. On microscopic observations, the 21st day of experiment. 4. In immunocytochemical findings, in the irradiated and non-irradiated groups with low calcium diet negative or partial positive response to TNF was observed, but positive response in the normal diet groups.

1993-02-01

252

Posterior microphthalmos pigmentary retinopathy syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior Microphthalmos Pigmentary Retinopathy Syndrome (PMPRS). Posterior microphthalmos (PM) is a relatively infrequent type of microphthalmos where posterior segment is predominantly affected with normal anterior segment measurements. Herein, we report two siblings with posterior microphthalmos retinopathy syndrome with postulated autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A 13-year-old child had PM and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and his 7-year-old sister had PM, RP, and foveoschisis. The genetics of this syndrome and variable phenotype is discussed. Importance of being aware of posterior microphthalmos and its posterior segment associations is highlighted. PMID:21416382

Pehere, Niranjan; Jalali, Subhadra; Deshmukh, Himanshu; Kannabiran, Chitra

2011-04-01

253

Effect of surgical approach on the early outcome of total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

We reviewed the short-term outcome of 171 patients treated with total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures using the lateral (94 patients) or posterior approach (77 patients). The Sernbo score and the Abbreviated Mental Test Score were used to assess patients' pre-injury functional and cognitive status respectively. Patients were uniformly treated with regard to the type of prosthesis, size of femoral head and rehabilitation. They were followed up to a mean of 25 months (range : 13-42 months). The dislocation rate in the lateral group was 2.1% versus 0% in the posterior group. There was no difference with regards to leg length discrepancy and the restoration of medial offset. Our results were attributed the standardised patients' selection and adequate soft tissue repair. PMID:24563972

Mohamed, Ahmed M; Makki, Daoud; Gibbs, James

2013-12-01

254

Bifid mandibular condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis: report of two cases and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity with a controversial etiology. It can be developmental or acquired and rarely may be associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Although the patient may be asymptomatic, the radiologist should be aware of this entity and its clinical implications. We report two cases of BMC, one developmental and the other secondary to trauma. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography, which additionally revealed the associated ankylosis of TMJ in both the patients. PMID:19521698

Gulati, Ajay; Virmani, V; Ramanathan, S; Verma, L; Khandelwal, N

2009-10-01

255

Bifid mandibular condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis: report of two cases and review of literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity with a controversial etiology. It can be developmental or acquired and rarely may be associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Although the patient may be asymptomatic, the radiologist should be aware of this entity and its clinical implications. We report two cases of BMC, one developmental and the other secondary to trauma. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography, which additionally revealed the associated ankylosis of TMJ in both the patients. (orig.)

Gulati, Ajay; Virmani, V.; Ramanathan, S.; Khandelwal, N. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Chandigarh (India); Verma, L. [Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Department of Pedodontics, Patiala (India)

2009-10-15

256

Bifid mandibular condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis: report of two cases and review of literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity with a controversial etiology. It can be developmental or acquired and rarely may be associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Although the patient may be asymptomatic, the radiologist should be aware of this entity and its clinical implications. We report two cases of BMC, one developmental and the other secondary to trauma. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography, which additionally revealed the associated ankylosis of TMJ in both the patients. (orig.)

2009-10-01

257

Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular co...

Alexandre Perez Marques; Andréia Perrella; Emiko Saito Arita; Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos Pereira; Marcelo de Gusmão Paraíso Cavalcanti

2010-01-01

258

Cóndilo bífido: A propósito de un caso / Bifid condyle: Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo, a propósito de un caso clínico, se presenta el cóndilo bífido como una rara alteración mandibular con muchas incógnitas. Su diagnóstico suele ser un hallazgo casual en radiografías panorámicas de rutina. El número de casos relatados en literatura ha experimentado en los últimos año [...] s un crecimiento debido al aumento de pruebas radiológicas que se realizan. Se discute sobre las diferentes teorías existentes con respecto a la etiología de este proceso. En lo referente a la relevancia clínica del cóndilo bífido señalamos que la gran mayoría son asintomáticos. Es importante realizar un buen diagnóstico diferencial de éste proceso con otras lesiones que producen alteraciones morfológicas condilares, la prueba de elección es la tomografía computerizada. El tratamiento conservador suele ser efectivo en los casos con clínica de disfunción articular leve, la cirugía tan sólo suele indicarse en casos de anquilosis condilar, normalmente éstos casos son secundarios a traumatismos. Abstract in english The double headed mandible condyle is a rare alteration that is frequently diagnosticated as an incidental finding in a panoramic radiograph. The different theories about its etiology are explained in this article. Symptoms described with bifid condyles vary from case to case, but in most instances [...] are absent. Computer tomography is the ideal imaging method to evaluate the condyle morphology and to role out any degenerative process to achieve the differential diagnosis. Treatment is conservative for symptomatic patients with TMJ disorders, surgical treatment is described in literature in TMJ ankylosis that develops in bifid condyles secondary to trauma.

Corchero Martín, Guadalupe; Gonzalez Terán, Tomás; García Reija, María Fe; Sánchez Santolino, Sergio; Saiz Bustillo, Ramón.

259

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle with condylar neck fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is relatively rare, non-neoplastic expansible lesion of bone. The case of a 15-year-old male with a ABC of the left mandibular condyle is presented. Panoramic radiograph showed a unilocular radiolucency with thinned coritces and a subcondylar fracture which was due to the trauma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed expansible lesion which had similar attenuation soft tissue. The patient was treated surgically including iliac crestal bone graft.

Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Jung; Kang, Ju Han; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

260

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle with condylar neck fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is relatively rare, non-neoplastic expansible lesion of bone. The case of a 15-year-old male with a ABC of the left mandibular condyle is presented. Panoramic radiograph showed a unilocular radiolucency with thinned coritces and a subcondylar fracture which was due to the trauma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed expansible lesion which had similar attenuation soft tissue. The patient was treated surgically including iliac crestal bone graft.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Extraarticular endoscopic excision of femoral head chondroblastoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three femoral head chondroblastomas (one associated with aneurysmal bone cyst) were excised, using a technique of percutaneous extraarticular curettage. Whereas a standard approach to the femoral head lesion requires hip arthrotomy plus a cortical window in the femoral head or neck, the extraarticular technique enters the tumor cavity via a tunnel drilled from the lateral femoral cortex through the medullary canal of the femoral neck. The videoarthroscope assists with visualization during curettage of the cartilage tumor. Bone graft material may be packed into the tumor cavity without fear of subsequent leakage into the joint space. At an average follow-up of 25 months, all three femoral head tumors have healed without recurrence and with no complications related to the approach. The extraarticular endoscopic approach could be used to treat selected benign femoral head or neck lesions other than chondroblastomas. PMID:7593565

Stricker, S J

1995-01-01

262

Hip arthroplasty after biplanar femoral osteotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hip arthroplasty in patients who have had previous biplanar femoral osteotomy (eg, Southwick) is a technical surgical problem. Distorted proximal femoral anatomy may make routine insertion of a femoral prosthesis impossible. The authors report the short-term results in three patients with hip arthroplasty after biplanar femoral osteotomy. The technique consists of a biplanar closing wedge osteotomy at the level of the lesser trochanter to correct the previous surgical deformity. The remaining proximal femur becomes a vascularized bone graft that is skewered by the femoral prosthesis, which also gains purchase in the medullary canal of the proximal femoral shaft. This technique allows restoration of anatomic femoral alignment and the use of standard prostheses with preservation of bone stock. The initial results have been very good. The appearance of the hip is very similar to that in primary hip arthroplasty. PMID:2926411

DeCoster, T A; Incavo, S; Frymoyer, J W; Howe, J

1989-01-01

263

Autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular ankylosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of using the autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle and to achieve structural, functional, as well as esthetic rehabilitation of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article presents the clinical results of an evaluation of ten cases of TMJ ankylosis treated by using autogeneous coronoid process as free graft for reconstruction of mandibular condyle after resection of ankylotic mass. RESULTS: Satisfactory mouth opening were obtained in all ten cases. No patient showed signs of re-ankylosis at 12 months follow-up. Preoperative mouth opening ranged from 0 to 15 mm with mean being 4.8 mm. As a result of successful procedure, the immediate postoperative mouth opening increased ranging from 24 to 31 mm (mean, 26.5 mm). Follow up of patients at the first and 12th month showed good results with increase in mouth opening from a range of 24 to 31 mm (mean, 27.8 mm ) to 26 to 36 mm (mean, 33.13 mm). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the autogeneous coronoid process as free graft is a suitable graft material for reconstruction of mandibular condyle after resection of ankylotic mass. PMID:23686355

Hu, Weihsin; Thadani, Sandeep; Mukul, Sailesh Kumar; Sood, Ramita

2013-05-18

264

Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ultrasound-guided direct injection of thrombin is currently the first choice of treatment for the postcatheterization pseudoaneurysm, mainly in the femoral artery. A pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery is very rare, so there are not enough reports about proper treatment yet. We report a case of a balloon-assisted injection of thrombin under ultrasonography-guidance to manage a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery and concurrently to prevent a distal artery embolization.

2014-05-01

265

Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultrasound-guided direct injection of thrombin is currently the first choice of treatment for the postcatheterization pseudoaneurysm, mainly in the femoral artery. A pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery is very rare, so there are not enough reports about proper treatment yet. We report a case of a balloon-assisted injection of thrombin under ultrasonography-guidance to manage a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery and concurrently to prevent a distal artery embolization.

Lee, Taeg Ki; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Eu Gene [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

266

Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture using the direct anterior approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To evaluate whether walking ability recovers early after bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) using a direct anterior approach. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2010, 81 patients with femoral neck fracture underwent BHA using the direct anterior approach (DAA) or the posterior approach (PA). The mean observation period was 36 mo. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI), time from admission to surgery, length of hospitalization, outcome after discharge, walking ability, duration of surgery, blood loss and...

Tomonori Baba; Katsuo Shitoto; Kazuo Kaneko

2013-01-01

267

Diagnostic gait pattern of a patient with longstanding left femoral nerve palsy: a case report.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The gait pattern of a 35-year-old man with longstanding, left femoral nerve palsy was assessed using 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis. Stability of his left knee in stance was achieved by manipulating the external moments of the limb so that the ground reaction force passes in front of the knee joint. This compensatory mechanism of locking the knee in extension is reliant on the posterior capsular structures. The patient was managed conservatively and continued to walk without aids.

Burke, Neil G

2010-12-01

268

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa are rare lesions that are considered to be mostly congenital in origin. In this article, we retrospectively review 12 patients who underwent surgical treatment for their symptomatic posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. The most common presenting symptoms were gait disturbances and headache. The diagnosis was established on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Surgery consisted of cyst wall excision with fenestration in nine cases and shunting procedures in three cases. In all cases except one who-died, the postsurgical follow-up neuroradiological investigations showed that the cysts had decreased in size, the cerebellum had re-expanded, and if there was preoperative hydrocephalus, the ventricular size was decreased. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 11 years. All surviving cases are free of symptoms and no arachnoid cysts recurred. The classification, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and surgical treatment of infratentorial arachnoid cysts are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:10492679

Erdinçler, P; Kaynar, M Y; Bozkus, H; Ciplak, N

1999-02-01

269

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Cruciate ligament injury - posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury - posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended knee ... a physical examination to check for signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in ...

270

Neuropatía femoral en cirugía urológica / Femoral neuropathy in urological surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan cuatro casos de neuropatía femoral secundarios a cirugía urológica, el primero tras lumbotomía derecha hace más de 20 años y los otros tres en los últimos cuatro años, con incisión iliaca. Se comentan los mecanismos de producción de la lesión, evolución, tratamiento y prevención de esta [...] infrecuente complicación neurológica y se revisa la literatura sobre dicha patología en la actividad urológica. Abstract in english We present four cases of femoral neuropathy due to urological surgery, first case happened after right lumbotomy twenty years ago and the other three cases in the last four years after iliac incision. We review lesion production mecanism, evolution, treatment and prevention of this rare neurological [...] complication. We do a literature review about this pathology related with urological activity.

J.M., Pastor Guzmán; H., Pastor Navarro; M.J., Donate Moreno; J.M., Pardal Fernández; P., Carrión López; A., Salinas Sánchez; J.A., Virseda Rodríguez.

271

Symptomatic Posterior Mediastinal Angioleiomyoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a case of a symptomatic angioleiomyoma in the left posterior mediastinum. A 66-year-old woman presented with left back and flank pain for 6 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed 4.3 cm round mass. The mass was initially diagnosed as nerve sheath tumor, because of her symptoms and its close location to the sympathetic trunk and intercostal nerve. It was uneventfully removed through video-assisted thoracoscopic surger...

I, Hoseok; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Yeong-dae

2008-01-01

272

Asymptotics for posterior hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important issue in survival analysis is the investigation and the modeling of hazard rates. Within a Bayesian nonparametric framework, a natural and popular approach is to model hazard rates as kernel mixtures with respect to a completely random measure. In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of such models. We investigate consistency of the posterior distribution and derive fixed sample size central limit theorems for both linear and quadratic functi...

