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Sample records for posterior femoral condyle

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

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    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  3. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  4. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la fractura posterior del condilo femoral / Traitement chirurgical de la fracture postérieure du condyle fémoral / Femoral condylar posterior fracture: Surgical treatment

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    Orlando Manuel, Pérez Rivera; Lourdes E., Palanco Domínguez.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las fracturas distales del fémur representan solamente el 6 % de todas las fracturas femorales. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 42 años que sufrió accidente del transito, que le provocó fractura unicondilar del extremo distal del fémur en el plano coronal, conocida como fractura de H [...] offa. Se muestra el tratamiento quirúrgico realizado mediante estudios radiológicos, donde se utilizó tornillo del sistema AO. Con este tipo de proceder se obtuvo reducción y estabilidad de la fractura. Se concluye que una planificación preoperatorio adecuada es necesaria para obtener resultados satisfactorios. Abstract in english Femoral distal fractures accounts for only the 6 % of all femoral ones. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 42 suffered a road accident provoking a unicondylar fracture of femur distal end in coronal plane , known as Hoffa fracture. Surgical treatment by radiological studies is showed, w [...] here we used a screw of AO system. Using this procedure we achieved the fracture reduction and stability. We conclude that an appropriate preoperative planning is necessary to get satisfactory results.

  5. Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle after arthroscopic surgery. Retrospective review of 10 patients who presented with avascular necrosis of the ipsilateral femoral condyle following arthroscopic meniscectomy (9 medial, 1 lateral). The bone lesions were evaluated by radiography and MRI, which were repeated for few patients. MRI allows earlier diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral condyle and offers an evaluation of extent of the lesions whose evolution is variable: 3 patients required a knee prosthesis, the other 7 patients were treated medically. (authors)

  6. Patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome: MR imaging in 42 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To demonstrate the MR imaging findings that occur between the posterior inferolateral patellar tendon and the lateral femoral condyle in patients with chronic anterior and or lateral knee pain. Patients and design: A retrospective review of the MR images in 42 patients who presented with chronic anterior or lateral knee pain was performed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. In 15 patients, post-contrast images were available. Results: Sagittal and axial imaging planes best demonstrated the patellar tendon and its relationship with the lateral femoral condyle. In 40 patients, there was obliteration of the fat planes and abnormal signal intensity in the lateral soft tissues of the inferior patellofemoral joint. Enhancement after administration of gadolinium was noted in all cases in which contrast was administered. Eighteen patients showed cystic changes in the soft tissues adjacent to the lateral femoral condyle in addition to fat plane obliteration. In two patients, only cystic changes were noted in the lateral soft tissues. Abnormal patellar alignment was noted in 37 patients. Patellar tendon pathology was seen in nine patients. Conclusion: In evaluating anterior knee symptoms, MR imaging allows identification of changes that may be related to patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome and that should be distinguished from other causes of anterior or lateral knee pain. (orig.)

  7. Osteochondrosis in the lateral femoral condyles of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteochondrosis of the lateral femoral condyles was diagnosed radiographically in an 8-month-old, female Arabian horse, which had been presented with a hindlimb lameness. The diagnosis was confirmed by gross and microscopic pathology. The location of the lesions was considered unusual for osteochondrosis in the horse

  8. Operative management of Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle.

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    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoffa fracture is a rare injury consisting of unicondylar tangential posterior fracture of the distal femur and only very few cases have been reported in the literature. These fractures are due to high energy trauma and conservative treatment generally yields poor results, but rigid internal fixation allows early functional rehabilitation and decreases the incidence of complications. The purpose of the study was to prospectively analyse the clinico-radiological and functional outcome following open surgical treatment. From July 2005 to July 2010, 22 patients (14 males and 8 females were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed and open Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. Post-operatively, all the patients were followed for 12 months. Fractures were united in a mean time of 10 weeks (range from 6 - 16 weeks depending on the type of fracture pattern. Fractures were reduced anatomically in all except in one patient. During follow-up, there were no losses of reduction or fixation. Full weight bearing were started in the mean time of 8.8 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay were 9.8 days. Complications were stiffness and pain in one patient, collateral laxity in one patient and progression of arthritis in one patient. The results were excellent in 90.90% and good in 9.09% patients. Finally, we conclude that the early anatomical reduction and rigid fixation with screws provide best results and minimal complications.

  9. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

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    Selahattin Ozyurek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We have greatly enjoyed reading the case report entitled “‘Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature in the issue of Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2015;3(2 with great interest. We would like to commend the authors for their detailed and valuable work. Although various case reports have described postoperative distal femur fracture at a range of time intervals (1,2 intraoperative intra-articular distal femur fracture is a unique entity.However, we believe that some important additional observations seem necessary to be contributed through this study. In this article, the authors stated that, to the best of their knowledge, there is no other case report in the literature introducing a femoral condyle fracture during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction or revision reconstruction. Nevertheless, we would like to call the attention of the readers to the fact that that the literature contains one additional case report re‌porting on intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture during primary ACL reconstruction (2. Werner BC and Miller MD presented of case report of an intraoperative distal femoral coronal plane (Hoffa fracture that occurred during independent femoral tunnel drilling and dilation in a primary ACL reconstruction. As in the their case, this type of fracture can occur with appropriately placed femoral tunnels, but the risk can increase with larger graft diameters in patients with smaller lateral femoral condyles The patient was treated with open reduction and internal fixation, without compromise of graft stability and with good recovery of function. We believe that tailoring graft size to the size of the patient is important to prevent similar adverse events.

  10. IN VIVO MOTION OF FEMORAL CONDYLES DURING WEIGHT-BEARING FLEXION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE USING BIPLANE RADIOGRAPHY

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    Kaining Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05, whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05. Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05. Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05. The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°

  11. Evaluation of mandibular condyles in children with unilateral posterior crossbite

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    Edson, ILLIPRONTI-FILHO; Solange Mongelli, FANTINI; Israel, CHILVARQUER.

    Full Text Available The relationship of mandibular condyle dimensions and its association with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB) has been suggested in the literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate mandibular condyles on the left and right sides and between crossed and non-crossed sides in th [...] e sagittal and coronal planes, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty CBCT images of 40 temporo mandibular joints (TMJs) in individuals in mixed dentition phase, which included 9 males (mean 7.9 years) and 11 females (mean 8.2 years), with unilateral posterior crossbite without premature contacts and functional mandibular shifts and with transverse maxillary deficiency. The criteria for sample exclusion included the presence of painful symptoms, facial trauma history, systemic diseases such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, mouth opening limitation (

  12. Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament with erosion of the lateral femoral condyle

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    Melloni, Pietro [Servei de Diagnostic per Imatge, Unitat de Diagnostic d' Alta Tecnologia (UDIAT), Corporacio Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell (Barcelona) (Spain); UDIAT, c/ Parc Tauli, s/n, 08208 Sabadell (Barcelona) (Spain); Valls, Rafael [Servei de Diagnostic per Imatge, Unitat de Diagnostic d' Alta Tecnologia (UDIAT), Corporacio Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell (Barcelona) (Spain); Yuguero, Mariano [Servei de Traumatologia i Ortopedia, Corporacio Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell (Barcelona) (Spain); Saez, Amparo [Servei de Anatomia Patologica, Corporacio Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    We report a case of a mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that produced osseous erosion of the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. The MRI findings and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

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    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The? superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  14. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle

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    Yamamoto, Takuaki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Bullough, P.G. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This case report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in a 69-year-old obese man, who had subchondral insufficiency fracture both in the femoral head and medial femoral condyle. On plain radiographs, both lesions underwent subchondral collapse. Magnetic resonance images of the left hip showed a bone marrow edema pattern with associated low-intensity band on T1-weighted images, which was convex to the articular surface. The histopathologic findings in the hip and knee were characterized by the presence of a subchondral fracture with associated callus and granulation tissue along both sides of a fracture line. There was no evidence of antecedent osteonecrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the multiple occurrence of collapsed subchondral insufficiency fracture. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic scintigraphic study of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome and of osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy associated with a dynamic study is being increasingly used in order to improve the specificity of the method. This dynamic study is performed with the injection of a bone seeker 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The method is found to be valuable for early identification of patients with suspected reflex sympathetic distrophy syndrome and with osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle

  16. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Vaziri, Arash Sharafat; Shafiei, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    A rare and devastating complication following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction is femoral fracture. A 35-year old male soccer player with a history of ACL tear from one year ago, who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction and functioned well until another similar injury caused ACL re-rupture. Revision of ACL reconstruction was performed and after failure of graft tension during the pumping, a fluoroscopic assessment showed a femoral condyle fracture. The patient referred to our knee clinic and was operated on in two stages first fixation of the fracture and then ACL re-revision after fracture healing was complete. Not inserting multiple guide pins, keeping a safe distance from the posterior cortex and giving more attention during graft tensioning, especially in revision surgeries, are all small points that can reduce the risk of fracture during the revision of ACL reconstruction. PMID:26110183

  17. Ossification variants of the femoral condyles are not associated with osteochondritis dissecans

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    Jans, L., E-mail: lennartjans@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jaremko, J., E-mail: jjaremko@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440-112 Street, Edmonton T6G 2B7, Alberta (Canada); Ditchfield, M., E-mail: Michael.ditchfield@southernhealth.org.au [Department of Radiology, Monash University Clayton Campus, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800, VIC (Australia); De Coninck, T., E-mail: Tinekedeconinck@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Huysse, W., E-mail: Wouter.huysse@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Moon, A., E-mail: Anna.moon@rch.org.au [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052, VIC (Australia); Verstraete, K., E-mail: Koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine if ossification variants of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate are associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Materials and methods: The prevalence of ossification variants of the unaffected femoral condyle in 116 patients (aged 9-14 years) with unicondylar OCD on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the knee was compared to a control group of 579 patients (aged 9-14 years) without OCD. The evolution of the ossification variants in both groups was studied by reviewing follow-up MR imaging side by side with the baseline study. Results: The prevalence of ossification variants in the unaffected condyle in patients with OCD (12.9%) and in the control group of patients without OCD (12.6%) was similar (p = 0.88). Evolution of ossification variants to OCD was not seen on follow-up MRI examinations. All variants had decreased in size or were no longer visible. Conclusion: Ossification variants of the femoral condyle that involve the subchondral bone plate are not associated with OCD. Clinical relevance statement: Ossification variants are not associated with OCD, indicating that routine MRI follow-up in affected children is not mandatory.

  18. Ossification variants of the femoral condyles are not associated with osteochondritis dissecans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine if ossification variants of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate are associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Materials and methods: The prevalence of ossification variants of the unaffected femoral condyle in 116 patients (aged 9–14 years) with unicondylar OCD on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the knee was compared to a control group of 579 patients (aged 9–14 years) without OCD. The evolution of the ossification variants in both groups was studied by reviewing follow-up MR imaging side by side with the baseline study. Results: The prevalence of ossification variants in the unaffected condyle in patients with OCD (12.9%) and in the control group of patients without OCD (12.6%) was similar (p = 0.88). Evolution of ossification variants to OCD was not seen on follow-up MRI examinations. All variants had decreased in size or were no longer visible. Conclusion: Ossification variants of the femoral condyle that involve the subchondral bone plate are not associated with OCD. Clinical relevance statement: Ossification variants are not associated with OCD, indicating that routine MRI follow-up in affected children is not mandatory.

  19. Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle: associated ligament and meniscal tears

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    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Lee, Jae Gue; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle is frequently found in association with a tear of the anterior cruciate liagment (ACL). The purpose of this study was to determine which ligamentous and meniscal tears are associated with kissing contusion. We retrospectively reviewed the findings depicted by 323 consecutive MR images of the knee and confirmed at arthroscopy. For the diagnosis of disruption, ligaments, medial menisci (MM) and lateral menisci (LM) were evaluated using accepted criteria. We compared the prevalence and location of meniscal and ligamentous tears between group I (44 knees with kissing contusion) and group II (279 knees without kissing contusion). For statistical analysis the chi-square test was used. ACLs were torn in all 44 knees (100%) with kissing contusion, and 78 (28%) of 279 without kissing contusion. There were ten medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears (23%) in group I, and 17 MCL tears (6%), five lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tears (2%) and ten posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears (4%) in group II. In group I, meniscal tears were found in 22 MM (50%) and in 19 LM (43%), while in group II, they occurred in 128 MM (46%) and 128 LM (46%), In group I, 17 (77%) of 22 MM tears and 13 (68%) of 19 LM tears were located in the posterior horn, while in group II, the corresponding figures were 97/128 (76%) and 60 of 128 (47%). The differing prevalence of ACL and MCL tears between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05), but differences in the prevalence and location of meniscal tears were not (p>0.05). Although kissing contusion was a highly specific sign of ACL tears, its presence was also significant among MCL tears. There was no significant difference in meniscal tears with or without kissing contusion.

  20. Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle: associated ligament and meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissing contusion between the posterolateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle is frequently found in association with a tear of the anterior cruciate liagment (ACL). The purpose of this study was to determine which ligamentous and meniscal tears are associated with kissing contusion. We retrospectively reviewed the findings depicted by 323 consecutive MR images of the knee and confirmed at arthroscopy. For the diagnosis of disruption, ligaments, medial menisci (MM) and lateral menisci (LM) were evaluated using accepted criteria. We compared the prevalence and location of meniscal and ligamentous tears between group I (44 knees with kissing contusion) and group II (279 knees without kissing contusion). For statistical analysis the chi-square test was used. ACLs were torn in all 44 knees (100%) with kissing contusion, and 78 (28%) of 279 without kissing contusion. There were ten medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears (23%) in group I, and 17 MCL tears (6%), five lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tears (2%) and ten posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears (4%) in group II. In group I, meniscal tears were found in 22 MM (50%) and in 19 LM (43%), while in group II, they occurred in 128 MM (46%) and 128 LM (46%), In group I, 17 (77%) of 22 MM tears and 13 (68%) of 19 LM tears were located in the posterior horn, while in group II, the corresponding figures were 97/128 (76%) and 60 of 128 (47%). The differing prevalence of ACL and MCL tears between the groups was statistically significant (p0.05). Although kissing contusion was a highly specific sign of ACL tears, its presence was also significant among MCL tears. There was no significant difference in meniscal tears with or without kissing contusion

  1. Osteochondritis dissecans in bilateral lateral femoral condyle in knees / Osteocondrite dissecante em côndilo femural lateral bilateral nos joelhos

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    Ari, Zekcer; Ricardo Soares da, Silva; Renato Akira, Iwashita; Mario, Carneiro Filho.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A osteocondrite dissecante (OCD) é uma patologia de causa desconhecida, que classicamente acomete no joelho a borda lateral do côndilo femural medial. Apresentamos um raro caso de OCD no côndilo femural lateral bilateral. [...] Abstract in english The osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a disease of unknown cause that classically affects the knee lateral border of the medial femoral condyle. We present a rare case of OCD in bilateral lateral femoral condyle. [...

  2. Subchondral Impaction Fractures of the Medial Femoral Condyle in Weightlifters: A Report of 5 Cases.

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    Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Micha? Tomasz; Stefa?czyk, Ludomir; Krochmalski, Marek; Dom?alski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Although subchondral impaction fractures have already been reported in the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle, this study reveals the presence of an intra-articular impaction fracture of the postero-superior region of the non-weight-bearing portion of the medial femoral condyle recognized in 5 of a group of 22 representatives of the Polish national Olympic weightlifting team, who underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging examination. Articular cartilage lesions varied with regard to the type of injury and its severity ranging from healed or subchronic injuries to acute trauma. All described individuals had no clinical history of acute knee trauma and only 3 of them had minor pain symptoms. The accumulation of microtraumas occurring during participation in particular activities associated with weightlifting training seems to be responsible for the development of this type of contusion. This is the first description of impaction fracture observed in this location in professional weightlifters. PMID:25881566

  3. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with tibial plateau and femoral condyle insufficiency stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the association between spontaneous osteonecrosis and insufficiency stress fractures of the knee. To determine whether insufficiency stress fracture is associated with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and imaging studies of all patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, studied by MR imaging, seen in a tertiary hospital over an 8-year period. Four women (age range 66-84 years) presented spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau. One of these patients also presented a concomitant insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle. Radiographs were diagnostic of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle in three cases, and insufficiency stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was detected in one case. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the diagnosis of both conditions in all four cases. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee may be associated with insufficiency stress fracture of the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial plateau. This association provides additional arguments in favor of the traumatic etiology of spontaneous osteonecrosis of knee. (orig.)

  4. Displaced osteochondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle associated with an acute anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture: a corollary of "the lateral femoral notch sign".

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    Sharma, Gaurav; Naik, V Anand; Pankaj, Amite

    2012-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is usually accompanied by bone contusions resulting from impact of tibia on femur. The injury sometimes becomes manifest as a depression on the lateral femoral condyle giving rise to "lateral femoral notch" sign. The authors describe a rare case of impaction of the tibia and femur resulting in an osteochondral fracture rather than the usual bone contusion, which frequently occurs with ACL rupture. Open reduction and internal fixation of both the ACL avulsion fracture and the osteochondral fracture from the lateral femoral condyle were done, and the patient had a good outcome at 1-year follow-up. Level of evidence V. PMID:22113226

  5. Posterior cruciate ligament mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle: a case report

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    Ogawa Hiroyasu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL are uncommon. On the basis of the site of damage of the PCL, hyperflexion, pretibial trauma, and hyperextension are proposed as mechanisms of PCL injuries. On the other hand, avulsion fractures of the tibial condyle are also rare. We report a PCL-mediated avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle along with the tibial insertion of the PCL by extension-distraction force on the knee that has not been previously described in any study. This rare case may imply that application of an extension-distraction force to the PCL cause the avulsion fracture.

  6. Chondral fracture of the lateral femoral condyle in children with different treatment methods.

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    Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Bae, Ki Cheor; Cho, Chul Hyun; Lee, Si Wook

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to chondral injuries of the knee; however, the incidence of traumatic chondral and osteochondral fractures and their role in the development of joint degeneration are not fully elucidated. Several methods are described for the treatment of chondral or osteochondral fractures of the knee. In our literature review, we could not find any report on the management of chondral fractures with autologous bone pegs or headless screws. We report three cases of traumatic cartilage fractures of the lateral femoral condyle in adolescents who were treated with three different methods. We also present their follow-up outcomes. PMID:26439672

  7. Estudo anatômico da inserção femoral do ligamento cruzado posterior Femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Paula Leite Cury

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar parâmetros objetivos para guiar a correta localização do LCP no fêmur. MÉTODOS: Os LCP de 20 cadáveres humanos foram ressecados. As seguintes porções foram medidas: da porção mais distal do ligamento, próximo ao teto, até a borda da cartilagem mais anterior (AB; distância da porção mais proximal do ligamento, próximo ao teto, até a cartilagem mais anterior (AC; distância entre as duas porções do ligamento próximo ao teto (BC; distância da borda distal do ligamento na sua porção posterior até a borda articular mais posterior (D-E; distância da borda distal do ligamento na sua porção posterior até o teto intercondilar (DF; e, finalmente, o formato da inserção ligamentar e área de abrangência no côndilo femoral. RESULTADOS: O LCP tem a forma de um quarto de elipse, com área de, em média, 153,5mm². As distâncias médias encontradas foram: AB de 2,1mm; AC de 10,7mm, BC de 8,6mm, D-E de 12.4mm e DF de 16,8mm. CONCLUSÕES: A borda próxima ao teto do feixe anterolateral é mais próxima da cartilagem articular (2,1mm comparada com o feixe posteromedial, que mede 12,4mm a partir de sua borda proximal da cartilagem. Estas referências devem ajudar em um posicionamento melhor e mais acurado dos túneis femorais na reconstrução do LCP.OBJECTIVE: To identify objective parameters to guide correct location of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in the femur. METHODS: The PCLs of 20 human cadavers were resected. The following portions were measured: distance from the most distal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior edge of the cartilage (AB; distance from the most proximal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior cartilage (AC; distance between the two parts of the ligament close to the roof (BC; distance from the distal edge in its posterior portion, to the more posterior joint edge (DE; distance from the distal edge of the ligament in its posterior portion, to the intercondylar roof (DF; and finally, the format of the ligament insertion and area of coverage on the femoral condyle. RESULTS: The PCL has the shape of a quarter ellipse, with an average area of 153.5mm². The mean distances found were: AB of 2.1mm, AC of 10.7mm, BC of 8.6mm DE of 12.4mm and DF of 16.8mm. CONCLUSIONS: The edge close to the roof of the anterolateral bundle is closer to the joint cartilage (2.1mm than the posteromedial bundle is, which is 12.4mm from the edge proximal to the cartilage. These references should assist in better and more accurate positioning of femoral tunnels in PCL reconstruction.

  8. Estudo anatômico da inserção femoral do ligamento cruzado posterior / Femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament: an anatomical study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo de Paula Leite, Cury; Nilson Roberto, Severino; Osmar Pedro Arbix, Camargo; Tatsuo, Aihara; Leopoldo Viana, Batista Neto; Dedley Nelson, Goarayeb.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar parâmetros objetivos para guiar a correta localização do LCP no fêmur. MÉTODOS: Os LCP de 20 cadáveres humanos foram ressecados. As seguintes porções foram medidas: da porção mais distal do ligamento, próximo ao teto, até a borda da cartilagem mais anterior (AB); distância da p [...] orção mais proximal do ligamento, próximo ao teto, até a cartilagem mais anterior (AC); distância entre as duas porções do ligamento próximo ao teto (BC); distância da borda distal do ligamento na sua porção posterior até a borda articular mais posterior (D-E); distância da borda distal do ligamento na sua porção posterior até o teto intercondilar (DF); e, finalmente, o formato da inserção ligamentar e área de abrangência no côndilo femoral. RESULTADOS: O LCP tem a forma de um quarto de elipse, com área de, em média, 153,5mm². As distâncias médias encontradas foram: AB de 2,1mm; AC de 10,7mm, BC de 8,6mm, D-E de 12.4mm e DF de 16,8mm. CONCLUSÕES: A borda próxima ao teto do feixe anterolateral é mais próxima da cartilagem articular (2,1mm) comparada com o feixe posteromedial, que mede 12,4mm a partir de sua borda proximal da cartilagem. Estas referências devem ajudar em um posicionamento melhor e mais acurado dos túneis femorais na reconstrução do LCP. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify objective parameters to guide correct location of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the femur. METHODS: The PCLs of 20 human cadavers were resected. The following portions were measured: distance from the most distal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most an [...] terior edge of the cartilage (AB); distance from the most proximal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior cartilage (AC); distance between the two parts of the ligament close to the roof (BC); distance from the distal edge in its posterior portion, to the more posterior joint edge (DE); distance from the distal edge of the ligament in its posterior portion, to the intercondylar roof (DF); and finally, the format of the ligament insertion and area of coverage on the femoral condyle. RESULTS: The PCL has the shape of a quarter ellipse, with an average area of 153.5mm². The mean distances found were: AB of 2.1mm, AC of 10.7mm, BC of 8.6mm DE of 12.4mm and DF of 16.8mm. CONCLUSIONS: The edge close to the roof of the anterolateral bundle is closer to the joint cartilage (2.1mm) than the posteromedial bundle is, which is 12.4mm from the edge proximal to the cartilage. These references should assist in better and more accurate positioning of femoral tunnels in PCL reconstruction.

  9. Anatomical study of the radius and center of curvature of the distal femoral condyle

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs - including their cartilage tissue - as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion of the condylar surface that articulates with the tibia during knee flexion-extension, the determined center points approximate the location of the centers of rotation. The results suggest that the concept of a fixed flexion-extension axis is not applicable for every specimen. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  10. Brodie's abscess of medial distal femoral condyle after a thorn prick: rare clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira L Nag

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Thorn prick injuries are generally con-ceded frivolous and rarely demand medical attention. How-beit deep seated injuries are well described in the literature. We presented a case of thorn prick injury to the knee that manifested as Brodie's abscess of the medial distal femoral condyle and synovitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasonography could only construe the affliction but not spot the thorn. Arthrotomy was undertaken for explora-tion and debridement. Empirical therapy with initial systemic Cefotaxime and subsequent Ofloxacin worked well after the surgery. Deep seated injuries by a thorn prick may take a protracted and torpid course. Thorough curettage of the bony lesion and debridement are vital for proper manage-ment. Key words: Thorn; Wounds and injuries; Knee; Osteomyelitis; Synovitis

  11. Femoral condyle insufficiency fractures: associated clinical and morphological findings and impact on outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, Sara K.; Hackney, Lauren A.; Heilmeier, Ursula; Nardo, Lorenzo; Zhang, Chiyuan A.; Link, Thomas M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Yu, Aihong [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the characteristics of femoral condyle insufficiency fracture (FCIF) lesions and their relative associations with the risk of clinical progression. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Seventy-three patients (age range, 19-95) were included after excluding patients with post-traumatic fractures, bone marrow infarct, osteochondritis dissecans, or underlying tumor. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists classified morphologic findings including lesion diameter, associated bone marrow edema pattern, and associated cartilage/meniscus damage. Electronic medical charts were evaluated for symptoms, risk factors, and longitudinal outcomes, including total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Imaging characteristics were correlated with clinical findings, and comparison of outcome groups was performed using a regression model adjusted for age. The majority of patients with FCIF were women (64.4 %, 47/73), on average 10 years older than men (66.28 ± 15.86 years vs. 56.54 ± 10.39 years, p = 0.005). The most common location for FCIF was the central weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle; overlying full thickness cartilage loss (75.7 %, 53/70) and ipsilateral meniscal injury (94.1 %, 64/68) were frequently associated. Clinical outcomes were variable, with 23.9 % (11/46) requiring TKA. Cartilage WORMS score, adjacent cartilage loss, and contralateral meniscal injury, in addition to decreased knee range of motion at presentation, were significantly associated with progression to TKA (p < 0.05). FCIF are frequently associated with overlying cartilage loss and ipsilateral meniscal injury. The extent of cartilage loss and meniscal damage, in addition to loss of knee range of motion at the time of presentation, are significantly associated with clinical progression. (orig.)

  12. Femoral condyle insufficiency fractures: associated clinical and morphological findings and impact on outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristics of femoral condyle insufficiency fracture (FCIF) lesions and their relative associations with the risk of clinical progression. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Seventy-three patients (age range, 19-95) were included after excluding patients with post-traumatic fractures, bone marrow infarct, osteochondritis dissecans, or underlying tumor. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists classified morphologic findings including lesion diameter, associated bone marrow edema pattern, and associated cartilage/meniscus damage. Electronic medical charts were evaluated for symptoms, risk factors, and longitudinal outcomes, including total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Imaging characteristics were correlated with clinical findings, and comparison of outcome groups was performed using a regression model adjusted for age. The majority of patients with FCIF were women (64.4 %, 47/73), on average 10 years older than men (66.28 ± 15.86 years vs. 56.54 ± 10.39 years, p = 0.005). The most common location for FCIF was the central weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle; overlying full thickness cartilage loss (75.7 %, 53/70) and ipsilateral meniscal injury (94.1 %, 64/68) were frequently associated. Clinical outcomes were variable, with 23.9 % (11/46) requiring TKA. Cartilage WORMS score, adjacent cartilage loss, and contralateral meniscal injury, in addition to decreased knee range of motion at presentation, were significantly associated with progression to TKA (p < 0.05). FCIF are frequently associated with overlying cartilage loss and ipsilateral meniscal injury. The extent of cartilage loss and meniscal damage, in addition to loss of knee range of motion at the time of presentation, are significantly associated with clinical progression. (orig.)

  13. Free Vascularized Medial Femoral Condyle Structural Flaps for Septic Terminal Digital Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mark

    2015-12-01

    A unique clinical problem exists when the majority of distal bone stock in a digit is destroyed by osteomyelitis, leaving a residual soft tissue envelope with tenuous, random perfusion surrounding a nidus of scar tissue. Pulp pinch is lost in the absence of bony support, and limited options exist. Apart from toe transfer or revision amputation with shortening, non-vascularized bone grafting inside the residual soft tissue envelope risks graft resorption and reactivation of infection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of free vascularized medial femoral condyle structural bone flaps to restore lost pulp pinch in such cases. Nine patients (8 males, 1 female) with a mean age of 43 years sustained extensive terminal bone loss near digital tips following osteomyelitis. The mean length of bone defect was 28 mm (± 8.4). The patients were reconstructed at a mean of 12 weeks from initial trauma/infection, having undergone a mean of two prior surgeries. A structural block of vascularized bone from the medial femoral condyle replaced the missing bone at the digital tip defect, temporarily fixed with K-wires. The bone flap was encased by the residual soft tissue envelope after removing scar tissue from the prior trauma and infection. All bone flaps incorporated fully, restoring pulp pinch function to the respective digits with a mean time to union of 8.6 (± 2.1) weeks; range 6-11 weeks. With few alternative solutions able to address this unique and difficult problem, the structural block of vascularized bone proved able to resist resorption, nonunion, and reactivation of infection; the problems normally encountered under this scenario. PMID:26578834

  14. Prevalence and clinical significance of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease: observations at MR imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, V O

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of chondromalacia isolated to the anterior margin of the lateral femoral condyle as a component of patellofemoral disease in patients with anterior knee pain and to correlate it with patient demographics, patellar shape, and patellofemoral alignment.

  15. Osteocondrose bilateral de côndilos femorais laterais: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Bilateral osteochondrosis of lateral femoral condyles: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Elena Rios Gomes Bica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A osteocondrose é uma falha na ossificação subcondral com predileção pelo esqueleto imaturo e cuja etiologia permanece indefinida. Pode afetar os côndilos femorais (geralmente o medial, e o acometimento é, na maioria, unilateral. Os autores chamam a atenção desse diagnóstico, geralmente tardio por sua ocorrência infrequente, e relatam o caso raro de uma criança com osteocondrose bilateral de côndilos femorais laterais, ressaltando que, até o presente momento, apenas um caso semelhante foi descrito na literatura.Osteochondrosis is an injury on subchondral ossification with predominance of immature skeleton and whose etiology remains unknown. It may affect the femoral condyles (usually the medial condyle and the involvement is mostly unilateral. The authors draw the attention to this usually late diagnosis due to its infrequent occurrence and report a child's rare case of bilateral osteochondrosis on lateral femoral condyles, stressing that just one similar case has been described in the orthopaedic literature up to the present time.

  16. Avaliação radiográfica da inserção femoral do ligamento cruzado posterior / Radiographic assessment of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Cesar, Gali; André Schmidt, Soares; Bruno Spagnuolo de, Lima; Filippo Santos Zozoloto, Vianna; Phelipe Augusto Cintra da, Silva; Edie Benedito, Caetano.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as imagens radiográficas da inserção femoral do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) para auxiliar na criação de túneis femorais anatômicos nas cirurgias e para a avaliação pós-operatória da localização destes túneis. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 joelhos de cadáveres adultos. Demar [...] camos os centros das bandas anterolateral (AL) e posteromedial (PM) do LCP com marcadores metálicos. Realizamos radiografias e estabelecemos um sistema de grades para localização da origem das bandas. Também determinamos o percentil da projeção do centro de cada banda em relação à linha de Blumensaat. RESULTADOS: Na incidência anteroposterior os centros das bandas AL e PM estiveram, em média, localizados nos percentis 42,48% e 38,14% da linha de Blumensaat, respectivamente. Nas radiografias em perfil os centros das bandas AL e PM estiveram, respectivamente, nos percentis 72,86% e 55,46% dessa linha. Em 73,33% dos joelhos o centro da banda AL esteve no quadrante 3D e, em 70% das amostras, a banda PM esteve no quadrante 2D. CONCLUSÃO: Estabelecemos um padrão radiográfico da inserção femoral do LCP que pode ser útil para o controle intraoperatório, antes da perfuração dos túneis, e para a avaliação pós-operatória da localização dos mesmos. Estudo Laboratorial Controlado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To establish the radiographic images of the femoral insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), in order to assist the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels during surgeries, and to be used as parameters in postoperative evaluation of the location of these tunnels. METHODS: Thirt [...] y adult cadaver knees were used. The PCL anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles' centers were marked with a metallic marker. Radiographs were taken and a grid system was established to locate the position of bundles insertion. The percentile in which the projection of each bundle's center was in relation to the Blumensaat line was also determined. RESULTS: In the anteroposterior view, AL and PM bundles' centers were on average, on the 42.5% and 38.18% percentiles of Blumensaat's line, respectively. In lateral views, the AL and PM bundles' centers corresponded to the 72.94% and 55.56% percentiles of the line, respectively. In 73.33% of the knees the AL bundle center was on the 3D quadrant and in 70% of samples the PM bundle center was in quadrant 2D. CONCLUSIONS: We established an x-ray pattern of femoral insertion of PCL that may be of interest for intraoperative control, before tunnel drilling, and also for post-operative evaluation of tunnel location. Controlled Laboratory Study.