2009-01-01

273

The posterior Monteggia lesion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen posterior Monteggia fracture-dislocations in adults were treated surgically at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to 1988. A characteristic lesion was observed, consisting of a proximal ulna fracture with a triangular or quandrangular fracture at or near the level of the coronoid, a posterior or posterolateral radiocapitellar dislocation, and, in 10 cases, a radial head fracture. Nine patients were women and four were men, with an average age of 56 years. Following reduction of the radiocapitellar dislocation, the ulnar fractures were treated with plates in each case. Seven fractured radial heads were excised, one replaced with a silicone prosthesis, and three treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The 11 surviving patients were observed using the performance index of Broberg and Morrey at an average follow-up time of 38.4 months. The conditions of three were rated excellent, three good, four fair, and one poor. Incomplete reduction of the ulnar fracture with residual posterior radiocapitellar subluxation was observed in four cases, all leading to loss of forearm supination. We believe this lesion to be more common than previously reported. Recognition of its specific anatomic features is essential to achieve a functional outcome. PMID:1761999

Jupiter, J B; Leibovic, S J; Ribbans, W; Wilk, R M

1991-01-01

274

Femoral neck morphology differentiates femoral neck from vertebral osteoporotic fracture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mineral density and bone geometry are the two main biomechanical factors related to bone resistance to stress. Objective: In this study we assess whether differences in the proximal femur geometry (PFG) characterize different types of osteoporotic fractures. Methods: We studied 533 postmenopausal women aged 50 - 85. They were divided into four groups matched for bone mineral density at the femoral neck; without fractures (165), vertebral fractures (139), trochanteric fractures (102), and hip ...

Malavolta, N.; Frigato, M.; Mule?, R.; Ripamonti, C.

2011-01-01

275

Femoral neck morphology differentiates femoral neck from vertebral osteoporotic fracture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mineral density and bone geometry are the two main biomechanical factors related to bone resistance to stress. Objective: In this study we assess whether differences in the proximal femur geometry (PFG characterize different types of osteoporotic fractures. Methods: We studied 533 postmenopausal women aged 50 - 85. They were divided into four groups matched for bone mineral density at the femoral neck; without fractures (165, vertebral fractures (139, trochanteric fractures (102, and hip fractures (127. Dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the spine and at the hip were carried out to measure bone mineral density and the DXA images were used to define the proximal femur geometry parameters of the hip. Results: Age, height, vertebral BMD and PFG parameters (i.e.femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA and hip axis length (HAL were different when all four groups were compared by the Anova test. Patients with vertebral fractures were then compared by multivariate analysis to those with trochanteric fractures. The variables that discriminated the two groups were: age, age at menopause, weight, height, and vertebral BMD, but not PFG. Comparing vertebral to hip fractures the distinguishing variables were: vertebral BMD, height, NSA and HAL. We found that hip fractures had longer HAL and wider NSA than vertebral fractures, whereas no statistically significant differences were found between trochanteric fractures and vertebral fractures concerning PFG. Conclusions: These data indicate that differences in PFG parameters might have a role in predisposing to femoral neck fracture.

R. Mulè

2011-09-01

276

Correlation between Eminence Steepness and Condyle Disk Movements in Temporomandibular Joints Affected by Internal Derangements Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Internal derangement of the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ is the most common form of Temporomandibular disorders, which represents an abnormal internal strucural and functional change of the disk, as well as an abnormal relationship of the disk to the condyle, glenoid fossa and articular eminence when the teeth are in the closed- mouth position. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between eminence steepness and condyle disk movements in TMJs affected by internal derangements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, digital MRI files of 90 joints belong to 45 patients in open and closed-mouth positions were evaluated. Patients were subdivided into two groups: 64 individuals with anterior diskdisplacement with reduction and 26 individuals with anterior disk displacement without reduction. Appropriate oblique sagittal sections were selected and printed. Outlines of the fossa, eminence, condyle and disk were traced on matte acetate sheets and evaluated by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist and a postgraduate student of oral and maxillofacial radiology. Disk rotation, condyle rotation, condyle translation and eminence steepness were measured.The data were analyzed using T-test.Results: In this study, no significant difference was found in measurements between the two groups, (for steepness P=0.64, for Disc rotation P=0.77, for condyle rotation P=0.28 and for condyle translation P=0.12. Disk rotation showed statistically significant correlation with eminence steepness in the anterior disk displacement with reduction group 34 .Although this correlation was weak (r=0.27 (P>0.05. No statistically significant correlations were found between other variables and eminence steepness in this group (for condyle rotation P=0.3 and for condyle translation P=0.98. Disk rotation and condyle translation had statistically significant relationship in the anterior disk displacement without reduction group (P=0.011, r=-0.49. In addition, a significant difference was found between disk rotation and condyle rotation in this group (P=0.004, r=0.54. The relationship between other variables and eminence steepness werenot statistically significant(for disc rotation P=0.06, for condyle rotation P=0.72 and for condyle translation P=0.73 (P>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, there is no obvious relationship between eminence steepness and movements of the condyle- disk assembly in patients with TMJ internal derangements. Therefore, the hypothesis that a steep articular eminence of the TMJ is a predisposing factor for disk displacement without reduction could not be verified. Performing prophylactic Eminectomy as a part of patient treatment plan is doubtful and need further evaluations.

Nilofar Mofidi

2013-02-01

277

Subcapital femoral neck fracture in patients with HIV and osteonecrosis of the femoral head  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head generally presents with collapse of the femoral head. A small subset of patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, however, have been described in various case reports as presenting with subcapital femoral neck fracture instead. METHODS: The three [...] cases presented were gathered retrospectively from the National Joint Registry in Malawi. RESULTS: We present three case reports of patients with HIV who suffered atraumatic subcapital femoral neck fractures in the setting of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. DISCUSSION: Patients with subcapital femoral neck fractures and osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the setting of HIV represent a unique population with diagnostic and management dilemmas that require careful consideration.

M, Tompkins; NC, Mkandawire; J, Harrison.

278

The effects of severe femoral bone loss on the flexion extension joint space in revision total knee arthroplasty: a cadaveric analysis and clinical consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five revision total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) involving severe femoral bone loss were performed in 1994. Each had sufficiently severe femoral bone loss in which collateral ligament origins and posterior capsular attachments were violated. A paradoxical phenomenon was observed in each case. Unlike primary TKAs, in which larger distal femoral bone resection leads to laxity of the knee joint in extension, these cases with severe distal femoral bone loss, after initial component selection, developed the opposite situation, a flexion contracture. It was hypothesized that femoral bone loss involving collateral ligament origins would permit distraction of the tibia below the femur with the knee held in flexion, but when the knee was brought to full extension, intact posterior structures would maintain a normal tibial position. To investigate this hypothesis, six fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs were tested in full extension and 45 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion after release of the femoral attachments of the collateral ligaments and the posterior capsule from the femur. Joint space changes were measured via a motion tracking device. Results showed that with loss of collateral attachments, 17.2+/-8.9 mm of joint space is created in 90 degrees of flexion, whereas the joint space in full extension is conserved (1.5+/-1.7 mm). With additional loss of the posterior capsule, the joint space at 90 degrees of flexion increased to 26.2+/-6.1 mm, with minimal changes in the extension gap (3.4+/-0.8 mm). Distal femoral bone loss was associated with an increase in the flexion gap compared to the extension gap. PMID:11284594

Krackow, K A; Mihalko, W M

2001-02-01

279

Arthroscopic osteosynthesis of femoral head malunion.  

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We present the case of a femoral head malunion with lateral cephalic femoroacetabular impingement managed by arthroscopic osteotomy/takedown, bone grafting, internal fixation, and cephaloplasty. The treatment rationale and surgical technique are presented. A successful outcome at 3 years was obtained with radiographic evidence of union without osteonecrosis. Even beyond acute femoral head osteosynthesis, arthroscopic surgery may enhance the ability to treat femoral head malunions. Moreover, arthroscopic osteosynthesis may address lateral cephalic FAI, a previously unreported condition. PMID:24749019

Matsuda, Dean K

2014-02-01

280

Total knee reconstruction without posterior stabilization in rheumatoid arthritis patients  

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Full Text Available Objectives: to present the results with posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Background: Total knee replacement in RA patients has many particularities. One of them is the difficulty of obtaining a proper ligamentous balance.Methods: 24 RA patients were followed for a 5-year period after posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Clinical assessments analyzed general health status by using Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Evaluation Form (HSSKEF and mediolateral and anteroposterior ligament stability by using varus-valgus and posterior drawer tests. Radiological assessments evaluated axial alignment, size and position of components, radiolucent lines in anteroposterior and lateral standard views, integrity of the posterior cruciate ligament on lateral view X-ray at 45 degrees of flexion.Results: the mean HSSKEF score increased from 32 to 84 points at the end of follow-up. Preoperative mean range of motion was 60 degrees; postoperative mean range of motion was of 105 degrees, with significant statistical difference (p<0.05. The mean femoral component axial deviation was 6 degrees. The tibial component had a mean axial deviation of 1 degree of varus. There were no radioluscency lines of more than 1mm. 21 patients had excellent results. None of the knees was unstable. Conclusion: posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty can be used in RA patients without excessive valgus deformity (over 15 degrees, providing thus sufficient stabilization. The outcomes re similar to those patients who followed a posterior stabilized endoprosthesis.

Radu Prejbeanu

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Bifid mandibular condyle: a study of the clinical features, patterns and morphological variations using CT scans.  

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Bifid Mandibular Condyle (BMC) are usually diagnosed on routine radiographic examination, is described in the literature as a rare entity. It is reported that BMC has no predilection by sex or ethnic background or the age. The etiopathogenesis of BMC still remains controversial and proper description of the condition is not defined owing to fewer reported cases. Dental professionals should have some knowledge of this anatomic abnormality, as well as its implications for function and appropriate treatment modalities, so that they can be alert to this potential diagnosis. This paper reports the largest series of BMC, using CT scans with history of trauma and presents some of the characteristic clinical features. PMID:23139565

Balaji, S M

2010-03-01

282

The mandibular condyles in the submentovertex projection--their morphology and topographical relationship to the foramina spinosa.  

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On conventional radiographs, the morphology and position of the condyles in an axial view are best seen in the submentovertex projection. The foramina spinosa, which are used by the middle meningeal arteries as passages and are clearly outlined in this view, serve as landmarks for a co-ordinate system that permits precise measurements of various angles and distances. One hundred and twenty-six submentovertex views were used for measuring the condyles. Results presented as means and standard deviations suggest condylar variables to be related to the function of the stomatognathic system. Practical applications include surgical, orthodontic or prosthetic manipulations of the mandible resulting in transverse or sagittal displacement of the condyles. PMID:2795318

Krenkel, C; Grunert, I

1989-07-01

283

Radiographic Markers of Femoroacetabular Impingement: Correlation of Herniation Pit and Femoral Bump with a Positive Cross-Over Ratio  

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Introduction. The goal of this study was to research the association of femoral bumps and herniation pits with the overlap-ratio of the cross-over sign. Methods. Pelvic X-rays and CT-scans of 2925 patients with good assessment of the anterior and the posterior acetabular wall and absence of neutral pelvic tilt were enrolled in the investigation. Finally pelvic X-rays were assessed for the presence of a positive cross-over sign, and CT-scans for a femoral bump or a herniation pit. Additionally, if a positive cross-over sign was discovered, the overlap-ratio was calculated. Results. A femoral bump was found in 53.3% (n = 1559), and a herniation pit in 27.2% (n = 796) of all hips. The overlap-ratio correlated positively with the presence of a femoral bump, while a negative correlation between the overlap-ratio and the presence of a herniation pit was found. The latter was significantly more often combined with a femoral bump than without. Conclusions. We detected an increased prevalence of femoral bump with increasing overlap-ratios of the cross-over sign indicating a relation to biomechanical stress. The observed decreased prevalence of herniation pits with increasing overlap-ratios could be explained by reduced mechanical stress due to nontightened iliofemoral ligament in the presence of retroversion of the acetabulum.

Scheyerer, Max J.; Copeland, Carol E.; Stromberg, Jeffrey; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Werner, Clement M. L.

2014-01-01

284

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Function Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: The Effect of Joint Line Elevation  

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One of the most commonly cited reasons for retaining the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during total knee arthroplasty is to preserve femoral rollback and theoretically improve extensor mechanism efficiency (lengthening the moment arm). This study was undertaken to assess PCL function in this regard and to delineate the effects of joint line elevation that can be manipulated intraoperatively by the surgeon. The anterior movement of tibiofemoral contact following PCL resection at flexion an...

Emodi, George J.; Callaghan, John J.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Brown, Thomas D.

1999-01-01

285

Accessory thymus in posterior mediastinum  

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Presence of thymus in the normal position as well as in the posterior mediastinum is an unusual phenomenon. We report here a case of posterior mediastinal mass in a 20-month old male child who presented with dysphagia and dry cough. Investigations revealed it to be a solid posterior mediastinal mass, suspected to be either lymphoma or a neuroblastoma. Excision of the mass followed by histopathologic examination revealed the mass to be a normal thymus. This case indicates that a benign mass, a...

Bhatnagar Sushmita; Pradhan Rohit; Shastri Pankaj; Shenoy Pradeep

2008-01-01

286

Bleeding complications of femoral catheterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT has been used to evaluate hematomas resulting from femoral catheterization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, valvuloplasty, and venous access) in 21 patients. Four distinct types of hematoma have been identified: retroperitoneal (N = 12); intraperitoneal (N = 3); groin/thigh (N = 9); and abdominal wall (N = 5). Seven patients had hematomas in two locations. CT contributed by estimating transfusion requirement, indicating the need for more intensive monitoring, and predicting the potential need for surgery. Type 1 and 2 bleeds were the most serious and had the most sequelae. Sequelae included transfusion in 17 patients (mean, 5 units/patient) and surgery in two patients

1989-12-01

287

OSTEONECROSIS DE CABEZA FEMORAL. ETIOPATOGENIA  

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Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y actualización sobre la patogenia y etiología de la osteonecrosis de la cabeza femoral. En la patogenia se profundizó en la historia natural de la enfermedad con las diferentes teorías responsables de los episodios isquémicos como teoría del infarto óseo, embolismo graso, acumulación de las células de estrés y de la isquemia progresiva. Con respecto a la etiología se abordaron las causas traumáticas y atraumáticas en las cuales se incluyó el uso de corticoesteroides, consumo de alcohol, pacientes transplantados, trombofilia e hipofibrinolisis, enfermedad de Caison y Gaucher.

Carlos Casanova Morote

2007-01-01

288

Accessory thymus in posterior mediastinum  

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Full Text Available Presence of thymus in the normal position as well as in the posterior mediastinum is an unusual phenomenon. We report here a case of posterior mediastinal mass in a 20-month old male child who presented with dysphagia and dry cough. Investigations revealed it to be a solid posterior mediastinal mass, suspected to be either lymphoma or a neuroblastoma. Excision of the mass followed by histopathologic examination revealed the mass to be a normal thymus. This case indicates that a benign mass, an accessory thymus, though rare, can be located in the posterior mediastinum and cause symptoms similar to solid mediastinal tumors.

Bhatnagar Sushmita

2008-01-01

289

A new femoral bypass graft catheter.  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-dimensional left coronary bypass graft catheter with a sidewinder configuration is described. It is best suited for superior origins of left coronary bypass grafts. This graft catheter has been used successfully from the femoral route in more than 620 patients without serious complications. The method for using this catheter from the femoral route is described. PMID:3879196

Simmons, C R; Willis, W H

1985-01-01

290

Hip resurfacing arthroplasty in patients with varus deformity of the femoral neck-shaft angle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) in patients with a varus deformity of the femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is associated with poorer outcomes. Our experience has not reflected this. We examined the Oxford Hip Scores (OHS), Harris Hip Scores (HHS) and outcomes of patients with varus hips against a normal cohort to ascertain any significant difference. We identified 179 patients. Measurement of the femoral neck-shaft angle was undertaken from antero-posterior radiographs pre-operatively. The mean NSA was 128.5 degrees (SD 6.3). Patients with a NSA of less than 122.2 were deemed varus and those above 134.8 valgus. These parameters were consistent with published anatomical studies. The 'varus' cohort consisted of 23 patients, mean NSA 118.7 (range 113.6-121.5), mean follow-up 49 months (range 13-74). Mean OHS and HHS were 16 and 93.5 respectively. Complications included 2 cases of trochanteric non-union, but there were no femoral neck fractures, early failures or revisions. The 'normal' cohort consisted of 125 patients, mean NSA 128 degrees, mean follow-up 41 months (range 6-76). The OHS and HSS were 18.8 and 88.9 respectively. Complications included 5 trochanteric non-unions and 1 revision due to an acetabular fracture following a fall. Statistical analysis demonstrated no statistical difference between the cohorts' OHS (p=0.583) or HHS (p=0.139). Our experience in patients with a varus femoral neck has been positive. We have not yet experienced any femoral neck fractures, which we believe is in part due to the use of an uncemented femoral component and preservation of blood supply. PMID:21462149

Carlile, Graeme S; Wakeling, Christopher P; Fuller, Nichola; Fern, Darren; Norton, Mark R

2011-03-30

291

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa causing an epidural haematoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is a rare complication of mandibular trauma due to anatomical and biomechanical factors. Owing to the proximity of the temporal glenoid fossa to the middle meningeal artery, there is the risk of serious sequelae in case of trauma. The authors report the case of a 36-year-old male patient, who was beaten up in a family dispute and presented with complex mandibular and maxillofacial fractures, including mandibular condyle intrusion into the middle cranial fossa causing extensive meningeal bleeding. The patient underwent immediate surgery, with evacuation of the epidural haematoma via a temporal approach. In addition open reduction and reconstruction of the temporal glenoid fossa via anatomic reduction of the fragments was performed. A functional occlusion was re-established via miniplate reconstruction of the complex mandibular body and ramus fractures. Prompt diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach are essential to minimize the complications. Advanced imaging modalities of computed tomography are indicated. Treatment options should be individualized in particular in case of suspected neurological injury. PMID:21862340

Struewer, Johannes; Kiriazidis, Ilias; Figiel, Jens; Dukatz, Thomas; Frangen, Thomas; Ziring, Ewgeni

2012-07-01

292

Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part II: Open Reduction Versus Closed Reduction  

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Full Text Available In the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture, conservative treatment using closedreduction or surgical treatment using open reduction can be used. Management of mandibularcondylar fractures remains a source of ongoing controversy in oral and maxillofacial trauma.For each type of condylar fracture,the treatment method must be chosen taking intoconsideration the presence of teeth, fracture height, patient’sadaptation, patient’s masticatorysystem, disturbance of occlusal function, and deviation of the mandible. In the past, closedreduction with concomitant active physical therapy conducted after intermaxillary fixationduring the recovery period had been mainly used, but in recent years, open treatment ofcondylar fractures with rigid internal fixation has become more common. The objectiveof this review was to evaluate the main variables that determine the choice of an open orclosed method for treatment of condylar fractures, identifying their indications, advantages,and disadvantages, and to appraise the current evidence regarding the effectiveness ofinterventions that are used in the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle.

Kang-Young Choi

2012-07-01

293

Radiographic structural findings in the mandibular condyles of young individuals receiving orthodontic treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiographic findings in mandibular condyles were studied from the pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 625 orthodontic patients. The subjects` mean age was 11 years at the start and 14 years at the end of active orthodontic treatment. Radiographic condylar findings were seen in 14 subjects before treatment and in 54 subjects after treatment. In age-related controls condylar findings were seen in 3%. The condylar findings was ``flattening only`` in half of the patients and in one-third of the controls with condylar findings. Activator treatment was associated with condylar findings. Condylar findings increased with age in the orthodontically treated subjects, but not in the unselected population controls. This may mean that condyles become more sensitive with age in children. Increase with age may be partly due to the radiographic interpretation, since minor condylar findings are difficult to observe in young children, and partly due to differences in treatment modalities and the duration of treatment. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Peltola, J.S.; Nystroem, M.; Koenoenen, M.; Wolf, J. [Dept. of Dental Radiology, Univ. og Helsinki (Finland)

1995-04-01

294

Relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain and the forward shift of the head and shoulder in female athletes from the youth category Relação entre o encurtamento de cadeia muscular posterior e a anteriorização da cabeça e ombros em atletas infanto-juvenis do gênero feminino  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the shortening of the posterior muscle chain, mainly the hamstrings and the forward shift of the head and shoulder, as a possible adaptation in high level/performance athletes. The sample involved 59 female athletes from the youth category of different sports modalities. Group 1: 35 athletes with significant hamstrings’ shortening evaluated by the “bear’s position”; Control group: 24 athletes without hamstrings’ shortening, evaluated by the same position. Data collection was performed using digital analysis of pictures taken with the athlete standing (lateral vision in the “bear’s position”. Luminous markers were placed in the temporomandibular joint, lateral region of the acromio, femur great trochanter, external femoral condyle and lateral malleolus. Variables were measured by the computerized angular cinematic analysis, using the software for posture evaluation SAPO, 0.68 version, always performed by the same rater. Statistical analysis was performed with the Shapiro Wilk test, Unpaired t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at p?0.05. Group 1 showed 2.5 degrees (SD=1,12 of forward inclination in the lateral view and 43.15 degrees (SD=9,41 of knee flexion in the “bear’s position”. In group 2, there was 2.77 (DP=1.02 degrees in the lateral analysis and -2.19 (DP=4.05 degrees in the “bear’s position”. The statistical analysis between the two groups showed p=0.50 for the comparison of the anterior trunk imbalance in the lateral view and p=0,00 for the comparison of the “bear’s position”. The correlation analysis between the anterior trunk imbalance and the posterior muscle chain shortening, emphasizing the hamstrings, showed r=0.04 in the group with posterior chain shortening and r=0.1 in the control group. It can be concluded that the hamstrings’ muscle shortening did not show any relation with the forward shift of the head and shoulder. On the other hand, in the group with greater flexibility of the muscles from the posterior chain, a greater forward shift of the head and shoulder was observed, without significant results. Analisou-se a relação entre o encurtamento da cadeia muscular posterior, os músculos isquitibiais, e a anteriorização de cabeça e ombros, em atletas de nível competitivo. A amostra foi composta por 59 atletas, do sexo feminino e categoria infanto-juvenil, praticantes de diversas modalidades, divididos em dois grupos: o grupo 1 formado por 35 atletas com encurtamento significativo dos músculos isquiotibiais na postura de urso; o grupo-controle, com 24 atletas sem encurtamento dos isquiotibiais. Realizou-se, por análise digital, fotografias em perfil e na postura de urso. Fixaram-se marcadores luminosos na articulação temporomandibular, acrômio (lateral, trocanter maior do fêmur, côndilo femoral externo e maléolo lateral. Realizou-se a análise cinemática angular computadorizada com o Software para Avaliação Postural (SAPO, versão 0.68. Para a análise estatística, aplicaram-se os testes de Shapiro Wilk, t para amostras independentes e de correção de Pearson. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5%. Como resultado, foi observado, no grupo 1, 2,5 graus (DP=1,12 de inclinação anterior na vista lateral e 43,15 graus (DP=9,41 de flexão do joelho na postura do urso. Para o grupo 2, obteve-se o resultado de 2,77 (DP=1,02 graus para a análise do perfil, e -2,19 (DP=4,05 para a postura do urso. A análise estatística entre os grupos apresentou p=0,50 na comparação do desequilíbrio anterior do tronco em vista lateral e p=0,00 para a comparação da postura do urso. A correlação entre o desequilíbrio anterior do tronco e o encurtamento da cadeia posterior, apresentou r=0,04 para o grupo com encurtamento da cadeia posterior e r=0,1 para o controle. Assim, o encurtamento dos músculos isquitibiais não apresentou relação com a anteriorização da cabeça e ombros. Porem, no grupo com maior flexibilidade,

Lucas Maciel Rabello

2010-10-01

295

Revascularization of the Posterior Circulation  

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The primary objective of revascularization procedures in the posterior circulation is the prevention of vertebrobasilar ischemic stroke. Specific anatomical and neurophysiologic characteristics such as posterior communicating artery size affect the susceptibility to ischemia. Current indications for revascularization include symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia refractory to medical therapy and ischemia caused by parent vessel occlusion as treatment for complex aneurysms. Treatment options in...

Coert, Bert A.; Chang, Steven D.; Marks, Michael P.; Steinberg, Gary K.