  17. Osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiani, Pietro; Di Domenica, Marica; Martini, Lorena; Ranaldi, Filippo M; Zambrano, Anna; Celli, Mauro; Villani, Ciro

    2015-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a very uncommon phenomenon in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). A 14-year-old boy, affected by OI and followed in our Center for Congenital Osteodystrophies, had a knee trauma and MRI indicated a hollowed area of 2.5×1.5?cm in the lateral femoral condyle, which was classified as grade III. The patient underwent surgery, performed as a one-step surgical treatment: the osteochondral fragment was removed, curettage of lesion's bottom was performed, and a biphasic scaffold was used to fill the defect, implanted with a press-fit technique. MRI at 12 and 24 months after surgery showed scaffold integration. At the final follow-up, the patient did not feel any pain or articular limitations. It is difficult to provide a guideline on osteochondritis dissecans in patients affected by OI because of the lack of literature reports on this rare disorder in a rare disease. According to our experience, in these patients, osteosynthesis of the bone fragment and the use of autograft are not recommended because of the patient's bone weakness and osteoporosis. Moreover, compared with two-step surgery, one-step surgery is preferred to reduce the risk related to anesthesia, often observed to be higher in these patients. PMID:25919806

  18. Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onodera Shin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN gel at the bottom of the defect. Methods Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I, 2.5-mm depth (in Group II, or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. Results The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle.

  19. Application of oriented poly-L-lactide screws for experimental Salter-Harris type 4 fracture in distal femoral condyle of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y; Tagawa, M; Ejima, H; Orima, H; Fujita, M; Yamagami, T; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Shikinami, Y; Ikada, Y

    1994-10-01

    The clinical usefulness of biodegradable oriented poly-L-lactide (PLLA) screws for experimental Salter-Harris type 4 fracture in the distal femoral condyle of dogs was evaluated. Bony union of the osteotomized fragment of the condyle was almost completed radiographically and histologically within 1 to 2 months after surgery, suggesting that PLLA screws maintained strength long enough to fix the fragment until bone healing. At 4 to 6 months after surgery, minute fissures were histologically confirmed on the surface of the screw thread, suggesting the early stage of biodegradation and absorption of the polymer. During the observational period, no significant difference between the treated femur and the contralateral non-treated femur in either total femoral length or maximum condyle width was observed, indicating no growth disturbance in the treated femur. From these results it was concluded that the PLLA screw might be an ideal implant for the reduction and fixation of epiphyseal plate fractures such as Salter-Harris type 3 or type 4 fractures. PMID:7865578

  20. Pullulan/dextran/nHA macroporous composite beads for bone repair in a femoral condyle defect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has been supplemented with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in a rat model. Cross-linked beads of 300-500 µm diameters were used in a lateral femoral condyle defect and analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and histology in comparison to the empty defects 15, 30, and 70 days after implantation. Inflammation was absent for both conditions. For empty defects, cellularisation and mineralization started from the periphery of the defect. For the defects containing beads, cellular structures filling out the spaces between the scaffolds with increasing interconnectivity and trabecular-like organization were observed over time. The analysis of calcified sections showed increased mineralization over time for both conditions, but was more pronounced for the samples containing beads. Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content were both significantly higher at day 70 for the beads in comparison to empty defects as well as compared with earlier time points. Analysis of newly formed tissue around the beads showed an increase of osteoid tissue, measured as percentage of the defect surface. This study suggests that the use of beads for the repair of small size defects in bone may be expanded on to meet the clinical need for a ready-to-use fill-up material that can favor bone formation and mineralization, as well as promote vessel ingrowth into the defect site. PMID:25330002

  1. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Smith, Maximilian; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gill, Thomas J. [Boston Sports Medicine and Research Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-20

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Femoral neck narrowing following hip resurfacing using posterior and Ganz approaches at two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Victoria M; Ho, Ki Wai K; Prakash, Udai; Parsons, Nick; Griffin, Damian R; Foguet, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    We report a retrospective review of femoral head/neck ratios on post-operative and two year follow-up radiographs following hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The patients were in two matched groups, having had surgery through a posterior approach or via a Ganz trochanteric flip. There was no significant difference in femoral neck narrowing at follow up between the two surgical approaches. However, we found significant narrowing of the femoral neck in both groups by the time of the two year follow-up radiograph. PMID:21948029

  4. Riscos e consequências do uso da técnica transportal na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior: relação entre o túnel femoral, a artéria genicular lateral superior e o epicôndilo lateral do côndilo femoral / Risks and consequences of using the transportal technique in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament: relationships between the femoral tunnel, lateral superior genicular artery and lateral epicondyle of the femoral condyle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Costa, Astur; Vinicius, Aleluia; Ciro Veronese, Santos; Gustavo Gonçalves, Arliani; Ricardo, Badra; Saulo Gomes, Oliveira; Camila Cohen, Kaleka; Moisés, Cohen.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Definir zona de segurança para evitar possíveis complicações vasculares e ligamentares durante a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Reconstrução artroscópica com uso de técnica transportal e transtibial em joelhos de cadáver foi realizada seguida de dissecção e mensuração [...] da distância entre o túnel femoral e a inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral e o túnel femoral e a artéria genicular lateral superior. RESULTADOS: A mensuração das distâncias analisadas mostra uma aproximação maior do principal ramo da artéria genicular lateral superior e da inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral com o túnel femoral, realizado com a técnica transportal. CONCLUSÃO: Percebemos que o uso da técnica transportal para reconstrução artroscópica do LCA apresenta maior probabilidade de lesão da artéria genicular lateral e da inserção do ligamento colateral lateral, favorecendo complicações pós-cirúrgicas como instabilidade do joelho, osteonecrose do côndilo femoral lateral e ligamentização do enxerto. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Define a security zone to avoid possibles vascular and ligamentar complications during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial and transportal technique in cadaver knees was performed followed by dissection and measurement of t [...] he distance between the femoral tunnel and the proximal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the femoral tunnel and the lateral superior genicular artery. RESULTS: The measure of the analysed distances show us an aproximation between the major branch of the lateral superior genicular artery and the femoral insertion of the colateral lateral ligament and the femoral tunnel during the transportal technique. CONCLUSION: We realize that the use of technical ship it to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has a higher probability of injury to the lateral geniculate artery and insertion of the lateral collateral ligament, promoting post-surgical complications such as instability of the knee, osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle and ligamentização graft.

  5. Contribuição ao estudo anatômico do retalho vascularizado corticoperiosteal do côndilo medial do fêmur / Contribution to the anatomical study of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rômulo Guimarães, Andrade; Henrique Gubert, Bufáiçal; Leandro Alves de, Oliveira; Fabiano Inácio de, Souza; Mário Yoshihide, Kuwae; João Alírio Teixeira da, Silva Júnior.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar o estudo anatômico, em cadáveres, do retalho corticoperiosteal do côndilo femoral medial baseado na artéria genicular medial, avaliando a dificuldade de dissecção e padrões topográficos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 15 membros de oito cadáveres, com idade variando de 19 a 74 anos. Dis [...] postos em posição supina, foi realizada incisão longitudinal na face medial do terço distal da coxa, exposição dos vasos geniculares descendentes entre os músculos vasto medial e sartório. Foram analisados a distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e a interlinha medial do joelho, o diâmetro do vaso, o comprimento do pedículo, a presença do ramo fasciocutâneo e sua localização. RESULTADOS: A distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e a interlinha medial do joelho variou de 11,2cm a 14,5cm, com média de 12,63cm. O diâmetro médio da artéria foi de 2,5mm (de 2,25mm a 2,75mm). A distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e o ramo fasciocutâneo variou entre 1,0 e 1,5cm. O comprimento médio do pedículo vascular, foi de 7,01cm, variando de 5,6 a 8,6cm. CONCLUSÃO: O retalho corticoperiosteal do côndilo femoral medial do joelho é de fácil dissecção, possui pedículo vascular constante, com comprimento médio de 7,0cm e diâmetro de 2,5mm, o que possibilita sua indicação em transplantes microcirúrgicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to perform the anatomical study, in cadavers, of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle, based on the medial genicular artery, evaluating challenges in dissection and the topographic patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fifteen limbs from eight cadavers were studied, ages ra [...] nging from 19 to 74 years old. They were placed at supine position, and a longitudinal incision on the medial face of the lower part of the thigh was performed, exposing medial vastus and sartorius muscles, with descendent genicular vessels being also exposed. The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee, the diameter of the vessel, the length of the pedicle, and the presence of the fasciocutaneous branch and its location were analyzed. RESULTS: the distance between the origin of the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee ranged from 11.2cm to 14.5cm, with an average of 12.63cm. The mean artery diameter was 2.5mm (from 2.25mm to 2.75mm). The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the fasciocutaneous branch ranged from 1.0 to 1.5cm. The mean length of the vascular pedicle was 7.01cm, ranging from 5.6cm to 8.6cm. CONCLUSION: the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle of the knee is easy to dissect, presents a constant vascular pedicle, with average length of 7.0cm and diameter of 2.5mm, enabling it to be indicated for microsurgical transplants.

  6. Contribuição ao estudo anatômico do retalho vascularizado corticoperiosteal do côndilo medial do fêmur Contribution to the anatomical study of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Guimarães Andrade

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar o estudo anatômico, em cadáveres, do retalho corticoperiosteal do côndilo femoral medial baseado na artéria genicular medial, avaliando a dificuldade de dissecção e padrões topográficos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 15 membros de oito cadáveres, com idade variando de 19 a 74 anos. Dispostos em posição supina, foi realizada incisão longitudinal na face medial do terço distal da coxa, exposição dos vasos geniculares descendentes entre os músculos vasto medial e sartório. Foram analisados a distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e a interlinha medial do joelho, o diâmetro do vaso, o comprimento do pedículo, a presença do ramo fasciocutâneo e sua localização. RESULTADOS: A distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e a interlinha medial do joelho variou de 11,2cm a 14,5cm, com média de 12,63cm. O diâmetro médio da artéria foi de 2,5mm (de 2,25mm a 2,75mm. A distância entre a origem da artéria genicular descendente e o ramo fasciocutâneo variou entre 1,0 e 1,5cm. O comprimento médio do pedículo vascular, foi de 7,01cm, variando de 5,6 a 8,6cm. CONCLUSÃO: O retalho corticoperiosteal do côndilo femoral medial do joelho é de fácil dissecção, possui pedículo vascular constante, com comprimento médio de 7,0cm e diâmetro de 2,5mm, o que possibilita sua indicação em transplantes microcirúrgicos.OBJECTIVE: to perform the anatomical study, in cadavers, of the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle, based on the medial genicular artery, evaluating challenges in dissection and the topographic patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fifteen limbs from eight cadavers were studied, ages ranging from 19 to 74 years old. They were placed at supine position, and a longitudinal incision on the medial face of the lower part of the thigh was performed, exposing medial vastus and sartorius muscles, with descendent genicular vessels being also exposed. The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee, the diameter of the vessel, the length of the pedicle, and the presence of the fasciocutaneous branch and its location were analyzed. RESULTS: the distance between the origin of the descendent genicular artery and the medial articular line of the knee ranged from 11.2cm to 14.5cm, with an average of 12.63cm. The mean artery diameter was 2.5mm (from 2.25mm to 2.75mm. The distance between the descendent genicular artery and the fasciocutaneous branch ranged from 1.0 to 1.5cm. The mean length of the vascular pedicle was 7.01cm, ranging from 5.6cm to 8.6cm. CONCLUSION: the corticoperiosteal flap of the medial femoral condyle of the knee is easy to dissect, presents a constant vascular pedicle, with average length of 7.0cm and diameter of 2.5mm, enabling it to be indicated for microsurgical transplants.

  7. Evaluation and comparison of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and medial femoral condyle by using morphological MRI and biochemical zonal T2 mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Mamisch, Tallal C. [University of Berne, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Quirbach, Sebastian; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Zak, Lukas; Marlovits, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Joints and Cartilage, Department of Trauma Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study was to use advanced MR techniques to evaluate and compare cartilage repair tissue after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) in the patella and medial femoral condyle (MFC). Thirty-four patients treated with MACT underwent 3-T MRI of the knee. Patients were treated on either patella (n = 17) or MFC (n = 17) cartilage and were matched by age and postoperative interval. For morphological evaluation, the MR observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used, with a 3D-True-FISP sequence. For biochemical assessment, T2 mapping was prepared by using a multiecho spin-echo approach with particular attention to the cartilage zonal structure. Statistical evaluation was done by analyses of variance. The MOCART score showed no significant differences between the patella and MFC (p {>=} 0.05). With regard to biochemical T2 relaxation, higher T2 values were found throughout the MFC (p < 0.05). The zonal increase in T2 values from deep to superficial was significant for control cartilage (p < 0.001) and cartilage repair tissue (p < 0.05), with an earlier onset in the repair tissue of the patella. The assessment of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and MFC afforded comparable morphological results, whereas biochemical T2 values showed differences, possibly due to dissimilar biomechanical loading conditions. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation and comparison of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and medial femoral condyle by using morphological MRI and biochemical zonal T2 mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to use advanced MR techniques to evaluate and compare cartilage repair tissue after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) in the patella and medial femoral condyle (MFC). Thirty-four patients treated with MACT underwent 3-T MRI of the knee. Patients were treated on either patella (n = 17) or MFC (n = 17) cartilage and were matched by age and postoperative interval. For morphological evaluation, the MR observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used, with a 3D-True-FISP sequence. For biochemical assessment, T2 mapping was prepared by using a multiecho spin-echo approach with particular attention to the cartilage zonal structure. Statistical evaluation was done by analyses of variance. The MOCART score showed no significant differences between the patella and MFC (p ? 0.05). With regard to biochemical T2 relaxation, higher T2 values were found throughout the MFC (p < 0.05). The zonal increase in T2 values from deep to superficial was significant for control cartilage (p < 0.001) and cartilage repair tissue (p < 0.05), with an earlier onset in the repair tissue of the patella. The assessment of cartilage repair tissue of the patella and MFC afforded comparable morphological results, whereas biochemical T2 values showed differences, possibly due to dissimilar biomechanical loading conditions. (orig.)

  9. 99mTc-HDP Pinhole Bone Scan Features of Undetached Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle: Report of a Case with Radiography, CT, and MRI Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCD may be initiated by arrest of bone growth and subchondral osteosclerosis followed by either cartilage hypertrophy with calcification or enfolding with osteochondral bridging. Diagnosis can be made in most instances using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) or invasive arthroscopy. As to usefulness of conventional radiography (CR) opinions diverge as some held it to be of limited value while others valuable. The controversy seems to be due to semantic confusion of OCD from osteonecrosis (ON) which are different entities. This report will describe a case of undetached OCD occurred in the medial femoral condyle in a middle-aged female. It was free of symptom and incidentally discovered on 99mTc-HDP pinhole scan performed for patellar injury. Pinhole scan findings of OCD are correlated to those of CR, CT, and MRI. An electronic search of literature failed to reveal earlier publication of bone scan features of undetached OCD. Pathologically, OCD differs from ON in that the fragment in the former condition comes off from a normal vascular bony bed while that in the latter separates from an avascular bony bed. Indeed, bone fragment in ON is devascularized but that in OCD maintains vascularity until weighted images, respectively and the halo showed low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 images

  10. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in the mid-term follow-up of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle and talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Definition of the prognostic value of clinical and morphological findings in the mid-term follow-up of OCD of the femoral condyle and talus. Demonstration of the consolidation of OCD on MRI depending on different therapies. Materials and Methods: 76 patients were examined before and at an average of 30 months after conservative or surgical therapy using T1 and T2 weighted SE and 3D-FISP sequences and contrast enhanced studies. Six clinical (age, gender, site, duration and severity of symptoms, therapy) and six morphological (size, signal intensity, fragmentation, contrast enhancement, condition of cartilage, staging) data were registered on first MRI and correlated with the degree of consolidation of OCD (partial and complete remission, no change and progression) on control MRI. Results: Patients under 17 years showed partial or complete remissions in 73%, those of 17 years or older in 33%. Conservatively treated patients had a higher remission rate (54%) than those treated with different surgical techniques (drilling 50%, refixation 43%, abrasio 38%). Small OCDs had a higher remission rate than large lesions (63% vs. 33%). OCDs covered with intact cartilage healed better than lesions with chondral defects (61% vs. 26%). Contrast enhancing fragments had a better prognosis than non-enhancing lesions (100% vs. 40%). Conclusions: Prognosis of OCD can be better estimated when size of OCD, condition of cartilage and enhancement of contrast agent is graduated with MRI and patient age is registered. The consequences for therapy planning are great. (orig.)

  11. Femoral Condyle Fracture during Revision of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Case Report and a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2015-04-01

    Not inserting multiple guide pins, keeping a safe distance from the posterior cortex and giving more attention during graft tensioning, especially in revision surgeries, are all small points that can reduce the risk of fracture during the revision of ACL reconstruction

  12. Estudio Biométrico de la Arterias Femoral, Poplítea y Tibial Posterior en Relación a los Implantes de Stents / Biometric Study of the Femoral, Popliteal and Posterior Tibial Arteries in Relation to the Stents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moreira da, Costa Filho, E; Avelino, dos Santos, T. F; Avelino, dos Santos, F. T; Honorato, Pereira, V; Brandão, Pitta, G. B; M, del Sol; E, Olave; C. F, Sousa-Rodrigues.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los aneurismas de la arteria poplítea son los más frecuentes entre los aneurismas periféricos, pudiendo ser tratados con stents a través de cirugía endovascular. Sin embargo, tales stents poseen el mismo diámetro en la parte proximal y distal, no siendo compatible con la anatomía vascular de ese seg [...] mento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la diferencia entre el diámetro del tercio distal de la arteria femoral y el diámetro de la arteria tibial posterior, además de obtener el diámetro de otras arterias del miembro inferior. Se utilizaron 28 cadáveres formolizados de individuos adultos, de ambos sexos, los que fueron disecados en la región correspondiente. Los diámetros registrados fueron los siguientes: en el tercio distal de la arteria femoral (inicio de la arteria poplítea), parte final de la arteria poplítea antes de su bifurcación en arterias tibial anterior y posterior, arterias tibial anterior y posterior (tronco tibiofibular). En el sexo masculino, desde el tercio distal de la arteria femoral hasta la arteria tibial posterior hubo una reducción del diámetro de 27,92% (p Abstract in english The popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common among peripheral aneurysms and can be treated with stents through endovascular surgery. However, these stents have the same diameter at the proximal and distal part , not being compatible with the vascular anatomy of that segment. The aim of this st [...] udy was determine the difference between the diameter of the distal third of the femoral artery and the diameter of the posterior tibial artery, and to obtain the diameter of others arteries of the lower limb. We study 28 formalized cadavers of adult individuals of both sexes, which were dissected in the corresponding region. The following arterial diameters were recorded: the distal third of the femoral artery, distal part of the popliteal artery, anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery. In males from the distal third of the femoral artery to the posterior tibial artery there was a narrowing of 27.92% (p

  13. Posterior Wall Capture and Femoral Artery Stenosis Following Use of StarClose Closing Device: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Elgalal, Marcin T., E-mail: telgalal@yahoo.co.uk [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szubert, Wojciech; Grzelak, Piotr [Medical University of Lodz, First Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland); Szopinski, Piotr [Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Vascular Surgery (Poland); Majos, Agata [Medical University of Lodz, Second Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    A case of femoral artery obstruction following application of a StarClose type arterial puncture closing device (APCD) is presented. Ultrasonographic and angiographic imaging of this complication was obtained. The posterior wall of the vessel was accidentally caught in the anchoring element of the nitinol clip. This complication was successfully resolved by endovascular treatment and the implantation of a stent.

  14. Comparative study of the areas of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits treated with gel of sugarcane biopolymer / Estudo comparativo das áreas de defeitos osteocondrais produzidas nos côndilos femorais de coelhos tratados com gel de biopolímero de cana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro de, Albuquerque; José Lamartine de Andrade, Aguiar; Saulo Monteiro dos, Santos; Nicodemus, Pontes Filho; Roberto José Vieira de, Mello; Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos, Costa; Clarissa Miranda Carneiro de, Albuquerque; Tarciana Mendonça de S., Almeida; Alessandro Henrique da Silva, Santos; Joacil Carlos da, Silva.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mensurar as áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos osteocondrais produzidos em côndilos femorais de coelhos preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar e comparar com o grupo controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados, 16 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia com seis [...] a sete meses de idade, entre 2,0 e 2,5 kg de peso. Foram feitos, com trefina, defeitos de 3,2 x 4 mm nos côndilos femorais dos joelhos direito e esquerdo. Como grupo de estudo foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos direito que foram preenchidos com gel de biopolímero da cana-de-açucar. Como grupo controle foram utilizados os defeitos dos côndilos medial e lateral dos joelhos esquerdos que foram deixados abertos para cicatrização natural. Os defeitos foram analisados nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. Após a eutanásia, os joelhos foram retirados e fixados em solução de Bouin para posterior documentação fotográfica com maquina digital Nikon Coopix® 5400. As áreas cicatrizadas foram mensuradas nos grupos estudo e controle, através das imagens obtidas com o programa Image-J®. A análise estatística foi feita aplicando-se o teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significantes entre as médias das áreas cicatrizadas nos grupos estudo e controle nos períodos de 90, 120 e 180 dias após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: A dimensão das áreas cicatrizadas dos defeitos tratados com o gel do biopolímero da cana-de-açúcar, grupo de estudo foi semelhante as do grupo controle, cicatrizadas naturalmente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To measure the healed areas of osteochondral defects produced in femoral condyles of rabbits filled with biopolymer sugar cane gel and to compare these with those of the control group at 90, 120 and 180 days. METHODS: A study was made of 16 New Zealand rabbits, 6 and 7 months old, weighing [...] between 2 and 2.5 kg. Defects of 3.2 x 4 mm were made, with trephine, in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees. As to the study group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the right knee were used which were filled with Biopolymer Sugar Cane Gel; as to the Control Group defects of the medial and lateral condyles of the left t knees were used which were left open for natural healing. The defects were analyzed at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. After euthanasia, the knees were removed and fixed in Bouin's solution for later digital photographic documentation with a digital camera. The areas healed were measured in both the study and control groups using the images obtained from an Image-J® program. Statistical analysis was conducted using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the means of the healed areas in the study and control groups at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. CONCLUSION: The dimension of the healed areas of the defects treated with the biopolymer sugar-cane gel in the study group was similar to those of the control group, which healed naturally.

  15. MRI differentiates femoral condylar ossification evolution from osteochondritis dissecans. A new sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the femoral condyles in children can differentiate variations in ossification from osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). MRI studies of the knee of 315 patients demonstrated ossification defects of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate. MRI features categorized the defects as ossification variability (N = 150) or OCD (N = 165). Both groups were compared for age, residual physeal cartilage, site, configuration, 'lesion angle' and associated findings. (a) Ossification variability did not occur in girls >10 year. and boys >13 year., OCD did not occur in children younger than 8 year. (b) Ossification variability was not seen in patients with 10% or less residual physeal cartilage, OCD was rare in patients with 30% or greater residual physeal cartilage. (c) Ossification variability was located in the posterior third of the femoral condyle, OCD occurred most commonly in the middle third. (d) Intracondylar extension was seen in OCD and not in ossification variability. (e) Perilesional oedema was very common with OCD and absent with ossification variability. (f) Lesion angle <105 was a feature of ossification variability. MRI may help differentiate variations in ossification of the femoral condyles from OCD. (orig.)

  16. MRI differentiates femoral condylar ossification evolution from osteochondritis dissecans. A new sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, Lennart B.O.; Huysse, Wouter C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent (Belgium); Jaremko, Jacob L.; Ditchfield, Michael [University of Melbourne Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Vic (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    To determine if MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the femoral condyles in children can differentiate variations in ossification from osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). MRI studies of the knee of 315 patients demonstrated ossification defects of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate. MRI features categorized the defects as ossification variability (N = 150) or OCD (N = 165). Both groups were compared for age, residual physeal cartilage, site, configuration, 'lesion angle' and associated findings. (a) Ossification variability did not occur in girls >10 year. and boys >13 year., OCD did not occur in children younger than 8 year. (b) Ossification variability was not seen in patients with 10% or less residual physeal cartilage, OCD was rare in patients with 30% or greater residual physeal cartilage. (c) Ossification variability was located in the posterior third of the femoral condyle, OCD occurred most commonly in the middle third. (d) Intracondylar extension was seen in OCD and not in ossification variability. (e) Perilesional oedema was very common with OCD and absent with ossification variability. (f) Lesion angle <105 was a feature of ossification variability. MRI may help differentiate variations in ossification of the femoral condyles from OCD. (orig.)

  17. Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador Abordaje simplificado del nervio ciático por vía posterior, en el punto medio del sulco glúteo-femoral, con uso de neuroestimulador Simplified sciatic nerve approach by the posterior route at the median gluteus-femoral sulcus region, with a neurostimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Martins Fonseca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3. Sai da pelve através do forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps femoral e semitendinoso, até o terço inferior da coxa, onde se divide em dois grandes ramos denominados nervos tibial e fibular comum. Torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados nesta descrição anatômica, desenvolvemos uma abordagem posterior, tendo como vantagens a fácil identificação da anatomia de superfície, superficialidade do nervo nesta localização, provocando menor desconforto ao paciente que outras abordagens e podendo utilizar agulha de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ou III, com idades entre 21 e 79 anos, peso de 55 a 90 kg, submetidos a cirurgias em perna ou pé. Após monitorização, o paciente foi posicionado em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral (dobra da pele entre a nádega e região posterior da coxa, com auxílio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina (300 mg. Avaliou-se latência, tempo de execução do bloqueio, anestesia dos nervos tibial, fibular comum e cutâneo posterior da coxa. Quando necessário, foi também realizado o bloqueio do nervo safeno com 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e concentração usados. Em nenhum paciente ocorreu anestesia do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,58 ± 5,71 min. A latência foi de 5,88 ± 1,6 min. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 4,05 ± 1,1 e 2,9 ± 0,8 horas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Essa nova abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução. Não está indicada se o bloqueio do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa for necessário.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio ciático puede ser realizado por varios abordajes con ventajas y desventajas. El nervio ciático es el mayor nervio del cuerpo humano en diámetro y largura. Es la continuación del fascículo superior del plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 y S3. Sale de la pelvis a través del Fuerone isquiático mayor, pasando por bajo del músculo piriforme, baja entre el trocanter mayor del femur y la tuberosidad isquiática, y al largo del dorso del muslo, anterior a los músculos bíceps femoral y semitendinoso, hasta el tercero inferior del muslo, donde se divide en dos grandes ramos denominados nervios tibial y fibular común. Se torna superficial en la borda inferior del músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados en esta descripción anatómica, desenvolvemos un abordaje posterior, teniendo como ventajas la identificación fácil de la anatomía de superficie, superficialidad del nervio en esta localización, provocando menor incomodidad al paciente que otros abordajes y pudiendo utilizar aguja de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ó III, con edades entre 21 y 79 años, peso de 55 a 90 kg, sometidos a cirugías en piernas o pies. Después de monitorización, el paciente fue posicionado en decúbito ventral y realizado bloqueo en el punto medio del sulco glúteo femoral (dobla de la piel entre la nalga y la región posterior del muslo, con auxilio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sin adrenalina (300 mg. Se evaluó la latencia, tiempo de ejecución del bloqueo, anestesia de los nervios tibial, fibular común y cutáneo posterior del muslo. Cuando necesario, fue también realizado el bloqueo del nervio safeno con 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo anestesia adecuada en todos los casos con el volumen y concentración usados. En ningún paciente ocurrió anest

  18. Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador / Simplified sciatic nerve approach by the posterior route at the median gluteus-femoral sulcus region, with a neurostimulator / Abordaje simplificado del nervio ciático por vía posterior, en el punto medio del sulco glúteo-femoral, con uso de neuroestimulador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neuber Martins, Fonseca; Fernando Xavier, Ferreira; Roberto Araújo, Ruzi; Gulherme Carnaval Souza, Pereira.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3). Sai da pelve através d [...] o forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps femoral e semitendinoso, até o terço inferior da coxa, onde se divide em dois grandes ramos denominados nervos tibial e fibular comum. Torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados nesta descrição anatômica, desenvolvemos uma abordagem posterior, tendo como vantagens a fácil identificação da anatomia de superfície, superficialidade do nervo nesta localização, provocando menor desconforto ao paciente que outras abordagens e podendo utilizar agulha de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ou III, com idades entre 21 e 79 anos, peso de 55 a 90 kg, submetidos a cirurgias em perna ou pé. Após monitorização, o paciente foi posicionado em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral (dobra da pele entre a nádega e região posterior da coxa), com auxílio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina (300 mg). Avaliou-se latência, tempo de execução do bloqueio, anestesia dos nervos tibial, fibular comum e cutâneo posterior da coxa. Quando necessário, foi também realizado o bloqueio do nervo safeno com 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e concentração usados. Em nenhum paciente ocorreu anestesia do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,58 ± 5,71 min. A latência foi de 5,88 ± 1,6 min. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 4,05 ± 1,1 e 2,9 ± 0,8 horas, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Essa nova abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução. Não está indicada se o bloqueio do nervo cutâneo posterior da coxa for necessário. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio ciático puede ser realizado por varios abordajes con ventajas y desventajas. El nervio ciático es el mayor nervio del cuerpo humano en diámetro y largura. Es la continuación del fascículo superior del plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 y S3). Sale de la pel [...] vis a través del Fuerone isquiático mayor, pasando por bajo del músculo piriforme, baja entre el trocanter mayor del femur y la tuberosidad isquiática, y al largo del dorso del muslo, anterior a los músculos bíceps femoral y semitendinoso, hasta el tercero inferior del muslo, donde se divide en dos grandes ramos denominados nervios tibial y fibular común. Se torna superficial en la borda inferior del músculo glúteo máximo. Baseados en esta descripción anatómica, desenvolvemos un abordaje posterior, teniendo como ventajas la identificación fácil de la anatomía de superficie, superficialidad del nervio en esta localización, provocando menor incomodidad al paciente que otros abordajes y pudiendo utilizar aguja de 5 cm. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 17 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, II ó III, con edades entre 21 y 79 años, peso de 55 a 90 kg, sometidos a cirugías en piernas o pies. Después de monitorización, el paciente fue posicionado en decúbito ventral y realizado bloqueo en el punto medio del sulco glúteo femoral (dobla de la piel entre la nalga y la región posterior del muslo), con auxilio de neuroestimulador, utilizando lidocaína a 1% sin adrenalina (300 mg). Se evaluó la latencia, tiempo de ejecución del bloqueo, anestesia de los nervios tibial, fibular común y cutáneo posterior del muslo. Cuando necesario, fue también realizado el bloqueo del nervio safeno con 5 ml de lidocaína a 1%. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo anestesia adecuada en todos los casos con el volumen y concentración u

  19. Riscos e consequências do uso da técnica transportal na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior: relação entre o túnel femoral, a artéria genicular lateral superior e o epicôndilo lateral do côndilo femoral Risks and consequences of using the transportal technique in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament: relationships between the femoral tunnel, lateral superior genicular artery and lateral epicondyle of the femoral condyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Definir zona de segurança para evitar possíveis complicações vasculares e ligamentares durante a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Reconstrução artroscópica com uso de técnica transportal e transtibial em joelhos de cadáver foi realizada seguida de dissecção e mensuração da distância entre o túnel femoral e a inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral e o túnel femoral e a artéria genicular lateral superior. RESULTADOS: A mensuração das distâncias analisadas mostra uma aproximação maior do principal ramo da artéria genicular lateral superior e da inserção proximal do ligamento colateral lateral com o túnel femoral, realizado com a técnica transportal. CONCLUSÃO: Percebemos que o uso da técnica transportal para reconstrução artroscópica do LCA apresenta maior probabilidade de lesão da artéria genicular lateral e da inserção do ligamento colateral lateral, favorecendo complicações pós-cirúrgicas como instabilidade do joelho, osteonecrose do côndilo femoral lateral e ligamentização do enxerto.OBJECTIVE: Define a security zone to avoid possibles vascular and ligamentar complications during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Arthroscopic reconstruction using the transtibial and transportal technique in cadaver knees was performed followed by dissection and measurement of the distance between the femoral tunnel and the proximal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament and the femoral tunnel and the lateral superior genicular artery. RESULTS: The measure of the analysed distances show us an aproximation between the major branch of the lateral superior genicular artery and the femoral insertion of the colateral lateral ligament and the femoral tunnel during the transportal technique. CONCLUSION: We realize that the use of technical ship it to arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has a higher probability of injury to the lateral geniculate artery and insertion of the lateral collateral ligament, promoting post-surgical complications such as instability of the knee, osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle and ligamentização graft.