2005-01-01

296

Patterns of femoral head migration in osteoarthritis of the hip: A reappraisal using CT and pathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although superior, medial, and axial patterns of migration of the femoral head in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip have been well described, it is not clear what anatomic and biomechanical factors determine the direction of migration. To define any relationships between migration in the coronal and the transverse planes, the authors evaluated 22 patients (total of 33 hips with OA) as well as 15 pathologic specimens by conventional radiography and computed tomography. Fourteen of the 19 superiorly migrated hips had an anterior migration component, and five of seven medially migrated hips had a posterior migration component. The authors' cases were also evaluated for femoral anteversion angle, femoral nick-shaft angle, acetabular anteversion, and acetabular inclination, but no correlation with specific migration patterns was evident

1987-12-04

297

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a recently proposed cliniconeuroradiologic entity with several well-known causes, such as hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, and the use of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as some causes more recently described. PRES is characterized by neuroimaging findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Two opposing hypotheses are commonly cited, but the issue is controversial: (1) the current more popular theory suggests that severe hypertension exceeds the limits of autoregulation, leading to breakthrough brain edema; (2) the earlier original theory suggests that hypertension leads to cerebral autoregulatory vasoconstriction, ischemia, and subsequent brain edema. The clinical syndrome of PRES typically involves headache, encephalopathy, visual symptoms, and seizures. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and therefore the diagnosis of PRES has come to increasingly rely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities consistent with PRES with documented recovery clinically and on repeated neuroimaging. The diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications because the reversibility of the clinical and radiologic abnormalities is contingent on the prompt control of blood pressure and/or discontinuing the offending drug. PMID:24365441

Lamy, C; Oppenheim, C; Mas, J L

2014-01-01

298

New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

2009-02-01

299

New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2009-02-15

300

Femoral neck fractures after hip resurfacing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Femoral neck fracture is an important early complication after hip resurfacing. Our aims were firstly to determine the incidence of fracture in an independent series and secondly, in a case control study, to investigate potential risk factors. Fifteen femoral neck fractures occurred in a series of 842 procedures, representing an incidence of 1.8%. No relationship existed between age, sex, and fracture incidence. Mechanical factors such as notching, femoral neck lengthening, and varus alignment of the femoral component were found to have a similar incidence in both fracture and control groups. The proportion of patients that had at least 1 mechanical risk factor was not different between the 2 groups (fracture group, 50%; control group, 41%). Established avascular necrosis of the femoral head was evident in all retrieved femoral heads (n = 9) of patients who sustained postoperative fracture; in none of these patients was avascular necrosis the initial diagnosis. This study suggests that in our practice, mechanical factors, such as neck notching, neck lengthening, or varus angulations, are not the primary cause of femoral neck fractures. PMID:18555654

Steffen, Robert-Tobias; Foguet, Pedro R; Krikler, Stephen J; Gundle, Roger; Beard, David J; Murray, David W

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Management of femoral neck fractures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Femoral neck fractures are the second most common non-vertebral fragility fracture, and their management is complicated by multiple controversies. This article aims to review the recent literature in an attempt to elucidate current concepts critical to the management of intra-capsular femoral neck f [...] ractures. The optimal timing of surgery remains controversial. A recent meta-analysis was able to show that a delay of longer than 24-72 hours resulted in a statistically significant increase in mortality. Internal fixation of undisplaced fractures remains undisputed. In terms of displaced fractures, two well-designed studies have shown significantly higher re-operation rates in patients treated with closed reduction and internal fixation. While there appears to be renewed interest in the use of bi-polar hemiarthroplasty, conflicting evidence has been published with regard to total hip replacement for hip fractures in the elderly, and it may only be indicated in selected subgroups of relatively healthy patients. The peri-operative use of tranexamic acid has recently been shown to result in a reduction in transfusion requirements. Arguably the most important recent development in the management of hip fractures is the decrease in mortality provided by intravenous bisphosphonate therapy. Apart from a reduction in subsequent fractures the therapy also appears to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular and pulmonary causes. Recent investigations into thrombopro-phylaxis have highlighted the fact there is very little data to show that potent anti-coagulation decreases the risk of fatal pulmonary emboli.

LC, Marais; N, Ferreira.

302

Incidence of patellar clunk with a modern posterior-stabilized knee design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patellar clunk is an uncommon complication of posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA), though the incidence has been reported to be as high as 7.5% with some posterior-stabilized implants, and the etiology is multifactorial. Femoral component design has been implicated as a major cause of this complication. This series compares the incidence of patellar clunk with 2 different knee prostheses, the Insall-Burstein II (IB) and the NexGen Legacy PS (NG), both manufactured by Zimmer (Warsaw, Ind). One-hundred fifty consecutive posterior-stabilized TKAs were in each group, and the groups were similar in surgical approaches and techniques. Insall-Salvati (IS) ratios and joint-line positions were measured on preoperative and postoperative x-rays. Knee Society Clinical and Functional scores were calculated. Incidence of patellar clunk was reduced from 4% with the IB design to 0% with the NG design. IS ratios, joint-line positions, and clinical outcomes were no different between the groups. It appears that femoral component design may play a substantial role in development of patellar clunk after posterior-stabilized TKA. PMID:18033567

Lonner, Jess H; Jasko, Jeff G; Bezwada, Hari P; Nazarian, David G; Booth, Robert E

2007-10-01

303

Assessment of osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint associated with avascular necrosis of the condyle on magnetic resonance imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteoarthrosis associated with findings of avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle on magnetic resonance imaging was clinically evaluated. The subjects consisted of 5 female unilateral cases, with an average age of 55.4 years who had a mean duration of illness of 15.2 months. The symptoms were a mean interincisal opening distance of 32.8 mm with arthralgia in mild to moderate degree, and joint noise (crepitation) in all joints. MRI documented decreasing signal intensity of the condyle with 2 joints in high degree and 3 joints in moderate, as well as variable low signal density of the articular eminence, associated with concomitant anterior disk displacement. X-ray showed deformity of the condyle and eminence. The operative findings disclosed disk rupture and comparatively smooth cartilage with minimum remodeling of the condylar surface; however, avascular evidence was suggested when corticotomy was performed. 4 joints underwent diskectomy, condylar shaving, auricular cartilage grafts and corticotomy of the condyle. Arthroscopic corticotomy was applied for 1 joint with mild symptoms. Postoperative symptoms improved to mean opening distance of 41.4 mm and disappeared arthralgia in 4 joints. The surgical outcome was excellent in 3 joints and good in 2 joints. Follow-up MRI in 2 cases disclosed increasing signal intensity, which suggested recovery of condylar vascularity following corticotomy. It is suggested that the low-signal intensity on MRI in osteoarthrosis might indicate avascular lesions of the condyle, secondary to degenerative change. Histological investigations are required to evaluate avascular necrosis of the temporomandibular joints. (author).

Segami, Natsuki; Murakami, Ken-ichiro; Hosaka, Hideo; Moriya, Yoshiyuki; Miyaki, Katsuaki; Chen, Wen-Hsi; Iizuka, Tadahiko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

1993-02-01

304

Assessment of osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint associated with avascular necrosis of the condyle on magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoarthrosis associated with findings of avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle on magnetic resonance imaging was clinically evaluated. The subjects consisted of 5 female unilateral cases, with an average age of 55.4 years who had a mean duration of illness of 15.2 months. The symptoms were a mean interincisal opening distance of 32.8 mm with arthralgia in mild to moderate degree, and joint noise (crepitation) in all joints. MRI documented decreasing signal intensity of the condyle with 2 joints in high degree and 3 joints in moderate, as well as variable low signal density of the articular eminence, associated with concomitant anterior disk displacement. X-ray showed deformity of the condyle and eminence. The operative findings disclosed disk rupture and comparatively smooth cartilage with minimum remodeling of the condylar surface; however, avascular evidence was suggested when corticotomy was performed. 4 joints underwent diskectomy, condylar shaving, auricular cartilage grafts and corticotomy of the condyle. Arthroscopic corticotomy was applied for 1 joint with mild symptoms. Postoperative symptoms improved to mean opening distance of 41.4 mm and disappeared arthralgia in 4 joints. The surgical outcome was excellent in 3 joints and good in 2 joints. Follow-up MRI in 2 cases disclosed increasing signal intensity, which suggested recovery of condylar vascularity following corticotomy. It is suggested that the low-signal intensity on MRI in osteoarthrosis might indicate avascular lesions of the condyle, secondary to degenerative change. Histological investigations are required to evaluate avascular necrosis of the temporomandibular joints. (author)

1993-02-01

305

Effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective. This study examined the effect of the interaction between periodontitis and type 1 diabetes mellitus on alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia in animal models. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into normal, periodontitis, diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups. After injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes, periodontitis was induced by ligation of both lower-side first molars for 30 days. Alveolar bone loss and trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) of the mandibular condyle and tibia were estimated via hematoxylin and eosin staining and micro-computed tomography, respectively. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells isolated from tibia and femur was assayed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results. The cemento-enamel junction to the alveolar bone crest distance and ratio of periodontal ligament area in the diabetic with periodontitis group were significantly increased compared to those of the periodontitis group. Mandibular condyle BVF did not differ among groups. The BVF of tibia in the diabetic and diabetic with periodontitis groups was lower than that of the normal and periodontitis groups. Osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the non-diabetic groups. However, the BVF of tibia and osteoclastogenesis in the diabetic with periodontitis group were not significantly different than those in the diabetic group. Conclusions. Type 1 diabetes mellitus aggravates alveolar bone loss induced by periodontitis, but periodontitis does not alter the mandibular condyle and tibia bone loss induced by diabetes. Alveolar bone, mandibular condyle and tibia may have different responses to bone loss stimuli in the diabetic environment. PMID:23931568

Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Eun; Gunawardhana, K S Niluka Darshani; Choi, Seong-Ho; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

2014-05-01

306

Posterior sampling with improved efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.

Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

1998-12-01

307

Primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst.  

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Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. PMID:24709247

Ahmed, Mughis Uddin; Eid, Ahmed Fathi; Al-Hawashim, Nadia; Sheikh, Mohammed Younus; Yiannakou, Nearchos

2014-04-01

308

Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. (author)

2014-04-01

309

Flattening of the distal femoral epiphyses in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new finding in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, flattening of the distal femoral epiphyses, is described in seven patients. Measurement of the ratio of the height of the distal femoral epiphysis versus both the width of the distal femoral metaphysis and the width of the distal femoral epiphysis and comparison to normal standards confirmed the subjectively observed flattening of the distal femoral epiphysis in these patients, further suggesting that the disease is a generalized process rather than a local disorder. (orig.)

1986-01-01

310

Flattening of the distal femoral epiphyses in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new finding in the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, flattening of the distal femoral epiphyses, is described in seven patients. Measurement of the ratio of the height of the distal femoral epiphysis versus both the width of the distal femoral metaphysis and the width of the distal femoral epiphysis and comparison to normal standards confirmed the subjectively observed flattening of the distal femoral epiphysis in these patients, further suggesting that the disease is a generalized process rather than a local disorder.

Schlesinger, A.E.; Poznanski, A.K.

1986-09-01

311

Avaliação do crescimento condilar através de cintilografia óssea em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional / Assessment of condylar growth by skeletal scintigraphy in patients with posterior functional crossbite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar a atividade de crescimento condilar em 10 pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional antes e após a correção, usando a cintilografia óssea mandibular. MÉTODOS: os pacientes receberam injeção endovenosa de contraste radioativo (Technesium-99m, difosfato de metileno de sódio) [...] . Após duas horas, imagens cintilográficas planares foram realizadas por meio de uma câmera Gama. Imagens laterais da boca fechada, mostrando os côndilos direito e esquerdo, foram usadas. Uma imagem da quarta vértebra lombar também foi usada como referência. RESULTADOS: diferenças estatisticamente significativas não foram encontradas nos valores da taxa de absorção, em ambos os lados, quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados separadamente e também quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados no mesmo lado. Não foram encontradas diferenças na atividade de crescimento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the condylar growth activity in 10 patients with functional posterior crossbite before and after correction, using the mandibular bone skeletal scintigraphy. METHODS: Patients received endovenous injection of radioactive contrast (Technesium-99m labeling, sodium meth [...] ylene diphosphate). After two hours, planar scintigraphic images were taken by means of a Gamma camera. Lateral images of the closed mouth, showing the right and left condyles, were used. An image of the 4th lumbar vertebra was also used as reference. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were not found in the uptake rate values, on both sides when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed separately and also when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed in the same side. No differences were found in the condylar growth activity, in patients with functional posterior crossbite.

Pepita Sampaio Cardoso, Sekito; Myrela Cardoso, Costa; Edson, Boasquevisque; Jonas, Capelli Junior.

312

Avaliação do crescimento condilar através de cintilografia óssea em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional Assessment of condylar growth by skeletal scintigraphy in patients with posterior functional crossbite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a atividade de crescimento condilar em 10 pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional antes e após a correção, usando a cintilografia óssea mandibular. MÉTODOS: os pacientes receberam injeção endovenosa de contraste radioativo (Technesium-99m, difosfato de metileno de sódio. Após duas horas, imagens cintilográficas planares foram realizadas por meio de uma câmera Gama. Imagens laterais da boca fechada, mostrando os côndilos direito e esquerdo, foram usadas. Uma imagem da quarta vértebra lombar também foi usada como referência. RESULTADOS: diferenças estatisticamente significativas não foram encontradas nos valores da taxa de absorção, em ambos os lados, quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados separadamente e também quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados no mesmo lado. Não foram encontradas diferenças na atividade de crescimento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional.OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the condylar growth activity in 10 patients with functional posterior crossbite before and after correction, using the mandibular bone skeletal scintigraphy. METHODS: Patients received endovenous injection of radioactive contrast (Technesium-99m labeling, sodium methylene diphosphate. After two hours, planar scintigraphic images were taken by means of a Gamma camera. Lateral images of the closed mouth, showing the right and left condyles, were used. An image of the 4th lumbar vertebra was also used as reference. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were not found in the uptake rate values, on both sides when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed separately and also when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed in the same side. No differences were found in the condylar growth activity, in patients with functional posterior crossbite.