  20. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in the mid-term follow-up of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle and talus; Die Bedeutung der Magnetresonanztomographie fuer die Verlaufskontrolle der Osteochondrosis dissecans am Knie- und Sprunggelenk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G.; Rominger, M.; Rau, W.S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie; Juergensen, I. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: Definition of the prognostic value of clinical and morphological findings in the mid-term follow-up of OCD of the femoral condyle and talus. Demonstration of the consolidation of OCD on MRI depending on different therapies. Materials and Methods: 76 patients were examined before and at an average of 30 months after conservative or surgical therapy using T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted SE and 3D-FISP sequences and contrast enhanced studies. Six clinical (age, gender, site, duration and severity of symptoms, therapy) and six morphological (size, signal intensity, fragmentation, contrast enhancement, condition of cartilage, staging) data were registered on first MRI and correlated with the degree of consolidation of OCD (partial and complete remission, no change and progression) on control MRI. Results: Patients under 17 years showed partial or complete remissions in 73%, those of 17 years or older in 33%. Conservatively treated patients had a higher remission rate (54%) than those treated with different surgical techniques (drilling 50%, refixation 43%, abrasio 38%). Small OCDs had a higher remission rate than large lesions (63% vs. 33%). OCDs covered with intact cartilage healed better than lesions with chondral defects (61% vs. 26%). Contrast enhancing fragments had a better prognosis than non-enhancing lesions (100% vs. 40%). Conclusions: Prognosis of OCD can be better estimated when size of OCD, condition of cartilage and enhancement of contrast agent is graduated with MRI and patient age is registered. The consequences for therapy planning are great. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bewertung von MRT-Befunden und klinischen Daten als Prognoseparameter fuer den mittelfristigen Heilungsverlauf der Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) an Knie- und Sprunggelenk. Zudem wird die Konsolidierung der OCD unter verschiedenen Therapieformen untersucht. Material und Methoden: 76 Patienten wurden vor und durchschnittlich 30 Monaten nach konservativer bzw. chirurgischer Therapie einer OCD MR-tomographisch untersucht (T{sub 1}-gewichtete SE-Sequenz ohne und mit Kontrastmittel, T{sub 2}-gewichtete SE-Sequenz, FISP-3D-Sequenz). Klinische Daten (Alter, Geschlecht, Lokalisation, Anamnesedauer, Symptomatik und Art der Therapie) und MRT-Befunde (Groesse, Signal, Sinterung, Kontrastmittelaufnahme, Knorpelzustand, Stadium) wurden mit dem im Kontroll-MRT erkennbaren Heilungszustand (partielle bzw. komplette Remission Konstanz, Progression) korreliert. Ergebnisse: Bei Patienten unter 17 Jahren wurde eine partielle bzw. komplette Remission in 73%, bei Patienten ueber 17 Jahren in 33% registriert. Die konservative Behandlung fuehrte zu einer etwas hoeheren Remissionsrate (54%) als die chirurgischen Therapieformen (Bohrung 50%, Refixation 43%, Abrasio 38%). Kleine OCDs heilten besser als grosse (63% vs. 33%), Herde mit intaktem Knorpel besser (61%) als jene mit Knorpeldefekten (26%) und nach Kontrastmittelgabe anreichernde Fragmente wesentlich haeufiger (100%) als nicht anreichernde (40%). Schlussfolgerung: Wichtigster klinischer Parameter fuer die Prognose der OCD ist das Alter. Unter den MRT-Kriterien stehen die Groesse des Defekts, der Zustand des Knorpelbelags und die Kontrastmittelaufnahme im Fragment an der Spitze. Die Konsequenzen dieser Befunde fuer die Therapieplanung sind betraechtlich. (orig.)

  1. Observation of femoral and tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament by using conventional CT and transparent 3D-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are image data acquisitioned by the volume rendering (VR)-3D-CT and authors' transparent (T)-3D-CT to depict the bone contour, of medial intercondylar ridge (MIR) and posterior intercodylar fossa (PIF) at femoral and tibial insertion, respectively, of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) as those data are helpful for planning the reconstruction surgery of PCL and for confirming the femoral PCL insertion by using the C-arm during operation. Helical scanning is conducted with GE MD-CT (64DAS) to reconstruct VR-3D-CT image with the workstation ZIO's ZIO900M Quadra and T-3D-CT image, by reducing the opacity by pixel exclusion of the intraosseous lumen. MIR is observed in all 70 normal knees tested in VR-3D-CT and the bifurcate ridge, in 15 knees among them. In T-3D-CT image, distance data of the origin of MIR from Blumensaat's line and the angle of MIR and bone axis are calculated and presented. In VR-3D-CT and T-3D-CT images of PIF from 20 knees, actual measures of PIF slope angle (degree), PIF area ratio to joint surface (JS) (%), distance from JS to centers of anterolateral (AL) and posterolateral (PM) slopes (mm), and from medial and lateral JS to PIF posterior border (mm), and distance ratios of PM and AL to medial and lateral tibia, respectively, (%) are calculated and presented. Findings are: MIR originates at 45% distal point of Blumensaat's line; the articular line crosses with PIF at its center in T-3D-CT sagittal plane; centers of tibial AL and PM exist at the middle of frontal plane, and at 1.00 and 5.5 mm, respectively, distal points of JS of sagittal plane. The PIF data are rather comparable to those obtained in cadavers reported in 3 literatures and the present procedure is concluded to be valid. (author)

  2. Transient Monoplegia as a Result of Unilateral Femoral Artery Ischemia Detected by Multimodal Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Posterior Scoliosis Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowski, Rafal; Roclawski, Marek; Dziegiel, Krzysztof; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mikulicz, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Kloc, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    This is to report a case of 16-year-old girl with transient right lower limb monoplegia as a result of femoral artery ischemia detected by multimodal intraoperative spinal cord neuromonitoring (MISNM) during posterior correction surgery of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.A patient with a marfanoid body habitus and LENKE IA type scoliosis with the right thoracic curve of 48° of Cobb angle was admitted for posterior spinal fusion from Th6 to L2. After selective pedicle screws instrumentation and corrective maneuvers motor evoked potentials (MEP) began to decrease with no concomitant changes in somato-sensory evoked potentials recordings.The instrumentation was released first partially than completely with rod removal but the patient demonstrated constantly increasing serious neurological motor deficit of the whole right lower limb. Every technical cause of the MEP changes was eliminated and during the wake-up test the right foot was found to be pale and cold with no popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses palpable. The patient was repositioned and the pelvic pad was placed more cranially. Instantly, the pulse and color returned to the patient's foot. Following MEP recordings showed gradual return of motor function up to the baseline at the end of the surgery, whereas somato-sensory evoked potentials were within normal range through the whole procedure.This case emphasizes the importance of the proper pelvic pad positioning during the complex spine surgeries performed in prone position of the patient. A few cases of neurological complications have been described which were the result of vascular occlusion after prolonged pressure in the inguinal area during posterior scoliosis surgery when the patient was in prone position. If incorrectly interpreted, they would have a significant impact on the course of scoliosis surgery. PMID:26871822

  3. Relationship between the condyle and adjacent structures in double temporomandibular joint view using panorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Yul; Kim, Jae Duk [Chosun Univ. Dental School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To investigate the ability of double TMJ view by multifunctional panorama to view the bony components and the space of the temporomandibular joint. Ten dry skulls fitted with resin shims over the caricular surface of the condyle were used to reproduce the temporomandibular joint space. Fine metal wires were attached to the three portions of contours of the condylar head and the articular eminence. With 10 dry skulls and 20 cases having TMJ dysfunction, double TMJ views by multifunctional panorama (Planmeca 2002 Proline CC) and transcranial views were taken, analyzed from the anatomical view point, and compared statistically in view of the widths of the posterior joint space and the condylar head. In double TMJ view, the supero-anterior part of the condyle represented the lateral 1/3, the most superior part represented center portion, and the posterior part medial 1/3 of the condyle. In maximum mouth opening, no other structures were statistically with the condyle in double TMJ view. In double TMJ view, petrous bone was moderately superimposed with the superior part of the condyle. The tendency of reduction in the posterior joint space appeared in the side of TMJ dysfunction compared with the normal side. The posterior joint spaces in double TMJ view were statistically wider (p<0.05) than those in transcranial view. The correlation coefficient was 0.5179 between the widths of the posterior joint spaces in two radiographic views. Double TMJ view can be substituted for transcracial view in evaluating the TMJ dysfunction.

  4. Relationship between the condyle and adjacent structures in double temporomandibular joint view using panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the ability of double TMJ view by multifunctional panorama to view the bony components and the space of the temporomandibular joint. Ten dry skulls fitted with resin shims over the caricular surface of the condyle were used to reproduce the temporomandibular joint space. Fine metal wires were attached to the three portions of contours of the condylar head and the articular eminence. With 10 dry skulls and 20 cases having TMJ dysfunction, double TMJ views by multifunctional panorama (Planmeca 2002 Proline CC) and transcranial views were taken, analyzed from the anatomical view point, and compared statistically in view of the widths of the posterior joint space and the condylar head. In double TMJ view, the supero-anterior part of the condyle represented the lateral 1/3, the most superior part represented center portion, and the posterior part medial 1/3 of the condyle. In maximum mouth opening, no other structures were statistically with the condyle in double TMJ view. In double TMJ view, petrous bone was moderately superimposed with the superior part of the condyle. The tendency of reduction in the posterior joint space appeared in the side of TMJ dysfunction compared with the normal side. The posterior joint spaces in double TMJ view were statistically wider (p<0.05) than those in transcranial view. The correlation coefficient was 0.5179 between the widths of the posterior joint spaces in two radiographic views. Double TMJ view can be substituted for transcracial view in evaluating the TMJ dysfunction

  5. Rolamento posterior do fêmur na artroplastia total do joelho: comparação entre as próteses com preservação e com sacrifício do ligamento cruzado posterior Femoral roll back in total knee arthroplasty: comparison between prostheses that preserve and sacrifice the posterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Honório de Carvalho Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a posteriorização do ponto de contato entre o componente femoral e o polietileno tibial à medida em que o joelho é fletido em dois tipos de artroplastia total do joelho, uma com sacrifício e outra com preservação do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, sob fluoroscopia, 36 joelhos de 32 pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total do joelho. Analisando as imagens em perfil, foi medido o ponto de contato do fêmur com o polietileno tibial com o joelho em extensão completa e em 90 graus de flexão, mensurando-se o percentual de "rolamento" posterior do fêmur nas artroplastias em que o ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP foi sacrificado e naquelas nas quais esse foi preservado. RESULTADOS: O percentual médio de posteriorização do fêmur foi de 13,24% nos casos em que o LCP foi sacrificado e de 5,75% nos casos em que esse foi preservado. A diferença entre essas medidas foi estatisticamente significativa, com p = 0,026615. CONCLUSÃO: Na artroplastia total do joelho, sacrificar o LCP aumenta a translação posterior do ponto de contato entre o fêmur e a tíbia à medida em que o joelho é flexionado até 90 graus.OBJECTIVE: To compare the rollback of the contact point between the femoral component and the tibial polyethylene as the knee is flexed, in two types of total knee arthroplasty: one that sacrifices and the other that preserves the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL. METHODS: Under fluoroscopy, 36 knees from 32 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty were evaluated. Using lateral images, the contact points between the femur and the tibial polyethylene with the knee in complete extension and at 90° of flexion were measured, thereby measuring the percentage rollback of the femur in arthroplasties in which the PCL was sacrificed and in those in which it was preserved. RESULTS: The mean percentage rollback of the femur was 13.24% in the cases in which the PCL was sacrificed and 5.75% in the cases in which it was preserved. The difference between these measurements was statistically significant (p = 0.026615. CONCLUSION: In total knee arthroplasty, sacrificing the PCL increased the rollback of the contact point between the femur and tibia as the knee was flexed up to 90°.

  6. Saw tooth patello - Femoral arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients with an unusual form of patello-femoral arthritis are described. The characteristic feature of the condition is an erosive 'saw tooth' pattern characteristically seen on both sides of the joint. Radiologically, this pattern is best seen on the skyline view. The other principal features are a lamellar-like pattern on slightly oblique lateral views, a smooth supra patellar erosion of the femur seen on the lateral view and cortical ridging of the lateral femoral condyle seen 'en face' on the AP projection. A possible mechanism to account for the radiological features is proposed. Anbarasu, A., Loughran, C.F. (2000). Clinical Radiology 55, 767-769

  7. Radiographic femoral varus measurement is affected unpredictably by femoral rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    Radiographic measurements of femoral varus are used to determine if intervention to correct femoral deformity is required, and to calculate the required correction. The varus angle is defined as the angle between the proximal femoral long axis (PFLA) and an axis tangential to the distal femoral condyles. Ideal positioning of the femur in terms of zero elevation relative to the radiographic plane or zero rotation along the long axis of the femur may be difficult to obtain in practice. The clinician may thus be tempted to determine varus values from less than ideal radiographs. Fourteen isolated right femora were positioned at zero elevation (supracondylar eminence at same distance from the radiographic plate as the lesser trochanter, as defined in previous studies) and with the caudal condyles in contact with the radiography cassette (0° rotation) and subsequently rotated internally and externally by 5° and 10° using plastic wedges. Accuracy of rotation was within +1°. Digital radiographs were obtained at each position. Varus angles were measured using ImageJ, employing two definitions of PFLA. Mean varus angles increased with 10° of either internal or external rotation with both PFLA definitions, but at 5° increased slightly with one definition and decreased with the other. Scatter plots indicated that not all femora exhibited the same trend in change in varus angle. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between varus measurements for the different PFLA definitions and between rotation angles. The effect of rotation on varus angle measurements in these femoral specimens contradicts a previous report using CT. The most probable explanation is the difference in femoral positioning: the CT study used a slightly elevated position compared to that in this study, resulting in better visualisation of the condylar articular surfaces. Zero elevation frequently results in the articular surfaces being obscured by the trochlear ridges, even when positioned perfectly. Varus measurements vary unpredictably as a result of femoral rotation and this effect is likely further influenced by femoral elevation.

  8. Approximation of the functional kinematics of posterior stabilised total knee replacements using a two-dimensional sagittal plane patello-femoral model: comparing model approximation to in vivo measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duren, Bernard; Pandit, Hemant; Murray, David; Gill, Harinderjit

    2015-08-01

    Previous in vivo studies have observed that current designs of posterior stabilised (PS) total knee replacements (TKRs) may be ineffective in restoring normal kinematics in Late flexion. Computer-based models can prove a useful tool in improving PS knee replacement designs. This study investigates the accuracy of a two-dimensional (2D) sagittal plane model capable of predicting the functional sagittal plane kinematics of PS TKR implanted knees against direct in vivo measurement. Implant constraints are often used as determinants of anterior-posterior tibio-femoral positioning. This allowed the use of a patello-femoral modelling approach to determine the effect of implant constraints. The model was executed using motion simulation software which uses the constraint force algorithm to achieve a solution. A group of 10 patients implanted with Scorpio PS implants were recruited and underwent fluoroscopic imaging of their knees. The fluoroscopic images were used to determine relative implant orientation using a three-dimensional reconstruction method. The determined relative tibio-femoral orientations were then input to the model. The model calculated the patella tendon angles (PTAs) which were then compared with those measured from the in vivo fluoroscopic images. There were no significant differences between the measured and calculated PTAs. The average root mean square error between measured and modelled ranged from 1.17° to 2.10° over the flexion range. A sagittal plane patello-femoral model could conceivably be used to predict the functional 2D kinematics of an implanted knee joint. This may prove particularly useful in optimising PS designs. PMID:24559039

  9. THE INCREASED FEMORAL NECK ANTEVERSION IN MEDIEVAL CEMETERY OF PECENJEVCE: AETIOLOGY AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT / ANTEVERSIÓN FEMORAL AUMENTADA EN EL CEMENTERIO MEDIEVAL DE PECENJEVCE: ETIOLOGÍA Y DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL EN EL CONTEXTO ARQUEOLÓGICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ksenija, Djukic; Petar, Milenkovic; Petar, Milovanovic; Milos, Dakic; Marija, Djuric.

    Full Text Available Anteversión femoral se define como el ángulo entre el eje cérvico-cefálico y la tangente posterior bicondílea que pasa por el plano horizontal. Dado que no hay datos sobre el diagnóstico diferencial de esta característica en las poblaciones arqueológicas, la intención de este estudio fue investigar [...] anteversión femoral (FNA) en los esqueletos de una población medieval de Serbia. Los resultados demostraron valores de este ángulo de 11 a 24 grados en adultos, pero una persona tenía el ángulo de anteversión femoral significativamente aumentada (casi 60 grados). En la discusión hemos enfocado en el diagnóstico diferencial de alta FNA causada por diferente etiología, así como sobre las limitaciones diagnósticas en los huesos secos. La más probable etiología de aumento de FNA en nuestro caso es la forma asimétrica de parálisis cerebral. Revisión sistemática de la anteversión femoral puede demostrar las huellas de diversos trastornos ortopédicos y neuromusculares en las poblaciones humanas del pasado. Abstract in english The femoral neck anteversion (FNA) is defined as the angle between the longitudinal axis of the neck of a femur and the axis passing horizontally through femoral condyles. However, there is no data regarding this feature in archaeological populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investig [...] ate FNA in a medieval skeletal population from Serbia. According to the results the analysed angle ranged from 11 to 24 degrees in adults, apart from only one individual with significantly increased femoral neck anteversion of nearly 60 degrees. The discussion of the present paper is focused on the differential diagnosis of this condition and its aetiology, especially outlining diagnostic limitations when dealing with dry bones. Finally, the most probable aetiology of increased FNA in our case is the asymmetric form of cerebral palsy. Overall, the traces of various orthopaedic and neuromuscular disorders in past human populations could be revealed by systematic recording of the femoral neck anteversion during anthropological analyses.

  10. Injectable Biocomposites for Bone Healing in Rabbit Femoral Condyle Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianheng; Mao, Kezheng; Liu, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xiumei; Cui, Fuzhai; Guo, Wenguang; Mao, Keya; YANG, SHUYING

    2013-01-01

    A novel biomimetic bone scaffold was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAC). CSH/nHAC was prepared and observed with scanning electron microscope and rhBMP-2 was introduced into CSH/nHAC. The released protein content from the scaffold was detected using high performance liquid chromatography at predetermined time interval. In vivo bone formation capacity was investigated by means of implanting the s...

  11. Relationship between the effect of medial rotation of the foot axis by ankle dorsiflexion and the ability to visualize the femoral neck axis in the hip joint anterio-posterior radiography. Evaluation by magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In scanning of the hip joint anterio-posterior radiography, by changing the lower extremities to the extension position and moving the foot axis (base line of the foot) by medial rotation, the angle of anteversion of the femoral neck is corrected. In this study, we assessed the effects on medial rotation of the femoral neck when keeping the planta vertically-positioned by ankle dorsiflexion (intermediate position of the ankle) and making change of the medial rotation angle of the foot axis by scanning the magnetic resonance (MR) images of knee joints and hip joints. The subjects in this study were 12 males (age: 37.9±13.8, weight: 67.3±5.5 kg) and 7 females (age: 27.6±5.1, weight: 50.0±4.5 kg). We measured the medial rotation angles of knee joints and femoral necks on MR images. Also, differences of these angles between males and females were compared. Although the gender differences were not found in medial rotation angle of both joints at all leg positions (P>0.05), the medial rotation angles increased by approximately 1.5 to 2.0 times larger by putting them at the intermediate position, and there were significant differences between the naturally plantar-flexed position and the intermediate position (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the optimal leg position for correcting the angle of anteversion was 20 degrees medial rotation of the foot axis at the naturally plantar-flexed position, or 10 degrees medial rotation of the foot axis at the intermediate position, regardless of gender. (author)

  12. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  13. Fracture Through the Distal Femoral Epiphysis

    OpenAIRE

    Decoster, Laura C; Vailas, James C.

    1995-01-01

    Injuries to the distal femoral epiphysis are not common, but when they do occur, at least half of them occur in sports. Many athletic trainers work with skeletally immature athletes, thereby increasing the likelihood that they will face this type of injury. The case of a 14-year-old football player who sustained a Salter-Harris III fracture of his medial femoral condyle is presented to illustrate the classic natural history and prognosis of this injury. To properly evaluate this injury, the a...

  14. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Oh, Sung Won; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  15. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reports a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandibular condyle. Eosinophilic granulomas on the mandibular condyle are very rare, but there are several common clinical and radiographic presentations. The clinical presentations involve swelling on preauricular area, limitation of opening, TMJ pain, etc. The radiographic presentations involve radiolucent lytic condylar lesion with or without pathologic fracture. Sometimes new bone formations are observed. The purpose of the article is to add new cases to the literatures.

  16. Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Luana Costa; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores, E-mail: bastosluana@ymail.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral e Maxilofacial; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Pontual, Andrea dos Anjos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Camaragibe, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral; Almeida, Solange Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia Oral

    2013-11-15

    This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and / or posterior surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar’s test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p < 0.01). Only in identifying the defects located on the posterior surface was it possible to observe the influence of the 1.0 mm protocol thickness and no filter, which showed a significantly lower value. Based on the results of the current study, the technique used was valid for identifying the existence of cavities in the condyle surface. However, the protocol of a 1.0 mm-thick slice and no filter proved to be the worst method for identifying the defects on the posterior surface. (author)

  17. Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and / or posterior surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar’s test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p < 0.01). Only in identifying the defects located on the posterior surface was it possible to observe the influence of the 1.0 mm protocol thickness and no filter, which showed a significantly lower value. Based on the results of the current study, the technique used was valid for identifying the existence of cavities in the condyle surface. However, the protocol of a 1.0 mm-thick slice and no filter proved to be the worst method for identifying the defects on the posterior surface. (author)

  18. Bloqueio do nervo isquiático por abordagem posterior simplificada no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral: estudo com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Neuber Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo isquiático por via subglútea foi descrito com sucesso em estudo anterior, sendo mais uma opção entre as várias abordagens possíveis. O nervo isquiático torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo, permitindo seu acesso com fácil localização, pouco desconforto e baixo risco de punção acidental de grandes vasos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático por esta abordagem simplificada com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com intervenções cirúrgicas na perna ou no pé distribuídos em dois grupos. Após monitorização, eles foram posicionados em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com auxílio de neuroestimulador e agulha de 5 cm eletricamente isolada, utilizando 300 mg (G1 ou 200 mg (G2 de lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e a concentração usados. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,6 ? 5,7 min (G1 e 5,6 ? 5,7 min (G2. A latência foi de 5,98 ? 1,4 min (G1 e 6,7 ? 2,9 min (G2. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 243 ? 37 min e 152 ? 30 min (G1 e 235 ? 39 min e 149 ? 59 min (G2, respectivamente. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Essa abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução, podendo a dose total de anestésico ser reduzida sem comprometimento da qualidade.

  19. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply

  20. Late open reduction internal fixation of lateral condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenbarger, J Michael; Gerardi, J; Johnston, C E

    2002-01-01

    To study the effects of late open reduction of lateral condyle fracture (LCF) on avascular necrosis (AVN), amount of displacement, and improvement, the records of 11 children with an open capitellar physis and a malunion or a nonunion treated >3 weeks after injury were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative displacement amounts were recorded. Radiographs were reviewed for AVN, lateral overgrowth, or fishtail deformity. There were no cases of AVN. Three patients had occasional pain. Four patients had displacement of >10 mm before surgery. In fractures with >1 cm of displacement, fragment position was minimally improved surgically, but final alignment and range of motion were good. These fractures showed more radiographic deformities at the time of late open reduction. The risk of AVN with late open reduction of LCF at >3 weeks is reduced if no tissue is stripped off the fracture fragment posteriorly. Even children without anatomic reduction had functional arms with little or no pain. PMID:11961463

  1. Femoral articular shape and geometry. A three-dimensional computerized analysis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, D; Rudan, J; Wevers, H W; Griffiths, P

    1996-02-01

    An average, three-dimensional anatomic shape and geometry of the distal femur were generated from x-ray computed tomography data of five fresh asymptomatic cadaver knees using AutoCAD (AutoDesk, Sausalito, CA), a computer-aided design and drafting software. Each femur model was graphically repositioned to a standardized orientation using a series of alignment templates and scaled to a nominal size of 85 mm in mediolateral and 73 mm in anteroposterior dimensions. An average generic shape of the distal femur was synthesized by combining these pseudosolid models and reslicing the composite structure at different elevations using clipping and smoothing techniques in interactive computer graphics. The resulting distal femoral geometry was imported into a computer-aided manufacturing system, and anatomic prototypes of the distal femur were produced. Quantitative geometric analyses of the generic femur in the coronal and transverse planes revealed definite condylar camber (3 degrees-6 degrees) and toe-in (8 degrees-10 degrees) with an oblique patellofemoral groove (15 degrees) with respect to the mechanical axis of the femur. In the sagittal plane, each condyle could be approximated by three concatenated circular arcs (anterior, distal, and posterior) with slope continuity and a single arc for the patellofemoral groove. The results of this study may have important implications in future femoral prosthesis design and clinical applications. PMID:8648311

  2. Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luana Costa, Bastos; Paulo Sergio Flores, Campos; Flavia Maria de Moraes, Ramos-Perez; Andrea dos Anjos, Pontual; Solange Maria, Almeida.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate how well cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can detect simulated cavitary defects in condyles, and to test the influence of the reconstruction protocols. Defects were created with spherical diamond burs (numbers 1013, 1016, 3017) in superior and/or posterior [...] surfaces of twenty condyles. The condyles were scanned, and cross-sectional reconstructions were performed with nine different protocols, based on slice thickness (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 mm) and on the filters (original image, Sharpen Mild, S9) used. Two observers evaluated the defects, determining their presence and location. Statistical analysis was carried out using simple Kappa coefficient and McNemar's test to check inter- and intra-rater reliability. The chi-square test was used to compare the rater accuracy. Analysis of variance (Tukey's test) assessed the effect of the protocols used. Kappa values for inter- and intra-rater reliability demonstrate almost perfect agreement. The proportion of correct answers was significantly higher than that of errors for cavitary defects on both condyle surfaces (p

  3. 21 CFR 872.3960 - Mandibular condyle prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A mandibular condyle prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the human jaw to... requirement for premarket approval for any mandibular condyle prosthesis intended to be implanted in the human... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular condyle prosthesis. 872.3960...

  4. No differences in morphological characteristics between hyperplastic condyle and class III condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, D R; Muñoz, P; Olate, S; de Moraes, M; Fariña, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the condylar morphology of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and patients with a class III skeletal relationship using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A prospective study was conducted on patients with facial asymmetry attending the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the study university in Chile. Fifteen patients with UCH and 15 with a class III skeletal relationship were selected. Linear measurements of the condylar processes were obtained at a scale of 1:1 using the software Ez3D Viewer Plus. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the paired t-test were used, considering P<0.05. Patients with UCH presented statistical differences between the hyperplastic condyle and non-hyperplastic condyle for anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters, condylar neck length, and ramus height. Patients with a class III skeletal relationship showed no differences between the right and left sides; the morphology of their condyles was similar to the condyles with hyperplasia and presented statistical differences when compared with the non-hyperplastic condyles (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05). The condylar morphology of UCH patients could be related to the development of a class III skeletal relationship. These findings provide an insight into the possibility of some class III patients presenting bilateral condylar hyperplasia. PMID:26112995

  5. Shape and Symmetry of Human Condyle and Mandibular Fossa / Forma y Simetría del Cóndilo Humano y Fosa Mandibular

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Cotecchia, Ribeiro; Monique Lalue, Sanches; Luis Garcia, Alonso; Ricardo Luiz, Smith.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y clasificar la forma de la fosa mandibular y cóndilo correspondiente en diferentes tipos, relacionándolos con el sexo y la simetría en cráneos humanos adultos en perspectivas laterales, posteriores y superiores. La muestra incluyó 50 cráneos humanos de 32 homb [...] res y 18 mujeres entre 23 a 82 años. Fueron fotografiados el cóndilo y moldes de silicona de la fosa para evaluar la forma en los tres puntos. Se clasificaron las formas, validadas por el análisis intra e inter-evaluador, la frecuencia, distribución por sexo y simetría verificada. Las formas fueron clasificadas como redondeada, en ángulo, aplanada y mixtas en las vistas lateral y posterior; y como biconvexa, convexo-plana, y mixta en la vista superior. En las vistas laterales el cóndilo y la fosa redondeada fueron más frecuentes (57% y 66%, respectivamente), mientras que en la vista posterior (53% y 83%). En la vista superior, la forma mixta presentó mayor frecuencia en el cóndilo (59%), mientras que en la fosa la forma biconvexa (46%) fue más común. No hubo diferencia significativa en la distribución de laforma por sexo. La misma forma (simétrica o no-simétrica) en el cóndilo lateral derecho e izquierdo y la fosa fueron evaluadas por separado, y se observaron varias combinaciones. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to determine and classify the shape of the mandibular fossa and the corresponding condyle in different types, relating them to sex and symmetry, in adult human skulls, from lateral, posterior and superior views. The sample included 50 human skulls from 23 to 82 years old, 32 [...] males and 18 females. The condyle and silicone casting molds of the fossa were photographed to assess shape in the three views. Shapes were classified, validated by intra- and inter-rater analysis and frequency, sex distribution and symmetry verified. Shapes were classified as rounded, angled, flattened and mixed types in the lateral and posterior views; and as biconvex, flat-convex, biflattened and mixed in the superior view. Rounded condyle and fossa were more frequent in the lateral (57% and 66% respectively) and posterior (53% and 83%) views. In the superior view, mixed shape presented higher frequency in condyle (59%) while in fossa the biconvex shape (46%) was most common. There was no significant difference in shape distribution by sex. The same shape (symmetry) or otherwise (non-symmetry) in right and left side condyle and fossa were separately assessed and showed various combinations.

  6. Mandibular condyle position in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam computed tomography of 60 temporomandibular joints was performed on 15 males and 15 females with no history of any temporomandibular disorders, or any other orthodontic or photoconductors treatments. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated. A statistical evaluation was done using a SPSS. In the sagittal views, mandibular condyle within articular fossa was laterally located at central section. Mandibular condyles in the right and left sides were showed asymmetric positional relationship at medial, central, and lateral sections. Mandibular condyle within articular fossa in an asymptomatic population was observed non-concentric position in the sagittal and coronal views.

  7. Posterior dislocation of the hip with ipsilateral displaced

    OpenAIRE

    Trikha Vivek; Goyal Tarun; Jha Ram K

    2011-01-01

    ?Abstract?Traumatic posterior dislocation of hip associated with ipsilateral displaced femoral neck fracture is a rare injury. Moreover, the management of such patients evokes strong views regarding primary replacement or preserving the femoral head. We presented a case of young adult with such an injury. He was operated upon with reduction of the dislocation and fixation of femoral neck fracture with the help of cancellous screws. Two years later, the fracture had uni...

  8. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayan Sridhar; Bentley George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the AC...

  9. Femoral pseudoaneurysms produced by percutaneous femoral procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Schroeder, T V

    1995-01-01

    Femoral pseudo aneurysm is the most frequent complication produced by percutaneous femoral procedures. During a 5-year period seven patients underwent seven operative repairs for this complication. All seven patients presented with an expanding swelling in the groin. The average diameter of the...

  10. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.780.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images

  11. Bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Hyung Seop; Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To assess bone changes of mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in temporomandibualr disorder (TMD) patients. 314 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) images of 163 TMD patients were examined at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonbuk National University. The images were obtained by PSR9000N (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan) and reconstructed by using Asahivision software (Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan). The CBCT images were examined three times with four weeks interval by three radiologists. Bone changes of mandibular condyle such as flattening, sclerosis, erosion and osteophyte formation were observed in sagittal, axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images of the mandibular condyle. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0. Intra-and interobserver agreement were performed by 3 radiologists without the knowledge of clinical information. Osteopathy (2.9%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. Erosion (31.8%) was found more frequently on anterior surface of the mandibular condyle. The intraobserver agreement was good to excellent (k=0.78{sub 0}.84), but interobserver agreement was fair (k=0.45). CBCT can provide high qualified images of bone changes of the TMJ with axial, coronal and 3 dimensional images.

  12. Enlarging bilateral femoral condylar bone cysts without scintigraphic uptake in a yearling foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral subchondral bone cysts of the femoral condyles were diagnosed by conventional radiography in a 14 month old Appaloosa colt. Surgical debridement was performed, and over the next 18 months the appearance of the cysts was evaluated with radiography and bone scintigraphy. On the preoperative scintigrams, increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was associated with the cysts. Despite continued radiographic enlargement, the cysts did not demonstrate increased radiopharmaceutical uptake post-operatively

  13. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study / Bloqueo continuo del nervio femoral guiado por ultrasonido y estimulador de nervio para analgesia posterior a la artroplastia total de rodilla: estudio multicéntrico, aleatorizado y controlado / Bloqueio contínuo do nervo femoral guiado por ultrassom e estimulador de nervo para analgesia após artroplastia total de joelho: estudo multicêntrico, randomizado e controlado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fen, Wang; Li-Wei, Liu; Zhen, Hu; Yong, Peng; Xiao-Qing, Zhang; Quan, Li.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Analgesia pós-operatória é fundamental para o exercício funcional precoce logo após a artroplastia total de joelho. O objetivo foi investigar a eficácia clínica do bloqueio contínuo do nervo femoral guiado [...] por ultrassom e estimulador de nervo em analgesia após artroplastia total do joelho. MÉTODOS: Receberam analgesia pós-operatória, de outubro de 2012 a janeiro de 2013, 46 pacientes, estado físico ASA I-III, submetidos à artroplastia total de joelho. Em 22 pacientes, o bloqueio femoral contínuo foi guiado por ultrassom e estimulador de nervo para analgesia (grupo BFC); em 24 pacientes, analgesia foi administrada por via epidural (grupo ACP). Os efeitos analgésicos, efeitos colaterais, a recuperação articular e as complicações foram comparados entre os dois grupos. RESULTADOS: Às seis e 12 horas após a cirurgia, os escores de dor no joelho (escore EVA) durante os testes funcionais após exercício ativo e passivo foram significativamente menores no grupo BFC do que no grupo ACP. A quantidade usada de parecoxib nos pacientes do grupo BFC foi significativamente menor em comparação com o grupo ACP. Quarenta e oito horas após a cirurgia, o grau de força muscular no grupo BFC foi significativamente maior e o tempo de atividade ambulatória foi menor do que no grupo ACP. A incidência de náusea e vômito em pacientes do grupo BFC foi significativamente menor em comparação com o grupo ACP. CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio femoral contínuo guiado por ultrassom e estimulador do nervo proporcionou melhor analgesia às seis e 12 horas, demonstrada por EVA-R e EVA-P. A quantidade de parecoxib também foi menor, a incidência de náusea e vômito diminuiu, a influência sobre a força muscular é comprometida e os pacientes podem fazer atividade ambulatorial sob essa condição. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La analgesia postoperatoria es fundamental para el ejercicio funcional precoz posteriormente a la artroplastia total de rodilla. El objetivo fue investigar la eficacia clínica del bloqueo continuo del nerv [...] io femoral guiado por ultrasonido y estimulador de nervio en analgesia después de la artroplastia total de la rodilla. MÉTODOS: Cuarenta y seis pacientes, con estado físico ASA I-III, sometidos a artroplastia total de rodilla recibieron analgesia postoperatoria de octubre de 2012 a enero de 2013. En 22 pacientes, el bloqueo femoral continuo fue guiado por ultrasonido y estimulador de nervio para analgesia (grupo BFC); en 24 pacientes, la analgesia fue administrada por vía epidural (grupo ACP). Los efectos analgésicos, efectos colaterales, recuperación articular y las complicaciones fueron comparados entre los 2 grupos. RESULTADOS: A las 6 y 12 h después de la operación, las puntuaciones de dolor en la rodilla (puntuación EVA) durante los test funcionales después del ejercicio activo y pasivo fueron significativamente menores en el grupo BFC que en el grupo ACP. La cantidad usada de parecoxib en los pacientes del grupo BFC fue significativamente menor en comparación con el grupo ACP. Cuarenta y ocho horas después de la operación, el grado de fuerza muscular en el grupo BFC fue significativamente mayor y el tiempo de actividad ambulatoria fue menor que en el grupo ACP. La incidencia de náuseas y vómitos en pacientes del grupo BFC fue significativamente menor en comparación con el grupo ACP. CONCLUSIÓN: El bloqueo femoral continuo guiado por ultrasonido y estimulador del nervio proporcionaron una mejor analgesia a las 6 y 12 horas, lo que quedó demostrado por EVA-R y EVA-P. La cantidad de parecoxib también fue menor, la incidencia de náuseas y vómito disminuyó, la influencia sobre la fuerza muscular está comprometida y los pacientes pueden realizar una actividad ambulatoria bajo esa condición. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided c

  14. Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi; Tieghi, Riccardo; Polito, Jessica; Galiè, Manlio

    2006-05-01

    Dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is an uncommon event. A case report is presented based on a patient (32-year-old female) who sustained a traumatic left condyle fracture with superior dislocation into the middle cranial fossa due to a high-speed car accident. The diagnosis was done four months after trauma. Via a preauricular approach, left condylectomy and transposition of temporal muscle flap was performed. Postoperatively, the patient stayed for two weeks with intermaxillary fixation and four months of physical therapy. PMID:16770205

  15. Atherosclerotic femoral artery aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    Based on a clinical suspicion of an increase in the proportion of deep femoral aneurysms, we reviewed the case records of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures for femoral aneurysms to investigate if this could be confirmed and explained by selection of patient or modality of diagnosis....... A study was made of 17 atherosclerotic femoral aneurysms operations occurring in 17 patients from 1989 to 1994. Eleven associated aneurysms were found. Eleven patients presented with an expanding swelling, 4 with rupture 3 with thrombosis and 2 were asymptomatic. Fourteen aneurysms involved the...... common femoral artery and 3 the deep femoral artery. The proportion of deep femoral aneurysm was therefore 3/17 = 18%. Previous series report that aneurysms of the profunda femoris artery occurs in only 1% to 2.6% of all femoral artery aneurysms. No explanation was found for this significant increase (p...

  16. A clinico-radiologic study of bony remodeling of the fractured condyles in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Shin; Park, Chang Seo [Department of Dentistry, The Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    Bony remodeling pattern of condyle fractures in children are different from in adult for growing of condyle, also might affect treatment and prognosis of the condyle fracture. Subjects of this clinical and radiologic study were 26 temporomandibular joints diagnosed as condyle fracture in 23 patients under 15 years old age, They were treated with conservative method at Dental Hospital of Yonsei University from Jan., 1986 to Oct., 1994. Bony remodeling related with fracture pattern was evaluated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female in patients with condyle fracture was 1 : 0.9 and the difference of sex ratio was not noted. Comparing with preschool-age group and school-age group, age frequency was higher in preschool-age group (83%). 2. Fallen down (54%) was the most frequent cause of condyle fractures. Traffic accident and slip down were followed. 3. The most common clinical sign of condyle fractures was tenderness to palpation (19 cases). Mouth opening limitation (17 cases), swelling (7 cases), malocclusion (3 cases) were next in order. 4. According to sites of condyle fractures, unilateral fractures were in 20 patients and bilateral fractures in 3 patients, therefore total 23 patients-26 cases of condyle fracture were observed. According to fracture distribution, condyle fractures were in 10 patients (44%). Condyle fractures with symphysis fracture (9 patients, 39%), condyle fractures with ascending ramus fracture (2 patients, 9%), condyle fracture with mandibular body fracture (1 patient, 4%), and condyle fractures with mandibular angle fracture (1 patient, 4%) were followed. 5. In displacement pattern of fractured fragment of mandibular condyle, displacement (17 cases, 66%) was most common. Dislocation (5 cases, 19%) and deviation (4 cases, 15%) were next in order. 6. During the observation period of fractured condyles, remodeling patterns of fracture sites related with articular fossa were observed with usual congealer shape in 23 cases and with prominently different shape in 3 cases.

  17. A clinico-radiologic study of bony remodeling of the fractured condyles in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bony remodeling pattern of condyle fractures in children are different from in adult for growing of condyle, also might affect treatment and prognosis of the condyle fracture. Subjects of this clinical and radiologic study were 26 temporomandibular joints diagnosed as condyle fracture in 23 patients under 15 years old age, They were treated with conservative method at Dental Hospital of Yonsei University from Jan., 1986 to Oct., 1994. Bony remodeling related with fracture pattern was evaluated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female in patients with condyle fracture was 1 : 0.9 and the difference of sex ratio was not noted. Comparing with preschool-age group and school-age group, age frequency was higher in preschool-age group (83%). 2. Fallen down (54%) was the most frequent cause of condyle fractures. Traffic accident and slip down were followed. 3. The most common clinical sign of condyle fractures was tenderness to palpation (19 cases). Mouth opening limitation (17 cases), swelling (7 cases), malocclusion (3 cases) were next in order. 4. According to sites of condyle fractures, unilateral fractures were in 20 patients and bilateral fractures in 3 patients, therefore total 23 patients-26 cases of condyle fracture were observed. According to fracture distribution, condyle fractures were in 10 patients (44%). Condyle fractures with symphysis fracture (9 patients, 39%), condyle fractures with ascending ramus fracture (2 patients, 9%), condyle fracture with mandibular body fracture (1 patient, 4%), and condyle fractures with mandibular angle fracture (1 patient, 4%) were followed. 5. In displacement pattern of fractured fragment of mandibular condyle, displacement (17 cases, 66%) was most common. Dislocation (5 cases, 19%) and deviation (4 cases, 15%) were next in order. 6. During the observation period of fractured condyles, remodeling patterns of fracture sites related with articular fossa were observed with usual congealer shape in 23 cases and with prominently different shape in 3 cases.

  18. Sagittal plane articulation of the contralateral knee of subjects with posterior cruciate ligament deficiency: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Sivashankar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to compare the in vivo articulation of the healthy knee to the contralateral knee of subjects with acute and chronic PCL injuries. Methods Magnetic resonance was used to generate sagittal images of 10 healthy knees and 10 knees with isolated PCL injuries (5 acute and 5 chronic. The subjects performed a supine leg press against a 150 N load. Images were generated at 15 degree intervals as the knee flexed from 0 to 90 degrees. The tibiofemoral contact (TFC, and the centre of the femoral condyle (as defined by the flexion facet centre (FFC, were measured from the posterior tibial cortex. Results There was no significant difference in the TFC and FFC between the healthy knee and contralateral knee of subjects with acute and chronic PCL injuries in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest there is no predisposing articulation abnormality to PCL injury, in the setting of chronic injury the contralateral knee does not modify its articulation profile and the contralateral knee can be used as a valid control when evaluating the articulation of the PCL deficient knee.

  19. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  20. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  1. Chondrosarcoma of the Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshani F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas are slow-growing, malignant mesenchymal neoplasms characterized by formation of cartilage by the tumoral cells. They display a wide range of morphological features from a well-differentiated growing mass resembling a benign cartilage tumour to a high-grade malignancy with aggressive local invasion. Only 5% to 10% of this neoplasm is confined to the head and neck region. Chondrosarcomas of the mandibular condyle may manifest the typical symptoms of the temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. Tumours of the condyle can reach a large size without producing clinically obvious swellings. A rare case of chondrosarcoma of the mandibular condyle in a 34-years old woman is presented in this report. Patient’s chief complaint was pain in the right temporomandibular joint when her mouth was in a maximum opening position. Mild malocclusion, figured as an occlusal discrepancy, was also detected. Radiographs illustrated erosion in the head of condyle. After condylectomy, the excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a grade II chondrosarcoma.

  2. Combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI with supra-condylar femoral varus osteotomy, following lateral growth-plate damage in an adolescent knee: 8-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Sridhar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.

  3. Arthroscopically assisted reduction and internal fixation of a femoral anterior cruciate ligament osteochondral avulsion fracture in a 14-year-old girl via transphyseal inside-out technique

    OpenAIRE

    Langenhan, Ronny; Baumann, Matthias; Hohendorff, Bernd; Probst, Axel; Trobisch, Per

    2013-01-01

    Femoral avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in children and adolescents is rare, and its arthroscopic treatment is even more so. A femoral avulsion fracture of the ACL of a 14-year-old girl was arthroscopically reduced and fixed by a Kirschner wire (K-wire) via an inside-out technique. A 1.4-mm K-wire was drilled inside-out into the osseous defect of the lateral femoral condyle under arthroscopic visualization. The avulsed fragment was reduced and then drilled retrograde...

  4. [Analysis of treatment results of humeral lateral condyle fractures in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipczyk, Zbigniew; Flont, Paweł; Golański, Grzegorz; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of 60 cases authors analyze treatment results of the humeral lateral condyle fractures in children. This type of fracture is a second most common elbow fracture in children after supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Authors consider this fracture to be the most difficult to diagnose among all elbow injuries. Analyzed cohort of patients consists of 54 at age between 1.5 to 10 years and 6 patients between 12 to 17 years of age. In 75% of cases operative treatment was delayed due to late referral from other hospitals. According to appearance of the fracture line on X-rays there were 53 cases of type II and 7 cases of type 1 according to Milch classification system. The amount of displacement was evaluated according to Jakob scale and there were 35 cases of III degree, 17 cases of II degree and 8 cases of I degree of displacement. All patients were evaluated with antero-posterior and lateral distal humerus x-rays. In some cases other diagnostic techniques were used. In older children computerized tomography and in younger children ultrasound examination was performed. The treatment results were evaluated according to Hardacre scale. Follow-up time was 1 to 13 years. There were 27 very good and 27 good results in a 54 cases group of patients who underwent surgery within 15 days since injury. In other group which consists of 6 patients who underwent surgery more than 5 weeks after injury there were 2 cases of very good, 2 cases of good; and 2 cases of bad results. Authors believe that putting a proper diagnosis of humeral lateral condyle fracture in children and performing an operative treatment results in a good and a very good outcomes. Basing on the analysis of treatment results of authors cohort of patients, they claim that precise diagnosis and proper determining of degree of displacement increases the number of patients qualified to operative treatment. PMID:22708319

  5. Modeling of the condyle elements within a biomechanical knee model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Ana; Rasmussen, John; Flores, Paulo; Silva, Luís F.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a computational multibody knee model able to capture some of the fundamental properties of the human knee articulation is presented. This desideratum is reached by including the kinetics of the real knee articulation. The research question is whether an accurate modeling of the condyle contact in the knee will lead to reproduction of the complex combination of flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and tibial rotation observed in the real knee. The model is composed by two an...

  6. Fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A

    1985-07-01

    I conducted a clinical review of thirty-nine fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus in children and drew the following conclusions: (1) epiphyseal arrest is rare (it occurred in only one patient, despite malreduction in ten), and (2) fishtail deformity of the distal part of the humerus occurs commonly when malreduction is present. Only two poor results were encountered, both in patients in whom the reduction was grossly inadequate. PMID:4019532

  7. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and should...

  8. Arthroscopic Microfracture Technique for Cartilage Damage to the Lateral Condyle of the Tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Kan; Yuji Arai; Shuji Nakagawa; Hiroaki Inoue; Ginjiro Minami; Kazuya Ikoma; Hiroyoshi Fujiwara; Toshikazu Kubo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the use of arthroscopic microfracture to treat a 10-year-old female patient with extensive damage to the cartilage of the lateral condyle of the tibia before epiphyseal closure, resulting in good cartilage recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a defect in part of the load-bearing surface of the articular cartilage of the condyle articular of the tibia. The patient was diagnosed with damage to the lateral condyle cartilage of the tibia following meniscectomy, and ar...

  9. CT findings of traumatic posterior hip dislocation after reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin Wook

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the CT images of reduced hips after posterior hip dislocation and to propose specific diagnostic criteria based on the CT results. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings on 18 reduced hips from 17 patients with radiographs and clinical histories of traumatic posterior hip dislocations by evaluating 18 corresponding CT scans for joint space asymmetry, intra-articular abnormalities (intra-articular fat obliteration, loose bodies, and joint effusion), changes in posterior soft tissue (capsule, muscles, and adjacent fat), the presence, and location of fractures (acetabulum and femoral head). All 18 hips (100%) showed posterior soft tissue changes. In total, 17 hips (94.4%) had intra-articular abnormalities and 15 hips (83.3%) had joint space asymmetries. In addition, 17 hips (94.4%) had fractures involving the acetabula (15 cases, 88.2%) the femoral head (13 cases, 76.5%), or on both sides (11 cases, 64.7%). The most frequent fracture location was in he posterior wall (13/15, 86.7%) of the acetabulum and in the anterior aspect (10/13, 76.9%) of the femoral head. Patients with a prior history of posterior hip dislocation showed specific CT findings after reduction, suggesting the possibility of previous posterior hip dislocations in patients.

  10. Unreamed femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, D; Faisal, M; Butt, M S

    2000-11-01

    Sixty one femoral fractures treated with ACE unreamed titanium nail (AIM femoral nail, ACE Medical, Los Angeles, CA) were studied. Ten patients died before bony union and three were lost to follow up. Forty eight fractures were followed up for an average of 11.2 months (4-31 months). All fractures united except one in which plating and bone grafting was performed at 6 months due to failure of progression of union. The mean time to bony union was 6.2 months. There was no implant failure but one distal interlocking bolt broke at 6 weeks. No incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was observed. Malunion was seen in one patient whereas three cases had shortening of more than 2 cm. Our results show that unreamed femoral nailing using titanium nail is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. PMID:11084159

  11. Unusual humeral medial condyle fracture in an adolescent because of a previous post-traumatic fishtail deformity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Junko; Horii, Emiko; Koh, Shukuki; Hiroishi, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    A fishtail deformity is a well-known complication following pediatric lateral condyle fracture of the humerus. We report a rare case of a medial humeral condyle fracture in a 12-year-old boy who had had a fishtail deformity because of a lateral condyle fracture in childhood. Radiographs showed a longitudinal fracture plane of the medial condyle extending to the articular surface, which is different from the three types of medial condyle fracture classified by Kilfoyle. We present our case and reviewed the literature to clarify the difference in the mechanism of medial humeral condyle fracture after a fishtail deformity. PMID:25919805

  12. Femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The incidence and risk factors are evaluated for femoral neck fracture following groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The radiation therapy records of 1313 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the vagina, vulva, cervix, and endometrium, treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology from 1954 to 1992, were reviewed. Median follow-up was 12.7 years. From this group, 207 patients were identified who received irradiation to the pelvis and groins with anterposterior-posterior anterior (AP-PA), 18 MV photons. Data were reviewed regarding irradiation dose to the femoral neck and other presumed risk factors including age, primary site, stage, groin node status, menopausal status, estrogen use, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and osteoporosis. Results: The per-patient incidence of femoral neck fracture was 4.8% (10 out of 207). Four patients developed bilateral fractures. However, the cumulative actuarial incidence of fracture was 11% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Cox multivariate analysis of age, weight, and irradiation dose showed that only irradiation dose may be important to developing fracture. Step-wise logistic regression of presumed prognostic factors revealed that only cigarette use and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis prior to irradiation treatment were predictive of fracture. Conclusion: Femoral head fracture is a common complication of groin irradiation for gynecologic malignancies. Fracture in our database appears to be related to irradiation dose, cigarette use, and x-ray evidence of osteoporosis. Special attention should be given in treatment planning (i.e., shielding of femoral head/neck and use of appropriate electron beam energies for a portion of treatment) to reduce the incidence of this complication

  13. Occipital condyle fracture as a rare cause of shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Yalcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs usually occur due to high energy trauma and are often associated with serious injuries, particularly in the brain. Because it is difficult to determine this fracture on plain radiographs, it can easily be misdiagnosed. In this report, we present a patient admitted to our emergency department with one and only complaint of shoulder pain following a motor vehicle accident. We aimed to underline the importance of physician’s elaboration and attention in the diagnosis of this rare entity.

  14. Posterolateral approach for humeral lateral condyle fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Heng; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh

    2016-03-01

    We proposed a simple posterolateral approach to the articular surface of the trochlea for fresh and late fractures of the humeral lateral condyle. Twenty consecutive cases, 16 fresh and four old fractures, were approached between triceps and anconeus before the age of 15 years. All fractures achieved union in 3 months. Nineteen cases were classified as excellent or good by the Hardacre score after 31.3 months of follow-up. One late fracture with elbow subluxation showed radiographic fragmentation of the capitellum and a fair clinical result. This simple optional approach offers good exposure of intra-articular fracture at the trochlea, especially for late fractures. PMID:26523535

  15. Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado posterior com enxerto autólogo do tendão do músculo semitendinoso duplo e do terço médio do tendão do quadríceps em duplo túnel no fêmur e único na tíbia: resultados clínicos em dois anos de seguimento Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autograft of the double semitendinosus muscles and middle third of the quadriceps tendon with double femoral and single tibial tunnels: clinical results in two years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Paula Leite Cury

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos cirúrgicos que possam oferecer bons resultados anatômicos e funcionais na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP utilizando enxerto autólogo do tendão do quadríceps e duplo semitendinoso através de um túnel femoral duplo. MÉTODOS: Quatorze pacientes com lesões isoladas do LCP, instabilidade e dor foram operados por artroscopia e avaliados de acordo com as escalas do International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC e de Lysholm. A lassidão foi examinada com o artrômetro KT 1000. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação pós-operatória, a translação posterior comparando-se com joelho contralateral foi entre 0-2mm em 57,1% dos pacientes e entre 3 e 5mm em 35,7% dos casos. A média da escala de Lysholm foi de 93 pontos na avaliação final. Na avaliação pelo IKDC, três pacientes tiveram grau A, 10 grau B e 1 teve grau C. Conclusões: A reconstrução artroscópica do LCP com feixe duplo baseada no posicionamento anatômico dos túneis, com tendão duplo semitendinoso e único do quadríceps, oferece redução clinicamente evidente dos sintomas e recupera satisfatoriamente a estabilidade, embora diferença significativa não tenha sido encontrada devido ao pequeno tamanho da amostra.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical aspects that may offer good anatomic and functional results in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL reconstruction using an autologous graft of the quadriceps tendon and double semitendinosus through a double femoral tunnel. METHODS: Fourteen patients with isolated PCL lesions, instability and pain were operated on by arthroscopy and evaluated according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Lysholm scales. Posterior knee laxity was examined with a KT 1000 arthrometer. RESULTS: The mean postoperative posterior side-to-side difference was between 0-2 mm in 57.1% of patients and between 3 and 5 mm in 35.7% of cases. The average Lysholm score was 93 points in the final follow-up. In the IKDC evaluation, 3 patients were graded A, 10 were graded B, and 1 patient was graded C. Conclusions: Double bundle arthroscopic PCL reconstruction based on the anatomical positioning of the tunnels, with double semitendinosus tendon and single quadriceps, provides a clinically evident reduction in symptoms and restores satisfactory stability, although no statistically significant difference was found due to the small sample.

  16. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurement: correlation with microsphere estimates and evaluation of the effect of intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure bone blood flow in the rabbit femoral condyles. To correlate the LDF output signal blood cell flux to in vivo blood flow, simultaneous measurements using LDF and 85Sr-labeled microspheres were made in an adult rabbit model. There was no correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral condyles and the correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral head does not achieve statistical significance. An LDF signal of 0.4 V was approximately equal to a microsphere measured flow rate of 0.4 ml blood/g bone/min. The strength of the correlation in the latter case may have been affected by (a) large arteriovenous shunts, (b) inadequate mixing of the microspheres with a left ventricular injection, and (c) insufficient numbers of microspheres present in the bone samples. When LDF was used to evaluate the effect of elevated intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow in skeletally mature rabbits, femoral head subchondral bone blood flow declined with increasing intracapsular pressure from a baseline value of 0.343 +/- 0.036 to a value of 0.127 +/- 0.27 at 120 cm of water pressure. The decline in femoral head blood flow was statistically significant at pressures of 40 cm of water or higher (p less than 0.001), and evaluation of sections of the proximal femora made from preterminal disulphine blue injections confirmed these findings. Intracapsular tamponade has an adverse effect on femoral head blood flow beginning well below central venous pressure and should be considered in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic and nontraumatic necrosis of the femoral head. Laser Doppler flowmetry was easy to use and appears to be a reproducible technique for evaluating femoral head blood flow, offering distinct advantages over the microsphere technique for measuring bone blood flow

  17. Overexpressed TGF-? in subchondral bone leads to mandibular condyle degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, K; Zhang, M; Niu, L; Yu, S; Zhen, G; Xian, L; Yu, B; Yang, K; Liu, P; Cao, X; Wang, M

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidence has implied that subchondral bone plays an important role during osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. This study was undertaken to investigate whether abnormalities of the condylar subchondral bone lead to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA. We used an osteoblast-specific mutant TGF-?1 transgenic mouse, the CED mouse, in which high levels of active TGF-?1 occur in bone marrow, leading to abnormal bone remodeling. Subchondral bone changes in the mandibular condyles were investigated by micro-CT, and alterations in TMJ condyles were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, characterized as fluctuant bone mineral density and microstructure and increased but uncoupled activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were apparent in the 1- and 4-month CED mouse groups, while obvious cartilage degradation, in the form of cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss, was observed in the 4-month CED group. In addition, increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and MMP9- and VEGF-positive chondrocytes were observed in the condylar cartilage in the 4-month CED group, but not in the 1-month CED group, compared with their respective age-matched controls. This study demonstrated that progressive degradation of mandibular condylar cartilage could be induced by the abnormal remodeling of the underlying subchondral bone during TMJOA progression. PMID:24309371

  18. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  19. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  20. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective (? = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  1. Arthrography and the medical compartment of the patello-femoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four groups of patients with normal patellar cartilage, synovitis, patellar chondropathy, and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur, the anatomical relationships within the medial compartment of the patello-femoral joint were examined. Clear differences were observed between these groups in the incidence of visualization of the medial alar plica and the mediopatellar synovial plica. As a consequence, an explanation has been sought for the occurrence of patellar chondropathy and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur. It seems probable that a long-standing traumatic synovitis with effusion, attenuation of the synovial membrane, and the composition of the synovial fluid can lead to patellar chondropathy. The degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur are usually secondary to those of the load-bearing patellar facet. Insufficient covering of the cartilage by soft tissue may play a role in chondropathy of the nonload-bearing portion of the patella and the femoral condyle. (orig.)

  2. Arthrography and the medical compartment of the patello-femoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thijn, C.J.P.; Hillen, B.

    1984-03-01

    In four groups of patients with normal patellar cartilage, synovitis, patellar chondropathy, and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur, the anatomical relationships within the medial compartment of the patello-femoral joint were examined. Clear differences were observed between these groups in the incidence of visualization of the medial alar plica and the mediopatellar synovial plica. As a consequence, an explanation has been sought for the occurrence of patellar chondropathy and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur. It seems probable that a long-standing traumatic synovitis with effusion, attenuation of the synovial membrane, and the composition of the synovial fluid can lead to patellar chondropathy. The degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur are usually secondary to those of the load-bearing patellar facet. Insufficient covering of the cartilage by soft tissue may play a role in chondropathy of the nonload-bearing portion of the patella and the femoral condyle.

  3. Screw osteosynthesis of displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures in children: a mid-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, W P; Shukur, M H; Yeap, J K

    2006-02-01

    Displaced humeral condyle fractures in children are traditionally fixed with smooth Kirschner wire at the expense of a risk of secondary displacement following removal of wire. Screw fixation of such fractures has recently been advocated as it provides stable fixation. We have been using screw osteosynthesis for treatment of displaced lateral humeral condyle fractures in children in our institution since the turn of this century. This study provides a midterm review of treatment of such injuries with special regards to growth disturbances after screw osteosynthesis and to assess rate of union with a view to formulate guidelines for screw removal. We review the outcomes of screw osteosynthesis for displaced lateral condyle fracture of the humerus (19 Milch type-1 and 15 Milch type-II) in 34 children treated in our institution from January 2000 to March 2004. The average age of the patients was 6.1 years. The average follow up was 24.5 months. Screw osteosynthesis led to union (average 6.9 weeks) in all patients with excellent results in 28 patients. Growth disturbances in the form of lateral condyle overgrowth (2 patients), valgus deformity secondary to lateral condyle avascular necrosis (2 patients) and fishtail deformity ((3 patients) were recognized. The implants should not be removed until fracture union is established. Screw osteosynthesis of the lateral humeral condyle fracture prevents secondary fracture redisplacement and lateral condyle overgrowth is probably related to hyperemic response to metaphyseal fixation and early removal of implant before radiological union. PMID:17042228

  4. Medial humeral condyle fractures in adolescents: treatment and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa?lam, Necdet; Saka, Gürsel; Kurtulmu?, Tuhan; Cem Co?kun, Avc?; Türker, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    The very rare isolated medial humeral condyle fractures in children and adolescents pose significant problems to orthopedic surgeons such as ulnar nerve injury, trochlear irregularities, fishtail deformity and motion loss. Six adolescent boys with displaced medial humeral condyle fractures with an average age of 14.8 (range 12-17) were included in this study. Patients were followed-up with a mean of 39.8 months (range 21-72). In three patients, there were clinical signs of ulnar nerve dysfunction at initial presentation. Of these, two had only mild hypoesthesia on the ulnar side. The other patient had sensory and motor loss of ulnar nerve at initial presentation complicated by hypothenar atrophy and anhydrosis during follow-up. Complete recovery was seen in this patient only at 2 years. One patient without a neurologic compliant at initial presentation developed mild hypoesthesia on the ulnarly innervated areas postoperatively with complete resolution. Medial skin incision was used for open reduction and internal fixation. No signs of gross morphologic damage were seen on the nerve. The symptoms resolved postoperatively in 3 months time in three of the patients, but in the remaining one, it took 2 years for complete resolution of the symptoms. Also, trochlear irregularity and fishtail deformity were seen on radiographs of two different patients. In all but one patients, motion loss ranging from 10° to 20° was evident on physical examination. The most important finding of this study revealed that transient ulnar nerve dysfunction was seen two-thirds of the patients in this series than any other series reported previously. In three series, only one case of ulnar nerve injury was reported from a total of 19 patients. A possible explanation for such a difference may be the older age in this series. PMID:23934502

  5. Radiographic femoral varus measurement is affected unpredictably by femoral rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward

    right femora were positioned at zero elevation (supracondylar eminence at same distance from the radiographic plate as the lesser trochanter, as defined in previous studies) and with the caudal condyles in contact with the radiography cassette (0° rotation) and subsequently rotated internally and...

  6. Influence of femoral rotation on femoral offset determined from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study how the size of femoral offset, judged from radiographs, depends on the femur's degree of internal-external rotation during radiography, this report studied 108 hips (55 right, 53 left; 60 male, 48 female). For each hip, the femoral offset was determined from radiographs taken with the femur in 15 degrees of internal rotation (standardised femoral offset), and also from radiographs taken when no special attempt was made to have the femur in this position (control femoral offset - corrected for magnification). Control femoral offset (corrected) was less than the standardised femoral offset in 102 of 108 hips. On average, for the 108 hips as a group, control femoral offset (corrected for magnification) was 7.7 (CI 8.7, 6.6) mm smaller than standardised offset, a significant difference (p < 0.0001, t-test, two-tailed). For individual hips, the difference was as great as 25 mm. Depending on the femoral rotation during radiography, calculating femoral offset from x-rays may underestimate the femoral offsets sufficiently to compromise hip joint replacement in clinical orthopaedic practice

  7. Posteromedial dislocation of the elbow with lateral condyle fracture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pen-Gang; Chang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Matthew N

    2009-02-01

    Posteromedial dislocation of the elbow with lateral condyle fracture is a rare injury, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report 3 children who had posteromedial dislocation of the elbow with Milch type II lateral condylar fracture of the distal humerus. Major complications included malunion, nonunion of the fracture, heterotophic calcification and elbow subluxation. From our experience and a review of the literature, open anatomical reduction and internal fixation of the lateral condyle fracture is the mainstay of treatment for these children. Poor reduction of the lateral condyle fracture results in incongruity of the joint surface and leads to poor results. PMID:19251541

  8. Recurrent simple bone cyst of the mandibular condyle: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Cysts of the mandibular condyle are rare and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Clinically, a simple bone cyst is asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally on routine radiographic examination. This report shows an atypical simple bone cyst occurring in the mandibular condyle showing recurrence after surgical curettage. Radiologically, this lesion involving the mandibular condyle should be distinguished from other similar lesions such as a chondriome, a central giant cell granuloma, and an aneurysmal bone cyst. Radiographic assessment was useful for forecasting the prognosis of a simple bone cyst. Possible reasons for the recurrence were discussed radiographically.

  9. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  10. Dual mobility cup reduces dislocation rate after arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertsson Otto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components. Methods We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively. Results There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01. The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution. Conclusions We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.

  11. Computerized Navigation for Treatment of Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Yoram; Pearle, Andrew; Liebergall, Meir; Simanovsky, Naum; Porat, Shlomo; Moshieff, Rami

    2006-01-01

    In situ pinning with a single screw is the treatment of choice for symptomatic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Some technical features are critical and include proper screw entry point, screw direction in relation to the epiphysis, and the length of screw. These are complicated by the deformity created as a result of the posterior slip of the epiphysis. Fluoroscopic based computerized navigation system can increase precision in screw placement while performing the surgical task, and...

  12. Radiation induced femoral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report four cases of femoral palsy due to compressive fibrosis, after pelvic radiation therapy. Three patients had Hodgkin's disease, and one testicular seminoma. Prominent clinical features include major groin induration and underlying swelling. Unlike what is usually seen in tumoral relapse, little or no pain is associated with these neuropathies. The femoral post-radic palsy develops earlier and faster than brachial plexus palsy of same aetiology. In one case, progressive aggravation led to surgical neurolysis which resulted in dramatic and long lasting improvement. The principal preventive and therapeutic managements are discussed: since compressive fibrosis is related to the use of isolated and massive electron beam therapy, various association of cobalt and electron beam therapy are designed to best prevent the side effects of each of these methods. The early treatment of developing fibrosis by D. penicillamine is discussed

  13. Técnicas de cimentação femoral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Jordão; André, Bahute; Ugo, Fontoura; Pedro, Marques.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A artroplastia da anca tornou-se na última metade do século 20 na intervenção com mais sucesso no alívio da dor e restauro da função articular para os doentes com artrose da anca. Os bons resultados são consequência da melhoria nas técnicas cirúrgicas e na qualidade dos implantes utilizados. O uso d [...] o componente femoral cimentado tem sido o padrão de ouro ao longo dos últimos cinquenta anos, havendo séries que reportam uma longevidade do implante de 96% aos 10 anos. O conhecimento das propriedades do cimento utilizado, a sua correcta forma de preparação e aplicação são determinantes para o bom desempenho da artroplastia. Este trabalho faz uma revisão sobre a evolução das técnicas de cimentação femoral, explica as diferentes fases pelas quais o cimento passa no seu processo de elaboração e descreve as principais etapas da técnica de cimentação de terceira geração. Abstract in english In the later half of the 20th century, hip replacement surgery became the most successful procedure to relieve pain and restore function for patients with hip osteoarthritis. These good results are a byproduct of improvements both in surgical technique and implant properties. Cemented femoral stems [...] have been considered the gold standard for the last fifty years, with studies showing implant survival rates of up to 96% after 10 years. The success of an arthroplasty is dependent on the understanding of the properties, preparation and usage of cement. This article will review the evolution of femoral cementing techniques, the different stages of cement preparation and the main steps of third-generation cementing.