Pepita Sampaio Cardoso Sekito

2010-10-01

313

Anterior distal femoral osteotomy for removal of long femoral stems in revision knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteotomies of the proximal femur and proximal tibia in revision arthroplasty are well described while guidelines for distal femoral osteotomy are limited. Femoral stems are used with increasing frequency for fixation of revision components in knee arthroplasty and their removal is technically challenging particularly in the setting of infection. We describe a technique of anterior distal femoral osteotomy for revision knee arthroplasty to assist with removal of well-fixed long stemmed cemented or porous femoral components, as well as debridement of infection while preserving bone stock and soft tissue attachments. PMID:24581896

Merz, Michael K; Farid, Yasser R

2014-07-01

314

Temperature Response of Knee Joint Tissues in Postoperative Period in Intraarticular Fractures of Condyles of Tibia  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the dynamics of temperature response of knee joint tissues after osteosynthesis of intraarticular fractures of condyle of tibia in postoperative period. Materials and Methods. 34 patients were examined from 2008 till 2011. The patients were divided into several groups according to the type of fracture. Measurements were performed beginning with the 8th week after surgical treatment every month within a year. Conclusion. Radiometry technique enables to assess vascular metabolic changes in knee joint after surgical treatment, the changes corresponding to morphological changes. When included into diagnostic complex, radiometry enables to obtain certain information about the character of consolidation, reforming process and therefore decreases the number of intermediate X-ray examinations.

S.V. Blinov

2011-12-01

315

Acute appendicitis in a femoral hernia  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis in a femoral hernia is an uncommon condition that can be serious. Complications are more frequent if the diagnosis is delayed and surgery is not performed on time. CASE REPORT We present a 71-year-old man with a painful swollen mass. The patient presented with fatigue and loss of appetite, while body temperature was normal. The abdomen was not painful, and peristaltic was normal. All laboratory findings were normal. After anamnesis and physical examination, the presumed diagnosis was incarcerated femoral hernia and the patient was sent to the operating room. Intraoperative findings revealed an incarcerated femoral hernia within a phlegmonous inflammated appendix. Appendectomy and McVay hernioplastics were done. The postoperative course was without complications. CONCLUSION It is very important to bear in mind that right femoral hernia with signs of incarceration and inflammation may contain an acutely inflamed appendix. Delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis cause greater morbidity and mortality.

Zdravkovi? Darko

2007-01-01

316

Herniography off femoral, obturator and perineal hernias  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positive contrast herniography was used in the workup of 550 patients with unclear groin pain. The majority of these patients had rather characteristic hernias of indirect, direct or femoral type. However, now and then diagnostic problems arose. A femoral hernia may look like a direct or even obturator hernia. There is also a variety of multilocular femoral hernias and other types. A femoral hernia may be present together with other hernias in the ipsilateral or contralateral groin. Obturator hernias are usually small but are always confined to the obturator canal laterally in the obturator foramen. Abnormalities in the pouch of Douglas may include a deep rectogenital pouch, diverticula and true herniations. These uncommon herniographic findings are described and discussed. (orig.)

1985-01-01

317

Femoral head histology under THARIES surface replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of widespread reports of unacceptable results, surface replacement arthroplasty is infrequently performed. In this study, femoral head and neck specimens from two surface replacement arthroplasties revealed fibrous tissue ingrowth and avascular necrosis. PMID:3174206

Incavo, S; DeCoster, T; Howe, J

1988-03-01

318

Guide Wire Migration During Femoral Vein Catheterization  

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Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic...

Mohammad Reza Khatami; Rozita Abbasi; Gelareh Sadigh

2010-01-01

319

OSTEONECROSIS OF THE FEMORAL HEAD – DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS  

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Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a disabling condition that affects mainly young subjects (average age 33-38 years old); to this day, it has remained a devastating disease. Osteonecrosis may be defined as the death of the cell components of bone - both osteocytes and bone marrow cells. ONFH is not a specific entity, but the final common pathway of various conditions that impair the blood supply to the femoral head - hence the frequently used term avascular necrosis. Surgical techno...

2009-01-01

320

Study on the surface shape and contours of the femoral head and acetabulum of the human joint.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) The degree of change and degeneration of the surface of articular cartilage were classified into 6 stages and a distribution chart indicating 6 stages of classification was prepared for each case. (2) The construction of the superficial fine fibrous net-work of the cartilage of the weight-bearing area is different from that of the non-weight-bearing area. (3) The construction of the fiber underneath the surface of the acetabular cartilage is different from that of the surface of femoral head cartilage underneath. (4) When only weight-bearing part was compared, the degeneration at the upper anterior side was least for both femoral head and acetabulum and was most at the slightly posterior part of the upper outer side. (5) The fine fiber of superficial layer of the femoral head and acetabular cartilage were peeling from the periphery toward the center, but no difference of surface roughness was observed by way of measurement directions. (6) Surface roughness of the cartilage increases in proportion to the degree of degeneration and change. (7) The surface roughness of the acetabulum is about twice as large as that of the femoral head cartilage, this being due to the difference in the degree of degeneration. (8) There are 4 kinds of undulations at the surface of the femoral head cartilage. (9) Both femoral head and acetabulum have less waviness of large size at the part bearing large weight. (10) The contour of the femoral head as a whole is slightly ellipsoidal, whose longitudinal axis extends in a craniocaudal direction but the weight-bearing part is nearly circular. (11) The general contour of the acetabulum indicates an ellipsoidal shape with its craniocaudal longitudinal axis slightly inclined forward or backward. The contour of the slightly postero-upper part which is considered to be the maximum weight-bearing part is slightly flat ellipsoidal. PMID:1218285

Kotani, P T; Oonishi, H; Shikita, T; Hamaguchi, T

1975-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Unusual Branches of Femoral Artery in the Femoral Triangle: A Case Report / Ramas Inusuales de la Arteria Femoral en el Triángulo Femoral: Reporte de Caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La arteria femoral es la principal arteria del miembro inferior. Se observan algunas variaciones en su patrón de ramificación. Una variante rara, pero clínicamente importante es el origen común de las arterias circunfleja iliaca profunda y epigástrica inferior no desde la arteria ilíaca externa. Pre [...] sentamos el origen bilateral de las arterias epigástricas inferiores y circunfleja ilíaca profunda desde la arteria femoral. Ambas arterias pasaron profundas al ligamento inguinal y tuvieron un curso y distribución normal después de cruzar el ligamento inguinal. El conocimiento de estas variaciones son de importancia en la cirugía plástica, en el acceso anterior a la articulación de la cadera, el drenaje absceso del músculo psoas mayor o para reducir una hernia femoral. Abstract in english Femoral artery is the major artery of the lower limb. It shows some variations in its branching pattern. One of the rare but clinically important variations is the origin of deep circumflex iliac and inferior epigastric arteries from it instead of from external iliac artery. We report here the origi [...] n of inferior epigastric and deep circumflex iliac arteries from the femoral artery bilaterally. Both the arteries passed up deep to the inguinal ligament and had a normal course and distribution after crossing the inguinal ligament. Knowledge of these variations is of importance in plastic surgery, anterior approach to the hip joint, draining psoas abscess or reducing a femoral hernia.

Satheesha, Nayak B; Snigdha, Mishra; Bincy M, George; Saju Binu, Cherian; Surekha D, Shetty.

322

Femoral stem dislodgement during bipolar hemiarthroplasty dislocation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bipolar hemiarthroplasty remains a treatment option for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients without pre-existing hip disease. Implant-related complications associated with this procedure include acetabular erosion, dislocation, disassembly of the modular components, polyethylene debris-induced osteolysis, metallosis from outer cup impingement, and femoral component loosening. This article presents a case of a patient in whom the polished collarless tapered femoral stem dislodged out of the cement mantle during traumatic bipolar hemiarthroplasty dislocation, 28 days after the index procedure. This complication, associated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty dislocation, was adequately managed by driving the stem back to the original cement mantle, followed by reduction of bipolar component dislocation and placing bone cement over the shoulder of the femoral stem to prevent a new dislodgement episode. Although rare, dislodgement of cemented polished collarless tapered stems from the cement mantle has been recently reported either during dislocation or, more frequently, as a complication of reduction of a dislocated total hip arthroplasty. However, its occurrence in association with bipolar hemiarthroplasty dislocation was not found to have been reported in the literature. The occurrence of femoral stem dislodgement during bipolar hemiarthroplasty dislocation should be considered as a possible complication of such a procedure and may be prevented by routinely placing bone cement over the shoulder of the femoral implant. PMID:21667909

Marcelino Gomes, Luiz S; do Carmo, Wellington; de Souza, Wender

2011-06-01

323

Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

1977-01-01

324

Biomechanics of femoral interlocking nails.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today there is a variety of different interlocking intramedullary nail designs available for the femur. We compared different nail types in the bone implant complex (BIC) of four unreamed solid nails and a slotted reamed nail with simulated comminuted mid shaft fractures to see if there are major differences in stiffness for axial load, bending and torsion. The fractures were simulated by a 2 cm defect osteotomy in paired human cadaver femora. Each bone was tested intact in a universal testing machine, osteotomy and osteosynthesis were performed, and the BIC was tested. Relative stiffness was calculated. In torque testing the unslotted solid nail showed significantly more stiffness (0.6-1.8 Nm/degrees) compared to the slotted nail (0.2 Nm/degrees). Compared to intact bone (6.9 Nm/degrees), both groups of nails were significantly less stiff (relative stiffness 2-20%). In axial load and bending testing the large diameter unreamed nail showed significantly higher stiffness (32-68%). This study shows that stiffness of bone implant complex in interlocking femoral nails is more dependent on nail profile than on the pressfit of nails in the medullary canal. PMID:10831743

Schandelmaier, P; Farouk, O; Krettek, C; Reimers, N; Mannss, J; Tscherne, H

2000-07-01

325

Neuropatia do nervo femoral após psoas hitch / Femoral nerve neuropathy after the psoas hitch procedure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A neuropatia do nervo femoral como complicação de cirurgia abdominopélvica foi descrita, pela primeira vez, em 1896, por Gumpertz, em um relato de caso de lesão do nervo femoral após histerectomia. Os autores relatam dois casos de neuropatia do nervo femoral após reimplantação ureteral, com técnica [...] de psoas hitch em vesicopexia, e discutem a etiologia e as manifestações clínicas dessa complicação. A neuropatia do nervo femoral secundária à técnica de psoas hitch é uma complicação rara, embora deva ser levada em consideração durante o procedimento cirúrgico, bem como no cuidado pós-operatório. Abstract in english Femoral nerve neuropathy as a complication from abdominopelvic surgery was firstly described in 1896, by Gumpertz, in a case report of femoral nerve injury following hysterectomy. The authors report two cases of femoral nerve neuropathy following psoas hitch vesicopexy in ureteral reimplantation, an [...] d to discuss the etiology and clinical manifestations of this complication. Femoral nerve neuropathy secondary to psoas hitch is a rare complication, although it should be considered during the surgical procedure, as well as in postoperative care.

Antonio Cardoso, Pinto; José Rafael, Macea; Marcello Toscano, Pecoraro.

326

Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve pathogenetic alterations in the necrotic femoral head. Our pig model can be used for further femoral head osteonecrosis studies.

Kim Harry

2010-03-01

327

Importance of initial fracture crack width in minimally dislocated fractures of humeral lateral condyle in children for evaluation of fracture stability and treatment choice  

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Introduction. The fracture of the external condyle is the most common fracture of the distal end of the humerus. This is an intraarticular fracture, which, if not properly treated, can cause serious complications, difficult to treat. Objective. To define the importance of the initial width of the fracture crack for the evaluation of stability of the minimally dislocated fractures of the humeral lateral condyle and for the selection of the method of treatment. Methods. The target group include...

Rakonjac Zoran; Brdar Radivoj

2009-01-01

328

Glioblastoma Located In Posterior Fossa  

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Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman operated eight months ago for glioblastoma (GB located in posterior fossa was admitted to emergency room for stuporous, nausea, vomiting and headache. CT and MR showed recurrence of posterior fossa cysticnecrotic tumour without any other intracranial contrast enhancing lesion. Tumour was removed near totally. Perseverative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula from the incision was occurred and  contaminated by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Two months after the tumour removal she was expired because of the septicaemia. GB located in posterior fossa is uncommon in both adults and children;and it appears as two different subsets: de novo (primary type and secondary  glioblastomas. Although our patient’s immunohistochemical findings werenot enough to demonstrate the tumour subset, we have thought that her tumour wasde novo because of no other brain involvement, staining with GFAP, vimentin, and  nearly absent p53 mutation.

Bulent Bakar

2013-01-01

329

Conservative versus surgical management of Pipkin type I fractures associated with posterior dislocation of the hip: a randomised controlled trial  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of conservative and surgical fragment excision treatment in patients with Pipkin type 1 fractures of the femoral head associated with posterior dislocation of the hip by a randomised controlled trial. Sixteen patients were randomly divided into two groups: the conservative group was treated by closed reduction, and the surgical group was treated by closed reduction followed with fragment excision. Functional outcome was determined us...

2011-01-01

330

Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case  

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Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography.

Kim, Jin-soo

2011-01-01

331

Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case  

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Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography.

Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

332

Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or _9_9 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

1983-05-01

333

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

T1-weighted MR images of thirty-six hips in 25 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were obtained two to five times during the course of 2 to 26 months. We investigated these MR images in the light of the chronological change and compared them with plain radiographs. MR images changes in 16 femoral head; in general, the abnormal low intensity area in the femoral head reduced in extent and the internal high intensity area became smaller of disappeared. Thirteen femoral heads among them became more flattened on plain radiographs in the same period. It is noted that four different zones are defined in the femoral head after bone necrosis takes place: the dead bone marrow, the dead marrow which still contains fat, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow. In T1-weighted MR images, the dead bone marrow, the reactive interface and the hyperemic bone marrow are demonstrated as low intensity area, while the dead marrow containing fat may remain high in intensity. On the basis of this knowledge of histopathology and MR images of this disease, we suggest that reduction of the abnormal low intensity area and disappearance of the internal high intensity area on MR images can be regarded as diminution of hyperemia in the living bone marrow and loss of fat in the dead bone marrow, respectively. (author)

1990-01-01

334

Isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient was a 19-year-old male cadet at a military academy who was evaluated by a physical therapist in a direct-access capacity for a chief complaint of right knee pain and giving way after falling onto his right knee while snow sledding at a high rate of speed 2 weeks earlier. Knee radiographs were ordered by the physical therapist, which demonstrated a large suprapatellar joint effusion. Due to concern for a posterior cruciate ligament injury and to assess for concomitant injury, magnetic resonance imaging was ordered, which revealed disruption of the posterior cruciate ligament without injury to surrounding tissues. PMID:24256175

Glenesk, Kathleen; Fogarty, Brian T; Westrick, Richard B

2013-10-01

335

Immunohistological analysis of extracted anterior cruciate ligament graft impinged against posterior cruciate ligament  

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Full Text Available Abstract A young female athlete suffered from the residual instability of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. The 3-dimensional (3-D CT scan showed the "high noon" positioning of the primary femoral bone tunnel. The revision surgery with anatomic double-bundle technique was performed two years after the primary surgery and the femoral tunnels were created with the assistance of the 3-D fluoroscopy-based navigation. An arthroscopic examination confirmed the ACL graft impingement against posterior cruciate ligament (PCL when the knee was deeply flexed. The histological analysis of the resected primary ACL graft showed local inflammatory infiltration, enhanced synovial coverage and vascularization at the impinged site. The enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF at the impinged area when compared with non-impinged area was observed on immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormal mechanical stress by the impingement against PCL might have induced chronic inflammation and VEGF overexpression.

Kato So

2011-11-01

336

Immunohistological analysis of extracted anterior cruciate ligament graft impinged against posterior cruciate ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

A young female athlete suffered from the residual instability of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autograft. The 3-dimensional (3-D) CT scan showed the "high noon" positioning of the primary femoral bone tunnel. The revision surgery with anatomic double-bundle technique was performed two years after the primary surgery and the femoral tunnels were created with the assistance of the 3-D fluoroscopy-based navigation. An arthroscopic examination confirmed the ACL graft impingement against posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) when the knee was deeply flexed. The histological analysis of the resected primary ACL graft showed local inflammatory infiltration, enhanced synovial coverage and vascularization at the impinged site. The enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at the impinged area when compared with non-impinged area was observed on immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormal mechanical stress by the impingement against PCL might have induced chronic inflammation and VEGF overexpression. PMID:22044497

Kato, So; Fukai, Atsushi; Takeda, Hideki; Taketomi, Shuji; Nakayama, Shuichi; Hirota, Jinso; Nakajima, Kohei; Nakamura, Kozo; Nakagawa, Takumi

2011-01-01

337

A very rare case with neglected hip dislocation coexisted with posterior acetabular lip fracture  

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Full Text Available Neglected hip dislocation is a rare situation among children. The coexistence of acetabulum fracture is less common. The result of treatment depends on the time of diagnosis. Early treatment is mandatory in such cases. Seven years old female brought to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of right hip pain and walking difficulty. Her parents said that she had fallen from a horse one month ago. X-ray and CT showed a posterior dislocation of her right hip and a fracture on her right posterior acetabular lip. We performed an open reduction via posterior approach. Because the hip was unstable we fixed the femoral head to the acetabulum by a Kirshner wire. Pelvipedal cast was applied after the operation for 6 weeks. After 6 months avascular necrosis (AVN developed on her right femoral head, the range of motion (ROM of the hip was restricted and she had minimal pain on her right hip. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:228-31

Samet Karabulut

2011-06-01

338

99mTc-MDP scintigraphy of femoral head necrosis following femoral neck fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secondary ischemic necrosis of femoral head due to loss of blood supply following to femoral neck fracture is well known. The regional distribution of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuricals in the skeleton can depend on a number of factors, but bone blood flow is a major physiological determinant of regional skeletal uptake of Tc-99m polyphosphate and bone imaging may thus be used for the evaluation of vascularity of the femoral head. The authors made a comparative study of scintigraphic findings and operative findings of 28 cases of femoral neck fracture treated at Kyung Hee University Hospital from April 1980 to May 1984. The results were as follows: 1. In 16 cases of proven avascular necorsis of femoral head, scintigraphy showed absent or decreased activity in 14 cases (87.5%), while radiography showed increased density in 10 cases (62.5%). 2. In 12 cases of proven vital femoral head, scintigraphy showed increased activity in 9 cases (75%) and radiography showed decreased density in 9 cases (75%). 3. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy was an excellent and useful method for assessing bone vitality of femoral head

1985-02-01

339

Assessment of bone quality in the isolated femoral head for intracapsular fractures of the femoral head. Analysis of bone architecture using micro-CT and pQCT, and comparison with extracapsular fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Block sections were prepared from the five locations, central portion, superior portion, inferior portion, anterior portion, and posterior portion, of the region around the fracture of the femoral head isolated from 21 patients (16 patients with intracapsular fracture, 5 patients with extracapsular fracture). Cancellous bone microstructure, cortical bone thickness, and bone density were evaluated and analyzed for differences in the mechanism from which intracapsular versus extracapsular fracture and fragility developed. The method of evaluating the bone architecture differed from conventional bone histomorphometry of hard tissues and involved non-invasive micro-CT measurements, while the bone density was measured by peripheral quantitative computed topography (pQCT). The results indicate that in comparison to patients with extracapsular fractures, patients with intracapsular fractures showed significant decreases in the trabecular thickness of superior and posterior portions in the cancellous bone. The cortical bone thickness was significantly decreased in the superior portion. Bone density was significantly decreased in the superior portion, while in the extracapsular fracture group density tended to be lower in the inferior, anterior, and posterior portions, although this was not statistically significant. Although there have been previous studies on the bone quality of the femoral head isolated from intracapsular fracture of the femoral head, most reports are of two-dimensional analysis of coronal sections. As far as we are aware, there have been no previous reports comparing individual locations to extracapsular fractures. In view of the various reports that bone density is lower in the extracapsular fracture compared to the intracapsular fracture, we speculate that extracapsular fracture results from the effects of external forces on decreased bone density, while in the intracapsular fracture type, thinning of the superior portion of the cortical bone creates fragile areas in the superior and posterior portions of the cancellous bone; therefore, the factors involved in the development of the fracture are similar to a fatigue fracture. (author)

2003-04-01

340

Guide Wire Migration During Femoral Vein Catheterization  

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Full Text Available Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion.

Mohammad Reza Khatami

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pathology of osteonecrosis of the femoral head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathological examination of the resected femoral heads from approximately 2000 total hip replacement operations carried out at the Hospital for Joint Diseases from 1984 to 1989 identified the presence of osteonecrosis in 345 patients (377 femoral heads). In 232 patients the osteonecrosis, referred to as 'idiopathic,' had occurred in the absence of a subcapital fracture. The present paper describes the pathology of the necrotic lesions in these 232 patients. The use of undecalcified sections and microradiography provides evidence of bone marrow calcification which, at the margin of the lesion, is sufficient to influence the radiographic features of the lesion significantly. Although a subchondral fracture is an almost constant feature of osteonecrosis when it occurs in a femoral head with a normal articular cartilage, no such fracture was found in cases in which osteonecrosis had occurred in an osteoarthritic joint. (orig.)

1992-05-01

342

OSTEONECROSIS OF THE FEMORAL HEAD – DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS  

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Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is a disabling condition that affects mainly young subjects (average age 33-38 years old; to this day, it has remained a devastating disease. Osteonecrosis may be defined as the death of the cell components of bone - both osteocytes and bone marrow cells. ONFH is not a specific entity, but the final common pathway of various conditions that impair the blood supply to the femoral head - hence the frequently used term avascular necrosis. Surgical technological advancements have improved outcomes for these patients. However, due to the relatively young age of onset, these patients are often subjected to multiple operative procedures during their lifetime. Differential diagnosis should be made with: pigmented villonodular synovitis; idiopathic transient osteoporosis of the hip; stress fractures of femoral neck; metastastic bone carcinoma.

C. Zar?

2009-11-01

343

The 45-Degree Arthroscope Improves Visualization of the Femoral Attachment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament  

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Full Text Available Background: Exposure of the insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is important for appropriate tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction surgery. However, observing the femoral ACL insertion site via the standard anterolateral portal is sometimes difficult. In this study, we compared views of the femoral ACL insertion site between 30-degree and the 45-degree arthroscopes. Methods: We first inserted the 30-degree and the 45-degree arthroscope into the anterolateral portal of a knee simulator in which we had drawn a lattice pattern on the lateral intercondylar notch based on the quadrant method. Next, we compared the arthroscopic views provided by the 30-degree and 45-degree arthroscopes during ACL reconstruction surgery by measuring the area of the lateral intercondylar notch visible through each of the arthroscopes. Results: In the knee simulator, the 45-degree arthroscope showed the entire area of the lateral intercondylar notch, whereas the 30-degree arthroscope had to be introduced more deeply to show the most superior and posterior quadrant, where the attachment of the anteromedial bundle of ACL is located. During the ACL reconstruction, the area of the lateral intercondylar notch in the field of view was larger through the 45-degree arthroscope than through the 30-degree arthroscope. Conclusion: The 45-degree arthroscope provides a better view of the femoral ACL insertion site via the anterolateral portal, which may be helpful during ACL reconstruction.

Yukihide Iwamoto

2012-01-01

344

Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture using the direct anterior approach  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate whether walking ability recovers early after bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA using a direct anterior approach. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2010, 81 patients with femoral neck fracture underwent BHA using the direct anterior approach (DAA or the posterior approach (PA. The mean observation period was 36 mo. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI, time from admission to surgery, length of hospitalization, outcome after discharge, walking ability, duration of surgery, blood loss and complications were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the age, sex, BMI, time from admission to surgery, length of hospitalization, outcome after discharge, duration of surgery and blood loss between the two groups. Two weeks after the operation, assistance was not necessary for walking in the hospital in 65.0% of the patients in the DAA group and in 33.3% in the PA group (P < 0.05. As for complications, fracture of the femoral greater trochanter developed in 1 patient in the DAA group and calcar crack and dislocation in 1 patient each in the PA group. CONCLUSION: DAA is an approach more useful for BHA for femoral neck fracture in elderly patients than total hip arthroplasty in terms of the early acquisition of walking ability.

Tomonori Baba

2013-01-01

345

Femoral shaft medialisation and neck-shaft angle in unstable pertrochanteric femoral fractures  

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We analysed the time-dependent mean changes in the femoral neck length, neck-shaft angle and hip offset in a randomised study comprising 48 patients who were treated with the dynamic hip screw (DHS) or the proximal femoral nail (PFN) for an unstable intertrochanteric femoral fracture. As a consequence of fracture compression, the mean post-operative neck length was significantly shorter in patients treated with the DHS. During the first 6 weeks after the operation, a mean decrease of 4.6° wa...

Pajarinen, J.; Lindahl, J.; Savolainen, V.; Michelsson, O.; Hirvensalo, E.

2004-01-01

346

Femoral blowout in a case of Carcinoma Penis  

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There is considerable literature on the potential for a femoral blowout in case of fungating inguinal lymph nodes in a case of penile carcinoma. However, reported cases of actual femoral blowout are sparse in literature. We encountered one such case of femoral blowout because of fungating inguinal lymph nodes in a case of Ca.Penis. Emergency palliative resection of the fungating nodes, ligation of the femoral vein, and emergency flap cover in the form of a perforator-based anterolateral thigh...

Panse, Nikhil; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Kashyapi, Bhalchandra

2012-01-01

347

Role of the Extraosseus Blood Supply in Osteoarthritic Femoral Heads?  

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Blood perfusion to the femoral head might be endangered during the surgical approach or the preparation of the femoral head or both in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The contribution of the intramedullary blood supply to the femoral head in osteoarthritis is questionable. Therefore, the contribution of the extraosseous blood supply to osteoarthritic femoral heads was measured intraoperatively to question if there is measurable blood flow between the epiphysis and metaphysis in osteoarthritic h...