  14. Femoral head fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, James R.; Gardner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Femoral head fractures may present in various patterns with or without associated fractures around the hip. As a result, the treating orthopaedic surgeon must understand not only the fracture pattern, but also patient-related fractures and the relevant operative exposures and reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome while minimizing complications. Treatment options range from non-operative treatment to fracture fragment excision or fracture fixation using various surgical...

  15. Acquired posterior keratoconus.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.

    1987-01-01

    A case of acquired posterior keratoconus is presented. As in developmental cases the vision was moderately reduced and the condition was not progressive. Posterior keratoconus is usually developmental in origin, but trauma has been implicated in some cases.

  16. Relationship between mandibular condyle and angle fractures and the presence of mandibular third molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Moon, Seong-Yong; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We retrospectively evaluated the impact of mandibular third molars on the occurrence of angle and condyle fractures. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective investigation using patient records and radiographs. The sample set consisted of 440 patients with mandibular fractures. Eruption space, depth and angulation of the third molar were measured. Results Of the 144 angle fracture patients, 130 patients had third molars and 14 patients did not. The ratio of angle fractures when a third molar was present (1.26 : 1) was greater than when no third molar was present (0.19 : 1; odds ratio, 6.58; P<0.001). Of the 141 condyle fractures patients, the third molar was present in 84 patients and absent in 57 patients. The ratio of condyle fractures when a third molar was present (0.56 : 1) was lower than when no third molar was present (1.90 : 1; odds ratio, 0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion The increased ratio of angle fractures with third molars and the ratio of condyle fractures without a third molar were statistically significant. The occurrence of angle and condyle fractures was more affected by the continuity of the cortical bone at the angle than by the depth of a third molar. These results demonstrate that a third molar can be a determining factor in angle and condyle fractures. PMID:25741462

  17. Escleritis posterior bilateral / Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Zurutuza; J., Andonegui; L., Berástegui; N., Arruti.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías [...] asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática. Abstract in english Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but [...] in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  18. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  19. Radiological analysis on femoral tunnel positioning between isometric and anatomical reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament / Análise radiológica do posicionamento do túnel femoral com as técnicas de reconstrução isométrica ou de reconstrução anatômica do LCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Barreiros, Vieira; Leonardo Augusto de Pinho, Tavares; Rodrigo Campos Pace, Lasmar; Fernando Amaral da, Cunha; Lucas Araujo de Melo, Lisboa.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiologicamente a posição do túnel femoral na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior pelas técnicas isométrica e anatômica. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo analítico prospectivo em pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA), por meio da técnica iso [...] métrica e anatômica, com o uso de enxerto de tendões flexores do joelho ou de tendão patelar. Foram captados 28 pacientes, em pós-operatório imediato, no ambulatório de cirurgia do joelho da FCMMG-HUSJ. Foram feitas radiografias do joelho operado nas incidências em anteroposterior (AP) com apoio bipodálico e perfil em 30? de flexão. Foram traçadas as linhas e medidos os ângulos e as distâncias na radiografia em perfil para avaliar o plano sagital. Foi medida a distância do centro do parafuso à cortical posterior do côndilo lateral e dividido pela linha de Blumensaat. Com relação à altura do parafuso, foi medida a distância do centro dele até a superfície articular do côndilo lateral do joelho. Na radiografia em AP, que avalia o plano coronal, mede-se a angulação entre o eixo anatômico do fêmur e uma linha traçada no centro do parafuso. RESULTADOS: Pelos testes, o p-valor (0,4213) é maior do que o nível de significância adotado (0,05), a hipótese nula não é rejeitada e pode ser afirmado que não há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as técnicas anatômica (TAN) e isométrica (TIS) no que diz respeito à Medida P (posteriorização do parafuso de interferência). Como o p-valor (0,0006) observado é menor do que o nível de significância adotado (0,05), rejeita-se a hipótese nula e pode ser afirmado que há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a TAN e a TIS no que diz respeito à Medida H (altura do parafuso em relação à cortical inferior do joelho). Pode-se concluir que essa diferença ocorre porque a TIS gera valores maiores para a Medida H do que a TAN. Como o p-valor observado (0,000) é menor do que o nível de significância (5%), rejeitou-se a hipótese nula e afirmamos com 95% de confiança que há diferença significativa entre a TAN e a TIS no que diz respeito à variável MED (posição do parafuso na radiografia em AP). Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na avaliação radiológica do túnel femoral, tanto no plano sagital como no coronal, entre as técnicas de reconstrução do LCA. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the femoral tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions using the isometric and anatomical techniques. METHODS: a prospective analytical study was conducted on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction by mean [...] s of the isometric and anatomical techniques, using grafts from the knee flexor tendons or patellar tendon. Twenty-eight patients were recruited during the immediate postoperative period, at the knee surgery outpatient clinic of FCMMG-HUSJ. Radiographs of the operated knee were produced in anteroposterior (AP) view with the patient standing on both feet and in lateral view with 30? of flexion. The lines were traced out and the distances and angles were measured on the lateral radiograph to evaluate the sagittal plane. The distance from the center of the screw to the posterior cortical bone of the lateral condyle was measured and divided by the Blumensaat line. In relation to the height of the screw, the distance from the center of the screw to the joint surface of the lateral condyle of the knee was measured. On the AP radiograph, evaluating the coronal plane, the angle between the anatomical axis of the femur and a line traced at the center of the screw was measured. RESULTS: with regard to the p measurement (posteriorization of the interference screw), the tests showed that the p-value (0.4213) was greater than the significance level used (0.05); the null hypothesis was not rejected and it could be stated that there was no statistically significant difference between the anatomical and isometric techniques

  20. Full circle: 3D femoral mapping demonstrates age-related changes that influence femoral implant positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Damien; Surup, Timm; Petersik, Andreas; Kelly, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The geometry of the femur is important in the final position of an intramedullary implant; we hypothesised that the femoral geometry changes with age and this may predispose the elderly to anterior mal-positioning of these implants. We used CT DICOM data of 919 intact left femora and specialist software that allowed us to defined landmarks for measurement reference - such as the linea aspera - on a template bone that could be mapped automatically to the entire database. We found that older (>80 years) cortical bone is up to 1.5mm thinner anteriorly and 2mm thinner posteriorly than younger (<40 years) bone but the rate of change of posterior to anterior cortex thickness is greater in the older bone. We also found the isthmus in the elderly to be more distal and less substantial than in the younger bone. This study has demonstrated femoral geometry changes with age that may explain our perception that the elderly are at increased risk for anterior mal-positioning of intramedullary implants. PMID:26686594

  1. Anastomotic femoral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Schroeder, T V

    1996-01-01

    pseudoaneurysm was still valid. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 76 patients who presented with 90 femoral aneurysms. The median age was 69 years (range: 39-83). The commonest previous vascular surgery was a aortofemoral bypass in 61 cases. RESULTS: The interval...... between the original operation and the repair of the pseudoaneurysms was 9 years (range 1 month to 26 years). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the previously noted trend of an increasing time to aneurysm formation from 3 years before 1975, 5 years between 1976 and 1980, and 6 years between 1981 and 1990....

  2. Femoral head necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.)

  3. Pullulan/dextran/nHA Macroporous Composite Beads for Bone Repair in a Femoral Condyle Defect in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaubitz, Silke; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Marosa, Lydia; Miraux, Sylvain; Renard, Martine; Catros, Sylvain; Le Visage, Catherine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The repair of bone defects is of particular interest for orthopedic, oral, maxillofacial, and dental surgery. Bone loss requiring reconstruction is conventionally addressed through bone grafting. Depending on the size and the location of the defect, this method has limits and risks. Biomaterials can offer an alternative and have features supporting bone repair. Here, we propose to evaluate the cellular penetration and bone formation of new macroporous beads based on pullulan/dextran that has ...

  4. 99m-Technetium phosphate compound joint scintigraphy in the management of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The known sensitivity of joint scintigraphy in following the course of fracture healing caused the authors to believe that this radiologic technique might be valuable in the management of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Accordingly, 99mTc-diphosphonate joint scintigraphy was used on 18 patients with OCD of the knee. The average age was 13 1/2 years. The scintigrams were repeated at 6-week intervals until healing had occurred. When the diagnosis of OCD was established by standard roentgenograms and joint scintigraphy, the patients were placed on an activity restriction program, attempting to reach a symptom-free level. The patients were followed for an average of 18 months. Ninety-five scans were categorized according to their level of scintigraphic activity. This led to a discrete four-part scintigraphic classification that is indicative of the extent of healing or progression of this condition, and precedes changes seen on standard x-rays by months. Joint scintigraphy also rules out anomalies of ossification in the diagnosis of OCD since an anomaly should have a normal scintigraphic appearance. We have concluded that joint scintigraphy is valuable in the management of OCD because of its superior sensitivity to changes in the activity of the lesion. As experience is gained with this technique, those cases that should be prophylactically surgically stabilized may be indicated

  5. Open reduction internal fixation of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children. A series of 105 fractures from a single institution

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidou, Andreas; Chettiar, Krissen; Graham, Simon; Akhbari, Pouya; Antonis, Konstantinos; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Leonidou, Omiros

    2014-01-01

    Lateral humeral condyle fractures account for 17 % of the distal humeral condyle fractures. Displaced and/or rotated fractures require appropriate reduction and stabilisation. There are, however, a number of controversies in the surgical management of these patients. The aim of the present study was to review the results of patients with a displaced lateral humeral condyle fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). We retrospectively reviewed children treated with ORIF...

  6. Estudo morfométrico da fossa intercondilar femoral em joelhos com e sem lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (L.C.A., através da aplicação de um software sobre imagens radiográficas digitalizadas Morphometric study of the femoral intercondylar notch of knees with and without injuries of anterior cruciate ligament (A.C.L., by the use of software in digitalized radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores sugerem a aplicação de um software sobre imagens radiográficas digitalizadas para análise morfométrica da fossa intercondilar e dos côndilos femorais. O programa permite o tracejamento de linhas guias que facilitam a mensuração da extremidade distal do fêmur. Foram analisadas 39 radiografias simples da fossa intercondilar femoral dos joelhos direito e esquerdo, obtidas de indivíduos do sexo masculino reunidos em grupo normal (n=23 e grupo lesionado (n=16. A média de idade da amostra foi de 26,56 anos. As variáveis analisadas foram largura bicondilar femoral, larguras da fossa intercondilar ao nível do sulco poplíteo e da base da fossa, a altura da fossa intercondilar e a largura do côndilo femoral lateral. A fossa intercondilar foi classificada quanto ao formato em cônica, circular e retangular. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que a largura da base da fossa e a largura do côndilo femoral lateral seriam fatores de risco importantes na lesão do L.C.A. Os valores médios das variáveis analisadas aproximam-se dos descritos na literatura especializada em mensurações diretas em peças cadavéricas e ressonância nuclear magnética e demonstram que a aplicação de um software sobre as imagens radiográficas digitalizadas proporciona uma mensuração confiável, mesmo utilizando-se de imagens radiográficas simples e de baixo custo.The authors suggest the use of software in digitalized radiographic images to morphometric analysis of the intercondylar notch and the femoral condyles. The software allows the draw of guide lines which facilitate the measurement of the distal extremity of femur. Thirty-nine radiographic simple has been analyzed of femoral intercondylar notch of right and left knees, of male sex individuals collected into normal (n=23 and injured (n=16 groups. The age average was 26-56 years old.The analyzed variable had been femoral bicondylar width, widths of intercondylar notch to the level of the popliteal groove and the notch base, intercondylar notch height and the width of lateral femoral condyle. The intercondylar notch was classified according to its shape into conical , circular and rectangular. The results suggest that the base width of the notch and the width of the femoral condyle would be important risk factors of the injury of A.C.L. The average range of analyzed variables are near to the ones described in the specialized literature in direct measurements in corpse pieces and magnetic resonance imaging and demonstrate that the use of a software in digitalized radiographic images provides a realiable measurement, even if simple and low cost radiographic images are used.

  7. Estudo morfométrico da fossa intercondilar femoral em joelhos com e sem lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (L.C.A.), através da aplicação de um software sobre imagens radiográficas digitalizadas / Morphometric study of the femoral intercondylar notch of knees with and without injuries of anterior cruciate ligament (A.C.L.), by the use of software in digitalized radiographic images

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rita di Cássia de Oliveira, Angelo; Sílvia Regina Arruda de, Moraes; Luciano Carvalho, Suruagy; Tetsuo, Tashiro; Helena Medeiros, Costa.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores sugerem a aplicação de um software sobre imagens radiográficas digitalizadas para análise morfométrica da fossa intercondilar e dos côndilos femorais. O programa permite o tracejamento de linhas guias que facilitam a mensuração da extremidade distal do fêmur. Foram analisadas 39 radiograf [...] ias simples da fossa intercondilar femoral dos joelhos direito e esquerdo, obtidas de indivíduos do sexo masculino reunidos em grupo normal (n=23) e grupo lesionado (n=16). A média de idade da amostra foi de 26,56 anos. As variáveis analisadas foram largura bicondilar femoral, larguras da fossa intercondilar ao nível do sulco poplíteo e da base da fossa, a altura da fossa intercondilar e a largura do côndilo femoral lateral. A fossa intercondilar foi classificada quanto ao formato em cônica, circular e retangular. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que a largura da base da fossa e a largura do côndilo femoral lateral seriam fatores de risco importantes na lesão do L.C.A. Os valores médios das variáveis analisadas aproximam-se dos descritos na literatura especializada em mensurações diretas em peças cadavéricas e ressonância nuclear magnética e demonstram que a aplicação de um software sobre as imagens radiográficas digitalizadas proporciona uma mensuração confiável, mesmo utilizando-se de imagens radiográficas simples e de baixo custo. Abstract in english The authors suggest the use of software in digitalized radiographic images to morphometric analysis of the intercondylar notch and the femoral condyles. The software allows the draw of guide lines which facilitate the measurement of the distal extremity of femur. Thirty-nine radiographic simple has [...] been analyzed of femoral intercondylar notch of right and left knees, of male sex individuals collected into normal (n=23) and injured (n=16) groups. The age average was 26-56 years old.The analyzed variable had been femoral bicondylar width, widths of intercondylar notch to the level of the popliteal groove and the notch base, intercondylar notch height and the width of lateral femoral condyle. The intercondylar notch was classified according to its shape into conical , circular and rectangular. The results suggest that the base width of the notch and the width of the femoral condyle would be important risk factors of the injury of A.C.L. The average range of analyzed variables are near to the ones described in the specialized literature in direct measurements in corpse pieces and magnetic resonance imaging and demonstrate that the use of a software in digitalized radiographic images provides a realiable measurement, even if simple and low cost radiographic images are used.

  8. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  9. Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.

  10. Nontraumatic bifid mandibular condyles in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bifid mandibular condyles (BMCs) in asymptomatic and symptomatic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subjects with no traumatic history, and to assess their impact on clinical and radiographic manifestations of TMJ. A total of 3,046 asymptomatic and 4,378 symptomatic patients were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reviewed for bifid condyles. T-tests were used to compare the frequency of BMCs when stratified by symptom, gender, and side. In BMC patients, the clinical features of pain and noise, osseous changes, and parasagittal positioning of the condyles were compared between the normally shaped condyle side and the BMC side using chi-squared tests. Fifteen (0.49%) asymptomatic and 22 (0.50%) symptomatic patients were found to have BMCs. Among the bilateral cases, the number of condyles were 19 (0.31%) and 25 (0.29%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, between female and male patients, or between the right and left sides (p>0.05). Compared with the normally shaped condyle side, the BMC side showed no statistically significant differences in the distribution of pain and noise, parasagittal condylar position, or condylar osseous changes, with the exception of osteophytes. In the symptomatic group, osteophytes were found more frequently on the normally shaped condyle side than the BMC side (p<0.05). BMCs tended to be identified as an incidental finding. The presence of BMC would not lead to any TMJ symptoms or cause osseous changes.

  11. Posterior knee pain

    OpenAIRE

    English, S; Perret, D.

    2010-01-01

    Posterior knee pain is a common patient complaint. There are broad differential diagnoses of posterior knee pain ranging from common causes such as injury to the musculotendinous structures to less common causes such as osteochondroma. A precise understanding of knee anatomy, the physical examination, and of the differential diagnosis is needed to accurately evaluate and treat posterior knee pain. This article provides a review of the anatomy and important aspects of the history and physical ...

  12. Cerulean posterior capsule opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Miran; Oetting, Thomas A

    2007-09-01

    We present a case of light-blue posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in a patient who had cerulean cataracts removed 1 year earlier. The color of the PCO was similar to that of the cerulean cataracts prior to extraction. Posterior capsule opacification is a common complication after cataract surgery; however, we could not find a similar case of cerulean posterior capsule opacity in the literature. The findings in this case suggest that the mechanism of the light-blue color formation in the cataract was also present in the lens epithelial cells forming the posterior capsule opacity. PMID:17720089

  13. Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Colleen F; Brigger, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation is a useful technique in selected patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency who have a small central velopharyngeal gap. Options for augmenting this region include using posterior pharyngeal wall flaps to create bulk and implanting various materials to fill in the central deficiency. Autologous and nonautologous implant materials are available and may be implanted through an incision or directly injected into the posterior pharyngeal wall. Previously described materials for implantation include cartilage, fat, fascia, silicone, acellular dermis, polytetrafluoroethylene, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Patient evaluation and surgical techniques for posterior pharyngeal wall augmentation are described. PMID:25733235

  14. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Alexandre Perez; Perrella, Andreia; Arita, Emiko Saito; Pereira, Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso, E-mail: alexperez34@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

    2010-10-15

    There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

  15. A comparison of transcranial with panoramic TMJ radiographs to assess the movement of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Hwa; Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the difference of the movement of the mandibular condyles between transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs to view the movement of the mandibular condyles. Thirty-four paired transcranial and panoramic TMJ radiographs of patients were used to evaluate the movement of the mandibular condyle. The distances, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, were measured. The measurements were taken at closed state and maximum opening state of each radiograph on both side. Differences between matched pairs were analysed by paired t-test, with significance established at P<0.05. The mean distance, from the most superior point of the mandibular condyle to the most inferior point of the articular eminence on both radiographs, was statistically different at each side (P<0.05). At closing state, the mean distance measured on panoramic TMJ radiographs was longer than on transcranial radiographs (0.85 mm at right side, 1.20 mm at left side). But at maximum opening state, the mean distance on transcranial radiographs was longer (1.00 mm at right side, 0.62 mm at left side) than panoramic TMJ radiographs.

  16. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Perez, Marques; Andréia, Perrella; Emiko Saito, Arita; Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos, Pereira; Marcelo de Gusmão Paraíso, Cavalcanti.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the [...] present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: 1) axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and 2) sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill # 1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis.

  17. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Perez Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ region. The Computed Tomography (CT scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT using two protocols: 1 axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR; and 2 sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill # 1. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis.

  18. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

  19. Neuropatía femoral post-histerectomía abdominal: informe de 2 casos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sing-Hung, Chang; Herman, Montvelisky.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available La neuropatía femoral, como complicación quirúrgica de la cirugía pélvica, se debe al uso inadecuado de los auto-retractores adbominales. No obstante el buen pronóstico en la mayoría de los casos, no deja de ocasionar una incapacidad temporal frustrante en la paciente. Conociendo la anatomía y la et [...] iopatogenia, se pueden aplicar medidas simples que permiten evitar por completo esta complicación. En la presente comunicación, se reportan 2 casos de neuropatía femoral posterior a histerectomía adbominal y se incluye una breve revisión bibliográfica. Abstract in english Femoral neuropath following abdominal-pelvic surgery is due to the improper use of self-retaining retractores. Although complete recovery from the injury is the rule, the patient does undergo a disturbing period of physical disability. By understanding the anatomy and etiology and applying simple pr [...] eventive measures, the physician can completly avoid this complication. We report 2 cases of femoral neuropathy after abdominal hysterectomy and include a brief review of the sudject.

  20. Posterior shoulder approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, L A; Matiko, J A; Terry, G C

    1985-12-01

    A posterior shoulder surgical approach combines the subperiosteal detachment of the deltoid from the scapular spine, described by McWhorter, with a lateral extension to include the lateral deltoid splitting of Codman. The glenohumeral joint is superiorly approached between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, or inferiorly between the infraspinatus and teres minor tendons. This approach was used in 42 shoulders with rotator cuff tears or posterior instability without complications of infection, failure of deltoid healing, or compromise of suprascapular or axillary nerves. This combined surgical approach provides excellent exposure of the superior and posterior shoulder, which is difficult to obtain by anterior or superior approaches. This approach may be used for repair of rotator cuff tears, posterior instability, and displaced posterior glenoid fractures. PMID:4064401

  1. Knee arthroscopy - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knee is a complex joint made up of the distal end of the femur (femoral condyles) and the ... between the femur and the tibia in the knee joint. The anterior cruciate ligament, the posterior cruciate ...

  2. Total Knee Replacement for Women

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... flap, which will be important for closure. When these tend to drain postoperatively, they tend to drain ... for the distal femoral resection guide is making these parallel to the posterior condyle. Now, Ken, are ...

  3. Total Knee Replacement for Women

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... setting for the distal femoral resection guide is making these parallel to the posterior condyle. Now, Ken, are you dialing up on that jig to account for cartilage loss and bony erosion? Right now ...

  4. Serial femoral arteriography in Buerger's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral arteriography has assumed in recent years a greater clinical and surgical significance, especially since the advent of arterial grafting for occlusive arterial disease. Evaluation of the site and extent of occlusion, the state of distal arterial tree and degree of collateral circulation can best be obtained by serialographic studies. Authors analyzed 28 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed Buerger's disease in GURO hospital radiology, College of medicine, Korea University, during last 6 months from March to August 1984. The result are as follows; 1. The age distribution were between 20 and 50 years old, and most commonly involved age group was 20-29. 2. The most frequent finding was the obstruction of peripheral artery with or without collateral vessel and almost all patient had occlusion more than 1 segmental branch. 3. The most frequently involved arteries in Buerger's disease were trifurcation area below the knee joint, anterior and posterior tibial artery and peroneal artery. Peroneal artery was less commonly involved than anterior or posterior tibial artery

  5. Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological changes of the mandibular condyle in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were studied. The subjects were 420 patients (103 males and 317 females, 8 to 80 years of age, mean age 39.8 years) who were clinically diagnosed as temporomandibular joint disorder. MR imaging was performed with a GE-Signa 1.5 Tesla MR imaging system using the body coil as a transmitter and 3-inch bilateral surface coils. The patients were examined by a multiplanar gradient echo technique in a closed-loop cine fashion on both sagittal and coronal planes. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Morphological changes of the mandibular condyle were detected in 47.0% of the patients. The predominant morphological changes were then formation of osteophyte and marginal proliferation (65.8%). 2) The incidence of morphological changes in the mandubular condyle did not show any significant difference between male and female, and tended to be higher in patients over 40 years of age, and the incidence in patients under 20 years of age was lower, compared to that in patients from 20 to 39 years of age. 3) The incidence of morphological changes in patients with anterior disk displacement without reduction was higher than in those with anterior disk displacement with reduction (P<0.001). The incidence of morphological changes in patients with rotational disk displacement was higher than in those with medial disk displacement (P<0.001). 4) The anterior translation of mandibular condyle was influenced more by anterior disk displacement rather than by morphological changes. From these results. it is suggested that simultaneous bilateral condyle pseudodynamic MR imaging was useful in the diagnosis of internal derangement, evaluation of morphological changes and assessment of motional abnormality of the condyle. (author)

  6. Interpretation of mandibular condyle fractures using 2D- and 3D-computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Costa e Silva Adriana Paula de Andrade da; Antunes José Leopoldo Ferreira; Cavalcanti Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly used in the examination of patients with craniofacial trauma. This technique is useful in the examination of the temporomandibular joint and allows the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle. Aiming to verify whether the three-dimensional reconstructed images from CT (3D-CT) produce more effective visual information than the two-dimensional (2D-CT) ones, we evaluated 2D-CT and 3D-CT examinations of 18 patients with mandibular condyle fr...

  7. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Ja; Park, Yang Hee; Lee, Jee Yean; Jee, Keum Nahn; Lee, Kyung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    There is increasing awareness of the clinical importance of early detection and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injury. We evaluate the usefulness of Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging in the diagnosis of PCL injury. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 140 cases with clinically suspected knee injury. Arthroscopic or surgical correlation was available in 63 cases. We observed the finding and extent of PCL injury and other associated abnormalities. The frequency of anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligament was evaluated. Eleven PCL injuries were observed, six midsubstance tears, two tibial attachment tears, two femoral attachment tear, one laxity. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging diagnosis are 100%, 98.1%, 98.4%. MR findings of PCL injury are discontinuity and focal mass formation, irregular increased signal intensity, detachment or redundancy of the ligament with avulsed bony fragment. In all cases of injured PCL, other associated abnormalities of adjacent structures were observed. Accessory anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments were observed in 67.4%(87/129). MR imaging is useful in evaluation of presence or absence of PCL injury, accurate extent of PCL injury and other important associated abnormalities of adjacent structures.

  8. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing awareness of the clinical importance of early detection and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) injury. We evaluate the usefulness of Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging in the diagnosis of PCL injury. We retrospectively analysed the MR images of 140 cases with clinically suspected knee injury. Arthroscopic or surgical correlation was available in 63 cases. We observed the finding and extent of PCL injury and other associated abnormalities. The frequency of anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligament was evaluated. Eleven PCL injuries were observed, six midsubstance tears, two tibial attachment tears, two femoral attachment tear, one laxity. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging diagnosis are 100%, 98.1%, 98.4%. MR findings of PCL injury are discontinuity and focal mass formation, irregular increased signal intensity, detachment or redundancy of the ligament with avulsed bony fragment. In all cases of injured PCL, other associated abnormalities of adjacent structures were observed. Accessory anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments were observed in 67.4%(87/129). MR imaging is useful in evaluation of presence or absence of PCL injury, accurate extent of PCL injury and other important associated abnormalities of adjacent structures

  9. Posterior polar cataracts: a predisposition to intraoperative posterior capsular rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, R H; Yu, B C; Koch, D D

    1990-03-01

    We performed phacoemulsification or planned extracapsular cataract extraction on posterior polar cataracts in 31 eyes of 22 patients and experienced eight cases of posterior capsular rupture (26%). Capsular rupture occurred during removal of the posterior polar opacity or during cleaning of the posterior capsule after the opacity had been removed. We believe that excessive adherence of the opacity to the posterior capsule and unusual thinness of the capsule predisposed these eyes to posterior capsular rupture. PMID:2329471

  10. Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, James C

    2012-02-01

    We report the case of a traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old boy. After a fall in the garden, the boy was brought to our emergency department where an x-ray confirmed a posterior dislocation of his right hip. A successful prompt reduction was performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. This uncommon injury represents an orthopedic emergency and requires prompt reduction to lessen the risk of complications including avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  11. Does mismatch of the femoral component aspect ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIA Yu-tao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: To study whether the range of knee flexion (ROF is affected by geometrical mismatch of the femoral component and the resultant change in the pos-terior condylar offset (PCO after high-flexion posterior-sta-bilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Methods: One hundred osteoarthritic patients (50 males and 50 females underwent femoral osteotomy by the ante-rior referencing technique. The PCO for each patient was measured from lateral radiographs before, during and 2 years after TKA. The thickness of the joint cartilage was mea-sured by magnetic resonance imaging before TKA and added onto the radiographic measurement. The relationship be-tween changes in the PCO and improvements in the ROF before, during and 2 years after TKA were statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the preoperative value, the PCO was reduced by (3.45±3.28 mm after TKA, with a sig-nificantly larger reduction observed in female patients than male patients (P<0.05. When examining the subject popu-lation as a whole, there was a significant positive correla-tion between PCO and ROF improvement during TKA (P< 0.05, but this improvement was not maintained 2 years after TKA (P>0.05. However, when male and female patients were analyzed separately, there was a significant positive corre-lation between PCO change and ROF improvement for both sexes at both time points (all P<0.05. Conclusions: Restoration of PCO plays an important role in the optimization of knee flexion even after posterior-stabilized TKA. Femoral components based on Caucasian anatomic characteristics could not match the native anatomy of distal femurs in Chinese population especially female Chinese. Rotated resection of distal femur with anterior re-ferencing technique usually leads to a decreased PCO and therefore reduces maximal obtainable flexion. Key words: Arthroplasty, replacement, knee; Pros-thesis design; Range of motion, articular; Femur

  12. 78 FR 79308 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... reclassify this device in the Federal Register of February 7, 2013 (78 FR 9010) (the 2013 proposed order... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 872 Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final...

  13. Interpretation of mandibular condyle fractures using 2D- and 3D-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa e Silva Adriana Paula de Andrade da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT has been increasingly used in the examination of patients with craniofacial trauma. This technique is useful in the examination of the temporomandibular joint and allows the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle. Aiming to verify whether the three-dimensional reconstructed images from CT (3D-CT produce more effective visual information than the two-dimensional (2D-CT ones, we evaluated 2D-CT and 3D-CT examinations of 18 patients with mandibular condyle fractures. We observed that 2D-CT and 3D-CT reconstructed images produced similar information for the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle, although the 3D-CT allowed a better visualization of the position and displacement of bone fragments, as well as the comminution of fractures. These results, together with the possibility of refining and manipulating perspectives in 3D images, reinforce the importance of its use in the surgical planning and evaluation of treatment. We concluded that 3D-CT presented supplementary information for a more effective diagnosis of mandibular condyle fractures.

  14. Central giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle: Case-report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Munzenmayer; P, Tapia; J, Zeballos; A, Martínez; Á, Compan; A, Urra; ML, Spencer.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a 19-year-old female patient with a central giant cell granuloma in the left mandibular condyle, treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with fibula graft. This occurrence is considered very unusual. [...

  15. 78 FR 9010 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ..., 1993 (59 FR 65475; December 20, 1994). In response to a petition dated April 30, 1996 (FDA-1996-P-0253... malignant and benign tumors (63 FR 71743). In 2009, FDA published an order for the submission of information on mandibular condyle prostheses indicated for temporary reconstruction (74 FR 16214; April 9,...

  16. Avaliação por tomografia computadorizada helicoidal dos efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional Evaluation with helicoidal computed tomography of rapid maxillary expansion effects in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Norões Rodrigues da Matta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo clínico avaliou, por meio da tomografia computadorizada helicoidal, os efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila no posicionamento condilar de pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional na fase da dentadura mista. MÉTODOS: dez pacientes com faixa etária entre os 7 anos e 2 meses e os 11 anos e 2 meses - apresentando mordida cruzada posterior funcional, com desvio da linha média de pelo menos 2,5mm para o lado do cruzamento - foram tratados com expansão rápida da maxila. Após a obtenção de cortes tomográficos sagitais da articulação temporomandibular, as medidas dos espaços articulares anterior, posterior e superior foram realizadas e o posicionamento relativo do côndilo foi calculado. Utilizando-se cortes tomográficos axiais, avaliou-se o posicionamento anteroposterior e transversal dos côndilos em relação às estruturas da base craniana. RESULTADOS: foram identificadas diferenças significativas, antes do tratamento, entre os espaços articulares posteriores, na posição relativa do côndilo e um posicionamento mais anterior e mais próximo ao plano sagital mediano do côndilo do lado não-cruzado. Após o tratamento, não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas nessas medidas. CONCLUSÕES: após a expansão rápida da maxila, um posicionamento mais centralizado dos côndilos nas fossas articulares foi observado, além de uma maior simetria anteroposterior e transversal entre os mesmos.AIM: This clinical study evaluated, through helicoidal computed tomography (CT, the effects of rapid maxillary expansion in the condylar position of patients with functional posterior crossbite in mixed dentition stage. METHODS: Ten patients aged between 7 years and 2 months and 11 years and 2 months were selected. This patients which presented functional unilateral posterior crossbite with mandibular midline deviation of at least 2.5mm to the crossbite side were submitted to rapid maxillary expansion. After obtaining sagittal CT slices of the temporomandibular joints, measurements of the anterior, posterior and superior joint spaces were carried out and the relative positioning of the condyle was calculated. Axial slices of the temporomandibular joint were also used to evaluate the anteroposterior and transversal position of the condyles in relation to the cranial base structures. RESULTS: Before treatment, significant differences were observed in the posterior joint spaces, in the relative positioning of the condyle and with the non-crossbite side condyle displaced more anteriorly and medially in relation to midsagittal line. After treatment there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: After the rapid maxillary expansion, a more centralized position of the condyles in the joint cavities was observed, and a greater anteroposterior and transverse symmetry between them.

  17. Management of neglected lateral condyle fractures of humerus in children: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Late presentation of humeral lateral condylar fracture in children is a surgical dilemma. Osteosynthesis of the fracture fragment or correction of elbow deformity with osteotomies and ulnar nerve transposition or sometimes both procedures combined is a controversial topic. We retrospectively evaluated open reduction and fixation cases in late presentation of lateral humeral condyle fracture in pediatric cases with regards to union and functional results. Materials and Methods: Twenty two pediatric (≤12 years patients with fractures of lateral condyle presenting 4 weeks or more post injury between the study period of 2006 and 2010 were included. Multiple K-wires / with or without screws along with bone grafting were used. At final evaluation, union (radiologically and elbow function (Liverpool Elbow Score, LES was assessed. Results: There were 19 boys and 3 girls. Followup averaged 33 months. Pain (n=9, swelling (n=6, restriction of elbow motion (n=6, prominence of lateral condylar region (n=4, valgus deformity (n=4 were the main presenting symptoms. Ulnar nerve function was normal in all patients. There were nine Milch type I and 13 type II fractures. Union occurred in 20 cases. One case had malunion and in another case there was resorption of condyle following postoperative infection and avascular necrosis. Prominent lateral condyles (4/12, fish tail appearance (n=7, premature epiphyseal closure (n=2 were other observations. LES averaged 8.12 (range, 6.66-9.54 at final followup. Conclusions: There is high rate of union and satisfactory elbow function in late presenting lateral condyle fractures in children following osteosynthesis attempt. Our study showed poor correlation between patient′s age, duration of late presentation or Milch type I or II and final elbow function as determined by LES.

  18. Percutaneous femoral derotational osteotomy for excessive femoral torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Omer; McConkey, Mark O; Bravman, Jonathan T; Young, David A; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    Femoral derotational osteotomy is an acceptable treatment for excessive femoral torsion. The described procedure is a minimally invasive single-incision technique based on an intramedullary saw that enables an inside-out osteotomy, preserving the periosteum and biological activity in the local bone and soft tissue. After the osteotomy is complete and correction is achieved, an expandable intramedullary nail is used to achieve immediate stability, without the need for locking screws. Indications, tips, and pitfalls related to this novel osteotomy technique are discussed. PMID:24762832

  19. Biomechanical model of the shear stress distribution in the femoral neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Iglič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The shear stress distribution in the femoral neck is an important biomechanical parameter in the development of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. In our work we present a simple non-invasive method for computation of the shear stress distribution in the femoral neck of an individual hip based on anterior-posterior pelvic radiograph. Methods. A mathematical model of the resultant hip force is used and the shear stress tensor is computed according to the procedure for a loaded beam. Results. Preliminary results from an illustrative set of three patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis show that the collum-diaphysis angle, the femoral neck width and the resultant hip force have important influence on shear stress distribution. Conclusion. Unfavorable high values of the resultant hip force can be compensated by larger collum-diaphysis angle and wider femoral neck. In further research the method could be used on a larger series of patients to determine the predictive value of the shear stress for different clinical outcomes.

  20. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; RØrdam, Peter

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five patients who had a primary vascular reconstruction. Two out of two patients who had a triple ligation of their aneurysms had claudication postoperatively. One patient presenting with thrombosis had a hip-exarticulation following an unsuccessful thrombectomi. No death occurred in this series. CONCLUSION: Revascularisation at the time of resection of the pseudoaneurysm offers better prospects for limb function.

  1. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anil K.; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course ar...

  2. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fracture-Related Hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Naci Ezirmik; Kadri Yildiz; Kenan Cadirci

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral femoral neck fracture is not common as unilateral femoral fracture. Femoral neck fracture generally occurs by the high energized traumas. Traffic accidents and fallings are the most common reason for this fracture kind. But suddenly and minor traumatic fractures is not common. Especially, in the hormonal and pathogenic fractures is not common. In this case minor traumatic bilateral femoral fracture is presented. The fracture occurs in the background of critical medical condition by ...

  3. Femoral anteversion is correlated with acetabular version and coverage in Asian women with anterior and global deficient subgroups of hip dysplasia: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological correlation between the acetabulum and femur at the hip joint is still controversial. We tested the hypothesis that femoral anteversion correlates with acetabular version and coverage in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Using pelvic computed tomography (CT) images of 79 hips in 49 Asian women with DDH and 49 normal hips, we measured femoral anteversion, the axial and vertical acetabular version and the acetabular sector angle (ASA) to demarcate femoral head coverage. Depending on the location of the acetabular bone defect, dysplastic hips were divided into three subgroups: the anterior, global and posterior deficiency groups. We performed a comparative analysis between dysplastic and normal hips using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and a relative analysis between femoral anteversion and acetabular measurements in dysplastic hips using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The amount of femoral anteversion in dysplastic hips was greater and more variable than in normal hips (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0277 respectively). Femoral anteversion in dysplastic hips correlated significantly with acetabular anteversion in the groups with anterior and global deficiency subgroups (p < 0.05, r = 0.2990, p < 0.05, r = 0.451 respectively), but not with the posterior deficiency subgroup. Femoral anteversion also correlated with vertical acetabular version. When acetabular coverage was examined, significant correlations were noted between femoral anteversion and anterior and superior coverage, but not with posterior coverage. These correlations were not observed in normal hips. Our results showed significantly greater and more variable femoral anteversion in DDH, and a significant correlation between femoral anteversion and acetabular version and coverage in DDH with anterior and global acetabular bone deficiency. (orig.)

  4. Femoral anteversion is correlated with acetabular version and coverage in Asian women with anterior and global deficient subgroups of hip dysplasia: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Mio; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Fujii, Masanori; Sato, Taishi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Mawatari, Taro; Motomura, Goro; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Morphological correlation between the acetabulum and femur at the hip joint is still controversial. We tested the hypothesis that femoral anteversion correlates with acetabular version and coverage in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Using pelvic computed tomography (CT) images of 79 hips in 49 Asian women with DDH and 49 normal hips, we measured femoral anteversion, the axial and vertical acetabular version and the acetabular sector angle (ASA) to demarcate femoral head coverage. Depending on the location of the acetabular bone defect, dysplastic hips were divided into three subgroups: the anterior, global and posterior deficiency groups. We performed a comparative analysis between dysplastic and normal hips using the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and a relative analysis between femoral anteversion and acetabular measurements in dysplastic hips using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The amount of femoral anteversion in dysplastic hips was greater and more variable than in normal hips (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0277 respectively). Femoral anteversion in dysplastic hips correlated significantly with acetabular anteversion in the groups with anterior and global deficiency subgroups (p < 0.05, r = 0.2990, p < 0.05, r = 0.451 respectively), but not with the posterior deficiency subgroup. Femoral anteversion also correlated with vertical acetabular version. When acetabular coverage was examined, significant correlations were noted between femoral anteversion and anterior and superior coverage, but not with posterior coverage. These correlations were not observed in normal hips. Our results showed significantly greater and more variable femoral anteversion in DDH, and a significant correlation between femoral anteversion and acetabular version and coverage in DDH with anterior and global acetabular bone deficiency. (orig.)

  5. OPTIMAL SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VELOCITY POSTERIOR TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURE SUBLUXATIONS (DUPARC, REVISED CLASSIFICATION, GROUP – V: POSTERO - MEDIAL FRACTURE BY DIRECT, DORSAL APPROACH – A CHANGING TREND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhasaradhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : High - energy tibial plateau fractures are infrequent and technically demanding to treat especially if those are shearing type, coronal plane, displaced fractures. The most widely used the Schatzker system of classification , [1] ( B ased on the AP radiograph is more than likely to miss postero - medial and postero - lateral shear fractures, best visible on the lateral, than the AP radiograph. These fractures have recently been characterised by two studies, highlighti ng their clinical relevance [ 2,3] and showing that less invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are often inadequate. Hohl described unicondylar c oronal plane splitting fractures of the medial tibial plateau, noted that these injuries be considered as fracture - dislocations. Connolly and others have suggested that the mechanism involved in this fracture pattern is one of knee flexion, varus, and inter nal rotation of the medial femoral condyle . [4,5,6 ] Consistent among these and other authors is that the occurrence of this fragment is relatively unusual and that the use of a posteriorly based exposure with direct fracture visualization, anatomic reductio n and absolute stability appears to result in satisfactory outcomes. Though variations of a postero - medial approach been previously described ( by Trickey et al and also by Burks et al.,, more recently, Lobenhoffer et al described direct posterior exposure , Wang et al described postero - medial approach and Luo et al. described the approach for the management of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures . [7,8] These approaches have been used in isolation or as a dual - incision approach for treating tibial plateau fractures . [9,10,11,12,13,14, 15] PURPOSE : The purpose of this study is to describe this unfamiliar direct posterior surgical (Medial Gastrocnemius approach to a general orthopod, highlighting the relevant anatomy and presenting our experience using this approach in treating a series of 15 patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated posterior shear fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study included 15 cases of patients with mean age of 30 years ( Age range 20 to 40 yr who sustained high velocity posterior tibial plateau fracture - subluxations with or without associated Bicondylar fractures ( Duparc, revised classification, Group – V: Postero - medial fracture and its associations. Surgical management includes by direct, dorsal approach and stabilisation with buttress plating and or also postero medial and or antero lateral approach as needed. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Oxford Knee Score and Lyshom Score. RESULTS:The mean OKS score was 40 (range 36 to 44 at the end of one year. The main clinical measures were early post - operative non weight bearing ROM, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, t he rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better as evident by over 94 % showing good to excellent OKS and Lyshom scores. CONCLUSION : Fractures of the postero - medial tibial plateau are challenging to treat, owing to the ir complexity and unfamiliar surgical approach. Several recent anatomic and biomechanical studies have shown that a locked plate placed from the lateral side of the proximal tibia does not capture and stabilise a typical posteromedial fragment. A direct po sterior (Medial Gastrocnemius or posterior medial approach for these unstable posterior medial tibial plateau subluxations (which are otherwise irreducible by conventional approaches and antiglide plate are usually needed to reduce the fractures anatomic ally, achieving absolute stability and mobilise early NWB, ROM of the knee joint to optimize the functional outcomes and minimise the complications, without the need for revision surgery

  6. Las Arterias Circunflejas Femorales en el Triángulo Femoral / The Circumflex Femoral Arteries in the Femoral Triangle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariano, del Sol; Iván, Suazo Galdames; Bélgica, Vásquez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocer el origen y distribución de las arterias circunflejas femorales (AaCF) en el hombre, es importante en el momento quirúrgico de la reconstrucción vascular. Se disecó el contenido del triángulo femoral en 92 miembros inferiores de cadáveres formolizados, adultos, de sexo masculino y diferentes [...] grupos étnicos, descubriéndose la arteria femoral (AF) y sus ramas originadas a nivel del triángulo femoral. Se localizó el origen de cada una de las AaCF determinándose el tipo y lugar de origen. La arteria circunfleja femoral medial (ACFM) se originó en 43 casos (46,7%) desde la AF; en 41 casos (44,6%) desde la arteria femoral profunda (AFP); en 7 casos (7,6%) en un tronco común formado por la AFP y AaCF y en un caso (1,1%) desde la arteria circunfleja femoral lateral (ACFL). La ACFM tenía en 75 casos (81,5%) un origen más proximal que la ACFL y en 9 casos (9,8%) su origen era al mismo nivel. La ACFL se originó en 68 casos (73,9%) desde la AFP; en 17 casos (18,5%) desde la AF; en 7 casos (7,6%) en un tronco común formado por la AFP y AaCF. El origen de la ACFL fue considerado independientemente si su ramo descendente se originaba desde ella o lo hacía desde la AF. Debido a la presencia de una serie de elementos nobles, conocer el origen preciso de las arterias y sus eventuales variaciones, adquiere especial importancia en los procedimientos realizados en la región. Abstract in english It is important to identify the origin and distribution of the circumflex femoral arteries (CFA) at the time of vascular reconstructive surgery. The femoral triangle contents in 92 lower extremities of formolized adult male cadavers of different ethnic groups, were dissected uncovering the femoral a [...] rtery (FA) and its branches originating at the level of the femoral triangle. The origin of each CFA was identified determining the origin type and location. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) originated from the FA in 43 cases (46.7%); from the profunda femoris artery (PFA) in 41 cases (44.6%); from a common trunk formed by the PFA and CFA in 7 cases (7.6%), and in one case (1.1%) from the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA). In 75 cases (81.5%) the MCFA was most proximal than the LCFA, and in 9 cases (9.8%) it originated at the same level. The LCFA originated at the PFA in 68 cases (73.9%); from the FA in 17 cases (18.5%); from a common trunk formed by the PFA and CFA in 7 cases (7.6%). The origin of the LCFA was considered regardless, whether the descending branch originated therein or from the FA. Considering the presence of a number of important elements it is essential to identify the precise origin of the arteries and its eventual variations in procedures carried out in that area.

  7. Las Arterias Circunflejas Femorales en el Triángulo Femoral The Circumflex Femoral Arteries in the Femoral Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano del Sol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocer el origen y distribución de las arterias circunflejas femorales (AaCF en el hombre, es importante en el momento quirúrgico de la reconstrucción vascular. Se disecó el contenido del triángulo femoral en 92 miembros inferiores de cadáveres formolizados, adultos, de sexo masculino y diferentes grupos étnicos, descubriéndose la arteria femoral (AF y sus ramas originadas a nivel del triángulo femoral. Se localizó el origen de cada una de las AaCF determinándose el tipo y lugar de origen. La arteria circunfleja femoral medial (ACFM se originó en 43 casos (46,7% desde la AF; en 41 casos (44,6% desde la arteria femoral profunda (AFP; en 7 casos (7,6% en un tronco común formado por la AFP y AaCF y en un caso (1,1% desde la arteria circunfleja femoral lateral (ACFL. La ACFM tenía en 75 casos (81,5% un origen más proximal que la ACFL y en 9 casos (9,8% su origen era al mismo nivel. La ACFL se originó en 68 casos (73,9% desde la AFP; en 17 casos (18,5% desde la AF; en 7 casos (7,6% en un tronco común formado por la AFP y AaCF. El origen de la ACFL fue considerado independientemente si su ramo descendente se originaba desde ella o lo hacía desde la AF. Debido a la presencia de una serie de elementos nobles, conocer el origen preciso de las arterias y sus eventuales variaciones, adquiere especial importancia en los procedimientos realizados en la región.It is important to identify the origin and distribution of the circumflex femoral arteries (CFA at the time of vascular reconstructive surgery. The femoral triangle contents in 92 lower extremities of formolized adult male cadavers of different ethnic groups, were dissected uncovering the femoral artery (FA and its branches originating at the level of the femoral triangle. The origin of each CFA was identified determining the origin type and location. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA originated from the FA in 43 cases (46.7%; from the profunda femoris artery (PFA in 41 cases (44.6%; from a common trunk formed by the PFA and CFA in 7 cases (7.6%, and in one case (1.1% from the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA. In 75 cases (81.5% the MCFA was most proximal than the LCFA, and in 9 cases (9.8% it originated at the same level. The LCFA originated at the PFA in 68 cases (73.9%; from the FA in 17 cases (18.5%; from a common trunk formed by the PFA and CFA in 7 cases (7.6%. The origin of the LCFA was considered regardless, whether the descending branch originated therein or from the FA. Considering the presence of a number of important elements it is essential to identify the precise origin of the arteries and its eventual variations in procedures carried out in that area.

  8. Radiographic and histopathologic study of morphologic changes in the mandibular condyle of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the micro structural and histomorphometrical changes in mandibular condyles in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. The experimental animals were female cynomolgus monkeys (n=24) with a mean age of 10 years, range 9-15 years. The animals were divided into 2 groups: an experimental group to be ovariectomized (OVX group) and a control sham operated group (Sham group). The animals in each group were housed under the environmental condition outlined in the appropriate guidelines from the National Institutes of Health U.S.A. Two years post-operatively, the animals were killed and the maxillo-facial bones were dissected and fixed with 10% buffered formalin. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the mandibular condyle was determined by densitometric analysis of the lateral oblique transcranial projection radiograph. Bone X-ray microanalysis on the mandibular condyle was performed using micro computed tomography (?CT). The following parameters were examined in cancellous bone: bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness and number, trabecular separation, structure model index (SMI), number of node struts, and total strut length of tissue volume. Further, cortical bone volume was additionally examined. The condyles were immersed in Plank-Rychlo's solution for demineralization, embedded in paraffin, and used for standard light microscopic observation. Thickness of the cartilage was measured and the unit number of hypertrophic cartilage cells was counted on each coronal section. Densitometric analysis of lateral oblique transcranial projection radiograph showed that BMD of the mandibular condyle did not significantly decrease in the OVX group in comparison with the Sham group. However, CT analysis did show that BV/TV of the cancellous bone, trabecular thickness and number, SMI, number of node struts, and total strut length of tissue volume in the OVX group were significantly lower than those found in the Sham group. Further, trabecular separation in the OVX group was significantly higher than that in the Sham group. However, cortical bone volumes were similar in those two groups. Histomorphometrical analysis on condylar cartilage showed that both thickness of the hypertrophy stratum and unit number of hypertrophic cartilage cells were lower in the OVX group than in the Sham group. Bone loss and trabecular fragmentation in the monkey condyle could be induced with ovariectomy. The changes occurred only in cancellous bone, but not in cortical bone. (author)

  9. Femoral reconstruction using external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Yevgeniy; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD), limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD) and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA) for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction. PMID:21991425

  10. The effects of the low calcium diet and irradiation on the mandibular condyle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the changes of mandibular condyle by low diet and the effects of irradiation on the bone in ofteoporotic state. In order to carry out this experiment, 80 served-week old Sprague-Dawley strain rats about 150gm were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group of 40 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the control group were then subdivided into two group and exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20 Gy on the jaw area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially terminated by fours on the 3rd, the 7th, the 14th, and the 21st day after irradiation. After termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular condyle were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. The bone mineral density of mandibular condle was measured by use of dual energy X-ray with Hitex HA-80 (Hitex Co., Japan). Thereafter, the obtained radiographs were observed, and the mandibular condyle was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as the general method. The specimen sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, PAS and Rabbit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-? observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In the non-irradiated group with low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days, and decrease the number of trabeculae of the condyle and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone were observed after 3 days. On microscopic observation, the number and size of trabecular were decreased after 7 days of experiment. 2. In the irradiated group with the low calcium diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was markedly decreased after 14 days and resorption of the calcified cartilaginous zone and decrease the number and coarse of the trabeculae of the condyle were observed. These findings were extended rather than in non-irradiated group with low calcium diet. On microscopic observations, many osteoclasts were detected and the number and size of trabeculae were somewhat decreased after 7 days. Also there was degenerative changes of tissues of bone marrow on the 14th day but that condition was restored on the 21st day of experiment. 3. In the irradiated group with normal diet, the bone mineral density of the condyle was somewhat decreased with times and degree of decrease of the number of trabeculae was somewhat larger than in the non-irradiated group with normal diet. On microscopic observations, the 21st day of experiment. 4. In immunocytochemical findings, in the irradiated and non-irradiated groups with low calcium diet negative or partial positive response to TNF was observed, but positive response in the normal diet groups.

  11. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

  12. Intra- and interobserver agreement of computed tomography in assessment of the mandibular condyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To study the intra- and interobserver agreement of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in interpretation of degenerative changes of the mandibular condyle. Five observers independently evaluated one hundred temporomandibular joint MDCT images for signs of osteophytes, erosion, sclerosis and flattening. The intra- and interobserve agreements were calculated by using Kappa statistics. The intraobserver agreement was substantial for erosion (k=0.75), flattening (k=0.74) and sclerosis (k=0.72) and almost perfect for osteophytes (k=0.84). The interobserver agreement was fair for flattening (k=0.39), moderate for erosion (k=0.58) and sclerosis (k=0.48) and substantial for osteophytes (k=0.75). This study shows that we can expert good agreement for the presence of osteophytes, but not for flattening in the interpretation of MDCT images of the condyle.

  13. Bifid mandibular condyle with temporomandibular joint ankylosis: report of two cases and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, Ajay; Virmani, V.; Ramanathan, S.; Khandelwal, N. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, PGIMER, Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Chandigarh (India); Verma, L. [Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Department of Pedodontics, Patiala (India)

    2009-10-15

    Bifid mandibular condyle is an uncommon entity with a controversial etiology. It can be developmental or acquired and rarely may be associated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Although the patient may be asymptomatic, the radiologist should be aware of this entity and its clinical implications. We report two cases of BMC, one developmental and the other secondary to trauma. Both were diagnosed using computed tomography, which additionally revealed the associated ankylosis of TMJ in both the patients. (orig.)

  14. Management of neglected lateral condyle fractures of humerus in children: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Agarwal; Nadeem Akhtar Qureshi; Neeraj Gupta; Indreshwar Verma; Devreshi Kumar Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Late presentation of humeral lateral condylar fracture in children is a surgical dilemma. Osteosynthesis of the fracture fragment or correction of elbow deformity with osteotomies and ulnar nerve transposition or sometimes both procedures combined is a controversial topic. We retrospectively evaluated open reduction and fixation cases in late presentation of lateral humeral condyle fracture in pediatric cases with regards to union and functional results. Materials and Methods:...

  15. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesen, EB; Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; van Eijden, TM

    2003-01-01

    As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Cylindrical specimens (n = 24) were obtained in different orientations from embalmed mandibular condyles; the angle of the first principal direction and the axis of the specimen, expressing the orientation of the trabeculae, ranged from 10 degrees to 87 degrees. Morphological...

  16. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part II: Open Reduction Versus Closed Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Young Choi; Jung-Dug Yang; Ho-Yun Chung; Byung-Chae Cho

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture, conservative treatment using closed reduction or surgical treatment using open reduction can be used. Management of mandibular condylar fractures remains a source of ongoing controversy in oral and maxillofacial trauma. For each type of condylar fracture,the treatment method must be chosen taking into consideration the presence of teeth, fracture height, patient'sadaptation, patient's masticatory system, disturbance of occlusal function, and de...

  17. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Young Choi; Jung-Dug Yang; Ho-Yun Chung; Byung-Chae Cho

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of ...

  18. Influence of occlusal splints on TMJ condyle-fossa relationship and disc shape

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Barbara Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background. Occlusal splints are nowadays commonly used in dentistry to treat symptoms of myoarthropathies of the masticatory system, but also to treat simple occlusal parafunctions. Still, the exact mechanism by which the treatment works is unknown. The aim of this study was to find out the answers to following questions: 1. is there an immediate change of the minimum condyle-fossa distance and accompanying disc thickness by inserting a Michigan splint and 2. is it possible to displace the m...

  19. Proliferative periostitis of the mandibular ramus and condyle: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hyun; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative periostitis is a rare form of osteomyelitis that is characterized by new bone formation with periosteal reaction common causes of proliferative periostitis are dental caries, periodontitis, cysts, and trauma. While proliferative periostitis typically presents as a localized lesion, in this study, we describe an extensive form of proliferative periostitis involving the whole mandibular ramus and condyle. Because the radiographic findings were similar to osteogenic sarcoma, an accurate differential diagnosis was important for proper treatment. PMID:26339579

  20. Remodeling process of the streptozotocln-induced diabetic rat's resected condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the remodeling process of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's resected condyle. The experiment was performed with male Sprague-Dawley strain rats weighing approximately 250 gm, which were rendered diabetic by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). After condylectomy, experimental rats were serially terminated on the 1st week, the 2nd week, the 3rd week, and the 4th week. The following termination, the mandible were dissected out to make specimens. Each mandibular condyle was radiographed with Hitex HA-80 (Hitex Co., Ltd. Japan). In addition to radiographic observation, the mandibular condyles, further decalcified and embedded in paraffin, were sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Toluidine blue and Masson's trichrome. They were observed with a light microscope and a polarizing microscope. The results were as follows. 1. Soft X-ray radiograms revealed proliferation of bone after 1 week in both groups. Irregularly repaired bones and dense trabeculae were clearly observed in experimental group. 2. The resected condyles were repaired by intramembraneous and endochondral bone formation in both groups. 3. Bone tissue repair was initiated from the adjacent margin of resected bone, and cartilaginous tissues were observed at the top of repaired bone in both groups. 4. The number of osteoblasts of experimental group was small, compared with control group. Each osteoblast was small and flat. The thin trabeculae were irregularly formed. 5. Collagens of bone were gradually matured in both groups but the degree of maturation was lower in experimental group. 6. Fibrous tissues covered the upper parts of repaired bone were densely arranged in the both groups. Conclusively, atrophied osteoblasts, immature collagen of bone, and thin and irregular trabeculae function and caused disturbance of remodeling process of bone.

  1. Posterior fossa tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of magnetic resonance imaging, using a 0.5 Tesla superconductive magnet in 6 patients with clinical (6), angiographic (6) and histologic (4) diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors were reviewed and compared with X-ray computed tomography. Optimal visualization of normal and abnormal anatomic relationships and the possibility and value of calculated T1- and T2-pictures with the aid of spin-echo-technique are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Effects of estrogen deficiency combined with chronic alcohol consumption on rat mandibular condyle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miriane Carneiro Machado, Salgado; Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva, Marchini; Tábata de Mello, Tera; Rosilene Fernandes da, Rocha; Leonardo, Marchini.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency and chronic alcohol consumption may have a synergistic and deleterious effect on bone tissue. AIM: To investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency associated with chronic alcohol consumption on the mandibular condyle in rats. METHODS: Fifty-four female rats were first divided e [...] qually into two groups: ovariectomized Ovx and simulated ovariectomy Sham. One month after the surgeries, these groups were equally sub-divided according to their dietary treatment: G1: Sham/ad-libitum diet; G2: Sham/alcohol; G3: Sham/isocaloric; G4: Ovx/ad-libitum diet; G5: Ovx/alcohol, G6: Ovx/isocaloric. Eight weeks after starting the diets, all animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. The condyles were analyzed histologically, histomorphometrically, and immunohistochemically using the antibodies for bone sialoprotein BSP, osteocalcin OCC and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RANKL. RESULTS: Histological analysis of the mandibular condyles showed that Ovx and Sham groups presented almost the same characteristics. The histomorphometric analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference only between Ovx/isocaloric and Ovx/ad-libitum groups p=0.049. No difference was observed in the intensity of BSP, OCC, and RANKL antibody staining between the Ovx/alcohol and the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that there was no histomorphometric, histological, or RANKL, BSP, and OCC staining differences between the Ovx/alcohol group and other experimental groups.

  3. Persistent occiput posterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, William H

    2015-03-01

    Persistent occiput posterior (OP) is associated with increased rates of maternal and newborn morbidity. Its diagnosis by physical examination is challenging but is improved with bedside ultrasonography. Occiput posterior discovered in the active phase or early second stage of labor usually resolves spontaneously. When it does not, prophylactic manual rotation may decrease persistent OP and its associated complications. When delivery is indicated for arrest of descent in the setting of persistent OP, a pragmatic approach is suggested. Suspected fetal macrosomia, a biparietal diameter above the pelvic inlet or a maternal pelvis with android features should prompt cesarean delivery. Nonrotational operative vaginal delivery is appropriate when the maternal pelvis has a narrow anterior segment but ample room posteriorly, like with anthropoid features. When all other conditions are met and the fetal head arrests in an OP position in a patient with gynecoid pelvic features and ample room anteriorly, options include cesarean delivery, nonrotational operative vaginal delivery, and rotational procedures, either manual or with the use of rotational forceps. Recent literature suggests that maternal and fetal outcomes with rotational forceps are better than those reported in older series. Although not without significant challenges, a role remains for teaching and practicing selected rotational forceps operations in contemporary obstetrics. PMID:25730235

  4. Femoral neck morphology differentiates femoral neck from vertebral osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mulè

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral density and bone geometry are the two main biomechanical factors related to bone resistance to stress. Objective: In this study we assess whether differences in the proximal femur geometry (PFG characterize different types of osteoporotic fractures. Methods: We studied 533 postmenopausal women aged 50 - 85. They were divided into four groups matched for bone mineral density at the femoral neck; without fractures (165, vertebral fractures (139, trochanteric fractures (102, and hip fractures (127. Dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the spine and at the hip were carried out to measure bone mineral density and the DXA images were used to define the proximal femur geometry parameters of the hip. Results: Age, height, vertebral BMD and PFG parameters (i.e.femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA and hip axis length (HAL were different when all four groups were compared by the Anova test. Patients with vertebral fractures were then compared by multivariate analysis to those with trochanteric fractures. The variables that discriminated the two groups were: age, age at menopause, weight, height, and vertebral BMD, but not PFG. Comparing vertebral to hip fractures the distinguishing variables were: vertebral BMD, height, NSA and HAL. We found that hip fractures had longer HAL and wider NSA than vertebral fractures, whereas no statistically significant differences were found between trochanteric fractures and vertebral fractures concerning PFG. Conclusions: These data indicate that differences in PFG parameters might have a role in predisposing to femoral neck fracture.

  5. Diagnostic gait pattern of a patient with longstanding left femoral nerve palsy: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2010-12-01

    The gait pattern of a 35-year-old man with longstanding, left femoral nerve palsy was assessed using 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis. Stability of his left knee in stance was achieved by manipulating the external moments of the limb so that the ground reaction force passes in front of the knee joint. This compensatory mechanism of locking the knee in extension is reliant on the posterior capsular structures. The patient was managed conservatively and continued to walk without aids.

  6. Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Eu Gene [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An ultrasound-guided direct injection of thrombin is currently the first choice of treatment for the postcatheterization pseudoaneurysm, mainly in the femoral artery. A pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery is very rare, so there are not enough reports about proper treatment yet. We report a case of a balloon-assisted injection of thrombin under ultrasonography-guidance to manage a pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery and concurrently to prevent a distal artery embolization.

  7. Femoral varus: what's the angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    only been assessed for one technique. Seven grossly normal right femora were radiographed with the diaphysis positioned horizontally and inclined at both 12.5° and 25° to the horizontal. Radiographs were blinded, randomised and read twice by one observer using ImageJ. Using coordinate data, varus...... angles were calculated using Microsoft Excel for the three previously reported techniques and a novel method, which we believed would be more reliable. Reliability between readings was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and repeatability coefficient, and the effect of angulation on......Agreement and reliability of femoral varus measurements: a comparison of four techniques Three different techniques have been described for measuring femoral varus radiographically in the dog, but how the measurements from these techniques compare is unknown. Further, measurement reliability has...

  8. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome develops in patients with toxemia of pregnancy, renal insufficiency or complicated migraine, and those who undergo immunosuppresive therapy. The characteristic MR finding in edema in cortical or subcortical areas of the parietal and occipital lobes, without enhancement after Gd-DTPA injection. Early recognition of this readily treatable condition may obviate the meed for extensive, invasive investigations, and prompt treatment can lead to a favorable prognosis

  9. Posterior Urethral Strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  10. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome develops in patients with toxemia of pregnancy, renal insufficiency or complicated migraine, and those who undergo immunosuppresive therapy. The characteristic MR finding in edema in cortical or subcortical areas of the parietal and occipital lobes, without enhancement after Gd-DTPA injection. Early recognition of this readily treatable condition may obviate the meed for extensive, invasive investigations, and prompt treatment can lead to a favorable prognosis.

  11. "Grand piano sign," a marker for proper femoral component rotation during total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Thomas F; Hughes, Richard E; Urquhart, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    A malpositioned femoral component is an established risk factor for patellar instability and pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In the assessment of femoral rotation, several axes, including the transepicondylar axis, the posterior condylar axis, and the anteroposterior axis, are useful. However, these axes are not always easily applicable, particularly when significant deformity exists. An anecdotal method used by some surgeons involves assessing the shape of the anterior femoral surface osteotomy. Our observations from saw bone models and TKA led to our hypothesis that proper femoral component placement is indicated by a bimodal peak on the anterior femur, approximately twice as high on the lateral side than on the medial side. We use the term "grand piano sign" to describe the shape of the trochlea after the osteotomy is correctly completed. To our knowledge, this common observation has not been studied either in the laboratory or in vivo. Our cadaveric models demonstrated that the grand piano sign correlated with proper femoral rotation during TKA. Surgeons who are knowledgeable about this marker should find it helpful when orienting components during knee replacement surgery. PMID:22013571

  12. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  13. Arteriosclerotic femoral artery aneurysms. A short review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    True arteriosclerotic aneurysms of the femoral artery are rare but they are dangerous lesions that may thrombose, embolise or rupture. They are often bilateral and frequently the patient has other aneurysms in the abdominal aortic or popliteal artery. True femoral aneurysms were originally...... classified by Cutler and Darling in 1973 as type 1 and type 2 according to their relationship to the common femoral bifurcation. Case reports of isolated superficial and profunda femoral artery aneurysms have been published, but these are exceedingly rare although isolated aneurysms of the profunda femoris...... artery may be more common in Denmark. True femoral artery aneurysms are attributed to weakening of the arterial wall due to atherosclerosis. True femoral artery aneurysms are relatively rare and are found in elderly smoking men. Aortic aneurysms are approximately 10 times more common. Distal embolization...

  14. Superselective intra-arterial DSA in patients with femoral head necrosis and femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospective study includes 25 patients without pathology of the femoral head for the evaluation of the normal femoral head perfusion. In addition 34 patients with femoral head necrosis underwent i.a. DSA preoperatively before pedicled pelvic bone grafting. 15 patients after pelvic bone graft operation and 7 patients with medial femoral head fracture were also examined via superselective DSA. In cases with femoral head necrosis a rarefaction or interruption of the rami nutricii proximales, or an occlusion of the medial circumflex femoral artery were observed. Patients with medial femoral neck fracture showed an interruption of the rami nutricii proximales of the femoral head. Postoperative DSA - after pedicled pelvic bone graft - revealed a regular arterial graft perfusion in 82%. (orig.)