2009-01-01

348

Blood flow interpretation in femoral pseudoaneurysm  

Science.gov (United States)

A femoral artery pseudoaneurysm is one complication of vascular intervention, and the incidence is increasing. Early management is then needed to avoid potential dangers from it. It differs from a true aneurysm in that it doesn't include any component of the vascular wall, and is not studied as much as a true aneurysm. Here, a model of a femoral pseudoaneurysm was made and a Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulation was verified with PIV experiment. Afterwards, a CFD simulation with two different models was performed to look for any findings which may help in developing new treatment methods.

Suh, Sang-Ho; Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ho; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Doh, Deog-Hee

2013-06-01

349

Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty  

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Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral component loosening. The potential role of interface hyperosteoidosis as a precursor lesion of bone-cement loosening and its possible association with delayed type hypersensitivity reaction are discussed. (orig.)

Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Pathology, Hamburg (Germany); Hahn, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); Morlock, Michael M. [TUHH Hamburg University of Technology, Biomechanics Section, Hamburg (Germany); Ruether, Wolfgang [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthopaedics, Hamburg (Germany); Amling, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany)

2010-08-15

350

Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral component loosening. The potential role of interface hyperosteoidosis as a precursor lesion of bone-cement loosening and its possible association with delayed type hypersensitivity reaction are discussed. (orig.)

2010-08-01

351

Cephalomedullary nailing for proximal femoral fractures  

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From May 1999 to April 2002, we treated 14 patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures and seven patients with ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft using a second-generation cephalomedullary interlocked nail. Patients mean age was 36 (20–60) years, and 19 fractures were caused by high-energy trauma. Four patients had associated injuries. The average follow-up was 23 (16–30) months. Per-operatively, we had problems in locating the entry portal in four patients, and one n...

Kakkar, Rahul; Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.

2005-01-01

352

The influence of femoral rollback on patellofemoral contact loads in total knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing femoral rollback in flexion is thought to reduce patellofemoral contact load in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objectives of this study were to quantify the dependence of patellar load on rollback and to assess the effectiveness of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-retaining, PCL-sacrificing, and PCL-substituting TKA types in generating rollback. Nine cadaver knees were tested in simulated squatting. Six TKAs that were expected to produce varying amounts of femoral rollback were evaluated: PCL-retaining TKA, PCL-sacrificing TKA, a commercially available PCL-substituting TKA, and 3 modified PCL-substituting TKAs in which the anteroposterior position of the tibial post was varied. Kinematics, quadriceps loads, and patellofemoral contact loads were recorded. Significant differences in rollback were observed in the 30 degrees to 90 degrees flexion range. PCL-sacrificing TKAs generated the least rollback. PCL-retaining TKAs produced greater rollback but had the most variability. PCL-substituting TKAs produced the greatest and most reproducible rollback. Moving the tibial post posteriorly further increased rollback. Increased rollback correlated with reduced patellar load (-2.2%/mm). Reductions in patellar load of 17.6% were observed. Quadriceps loads were reduced by increasing rollback but to a smaller degree (-0.9%/mm). Rollback primarily affects patellar load rather than quadriceps load or efficiency. PMID:11607909

Churchill, D L; Incavo, S J; Johnson, C C; Beynnon, B D

2001-10-01

353

Navigator system guided endoscopic intraoral approach for remodelling of mandibular condyle in Garré syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, surgical trends showed an interest for minimally invasive surgery. Endoscopically assisted techniques were developed and widely reported. Endoscopic approaches can sometimes represent an alternative to traditional surgery. Such approaches minimize unwanted sequelae such unaesthetic scars and iatrogenic damage of facial nerve. In the reported case, the endoscopic approach and the navigator guide allowed reshaping of mandibular ramus up to the medial condilar surface, where an osteophite was present. To solve the intraarticular, mechanical obstacle, medial surface of mandibular condyle was reshaped. Such surgery represents a valid conservative solution; for traditional surgery with transcutaneous approach, a condylectomy should have been planned. The navigator (Brain Lab, Feldkirchen, Germany) allowed the checking of anatomic landmarks, even in bone with anatomy subversion, and guided its reshaping. The technique is summarized with step-by-step explanations. Further studies are obviously required to standardize the technique, and even technical and technological advances are expected, but computer-aided endoscopic surgery could be introduced to allow surgery on temporomandibular joints. PMID:17993891

Belli, Evaristo; Matteini, Claudio; D'Andrea, Gian Carlo; Mazzone, N

2007-11-01

354

Occipital condyle screw placement and occipitocervical instrumentation using three-dimensional image-guided navigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occipital condyle (OC) screws are an alternative cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. Safe placement of occipital, C1 lateral mass, and C2 pars screws have been described previously, but not OC screws. The craniocervical junction is complex, and a thorough understanding of the anatomy is needed. Three-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation was used in six patients. There were no complications related to image-guided navigation during the placement of 12 OC screws and we found that this navigation can serve as a useful adjunct when placing an OC screw. Technical considerations of placing OC and C1 lateral mass screws are discussed with particular reference to patient positioning and the StealthStation® S7™ image-guided navigational platform (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The reference arc is attached to the head-clamp and faces forward. The optical camera and monitor are positioned at the head of the table for a direct, non-obstructed line-of-sight. To minimize intersegmental movement, the OC should not be drilled until all other screws have been placed. We conclude that 3D image-guided navigation is a useful adjunct that can be safely and effectively used for placement of instrumentation of the upper cervical spine including the OC. PMID:22356730

Le, Tien V; Burkett, Clint; Ramos, Edwin; Uribe, Juan S

2012-05-01

355

MRI evaluation of abnormalities of subchondral bone after tibial condyle valgus osteotomy  

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We evaluated subchondral low signal intence abnormality on T1-weighted MRI in the osteoarthritis (OA) and osteonecrosis (ON), of the knee after tibial condyle valgus osteotomy (TCVO). Subjects consisted of 11 OA patients, aged 71 on average (range: 66-79) and 3 ON patients, aged 59 on average (range:46-72). The MRI follow-up period was 18 months (range: 12-25) in the OA group and 17 months (range: 12-24) in the ON group. Clinical improvement was observed in all patients. Except for one patient in the OA group, T1-weighteed MRI showed low signal intense area in the medial compartment of the knee. At follow-up, the MRI evaluation revealed a decrease in the low signal intense areas in 9 of the 10 OA patients and in 2 of the 3 ON patients. These results suggest that bone remodelling of the subchondral lesion can be expected after decompression and stabilizing surgery, TCVO. (author)

Otsuka, Kazutaka; Mimura, Hiroshi; Yuge, Daishiro [Yamaguchi Central Hospital, Hofu (Japan); Teramoto, Tsukasa [Nagasaki Friendship Hospital, Sanwa (Japan); Taguchi, Katsuki [Goto Central Hospital, Fukue, Nagasaki (Japan)

2002-03-01

356

Facial development disorders due to inhibition to endochondral ossification of mandibular condyle process caused by malnutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of protein restriction on histomorphometric parameters of bone remodeling in mandibular condyle process and its possible influence in facial development in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats weaned at the age of 21 days were assigned to one of the following groups: control (fed a regular hard diet ad libitum) and protein restricted (PR) (fed a hard diet lacking in protein ad libitum). The animals were euthanized on day 35 after the onset of the experiment. Mandibles were resected, fixed in 10% formalin, hemisected at the symphysis, and then radiographed in order to perform cephalometric studies of the condylar process length and the height of the lower alveolar process. Mandibles were then processed for light microscopy, and histomorphometric determinations were performed on histologic sections of the condylar process subchondral bone. Results: The PR group showed a significantly lower body weight than control group at the end of the experiment. The length of the condylar process was lower in the PR group; however, the diet used in this study did not affect the height of the lower alveolar process. The histomorphometric analysis showed that the PR group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in bone formation and bone volume in condylar process subchondral bone. Conclusion: Protein restriction inhibits bone formation and longitudinal growth in the mandibular condylar process. This result suggest that protein restriction can alter normal facial development. PMID:24160994

Martín, Adrián E; Pani, Maria Del R; Holgado, Nora Ruiz; López Miranda, Laura I; Meheris, Héctor E; Garat, Juan A

2014-05-01

357

Meralgia Paresthetica and Femoral Acetabular Impingement: A Possible Association  

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Meralgia paresthetica consists of pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh. Etiology is divided into spontaneous and iatrogenic causes. To my knowledge this has never been attributed to femoral acetabular impingement. This case highlights the presence of lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy in the setting of femoral acetabular impingement syndrome thus raising the possibility of an association.

Ahmed, Aiesha

2010-01-01

358

Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings  

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Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

Blacksin, M.F.; Zurlo, J.V. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States); Levy, A.S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States)

1998-08-01

359

Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.)

1998-08-01

360

Atrofia cortical posterior Posterior cortical atrophy. Report of five cases  

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Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a neurodegenerative syndrome, usually due to Alzheimer's disease. The first symptoms are progressive impairment of visuo spatial (Balint's and Gertsmann's syndromes or visuo perceptive (visual agnosia, alexia function. Episodic memory and executive function are spared until later stages. We report two males aged 51 and 55years and three females aged 50, 54 and 56 years, with posterior cortical atrophy. Ophthalmologic study was normal in all. Presenting signs and symptoms were visual ataxia, simultagnosia, agraphia, acalculia, spatial disorientation and unilateral neglect (Balint's and Gerstmann's syndromes. Apperceptive visual agnosia, aphasia, apraxia and alexia were also observed. One female had cortical blindness. Structural images were inconclusive, but PET scan and SPECT disclosed functional impairments in occipitotemporal or occipitoparietal areas.

Carolina Delgado D

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy in the setting of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and hypertensive emergency.  

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: We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to hypertensive emergency. PMID:24647142

Joos, Zachary P; Adesina, Ore-Ofe O; Katz, Bradley J

2014-06-01

362

Influence of femoral lengthening on hip joint space in posttraumatic femoral shortening.  

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We performed femoral lengthening for post-traumatic femoral shortening in 14 patients (10 men). The mean age was 26 (17-33) years. The callotasis method was employed using an Orthofix or Hifixator monolateral external fixator. The average length gained was 6 (3-13) cm, equal to 16 (7-36)%. The mean narrowing ratio of the hip joint space during lengthening was 9 (0-26)% and the narrowing persisted at the final follow-up. Cases with narrowing greater than 5% had a longer time between the development of the shortening and the lengthening than the others (p = 0.03). Our findings indicate that femoral lengthening for posttraumatic femoral shortening should be done as early as possible to prevent the development of joint space narrowing during the lengthening procedure. PMID:9462353

Hung, S C; Nakamura, K; Matsushita, T; Okazaki, H; Shiro, R; Mamada, K; Tanaka, K; Ou, W; Kurokawa, T

1997-12-01

363

Grafted tendon healing in femoral and tibial tunnels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

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PURPOSE. To evaluate tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the fibrous interzone (FIZ) of the femoral and tibial tunnels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS. Five men and 5 women (mean age, 29 years) underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon, using the semitendinosus and gracilis tendon. The tendon-to-bone healing in the FIZ was evaluated using sagittal and coronal MRI at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 weeks, with the knee flexed at 60º and the tendon graft straight in both images. The signal intensity of the FIZ was visually assessed by comparing it with anatomic landmarks in the same patient's knee, and classified into 4 grades. It was grade 3 when similar to that of the patellar tendon, grade 2 when similar to that of skeletal muscle, grade 1 when greater than that of muscle but less than that of joint fluid, and grade 0 when similar to that of joint fluid. At 24 weeks, subjective and objective functional outcomes were evaluated using the Lysholm score and the International Knee Documentation Committee score. RESULTS. At 24 weeks, no patient had knee laxity. All patients had an International Knee Documentation Committee score of A, and their mean Lysholm score was 98.5. In the femoral tunnel, the FIZ did not change during the first 9 weeks (in particular the anterior part), but healing occurred rapidly thereafter. In the tibial tunnel, the FIZ healed over time in all locations, and healing was complete in the lateral and posterior parts at 12 weeks, and in all locations at 24 weeks. The mean signal intensity grade was significantly higher in the tibial than femoral FIZ at 3 to 12 weeks (p<0.01). CONCLUSION. After ACL reconstruction, the tendon-to- bone healing in the FIZ of the tibial tunnel was faster than that of the femoral tunnel. PMID:24781617

Nakase, J; Kitaoka, K; Toratani, T; Kosaka, M; Ohashi, Y; Tsuchiya, H

2014-04-01

364

Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

Appleton Paul

2010-01-01

365

Radographic changes of the revascularized femoral head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-two nerotic femoral heads in young adults were radiologically followed-up after grafting with vascularized bone by comparing the preoperative and the postoperative state of the hip joint. Three parameters were observed and followed; the flattening of the femoral head: the degree of osteoarthrosis of the joints; and the degree of incorporation of the graft into the recipient bone. The results, expressed by index figures, showed that the femoral head flattened during the first two years postoperatively; that the maximal incorporation occurred during the same period of time; and that the appearance of postoperative osteoarthrosis was slow during the first year and increased subsequently. This numerical characterization of radiological finding allows systematic individual analysis after revascularization of the femoral head with bone grafts. It is also suited for comparisons between patients, between series of patients and of various treatment techniques. Furthermore, this quatification provides a numerical index that seems to correlate with the outcome of the treated hip joint. (author). 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

1990-01-01

366

Osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral head.  

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Seven patients with symptomatic osteochondritic lesions of the femoral head are presented. All were male with a mean age of 26 years (16 - 33 years). Two distinct morphologic appearances of the hip joint could be identified. Five patients presented with a coxa valga deformity, four of whom had signs of epiphyseal dysplasia. There were 2 patients whose hips appeared normal apart from the osteochondrontic lesions. In both cases an additional acetabular rim lesion due to a reproducible femoro-acetabular impingement was diagnosed at arthrotomy. This may have acted as the underlying cause of osteochondritis dissecans in these cases. All 7 patients underwent surgical treatment. An intertrochanteric osteotomy (I.O.) alone was performed in 2 patients. Follow-up of these patients at 6.5 and 8.5 years after surgery revealed that the osteochondritic lesions had not healed and one individual remained symptomatic. In the remaining 5 patients, treatment consisted of femoral head dislocation and screw fixation of the osteochondritic lesion. This was combined with an I.O. in two of these patients for coxa valga and osteoplasty of a broad femoral neck in 2 other patients. All lesions had healed at an average follow-up of 4.3 years (2 - 8.5 years). Three patients were asymptomatic and 2 patients had minor residual pain. No progressive osteoarthritic changes or signs of avascular necrosis of the femoral head were observed. PMID:21157754

Siebenrock, Klaus A; Powell, James N; Ganz, Reinhold

2010-01-01

367

Cephalomedullary nailing for proximal femoral fractures.  

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From May 1999 to April 2002, we treated 14 patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures and seven patients with ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft using a second-generation cephalomedullary interlocked nail. Patients mean age was 36 (20-60) years, and 19 fractures were caused by high-energy trauma. Four patients had associated injuries. The average follow-up was 23 (16-30) months. Per-operatively, we had problems in locating the entry portal in four patients, and one nail was driven through the inter-condylar notch. All fractures except two united. One patient had non-union of the femoral neck and one of both neck and shaft. One patient united with shortening of more than 1.5 cm and varus angulation at the fracture site. Two patients had loosening and backing out of the proximal screw. The second-generation cephalomedullary nail is a suitable treatment option for proximal femoral fractures, but it requires a high degree of accuracy and technical expertise. PMID:15647914

Kakkar, Rahul; Kumar, S; Singh, A K

2005-02-01

368

The relationship of lateral anatomic structures to exiting guide pins during femoral tunnel preparation utilizing an accessory medial portal.  

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Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament through an accessory medial portal has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship of guide pin exit points to the lateral anatomic structures when preparing the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory medial portal. We utilized seven fresh frozen cadaveric knees. Utilizing an anteromedial approach, a guide wire was placed into the center of each bundle's footprint. Each guide wire was advanced through the lateral femoral cortex. The guide pins were passed at 90, 110, and 130 degrees of knee flexion. The distances from each guide pin to the closest relevant structures on the lateral side of the knee were measured. At 90 degrees the posterolateral bundle guide pin was closest to the lateral condyle articular cartilage (mean 5.4 +/- 2.2 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 5.7 +/- 2.1 mm). At 110 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 4.5 +/- 3.4 mm). At 130 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 mm) and lateral collateral ligament (mean 6.8 +/- 2.1 mm). At 90 degrees the anteromedial bundle guide pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 2.0 +/- 2.0 mm). At 110 degrees the anteromedial bundle pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 7.4 +/- 3.5 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 12.3 +/- 3.1 mm). At 130 degrees the AM bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm) and LCL (mean 15.1 +/- 2.9 mm). Neither guide pin (anteromedial or posterolateral bundle) put the peroneal nerve at risk at any knee flexion angle. At low knee flexion angles the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle guide pins closely approximated multiple lateral structures when using an accessory medial arthroscopic portal. Utilizing higher flexion angles increases the margin of error when preparing both femoral tunnels. During preparation of the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory anteromedial portal the tunnels should be drilled in at least 110 degrees of knee flexion in order to move guide pin exit points away from important lateral knee structures. PMID:19760398

Farrow, Lutul D; Parker, Richard D

2010-06-01

369

Femoral head avascular necrosis associated with metaphyseal aneurysmal bone cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 12-year-old girl had an aneurysmal bone cyst in the proximal femoral metaphysis simultaneously with an avascular necrosis of the femoral head, as seen on radiological examination. No extension of the lesion across the growth plate into the femoral epiphysis was observed. The expansive behavior of this lesion (ABC) could have compromised the posterosuperior vascular supply of the femoral epiphysis, since no radiographic signs of fractures could be found. Vascular anomalies within the lesion that increase venous pressure could be another factor responsible for the decrease in the blood supply of the femoral epiphysis and could cause necrosis, hence compromising the morphology of the hip joint at maturity. PMID:7719826

Albiñana, J; González-Morán, G; Morcuende, J A

1995-01-01

370

Osificación del ligamento longitudinal posterior  

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Full Text Available La osificación del ligamento longitudinal posterior es una de las principales causas de neuropatía en Japón y en países de Oriente Medio; su incidencia es infrecuente en Latinoamérica y su presentación clínica es variable. El tratamiento quirúrgico consiste en descompresión medular, anterior o posterior, y en fusión en caso necesario; el pronóstico es reservado, ya que depende de la extensión de la neuropatía y del tipo de osificación. Se comunica el caso de un paciente no oriental, a quien se le practicó (en el Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Puebla, ISSSTE una laminoplastia cervical en C3, C4, C5 y C6, con injerto óseo de la cresta iliaca; también se realiza una discusión de la bibliografía médica.

Luis Manuel Malpica Ramu00EDrez

2012-01-01

371

Posterior approach to the shoulder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to describe a modified posterior approach to the shoulder and to present their clinical application in 12 cadaver specimens and a prospective series of 11 patients with glenoid fractures from 1994 to 2003. In the proposed approach Deltoid is reflected superiorly without detachment, approaching the interval between Infraspinatus and Teres Minor muscles exposing the glenoid. Witch this technique the Axilar bundle was 26,5 mm to the posterior glenoid rim. The patients had low surgical times (54 min), low bleeding (77 cc), and no nerve complications. All had good and excellent results in the UCLA score in the first 30 postoperative days. We consider this approach safe, it allows an excellent exposure of the glenoid fractures, and facilitates the functional recovery to the patients

2005-06-01

372

Radiation-induced femoral head necrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are very few cases of radiation-induced femoral head necrosis described in the literature, therefore, this case will add new knowledge and highlights important aspects in the diagnosis and management of this uncommon condition. Our patient was 74 years old and presented with left hip and groin pain for 8 months, with no previous history of trauma or osteoarthritis. However, he had been treated for metastatic prostate cancer, to the pelvis and roof of the left acetabulum, with androgen ablation, and radiotherapy 5 years before presentation. Examination of the left hip revealed painful movements, but no restriction in the range of motion. Initial X-rays did not show any abnormalities, but MRI scan revealed a suspicious lesion in the roof of the left acetabulum, with no indication of secondary weakening of the femoral neck. The patient was therefore referred to the oncologists to consider radiotherapy, but they were not convinced it was metastatic, because he had no new urinary symptoms, and the PSA remained normal throughout this period. He was subsequently referred for a bone scan to look for possible secondary lesions (from the prostate gland), but this did not reveal any abnormal increased uptake. Three months later, he was reviewed in the clinic with a repeat X-ray of the pelvis which revealed complete destruction of the left femoral head and the acetabular roof, but CT-guided biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy in the left hip. However, in view of the persistent pain and radiological evidence of left hip destruction, the patient had left Total Hip Replacement (THR), and excellent post-operative recovery. He mobilised fully, and was discharged on day five. Histology of the femoral head and hip capsule, revealed no evidence of metastasis from the prostate cancer, but confirmed osteonecrosis of the femoral head, presumably caused by the previous radiotherapy. MRI of the spine was clear and he was discharged to the oncologists and urologists for follow up. PMID:23377487

Abdulkareem, I H

2013-01-01

373

Posterior Features for Template-based ASR  

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This paper investigates the use of phoneme class conditional probabilities as features (posterior features) for template-based ASR. Using 75 words and 600 words task-independent and speaker-independent setup on Phonebook database, we investigate the use of different posterior distribution estimators, different distance measures that are better suited for posterior distributions, and different training data. The reported experiments clearly demonstrate that posterior features are always superi...

Soldo, Serena; Magimai -doss, Mathew; Pinto, Joel Praveen; Bourlard, Herve?

2011-01-01

374

Contribution to the method for determining femoral neck axis  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck axis plotting is of great significance in measuring parameters that define femoral head-neck junction sphericity in the group of patients with the femoroacetabular impingement. Literature methods of femoral neck axis determination have weaknesses associated with the risk of obtaining inaccurate values of certain parameters. Objective. Method of plotting of the femoral neck axis by two parallel lines that belong to the medial quarter of the femoral neck is proposed. Method was tested on the anatomic specimens and the respective radiograms. Methods. A total of 31 anatomic specimens of the proximal femur and respective radiographs were used, on which three axes of the femoral neck were plotted; accordingly, alpha angle value was determined and tested with corresponding parametric tests, with the measurement error of less than 5% and the strength of the applied tests of 80%. Results. Alpha angle values obtained by plotting femoral neck axis using the literature and methods we have proposed were not significantly different in our series, and, in more than a half of the specimens, the two axes overlapped each other. Conclusion. The advantage of the proposed method does not depend on the position of the femoral head rotation center in relation to the femoral neck, which favors proposed method for measuring the angles of femoral head sphericity in patients with the femoral head translation. Disadvantage of the study is a small sample size for valid conclusions about the applicability of this method in clinical practice.

An?elkovi? Zoran

2014-01-01

375

Surgical management of multiple posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulas of femoral vessels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented herein are two case reports concerning surgical management of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulas of femoral vessels. Case 1. A 45-year-old female patient attended with a history of a shotgun injury wound of her left femur and crus sustained when a girl of eight. She sought medical attention for a progressively deteriorating condition, accompanied by pain, and breathlessness dyspnea at rest. Detected were multiple fistulas between the deep femoral artery and superficial femoral artery and femoral vein. Management consisted in separation of the arteriovenous fistulas, followed by prosthetic repair of the deep femoral artery. Case 2. A 32-year-old male patient after an accidentally inflicted shotgun injury of the his left femur underwent within a time period of 3 year three vascular operations including ligation of the deep femoral artery and femoral vein followed by having later on developed secondary lymphedema of his left lower limb and pronounced manifested chronic venous insufficiency. Management included dissociation of the numerous arteriovenous fistulas between the branches of the deep femoral artery and the common femoral artery, as well as between the superficial femoral artery and femoral vein. PMID:19156067

Pokrovsky, A V; Shubin, A A; Kuntsevich, G I; Subbotin, V V; Suntsov, D S

2008-01-01

376

Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion  

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Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine gree...

2012-01-01

377

Barrier function of the posterior capsule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The permeability of the rabbit lens and human cataractous lens posterior capsule to epinephrine and trypan blue and the absorption of ultraviolet and visible light through the posterior capsule were studied in vitro. The posterior capsule served as a barrier to large nonelectrolytes or negative electrolytes other than trypan blue, but it did not impede epinephrine, ultraviolet or visible light

1984-01-01

378

Fracture of the polyethylene tibial post in a NexGen posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We reported a case of fracture of a polyethylene tibial post in a 44-year-old woman after 3 years of NexGen posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN). Burnishing and delamination of the polyethylene was found around the breakage site of the post, especially over the anterior aspect of the post base. It indicated that the possible failure mechanism was the repeated anterior impingement between the metal femoral cam and polyethylene tibial post. After replacement of the broken insert, the patient obtained complete relief of previous symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of post breakage of a NexGen posterior-stabilized knee prosthesis. PMID:15586342

Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Chen, Wei-Ming; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

2004-12-01

379

The role of acetabulum geometry and femoral head-neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis in young men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck and the consequence of acetabular retroversion on standardized x-rays. Men aged 26-55 years who earlier had a total hip arthroplasty were included in the case group. This group was compared to a control-group of men treated as trauma patients. The study indicates that acetabular dysplasia and retroversion and a relative decreased head neck ratio are associated with osteoarthritis of the hip in young men.

Halle, B; Halle, D M

2007-01-01

380

TRÍGONO FEMORAL: ¿CUÁL ES SU VERDADERO LÍMITE MEDIAL? / FEMORAL TRIGON: WHAT IS THE REAL MEDIAL LIMIT?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trígono femoral es una región topográfica triangular ubicada en el tercio próximal de la cara anterior del muslo, donde transcurren los vasos femorales, nervio femoral y sus ramas. El conocimiento de sus límites es de importancia en los procedimientos invasores y en la evaluación de patologías de [...] esta región. Referente a la determinación del lado medial de este trígono, la literatura muestra divergencias. La mayoría de los autores afirma que el límite medial del trígono está dado por el borde medial del músculo aductor largo, mientras que otros, consideran al borde lateral del referido músculo. A través de este tra