  15. Condroblastoma de la cabeza femoral y reconstrucción con aloinjerto osteocondral: Reporte de caso / Femoral head chondroblastoma and reconstruction with osteochondral allograft: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Orlando-Díaz; R, Guzmán-Vargas; DF, Rincón-Cardozo; N, Mantilla-León; JA, Camacho-Casas.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El condroblastoma de la cabeza femoral es un tumor poco frecuente (aproximadamente 1 o 2% de los tumores benignos de hueso), se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes jóvenes de sexo masculino. El condroblastoma es más frecuente en el húmero proximal, fémur proximal, fémur distal y tibia proxima [...] l. La cabeza femoral es el tercer sitio más frecuente, No existe un tratamiento específico para esta entidad; se han descrito desde osteotomías acetabulares, injertos osteocondrales, injertos vascularizados de peroné, etcétera, todos reportando buenos resultados. Pero es clínicamente impredecible si no recibe tratamiento. Se presenta un caso que se manejó con aloinjerto osteocondral y la evolución de tres años posterior al procedimiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english Femoral head chondroblastoma is an infrequent tumor, accounting for approximately 1-2% of benign bone tumors. It occurs more frequently in young male patients. It's most frequent locations include the proximal humerus, proximal femur, distal femur and proximal tibia. The femoral head is the third mo [...] st frequent site of this tumor. There is no specific treatment for this entity; reported treatments range from acetabular osteotomies and osteochondral grafts, to vascularized fibular grafts, all of them with good results. However, this tumor is clinically unpredictable if left untreated. We report a case managed with osteochondral graft and followed-up for three years after the surgical procedure.

  16. Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classically, posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (PF-AVMs) have been considered as lesions with high tendency to bleed. However, careful analysis of clinical and autopsy data from the literature demonstrate that in fact the incidence of hemorrhage is similar in infratentorial and supratentorial locations. The clinical perception that most of the diagnosed PF-AVMs had bled does not mean that they have a high risk of hemorrhage. It suggests that bleeding is the dominant way of expression, since other symptoms are uncommon. Furthermore, angioarchitectural analysis is similar in supra- an intratentorial locations. The causes of hemorrhage are probably related to venous anatomic and hemodynamic changes or associated aneurysms as in other intracranial AVMs. (orig.)

  17. OSTEONECROSIS DE CABEZA FEMORAL: ETIOPATOGENIA / Femoral head osteonecrosis: Etiopathogeny

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Casanova Morote; Alejandro, Álvarez López; Yenima, García Lorenzo.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y actualización sobre la patogenia y etiología de la osteonecrosis de la cabeza femoral. En la patogenia se profundizó en la historia natural de la enfermedad con las diferentes teorías responsables de los episodios isquémicos como teoría del infarto óseo, embol [...] ismo graso, acumulación de las células de estrés y de la isquemia progresiva. Con respecto a la etiología se abordaron las causas traumáticas y atraumáticas en las cuales se incluyó el uso de corticoesteroides, consumo de alcohol, pacientes transplantados, trombofilia e hipofibrinolisis, enfermedad de Caison y Gaucher. Abstract in english A bibliographical revision and updating on the pathogeny and etiology of the osteonecrosis of the femoral head was carried out. In the pathogeny was deepened into the natural history of the illness with the different theories responsible for the ischemic episodes as theory of the bony heart attack, [...] fatty embolism, accumulation of the stress cells and of the progressive ischemia. Regarding to the etiology, traumatic and non traumatic causes were undertaken, in which the use of corticosteroids, alcohol intake, transplanted patients, thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis, Caison´s and Gaucher´s disease was included.

  18. Total knee reconstruction without posterior stabilization in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Prejbeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to present the results with posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Background: Total knee replacement in RA patients has many particularities. One of them is the difficulty of obtaining a proper ligamentous balance.Methods: 24 RA patients were followed for a 5-year period after posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Clinical assessments analyzed general health status by using Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Evaluation Form (HSSKEF and mediolateral and anteroposterior ligament stability by using varus-valgus and posterior drawer tests. Radiological assessments evaluated axial alignment, size and position of components, radiolucent lines in anteroposterior and lateral standard views, integrity of the posterior cruciate ligament on lateral view X-ray at 45 degrees of flexion.Results: the mean HSSKEF score increased from 32 to 84 points at the end of follow-up. Preoperative mean range of motion was 60 degrees; postoperative mean range of motion was of 105 degrees, with significant statistical difference (p<0.05. The mean femoral component axial deviation was 6 degrees. The tibial component had a mean axial deviation of 1 degree of varus. There were no radioluscency lines of more than 1mm. 21 patients had excellent results. None of the knees was unstable. Conclusion: posterior cruciate ligament-retaining total knee arthroplasty can be used in RA patients without excessive valgus deformity (over 15 degrees, providing thus sufficient stabilization. The outcomes re similar to those patients who followed a posterior stabilized endoprosthesis.

  19. Interpretation of mandibular condyle fractures using 2D- and 3D-computed tomography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Paula de Andrade da, Costa e Silva; José Leopoldo Ferreira, Antunes; Marcelo Gusmão Paraiso, Cavalcanti.

    Full Text Available A tomografia computadorizada (TC) tem sido cada vez mais utilizada para exames de pacientes portadores de traumas craniofaciais. Essa técnica tem apresentado vantagens no exame da articulação temporomandibular, sendo também empregada com sucesso no diagnóstico de fraturas de côndilo. Com o propósito [...] de verificar se a reconstrução em 3 dimensões de imagens de TC (3D-TC) acrescenta informação visual às interpretações baseadas em imagens de 2D-TC, o presente trabalho avaliou qualitativamente exames realizados segundo ambas as técnicas em 18 pacientes portadores de fraturas por trauma do côndilo mandibular. Os resultados indicaram que a 2D-TC e a 3D-TC apresentaram informações similares para o diagnóstico dessas fraturas. Contudo, as imagens reconstruídas em 3D-TC forneceram indicações mais precisas quanto à posição anatômica da fratura, deslocamento dos fragmentos ósseos e presença de cominução nas fraturas. Estes resultados, aliados à possibilidade de refinamento e manipulação em vários ângulos das imagens em 3D, sublinham sua aplicabilidade no planejamento e acompanhamento cirúrgico daquelas fraturas. Concluiu-se que a técnica de 3D-CT apresentou informações suplementares para um diagnóstico mais preciso das fraturas de côndilo mandibular. Abstract in english Computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly used in the examination of patients with craniofacial trauma. This technique is useful in the examination of the temporomandibular joint and allows the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle. Aiming to verify whether the three-dimensional reco [...] nstructed images from CT (3D-CT) produce more effective visual information than the two-dimensional (2D-CT) ones, we evaluated 2D-CT and 3D-CT examinations of 18 patients with mandibular condyle fractures. We observed that 2D-CT and 3D-CT reconstructed images produced similar information for the diagnosis of fractures of the mandibular condyle, although the 3D-CT allowed a better visualization of the position and displacement of bone fragments, as well as the comminution of fractures. These results, together with the possibility of refining and manipulating perspectives in 3D images, reinforce the importance of its use in the surgical planning and evaluation of treatment. We concluded that 3D-CT presented supplementary information for a more effective diagnosis of mandibular condyle fractures.

  20. Posterior polar cataract: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantan, Hatem

    2011-01-01

    Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling...

  1. Accessory thymus in posterior mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar Sushmita; Pradhan Rohit; Shastri Pankaj; Shenoy Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Presence of thymus in the normal position as well as in the posterior mediastinum is an unusual phenomenon. We report here a case of posterior mediastinal mass in a 20-month old male child who presented with dysphagia and dry cough. Investigations revealed it to be a solid posterior mediastinal mass, suspected to be either lymphoma or a neuroblastoma. Excision of the mass followed by histopathologic examination revealed the mass to be a normal thymus. This case indicates that a benign mass, a...

  2. The role of acetabulum geometry and femoral head-neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, B; Halle, D M; Torfing, T; Overgaard, S

    2007-01-01

    We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck and the consequence of acetabular retroversion on standardized x-rays. Men aged 26-55 years who earlier had a total hip arthroplasty were included in the case group. This group was compared to a control-group of men...

  3. Medial condyle fracture of the distal humerus in an adolescent with pre-existing fishtail deformity. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Jiro; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Temporin, Ko; Yamamoto, Koji

    2011-12-01

    Medial condyle fractures of the humerus are rare in any age group. We report a unique case of a humeral medial condyle fracture in a 15-year-old boy with posttraumatic fishtail deformity. The fracture line extended up from the top of the sharp trochlear wedge to the incomplete medial supracondylar cortical aperture. The appearance of the upward displacement and computed tomography imaging with three-dimensional reconstruction at the two different elbow positions suggested that an edge of the semilunar notch of the olecranon acted as a wedge to break and split the trochlea directly. This is the first visualized case of a wedge type injury and may provide evidence that humeral medial condyle fractures can be produced by the wedge force besides the valgus avulsion one. PMID:21935682

  4. Bayesian Posteriors Without Bayes' Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2012-01-01

    The classical Bayesian posterior arises naturally as the unique solution of several different optimization problems, without the necessity of interpreting data as conditional probabilities and then using Bayes' Theorem. For example, the classical Bayesian posterior is the unique posterior that minimizes the loss of Shannon information in combining the prior and the likelihood distributions. These results, direct corollaries of recent results about conflations of probability distributions, reinforce the use of Bayesian posteriors, and may help partially reconcile some of the differences between classical and Bayesian statistics.

  5. Novel femoral artery terminology: integrating anatomy and clinical procedures leading to standardized intuitive nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the terminology of the femoral artery and recommended alternative terminology that satisfies both anatomy and clinical arenas.The femoral artery (FA) is often defined as the continuation of the external iliac artery. Specifically, when the external iliac artery reaches directly beneath the inguinal ligament, it becomes the FA. Currently, Terminologia Anatomica (TA) records the profunda femoris or deep femoral as a terminal branch. Clinicians often use superficial femoral artery (SFA) rather than FA and profunda or deep FA. SFA is actually very deep and well protected for most of its journey. On observation, the terminology in current use is not intuitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the terminology associated with the anatomical and clinical anatomical interpretations of the FA and its terminal branches and to suggest a more appropriate terminology that addresses the points of view of the macro anatomist, as well as that of the clinician. Literature search was conducted regarding the nomenclature of the FA and its terminal branches. Dissection of 89 embalmed cadavers (49F, 40M, ages 47-89) was conducted to analyze the morphology of the FA and its branches. Perusal of the literature revealed a difference in terminology between anatomical and clinical textbooks/atlases/journals regarding the FA and its terminal branch. Our dissections suggested that the FA may be better defined vis-à-vis its relationship to the anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. A difference in terminology exists between the anatomical and clinical arenas. A need for a standardized terminology is necessary because clinicians and their publishers have not adopted TA. This study suggests that the current FA be considered the common FA and the continuation of the FA, the SFA be renamed the anterior FA and the current profunda (the deep FA) be renamed the posterior FA, respectively. The proposed terminology mirrors the lower limb anterior/posterior tibial artery terminology. PMID:24677146

  6. Ultrasound determination of femoral anteversion in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral anteversion has been measured in children by ultrasound and computer tomography. Spirit level attached to the US-probe and special position assures accurate and repeatable results. Regression of femoral anteversion with growth has been observed. US is accurate, non-aggressive method and should be recommended for clinical purposes. (author)

  7. Management of femoral neck fractures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LC, Marais; N, Ferreira.

    Full Text Available Femoral neck fractures are the second most common non-vertebral fragility fracture, and their management is complicated by multiple controversies. This article aims to review the recent literature in an attempt to elucidate current concepts critical to the management of intra-capsular femoral neck f [...] ractures. The optimal timing of surgery remains controversial. A recent meta-analysis was able to show that a delay of longer than 24-72 hours resulted in a statistically significant increase in mortality. Internal fixation of undisplaced fractures remains undisputed. In terms of displaced fractures, two well-designed studies have shown significantly higher re-operation rates in patients treated with closed reduction and internal fixation. While there appears to be renewed interest in the use of bi-polar hemiarthroplasty, conflicting evidence has been published with regard to total hip replacement for hip fractures in the elderly, and it may only be indicated in selected subgroups of relatively healthy patients. The peri-operative use of tranexamic acid has recently been shown to result in a reduction in transfusion requirements. Arguably the most important recent development in the management of hip fractures is the decrease in mortality provided by intravenous bisphosphonate therapy. Apart from a reduction in subsequent fractures the therapy also appears to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular and pulmonary causes. Recent investigations into thrombopro-phylaxis have highlighted the fact there is very little data to show that potent anti-coagulation decreases the risk of fatal pulmonary emboli.

  8. Distrofia policromática posterior da córnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Coelho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem dois casos de distrofia policromática posterior da córnea, uma distrofia pré-Descemet, pouco descrita nas literaturas nacional e mundial, em que se observam pontos policromáticos difusos no estroma posterior da córnea, sem aparente comprometimento da visão.

  9. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Darby, A.J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  10. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  11. OSTEONECROSIS DE CABEZA FEMORAL. ETIOPATOGENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Casanova Morote

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y actualización sobre la patogenia y etiología de la osteonecrosis de la cabeza femoral. En la patogenia se profundizó en la historia natural de la enfermedad con las diferentes teorías responsables de los episodios isquémicos como teoría del infarto óseo, embolismo graso, acumulación de las células de estrés y de la isquemia progresiva. Con respecto a la etiología se abordaron las causas traumáticas y atraumáticas en las cuales se incluyó el uso de corticoesteroides, consumo de alcohol, pacientes transplantados, trombofilia e hipofibrinolisis, enfermedad de Caison y Gaucher.

  12. Changes of center of rotation and femoral offset in total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is a challenge to reconstruct the center of rotation (COR) and femoroacetabular offset anatomically in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We addressed the controversy how we manage to preserve the COR and femoroacetabular offset with an uncemented total hip prosthesis implanted with free hand technique. Methods We analyzed a prospective series of 73 patients who underwent primary THA. The series was composed of 40 females and 33 males, mean age 64 years (range, 35–90 years). The reasons for THA were primary osteoarthritis (n=63) and developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=10). Pre- and postoperative X-rays were done in a standardized format for anterior-posterior (AP) radiographs of the pelvis, and digitalized measurements were done using SectraTM. We compared preoperative measurements with the final outcome to determine changes in COR and femoral offset. Results We found that 40 patients had their COR and 34 patients had their femoral offset preserved within preoperative 5.0 mm limits. Twenty-three patients had both their values of COR and femoral offset preserved within 5.0 mm limits. While a significant correlation was found between changes of femoral and global offset (r=0.786, Pimplanting an uncemented THA. PMID:26807410

  13. Strain induced in the condyle by self-tapping screws in the Biomet alloplastic temporomandibular joint: a preliminary experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Duarte, R J; Mesnard, M

    2015-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze how screws affect the strain concentration induced on the mandibular condyle during implantation, screwing, and drilling, as well as after condylar loading. A clean cadaveric mandible was analyzed experimentally in the intact state and was then implanted with a Biomet/Lorenz Microfixation temporomandibular joint (TMJ) implant with seven bicortical self-tapping screws. The external surface of the mandible was instrumented with three strain gauges. A load of 500N on the TMJ was applied to the condyle before and after implantation. The results showed a strain concentration of -1500?? near the screws due to their implantation on the external surface of the mandible. The drilling process induced up to 80?? near the hole. The strain concentration did not change when there were more than six screws. Loading on the TMJ before and after implantation presented only a 10% difference in maximum principal strain. This study demonstrates the importance of the strain concentration induced by the screws. The process of implanting screws shows the importance of lateral surface preparation for a good fit in the condyle. Strain distribution after implantation and loading of the Biomet implant was found to be similar to that in the intact condyle. PMID:26194773

  14. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  15. Late presentation of fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare Ghanshyam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current controversy regarding the management of fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus presenting between 3 to 12 weeks prompted us to evaluate our results of open reduction and internal fixation of such fractures. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients operated between March 1995 and February 2001 qualified for this study. Five patients presented between 3-4 weeks, nine between 5-8 weeks and seven between 9-12 weeks post injury. Ten fractures were classified as stage II and eleven as stage III (Jacob et al. criteria. The mean age was 8 years (range: 4-14 years. All patients underwent surgery (open reduction and internal fixation with K-wires/screw, with or without bone grafting. The results were assessed by the modified criteria of Agarwal et al. after an average follow-up of 2.3 years. Results: Excellent to good results were observed in all the five patients presenting at 3-4 weeks post injury. In the patients presenting at 5-8 weeks, the results were excellent in one, good in four, fair in three, and poor in one patient. The fracture united in all cases; however, malunion was observed in four patients. The fractures that were operated at 9-12 weeks showed good results in one case, fair result in three cases, and poor result in three cases. Avascular necrosis of the lateral condyle in one patient, premature fusion in two patients, pin tract infection in three patients, and gross restriction of elbow movements in three patients were the major complications in this group. Accurate reduction was difficult as a result of new bone formation and remodeling at the fracture surfaces. Multiple incisions over the common extensor aponeurosis and bone graft supplementation were helpful for achieving acceptable reduction. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation is recommended in all cases of displaced fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus presenting at up to 12 weeks post injury. However, the results become poorer with increase in duration after injury and the grade of displacement. To avoid complications it is important to carry out careful dissection of the soft tissue attachments and to mobilize the fragment without the use of force.

  16. Primary Posterior Mediastinum Hydatid Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary posterior mediastinal hydatid cyst is a serious health problem for the Mediterranean countries. We diagnosed a case of a 46-year-old female with a primary posterior mediastinum hydatid cyst on CT and MRI. It was provisionally identified as either a hydatid cyst or bronchogenic cyst or neuroenteric cyst. CT guided aspiration with 18 gauge needle confirmed as hydatid sand. This is very rare in this population but it should be kept in mind when one is looking at any cyst in the posterior mediastinum. (author)

  17. Femoral Morphology Due to Impingement Influences the Range of Motion in Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mamisch, Tallal C.; Kim, Young-Jo; Richolt, Jens A.; Millis, Michael B.; Kordelle, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement due to metaphyseal prominence is associated with the slippage in patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), but it is unclear whether the changes in femoral metaphysis morphology are associated with range of motion (ROM) changes or type of impingement. We asked whether the femoral head-neck junction morphology influences ROM analysis and type of impingement in addition to the slip angle and the acetabular version. We analyzed in 31 patients with SCFE ...

  18. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W. [University of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-15

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint associated with avascular necrosis of the condyle on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoarthrosis associated with findings of avascular necrosis of the mandibular condyle on magnetic resonance imaging was clinically evaluated. The subjects consisted of 5 female unilateral cases, with an average age of 55.4 years who had a mean duration of illness of 15.2 months. The symptoms were a mean interincisal opening distance of 32.8 mm with arthralgia in mild to moderate degree, and joint noise (crepitation) in all joints. MRI documented decreasing signal intensity of the condyle with 2 joints in high degree and 3 joints in moderate, as well as variable low signal density of the articular eminence, associated with concomitant anterior disk displacement. X-ray showed deformity of the condyle and eminence. The operative findings disclosed disk rupture and comparatively smooth cartilage with minimum remodeling of the condylar surface; however, avascular evidence was suggested when corticotomy was performed. 4 joints underwent diskectomy, condylar shaving, auricular cartilage grafts and corticotomy of the condyle. Arthroscopic corticotomy was applied for 1 joint with mild symptoms. Postoperative symptoms improved to mean opening distance of 41.4 mm and disappeared arthralgia in 4 joints. The surgical outcome was excellent in 3 joints and good in 2 joints. Follow-up MRI in 2 cases disclosed increasing signal intensity, which suggested recovery of condylar vascularity following corticotomy. It is suggested that the low-signal intensity on MRI in osteoarthrosis might indicate avascular lesions of the condyle, secondary to degenerative change. Histological investigations are required to evaluate avascular necrosis of the temporomandibular joints. (author)

  20. Comparison of conventional panoramic radiography and panoramic digital subtraction radiography in detection of simulated lesions of mandibular condyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjnoush M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and Aim: Digital subtraction Radiography (DSR is a method of accurate assessing condylar head changes. several studies have been carried out in applying DSR in dentistry, however there is a few number of studies in efficacy of DSR method in assesment of condylar head changes, The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiography and DSR detecting simulated lesions of the mandibular condyl. "nMaterials and Methods: this was a process reaserch study, in which two dry human skulls with no obvious temporomandibular joint pathology were used. Osteophytic lesions were simulated using three sizes of bone chips that were placed on the medial portion of anterior and superolateral aspects of the condyle. Osteolytic lesions were simulated making 1 and 2 mm holes using round burr in the central portion of anterior aspect and Lateral pole of the condyle. Panoramic radiographs were prepared with and without the lesions in place. These paired radiographs were digitized and digital- subtraction images of the original panoramic images were obtained. Eight observers evaluated 155 images of each modality for the presence or absence and the type of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle. Sensitivity, specificity, reliability and measure of agreement were analyzed using kappa test and crossed tables and qualitative variables were assess by chi-square and fisher's Exact test. "nResults: Specificity of panoramic and DSR methods were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. Sensitivity of panoramic and DSR methods were 61.1% and 80.6% for osteophytic lesions and 37.5% and 83.3% for Osteolytic lesions. The percentage of correct decisions made in DSR method was significantly more than conventional panoramic method (82.6% vs 41.9% (p<0.0001. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study digital subtraction technique was significantly more accurate than the panoramic radiographs in detection of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle.

  1. Screw versus pin fixation with open reduction of pediatric lateral condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Shawn R; MacLennan, Paul A; Schlitz, Ryne S; Estes, Ashley R

    2016-03-01

    Good results have been described for lateral condyle fractures treated by open reduction and fixation using Kirschner wires or screws. We, in our level III retrospective comparison clinical research study, retrospectively reviewed 84 patients (43 K-wire, 41 screw fixation; average age 5.6 years, average follow-up 6.8 months). With K-wires there were three nonunions (average time to union 9.6 weeks). With screws, all fractures healed (average of 7.8 weeks). Screw fixation patients spent fewer days in a cast and had a greater range of motion at the last follow-up. Screw fixation is associated with fewer nonunions and faster time to union, but a secondary procedure for removal is required. PMID:26583930

  2. [Treatment of fractures of the radial condyle of the humerus in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgwerd, M; Sacher, P

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of treatment of 46 children with fracture of the lateral humeral condyle is presented. The minimal follow-up of 45 patients was 18 months. 15 children had been treated conservatively while 31 have been operated on with two crossed Kirschner wires. 4 patients presented with varus or valgus deformities of maximal 15 degrees at follow-up. 2 with cubitus varus including one with "fishtail" phenomenon and with cubitus valgus and isolated "fishtail" phenomenon one each. Minimally displaced fractures (less than 2 mm) may be treated conservatively with good results. Dislocated fractures must be treated by open reduction and osteosynthesis to avoid complications (non-union, cubitus valgus, "fishtail" phenomenon and tardy ulnar nerve palsy). Fixation with Kirschner wires is our preferred surgical method. The degree of articular injury has an important influence on the late result. PMID:2346704

  3. MR imaging of Segond fractures and related lateral tibial condyl injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated 54 patients with lateral tibial condyl contusion. On the basis of MR and plain film findings, these patients were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of 12 patients with Segond fractures. The second group (29 patients) had identical findings on MR but no Segond fracture on plain films. The third group of 13 patients demonstrated a different constellation of MR findings. The authors concluded that the Segond fracture has a characteristic constellation of osseous and ligamentous findings on MR imaging and that a Segond-type injury mechanism exists that results in a knee injury with MR findings similar to those of the Segond fracture but without the cortical avulsion

  4. Posterior capsulorrhaphy for treatment of recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Robert D; Polatsch, Daniel B; Rokito, Andrew S; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    The surgical treatment of recurrent posterior shoulder instability via a posterior approach has had a variable degree of success reported in the literature with recurrence rates ranging between 8% and 45%. The purpose of this study was to review the results of posterior capsulorrhaphy in a consecutive series of patients with recurrent posterior instability. Seventeen consecutive patients underwent operative management for posterior glenohumeral instability. The dominant shoulder was involved in ten patients. All patients were male with an average age of 28.1 years (range: 16 to 54 years). Ten patients had sustained a specific injury which precipitated the instability. Six patients reported dislocations requiring formal closed reduction maneuvers; the remainder described episodes of recurrent subluxation with spontaneous reduction. All patients underwent a posterior capsulorrhaphy using an infraspinatus splitting approach. Eight shoulders required repair of a posterior capsulolabral detachment. In addition, one patient required augmentation with a posterior bone block for significant glenoid rim deficiency. Outcome was assessed by personal interview, clinical assessment, and standardized radiographs. At an average follow-up of 3.9 years (range: 1.8 to 10.8 years) patients estimated their overall shoulder function to be 81% of the contralateral unaffected shoulder. The subjective result was excellent for eight patients, good for five patients, fair in two patients, and poor in two patients. One of the poor outcomes was in a patient with glenohumeral degenerative changes at the index procedure which progressed and eventually required a total shoulder arthroplasty. The other poor result was in a patient found to have a full-thickness rotator cuff tear 10.6 years after the index procedure. Two patients (12%) had recurrence of their instability. Both of these patients sustained a significant re-injury which precipitated their symptoms. Five patients complained of occasional night pain at the time of their last follow-up examination. Only one patient (who was re-injured) had to change professions as a result of shoulder symptoms. Posterior capsulorrhaphy for treatment of isolated posterior glenohumeral instability yields satisfactory clinical results. Recurrent instability in this series was associated with a specific re-injury and did not appear to increase with longer follow-up. PMID:16536210

  5. Hygroma following endovascular femoral aneurysm exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Morten; Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Lönn, Lars; Sillesen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory.

  6. Biventricular Pacemaker Implantation via the Femoral Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, Sergio; Brunelli, Claudio; Bertero, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    We report the case of biventricular pacemaker implantation via the femoral vein, in a patient with impossibility of using standard superior vein approach and a contraindication to epicardial lead placement. PMID:22870178

  7. Biventricular Pacemaker Implantation via the Femoral Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Agosti, Sergio; Brunelli, Claudio; Bertero, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of biventricular pacemaker implantation via the femoral vein, in a patient with impossibility of using standard superior vein approach and a contraindication to epicardial lead placement.

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Radioisotope Uptake in Condyles by SPECT Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dalili

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a self limiting abnormality which can cause facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJdysfunction and esthetic problems. Treatment planning is based on the results of isotope scanning, clinical findings and patient age. Single photon emission tomography(SPECT is considered to be a sensitive method in the calculation of condylar uptake differences.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the growth activity occurring in the mandibular condyles, and to devise an index of side-to-side differences in condylar activity in different individuals.Material and Methods: 38 patients, with an age range of 13 to 34 years, undergoing skeletal scintigraphy for a variety of conditions, were chosen for this study. 25 mci TC-99 was injected to all subjects in order to assess the difference between right (Rt andleft (Lt condylar uptake percentage and to calculate the Lt to Rt condylar uptake ratio.The normal index was determined.Results: The maximum amount of difference between the uptake of Rt and Lt condyles was 6.2 percent (Lt side and Rt side were 53.1 % and 46.9 %, respectively in the male patients and 5.7 percent in the female patients (Lt side and Rt side were 52.85 % and 47.15 %, respectively. The condylar activity difference and ratio of Lt to Rt condylar uptakes did not show a significant difference between the male and female groups.Conclusion: The difference between the growth activity of RT and LT normal TMJs was less than 6.2 percent.

  9. A modified surgical technique for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Abdul Razak; Munajat, Ismail; Mohd, Emil Fazliq

    2011-11-01

    Operative treatment for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle (LHC) is difficult because of contracted muscle, fibrous tissue formation, and indistinct bony edges. Its success depends on the ability to preserve blood supply during the surgery. We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of neglected fracture of LHC in children treated with open reduction with selected multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle and internal fixation. The patients were between 3 and 8 years of age. The period of neglect was between 3 and 20 weeks. Four patients with displacement of more than 10 mm and neglect for 5 weeks or more required lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. The follow-up assessments were between 1 and 6.3 years with a mean of 4.4 years. All patients had union by 2 months. They gained improvement of flexion range of motion between 60° and 120° with a mean of 86.3°. Loss of final range of motion compared with the normal side was between 5° and 35° with a mean of 10°. No patient had limitation of activities or pain. Six cases had excellent and two cases had good Dillon functional score. All patients had lateral condyle prominent with different severities. There was one mild avascular necrosis and one fishtail deformity. Both of them had almost full range of motion. All patients had early physeal closure, except one, who had only 1 year follow-up. There was no case of progressive valgus deformity. Children with neglected fracture of LHC would benefit from anatomical reduction and internal fixation through a proper exposure and if indicated combined with multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. This is a level IV study. PMID:21716140

  10. Morphological Changes of Condyles and Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index in Patients Treated with Herbst - Orthodontic Appliance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Antonio de Arruda, Aidar; Marcio, Abrahao; Helio K., Yamashita; Gladys Cristina, Dominguez.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as mudanças morfológicas nas cabeças da mandíbula das articulações temporo mandibulares (ATMs) e calculou o índex de disfunção clínico de Helkimo (IDC) em adolescentes com má oclusão de Classe II Divisão1 e retrognatismo mandibular, tratados com aparelho de Herbst (fase I) e apar [...] elho ortodôntico fixo (fase II). Trinta e dois adolescentes consecutivos passaram pela fase I e 23 completaram a fase II. As ATMs foram avaliadas qualitativamente por meio de imagem da resonância magnética (IRM) ao início do tratamento (T1), durante a fase I (T2), no final da fase I (T3) e no final da fase II (T4). O IDC foi calculado em T1, T3 e T4. De T1 a T3 (p=0,326) não ocorreram mudanças na morfologia da cabeça da mandíbula em 86,0% das ATMs. De T3 a T4 (p Abstract in english This study evaluated the morphological changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyles and calculated the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (CDI) in adolescents with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrognathism treated with the Herbst appliance (phase I) and fixed orthodontic [...] appliances (phase II). Thirty-two consecutive adolescents underwent phase I, and 23 completed phase II. The TMJs were evaluated qualitatively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment (T1), during phase I (T2), at the end of phase I (T3) and at the end of phase II (T4). The CDI was calculated at T1, T3 and T4. From T1 to T3 (p=0.326), there were no changes in condyle morphology in 86.0% of the TMJs. From T3 to T4 (p

  11. Missed isolated posterior malleolar fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Ozler, Turhan; Guven, Melih; Onal, Ayberk; Ulucay, Cagatay; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin; Altintas, Faik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the injury mechanism and clinical and radiological results of the patients with isolated posterior malleolar fracture.Methods: Seven patients (5 male, 2 female; mean age: 32 years; range: 23-40) with a missed isolated posterior malleolar fracture were included in the study. All patients had initially been examined for an ankle sprain in the emergency room, where the initial plain radiographs did not show any abnormality. Due to the long lasting ...

  12. On convergence of posterior distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Subhashis; Ghosh, Jayanta K; Samanta, Tapas

    1995-01-01

    Z.A general (asymptotic) theory of estimation was developed by Ibragimov and Has’minskii under certain conditions on the normalized likelihood ratios. In an earlier work, the present authors studied the limiting behaviour of the posterior distributions under the general setup of Ibragimov and Has’minskii. In particular, they obtained a necessary condition for the convergence of a suitably centered (and normalized) posterior to a constant limit in terms of the limiting likelihood ratio proc...

  13. Hygroma following endovascular femoral aneurysm exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Morten; Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Lönn, Lars; Sillesen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory.......Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory....

  14. Guide Wire Migration During Femoral Vein Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Khatami; Rozita Abbasi; Gelareh Sadigh

    2010-01-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic...

  15. Blood Supply to the Chicken Femoral Head

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuli; Toney, C Brian; Seamon, Jesse; Cui, Quanjun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the vascular supply to the femoral head, including the vessels that give rise to the terminal perfusing branches. Using a casting agent, we highlighted the anatomy of the external iliac and ischiatic arteries with their associated branches after anatomic dissection of 24 hips from 12 Leghorn chickens. We confirmed published findings regarding perfusion of the femoral head and identified 3 previously undescribed arterial br...

  16. No positive effect of Acid etching or plasma cleaning on osseointegration of titanium implants in a canine femoral condyle press-fit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saksø, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Vestergaard; Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø; Baas, J; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Soballe, K

    2013-01-01

    Implant surface treatments that improve early osseointegration may prove useful in long-term survival of uncemented implants. We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants.......Implant surface treatments that improve early osseointegration may prove useful in long-term survival of uncemented implants. We investigated Acid Etching and Plasma Cleaning on titanium implants....

  17. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Unusual Branches of Femoral Artery in the Femoral Triangle: A Case Report / Ramas Inusuales de la Arteria Femoral en el Triángulo Femoral: Reporte de Caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Satheesha, Nayak B; Snigdha, Mishra; Bincy M, George; Saju Binu, Cherian; Surekha D, Shetty.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La arteria femoral es la principal arteria del miembro inferior. Se observan algunas variaciones en su patrón de ramificación. Una variante rara, pero clínicamente importante es el origen común de las arterias circunfleja iliaca profunda y epigástrica inferior no desde la arteria ilíaca externa. Pre [...] sentamos el origen bilateral de las arterias epigástricas inferiores y circunfleja ilíaca profunda desde la arteria femoral. Ambas arterias pasaron profundas al ligamento inguinal y tuvieron un curso y distribución normal después de cruzar el ligamento inguinal. El conocimiento de estas variaciones son de importancia en la cirugía plástica, en el acceso anterior a la articulación de la cadera, el drenaje absceso del músculo psoas mayor o para reducir una hernia femoral. Abstract in english Femoral artery is the major artery of the lower limb. It shows some variations in its branching pattern. One of the rare but clinically important variations is the origin of deep circumflex iliac and inferior epigastric arteries from it instead of from external iliac artery. We report here the origi [...] n of inferior epigastric and deep circumflex iliac arteries from the femoral artery bilaterally. Both the arteries passed up deep to the inguinal ligament and had a normal course and distribution after crossing the inguinal ligament. Knowledge of these variations is of importance in plastic surgery, anterior approach to the hip joint, draining psoas abscess or reducing a femoral hernia.

  19. Patient selection for shorter femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Andreas; Heller, Karl-Dieter

    2015-03-01

    The right patient selection with the correct surgical treatment are prerequisite for a positive result in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Short stem implants demand a shorter anchoring length in accordance with the proper indication. Although appropriate indications for short stems have been discussed in the literature, there currently is no clear definition. The lack of an accepted categorization of short hip stems complicates the situation further. This article briefly reviews the literature and highlights the authors' results and experiences in short stem THA in an effort to establish a proper discrimination between indications and contraindications for the Metha short stem. Results presented include a retrospective data collection and follow-up examination of 126 patients who underwent short stem THA with 2- and 4-year results. Anchoring principles of the short stem are reviewed, and a complication and failure analysis based on 7 femoral revisions in 1092 short stem THAs is presented. Selection criteria for short stem THA are patients younger than 70 years with primary osteoarthritis and dysplastic femoral deformities, and indications of avascular head necrosis. Adequate bone quality must be confirmed intraoperatively, assessing whether the bone structure in the area of the femoral neck is strong enough to support the short stem load transmission. Coxa vara and high dysplastic femoral neck antetorsion are contraindications for short stems. Wide and short femoral necks, implant undersizing, and a deep stem position below the femoral osteotomy compromise stability and must be avoided with an appropriate surgical technique. Long-term data are not yet available. PMID:25826629

  20. Characterization of Occipital Condyle and Comparison of its Dimensions with Head and Foramen Magnum Circumferences in Dry Skulls of Iran / Caracterización del Cóndilo Occipital y Comparación de sus Dimensiones con la Circunferencia de la Cabeza y Foramen Magno en Cráneos Secos de Irán

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Parvindokht, Bayat; Mahdie, Bagheri; Ali, Ghanbari; Amir, Raoofi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cóndilo occipital (CO) es una estructura relevante en la cirugía craneovertebral, pero sus características anatómicas y procedimientos quirúrgicos relativos al CO no se han estudiado detalladamente. El objetivo fue revisar la anatomía de la región del CO y evaluar las variaciones de sus estructur [...] as circundantes. Fueron observados 50 cráneos secos (100 lados) y se determinaron las mediciones del CO. La longitud media según lado fue 19,43±3,27 mm (derecho) y 19,28 ± 3,57 mm (izquierdo), el ancho medio fue 9,21±1,97 mm (derecho) y 9,40±1,87 mm (izquierda) y la altura media fue 7,21±1,9 mm (derecho) y 7,33±2,74 mm (izquierdo). Hubo diferencias significativas entre los CO derechos e izquierdos. La distancia intercondílea anterior y posterior media fue de 15,39±7 mm y 35,60±8,4 mm, respectivamente. La variación de formas del CO fue de riñon (34,4%), de S (25,6%), triangular (13,3%), oval (10,0%), de anillo (7,8%), de ocho (6,7%) y deformada (2,2%). La fosa condilar se observó en el 60% de los casos, 24% en lado derecho y 36% en el izquierdo; también el foramen condilar se encontró en el 60% de los casos. No se encontró relación entre la circunferencia de la cabeza y la longitud del CO, pero encontramos relación entre la circunferencia de la cabeza y el ancho del CO (0,527) y circunferencia del foramen magno (0,433). El CO y foramen magno son las principales estructuras óseas que constribuyen a rodear y proteger el tronco cerebral. Las diferencias en el tamaño y forma del CO tiene algunas diferencias y similitudes entre subgrupos raciales. La vena condilar posterior puede presentarse de manera asimétrica. La correlación del tamaño de foramen magno con el ancho de los CO muestra su relevancia en movimientos laterales y anteroposteriores. Abstract in english The occipital condyle (OC) is an important area in craniovertebral surgery, but its anatomical features and the procedures concerning the OC have not been studied in detail yet. The aim of this study was to revisit the anatomy of the occipital condyle region and assess variations of the surrounding [...] structures. Observations, on fifty dry skulls (dried specimens, 100 sides) and determined of condyle measurements. The mean length, width and height of occipital condyle were found to be 19.43±3.27 (right), 19.28±3.57 (left), 9.21±1.97 (right) 9.40±1.87 (left), 7.21±1.9 (right) and 7.33±2.74 mm (left), respectively. There were significant differences between right and left occipital condyles. The mean anterior intercondylar distance and posterior intercondylar distance were measured as 15.39±7 and 35.60±8.4 mm, respectively. Variations of occipital condyle shapes were kidney like (34.4%), S-like (25.6), triangular (13.3%) oval (10.0%), ring like (7.8%), eight like (6.7%) and deformed (2.2%) respectively. The condylar fossa presented in 60% of dry skull, 24% in right side and 36% in left side and also the condylar foramen was found in 60% of the specimens studied. There was no relation between the circumference of the head and the length of OC but we found relation between the circumference of the head and the width of OC (0.527) and foramen magnum circumference (0.433). The OC and FM are the main bony structures obstructing the surround of the brainstem. The differences in the size and the shape of occipital condyle have some differences and also similarities among racial subgroups. The posterior condylar vein may act asymmetrically. The correlation of the size of foramen magnum with the width of occipital condyles shows the importance of occipital condyle for lateral movements besides antero-posterior movements.

  1. Avaliação do crescimento condilar através de cintilografia óssea em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional / Assessment of condylar growth by skeletal scintigraphy in patients with posterior functional crossbite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pepita Sampaio Cardoso, Sekito; Myrela Cardoso, Costa; Edson, Boasquevisque; Jonas, Capelli Junior.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a atividade de crescimento condilar em 10 pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional antes e após a correção, usando a cintilografia óssea mandibular. MÉTODOS: os pacientes receberam injeção endovenosa de contraste radioativo (Technesium-99m, difosfato de metileno de sódio) [...] . Após duas horas, imagens cintilográficas planares foram realizadas por meio de uma câmera Gama. Imagens laterais da boca fechada, mostrando os côndilos direito e esquerdo, foram usadas. Uma imagem da quarta vértebra lombar também foi usada como referência. RESULTADOS: diferenças estatisticamente significativas não foram encontradas nos valores da taxa de absorção, em ambos os lados, quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados separadamente e também quando os períodos de pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento foram analisados no mesmo lado. Não foram encontradas diferenças na atividade de crescimento condilar em pacientes com mordida cruzada posterior funcional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the condylar growth activity in 10 patients with functional posterior crossbite before and after correction, using the mandibular bone skeletal scintigraphy. METHODS: Patients received endovenous injection of radioactive contrast (Technesium-99m labeling, sodium meth [...] ylene diphosphate). After two hours, planar scintigraphic images were taken by means of a Gamma camera. Lateral images of the closed mouth, showing the right and left condyles, were used. An image of the 4th lumbar vertebra was also used as reference. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were not found in the uptake rate values, on both sides when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed separately and also when pre-treatment and post-treatment periods were analyzed in the same side. No differences were found in the condylar growth activity, in patients with functional posterior crossbite.

  2. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1–10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  3. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Saim, E-mail: ysaim@akdeniz.edu.tr; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur [Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  4. Current concept in dysplastic hip arthroplasty: Techniques for acetabular and femoral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Goran; Barbaric, Katarina; Bohacek, Ivan; Aljinovic, Ana; Delimar, Domagoj

    2014-09-18

    Adult patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip develop secondary osteoarthritis and eventually end up with total hip arthroplasty (THA) at younger age. Because of altered anatomy of dysplastic hips, THA in these patients represents technically demanding procedure. Distorted anatomy of the acetabulum and proximal femur together with conjoined leg length discrepancy present major challenges during performing THA in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In addition, most patients are at younger age, therefore, soft tissue balance is of great importance (especially the need to preserve the continuity of abductors) to maximise postoperative functional result. In this paper we present a variety of surgical techniques available for THA in dysplastic hips, their advantages and disadvantages. For acetabular reconstruction following techniques are described: Standard metal augments (prefabricated), Custom made acetabular augments (3D printing), Roof reconstruction with vascularized fibula, Roof reconstruction with pedicled iliac graft, Roof reconstruction with autologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with homologous bone graft, Roof reconstruction with auto/homologous spongious bone, Reinforcement ring with the hook in combination with autologous graft augmentation, Cranial positioning of the acetabulum, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with chisel, Medial protrusion technique (cotyloplasty) with reaming, Cotyloplasty without spongioplasty. For femoral reconstruction following techniques were described: Distraction with external fixator, Femoral shortening through a modified lateral approach, Transtrochanteric osteotomies, Paavilainen osteotomy, Lesser trochanter osteotomy, Double-chevron osteotomy, Subtrochanteric osteotomies, Diaphyseal osteotomies, Distal femoral osteotomies. At the end we present author's treatment method of choice: for acetabulum we perform cotyloplasty leaving only paper-thin medial wall, which we break during acetabular cup impacting. For femoral side first we peel of all rotators and posterior part of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis from greater trochanter on the very thin flake of bone. This method allows us to adequately shorten proximal femoral stump, with possibility of additional resection of proximal femur. Furthermore, several advantages and disadvantages of this procedure are also discussed. PMID:25232518

  5. Nervio Femoral Accesorio: Una Variación del Plexo Lumbar / Accessory Femoral Nerve: a Variation of Lumbar Plexus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Olave; J. J, Cabezas; A, Soto; O, Binvignat.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variaciones en el origen de los ramos del plexo lumbar son observadas comúnmente durante las disecciones. Entre ellas se pueden mencionar: ausencia del nervio iliohipogástrico, presencia de un nervio obturador accesorio, bifurcación del nervio femoral, entre otras, destacándose la presencia de un ne [...] rvio accesorio del nervio femoral. Durante una disección de rutina, en un cadáver fijado en formaldehido 10%, de un individuo adulto, Chileno, de sexo masculino, se observó la presencia unilateral de este nervio femoral accesorio originado del ramo anterior del nervio femoral, el cual estaba formado por dos ramos, describiendo sus características de origen, trayecto y distribución. Las variaciones anatómicas del plexo lumbar deben ser consideradas en el momento de efectuar cirugías en la región, evitando daños al nervio mencionado u otros, durante la disección quirúrgica. Abstract in english Variations in the origin of the branches of the lumbar plexus are commonly observed during dissections. Among them may be mentioned: absence of iliohypogastric nerve, the presence of an accessory obturator nerve, femoral nerve bifurcation, highlighting the presence of a accessory femoral nerve. Duri [...] ng routine dissection in a cadaver fixed in 10% formaldehyde, an adult individual, Chilean, male, unilateral accessory femoral nerve was observed, originating from the anterior branch of femoral nerve, which consisted of two branches.The characteristics of origin, course and distribution are described. Anatomical variations of the lumbar plexus must always be considered at the time of surgery in the mentioned sector avoiding nerve damage, during surgical dissection.

  6. Early diagnosis for segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain an early prediction for segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture, we have studied in 53 cases of the femoral neck fracture using 99mTC-MDP scintimetry. According to the radionuclide uptake ratio of the femoral heads, we can estimate the gravity of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head after fracture and recognize the repair process in the necrotic head. Fifty-three cases of fresh fracture were examined by sequential scintigraphy before operation and during follow up examinations after operation. The radionuclide uptake were all increased in 3 to 4 months after operation as comparing with that done before operation. The uptake ratios in 37 cases decreased gradually and approached 1 in 12 months after operation. All of them have an excellent result during follow up examination 36 months after surgery. The uptake ratios in 19 cases were also increased after operation, but still maintained at a high level in 6 to 12 months. They all showed radiographical signs of segmental collapse 18 to 24 months after operation. These results showed that uptake ratio of the radionuclide bone imaging is able to predict the occurrence of segmental collapse of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture. The time of the diagnosis by scintigraphy for segmental collapse of the femoral head is earlier than that by radiography. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab

  7. Open reduction internal fixation of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children. A series of 105 fractures from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidou, Andreas; Chettiar, Krissen; Graham, Simon; Akhbari, Pouya; Antonis, Konstantinos; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Leonidou, Omiros

    2014-08-01

    Lateral humeral condyle fractures account for 17 % of the distal humeral condyle fractures. Displaced and/or rotated fractures require appropriate reduction and stabilisation. There are, however, a number of controversies in the surgical management of these patients. The aim of the present study was to review the results of patients with a displaced lateral humeral condyle fracture treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). We retrospectively reviewed children treated with ORIF of lateral humeral condyle fractures at a single institution over a period of 13 years. All cases were identified through the trauma register. Case notes and radiographs were retrieved. Fracture classification, mode of fixation, time to union, and final outcomes at the latest follow-up were reviewed. One hundred and five lateral condyle fractures were identified in 76 male and 29 female patients. Average age was 6.2 years. Ninety-two were Milch type II and 13 Milch type I. According to the Jacob's classification, 38 were type II and 67 type III. All fractures were treated with open reduction and fixation with K-wires. Average time to radiological union was 33 days. Follow-up ranged between 2 and 8 years (average 3.2 years). Radiological hypertrophy of the lateral condyle was present in 45 cases (42 %). Three patients developed a pseudo-cubitus varus deformity. Further four patients developed a true cubitus varus. There was one case of superficial infection of the K-wires and one case of delayed union. At the latest follow-up, 96 % of the patients achieved an excellent final result and 4 % a good final result. Our results demonstrate that fracture union and excellent final outcomes can be expected in all patients using our protocol, whereby all patients with a displaced fracture are managed by ORIF with K-wire fixation, with the wires only being removed after there is evidence of radiological union. Compared to recent reports of closed reduction internal fixation, this series demonstrates good results with no complications directly relating to the open reduction technique. Level of evidence Case series, Level IV. PMID:25022896

  8. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

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    Kim Harry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve pathogenetic alterations in the necrotic femoral head. Our pig model can be used for further femoral head osteonecrosis studies.

  9. Ambulant transbrachial 4-french-arteriograhy with special reference to the aorto-femoral territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteriograms were carried out on 176 patients using 4-F catheters through a transbrachial approach. Criteria for exclusion from the series were injuries to the upper limb, hemiparesis or poor pulses in the presence of a normal femoral pulse. There were no local vascular complications requiring treatment. On two occasions the brachial artery could not be punctured. Acute posterior cerebral infarction was the only serious complication (0.5%). 67% of the patients were examined on an outpatient basis and this did not appear to increase the risk of complication. We regard this as a suitable method for demonstrating the pelvic and lower limb arteries on ambulant patients. (orig.)

  10. STUDY OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY

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    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral circumflex femoral artery is a one of most important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an artery supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur and form anastomosis around upper part of femur. In many cases artery is useful for bypass surgery like aortopopliteal bypass, anterolateral thigh flap, coronary bypass surgery. Hence the knowledge of variations of artery and its branches are useful during operations such as total hip arthroplasty and other surgery to prevent haemorrhage and other complications. Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Results: The origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from profunda femoral artery on lateral aspect was observed in 82 limbs (80.38%.Origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from femoral artery having common stem with Profunda femoris artery were observed in 11 limbs (10.78%.Origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from femoral artery were observed in 7 limbs (7.8%. Conclusion: Concluding and comparison of our study and past studies, all knowledge of the normal anatomy and variations of the site of origin and course of the LCF artery is not only surgical importance during vascular diagnostic intervention and surgeries but also helps in reducing the chances of intra-operative secondary haemorrhage and post-operative complications.

  11. Treatment of medial patellar luxation by femoral closing wedge ostectomy using a distal femoral plate in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, S P; Gemmill, T J

    2008-03-01

    This case report describes the treatment of recurrent medial patellar luxation associated with varus deformity of the distal femur by distal femoral ostectomy stabilised using a distal femoral plate. Four dogs (five affected limbs) were included in the study. All cases had received previous surgery for medial patellar luxation but remained significantly lame. All were treated by femoral ostectomy to correct distal femoral varus deformity with application of a distal femoral bone plate. All cases improved following surgery. An excellent outcome was recorded in four of five cases. Lameness persisted in one case despite satisfactory patellar stability as a result of concurrent cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. One case suffered implant failure. Femoral ostectomy is an effective treatment for medial patellar luxation associated with femoral varus deformity. The distal femoral plate provides a convenient method by which to stabilise the ostectomy. Care should be exercised when the 2 mm distal femoral plate is applied. PMID:18005108

  12. Posterior Cortical Atrophy: Case Report

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    Görsev Gülmen YENER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy is a rare, slowly progressive dementia characterized by the development of early visual spatial and visual perceptual deficits, often accompanied by features of Balint’s or Gerstmann’s syndromes and transcortical sensory aphasia. Here we present an ambidextrous case who displayed left temporo-parieto-occipital hypoperfusion in single photon emission computerized tomography manifested by right sided neglect, Gerstmann’s syndrome, some features of Balint’s syndrome. The clinical presentation indicated bilateral posterior hemispheric involvement, but only left sided hypoperfusion in the temporo-parieto-occipital region was observed. Briefly, our patient compiled dominant and non-dominant hemisphere functions in the left hemisphere. As far as we know, this is the first report of an ambidextrous patient with posterior cortical atrophy. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2008; 45: 60-3

  13. Posterior polar cataract: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantan, Hatem

    2012-01-01

    Posterior polar cataract is a rare form of congenital cataract. It is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, yet it can be sporadic. Five genes have been attributed to the formation of this disease. It is highly associated with complications during surgery, such as posterior capsule rupture and nucleus drop. The reason for this high complication rate is the strong adherence of the opacity to the weak posterior capsule. Different surgical strategies were described for the handling of this challenging entity, most of which emphasized the need for gentle maneuvering in dealing with these cases. It has a unique clinical appearance that should not be missed in order to anticipate, avoid, and minimize the impact of the complications associated with it. PMID:23960967

  14. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes. PMID:24143939

  15. Usefulness of the anterior surface and supracondylar region of the femur as a landmark for femoral rotational alignment in knee surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the possibility that a line tangential to the anterior surface of the femur could serve as a landmark for rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The subjects were 37 women treated with TKA for medial knee osteoarthritis. Before surgery X-ray films and computed tomography scans were obtained. The three axes -the posterior condylar axis, the transepicondylar axis, and the anterior surface at the supracondyle- were constructed on each CT scan, and the angles between two axes were measured with the X-Caliper system. The results obtained from 35 subjects showed that the angle between the transepicondylar axis and the posterior condylar axis ranged from 3.1 to 10.7 degrees and bad a mean value of 6.35±1.93 degrees. The angle between the transepicondylar axis and the anterior femoral surface at the supracondyle ranged from 6.1 to 15.4 degrees and had a mean value of 11.21±2.48 degrees. The anterior surface was internally rotated relative to the posterior condylar axis in all cases, and its value indicated the degree of anterolateral notching. The anterior femoral surface at the supracondylar level is easy to identify during surgery. Thus, it may be a useful landmark for determining the correct rotational alignment of the femoral component in TKA. (author)

  16. Epidural hematomas of posterior fossa

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    Radulovi? Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior fossa epidural hematomas represent 7-14% of all traumatic intracranial epidural hematomas. They are most frequently encountered posttraumatic mass lesions in the posterior fossa. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features that could lead to the early diagnosis of posterior fossa epidural hematoma. Methods. Between 1980 and 2002, 28 patients with epidural hematoma of the posterior fossa were operated on at the Institute for Neurosurgery, Belgrade. Clinical course neuroradiological investigations, and the results of surgical treatment of the patients with posterior fossa epidural hematomas were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Almost two thirds of patients were younger than 16 years of age. In 20 cases injury was caused by a fall, in 6 cases by a traffic accident, and in 2 by the assault. Clinical course was subacute or chronic in two thirds of the patients. On the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was 7 or less in 9 injured, 8-14 in 14 injured, and 15 in 5 injured patients. Linear fracture of the occipital bone was radiographically evident in 19 patients, but was intraoperatively encountered in all the patients except for a 4-year old child. In 25 patients the diagnosis was established by computer assisted tomography (CAT and in 3 by vertebral angiography. All the patients were operated on via suboccipital craniotomy. Four injured patients who were preoperatively comatose were with lethal outcome. Postoperatively, 24 patients were with sufficient neurologic recovery. Conclusion. Posterior fossa epidural hematoma should be suspected in cases of occipital injury, consciousness disturbances, and occipital bone fracture. In such cases urgent CAT-scan is recommended. Early recognition early diagnosis, and prompt treatment are crucial for good neurological recovery after surgery.

  17. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  18. Conservative condylectomy alone for the correction of mandibular asymmetry caused by osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a report of five cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jae-Young; Jeong, Chan-Woo; Park, Kwang-Ho; Huh, Jong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with conservative condylectomy for the correction of facial asymmetry in five patients with osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle. All five patients presented with malocclusion and facial asymmetry, which are common clinical findings of osteochondroma involving the mandibular condyle. We performed conservative condylectomy without additional orthognathic surgery for all five patients, preserving the vertical height of the condylar process as much as possible. Fol...

  19. Positioning of the femoral tunnel for arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparative study of 2 techniques / Posicionamento do túnel femoral na reconstrução artroscópica do LCA: estudo comparativo de duas técnicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Freire da Mota, Albuquerque; Marco Martins, Amatuzzi; Alexandre Pagotto, Pacheco; Fabio Janson, Angelini; Osmar, Campos Jr.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a acurácia do posicionamento do túnel femoral na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior através de duas vias: túnel tibial e portal ântero - medial. MÉTODO: Foram perfurados túneis femorais em vinte joelhos de cadáveres humanos por via artroscópica. Grupo I: túnel femoral por [...] acesso trans túnel tibial. Grupo II: via portal ântero-medial. Quatro variáveis foram estudadas: A) espessura da parede posterior; B) posicionamento do túnel no intercôndilo; C) angulação do túnel em relação ao eixo do fêmur; D) distância entre a saída do fio guia e o epicôndilo lateral. RESULTADO: A) grupo I: 2,23 mm, grupo II: 2,36 mm (p=0,543); B) grupo I: 25,5º, grupo II: 30º (p=0,226); C) grupo I: 23,9º, grupo II: 32º (p= 0,014); D) grupo I: 7,8 cm, grupo II 3,9 cm (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of positioning of the femoral tunnel in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament by means of 2 techniques: tibial tunnel and anteromedial portal. METHOD: Femoral tunnels were drilled in 20 knees from human cadavers by means of arthroscopy. Group I had the femo [...] ral tunnel drilled via a trans-tibial tunnel, and Group II via the anteromedial portal. Four variables were measured: A) posterior wall thickness; B) tunnel positioning at the notch; C) tunnel inclination in relation to the femoral axis; and D) distance between the wire guide exit and the lateral epicondyle. RESULTS: As above, respectively, A) 2.23 mm for group I and 2.36 mm for group II (P =.54); B) 25.5° for group I and 30.0° for group II (P =.23); C) 23.9° for group I and 32.0° for group II (P =.02); D) 7.8 cm for group I and 3.9 cm for group II (P

  20. Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography.

  1. Guide Wire Migration During Femoral Vein Catheterization

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    Mohammad Reza Khatami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion.

  2. Immunohistological analysis of extracted anterior cruciate ligament graft impinged against posterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato So

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A young female athlete suffered from the residual instability of the knee after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft. The 3-dimensional (3-D CT scan showed the "high noon" positioning of the primary femoral bone tunnel. The revision surgery with anatomic double-bundle technique was performed two years after the primary surgery and the femoral tunnels were created with the assistance of the 3-D fluoroscopy-based navigation. An arthroscopic examination confirmed the ACL graft impingement against posterior cruciate ligament (PCL when the knee was deeply flexed. The histological analysis of the resected primary ACL graft showed local inflammatory infiltration, enhanced synovial coverage and vascularization at the impinged site. The enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF at the impinged area when compared with non-impinged area was observed on immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormal mechanical stress by the impingement against PCL might have induced chronic inflammation and VEGF overexpression.

  3. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral component loosening. The potential role of interface hyperosteoidosis as a precursor lesion of bone-cement loosening and its possible association with delayed type hypersensitivity reaction are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Femoral component loosening after hip resurfacing arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zustin, Jozef; Sauter, Guido [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Pathology, Hamburg (Germany); Hahn, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); Morlock, Michael M. [TUHH Hamburg University of Technology, Biomechanics Section, Hamburg (Germany); Ruether, Wolfgang [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthopaedics, Hamburg (Germany); Amling, Michael [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Biomechanics and Skeletal Biology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Before the re-introduction of the current generation of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty, component loosening and osteolysis were of great concern to the orthopaedic community. Early, mid- and long-term clinical results are encouraging, but component loosening still exists. Macroscopic, contact radiographic and histopathological analyses after undecalcified preparation of bone tissue specimens were performed. To investigate the frequency and morphological patterns of the loosening of the femoral component, we analysed a series of 190 retrieved femoral remnants that were revised for aseptic failures. Thirty-five (18.4%) hips were revised for clinical and/or radiographic loosening of the femoral component. Pseudoarthrosis (n = 17; median in situ time: 16 weeks, interquartile range [IQR]: 9 to 34), collapsed osteonecrosis (n = 5; median in situ time: 79 weeks, IQR: 63 to 97), cement-socket debonding (n = 3; median in situ time: 89 weeks, IQR: 54 to 97) and at later follow-up bone-cement loosening (n = 10; median in situ time: 175 weeks; IQR 112 to 198; p =0.005) were distinct patterns of the femoral remnant-implant loosening. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia of interface bone trabeculae (n = 38; median in situ time: 61 weeks, IQR: 32 to 138) was strongly associated with femoral component loosening (p = 0.009). Both the trabecular hyperosteoidosis (n = 32; median in situ time: 71 weeks, IQR 50 to 129) and excessive intraosseous lymphocyte infiltration (n = 12; median in situ time: 75 weeks, IQR 51 to 98) at the bone-cement interface correlated strongly with fibrocartilaginous metaplasia (p = 0.001 and p = 0.016 respectively) and all three lesions were associated with the female gender (p = 0.021, p = 0.009, and p = 0.051). Femoral component loosening at early follow-up was mostly caused by pathological changes of the femoral remnant bone tissue: pseudoarthrosis and collapsed osteonecrosis. Fibrocartilaginous metaplasia was frequently observed in hips with femoral component loosening. The potential role of interface hyperosteoidosis as a precursor lesion of bone-cement loosening and its possible association with delayed type hypersensitivity reaction are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Manufacturing and Examination of Metallic Femoral Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Nikolaos I.; Manolakos, Dimitrios E.

    2010-03-01

    In the last years new methods have been investigated for the manufacturing of artificial implants for hip joints. For some parts of these implants, like femoral heads, the method of high speed machining is used for manufacture. In this paper was investigated the connection between cutting parameters and forces, in high speed turning of metallic femoral heads. This method is widely used in the industry combined with hard part machining, and leads to better surface roughness and to decreasing of cutting time. Also investigate as the connection of the surface roughness in this manufacturing method with the measuring of the spheres using Atomic Force Microscopy according to the Standard ISO 7206.

  6. Tratamiento de la osteonecrosis de cabeza femoral

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    Alejandro Alvarez López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de actualización acerca del tratamiento de la osteonecrosis de cabeza femoral. El objetivo consiste en profundizar sobre los métodos de tratamiento en el estadio inicial y tardío. En el estadio inicial se hace referencia a la suspensión del apoyo, al tratamiento farmacológico, la oxigenación hiperbárica, la estimulación eléctrica y las perforaciones o trepanaciones de la cabeza femoral, mostrando en esta última resultados de diversos autores. En el tratamiento de las osteonecrosis en estadio avanzado o tardío se recomienda el uso de osteotomías, técnica de Merle D Aubigne; hemiartroplastia con copa, con prótesis parcial o artroplastia total de cadera.

  7. Femoral Morphology Differs Between Deficient and Excessive Acetabular Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Steppacher, S. D.; Tannast, M.; Werlen, S; Siebenrock, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural deformities of the femoral head occurring during skeletal development (eg, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) are associated with individual shapes of the acetabulum but it is unclear whether differences in acetabular shape are associated with differences in proximal femoral shape. We questioned whether the amount of acetabular coverage influences femoral morphology. We retrospectively compared the proximal femoral anatomy of 50 selected patients (50 hips) with developmental dysplasia of ...

  8. A very rare case with neglected hip dislocation coexisted with posterior acetabular lip fracture

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    Samet Karabulut

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected hip dislocation is a rare situation among children. The coexistence of acetabulum fracture is less common. The result of treatment depends on the time of diagnosis. Early treatment is mandatory in such cases. Seven years old female brought to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of right hip pain and walking difficulty. Her parents said that she had fallen from a horse one month ago. X-ray and CT showed a posterior dislocation of her right hip and a fracture on her right posterior acetabular lip. We performed an open reduction via posterior approach. Because the hip was unstable we fixed the femoral head to the acetabulum by a Kirshner wire. Pelvipedal cast was applied after the operation for 6 weeks. After 6 months avascular necrosis (AVN developed on her right femoral head, the range of motion (ROM of the hip was restricted and she had minimal pain on her right hip. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:228-31

  9. Pathology of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones of the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined material from Thoroughbred horses, the majority of which had been in race training, for evidence of pathology in the third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones which might be related to the occurrence of distal condylar fractures. Whole bone samples were studied and documented by macrophotography prior to macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Microradiographs were made from 100 microm thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces of distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII. Blocks were prepared for morphological imaging using the backscattered electron mode of scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Linear defects in mineralised articular cartilage and subchondral bone were found in the palmar/plantar aspects of the condylar grooves adjacent to the sagittal ridge. These were closely related to the pattern of densification of the subchondral bone and were associated with intense focal remodelling of the immediately adjacent and subjacent bone. Parasagittal fractures of the condyles originated in similar defects. A unifying hypothesis for the aetiopathogenesis of these fractures is presented

  10. Atrofia cortical posterior Posterior cortical atrophy. Report of five cases

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    Carolina Delgado D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a neurodegenerative syndrome, usually due to Alzheimer's disease. The first symptoms are progressive impairment of visuo spatial (Balint's and Gertsmann's syndromes or visuo perceptive (visual agnosia, alexia function. Episodic memory and executive function are spared until later stages. We report two males aged 51 and 55years and three females aged 50, 54 and 56 years, with posterior cortical atrophy. Ophthalmologic study was normal in all. Presenting signs and symptoms were visual ataxia, simultagnosia, agraphia, acalculia, spatial disorientation and unilateral neglect (Balint's and Gerstmann's syndromes. Apperceptive visual agnosia, aphasia, apraxia and alexia were also observed. One female had cortical blindness. Structural images were inconclusive, but PET scan and SPECT disclosed functional impairments in occipitotemporal or occipitoparietal areas.

  11. Atrofia cortical posterior / Posterior cortical atrophy. Report of five cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Delgado D; Archibaldo, Donoso S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome, usually due to Alzheimer's disease. The first symptoms are progressive impairment of visuo spatial (Balint's and Gertsmann's syndromes) or visuo perceptive (visual agnosia, alexia) function. Episodic memory and executive function are [...] spared until later stages. We report two males aged 51 and 55years and three females aged 50, 54 and 56 years, with posterior cortical atrophy. Ophthalmologic study was normal in all. Presenting signs and symptoms were visual ataxia, simultagnosia, agraphia, acalculia, spatial disorientation and unilateral neglect (Balint's and Gerstmann's syndromes). Apperceptive visual agnosia, aphasia, apraxia and alexia were also observed. One female had cortical blindness. Structural images were inconclusive, but PET scan and SPECT disclosed functional impairments in occipitotemporal or occipitoparietal areas.

  12. Assessment of bone quality in the isolated femoral head for intracapsular fractures of the femoral head. Analysis of bone architecture using micro-CT and pQCT, and comparison with extracapsular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block sections were prepared from the five locations, central portion, superior portion, inferior portion, anterior portion, and posterior portion, of the region around the fracture of the femoral head isolated from 21 patients (16 patients with intracapsular fracture, 5 patients with extracapsular fracture). Cancellous bone microstructure, cortical bone thickness, and bone density were evaluated and analyzed for differences in the mechanism from which intracapsular versus extracapsular fracture and fragility developed. The method of evaluating the bone architecture differed from conventional bone histomorphometry of hard tissues and involved non-invasive micro-CT measurements, while the bone density was measured by peripheral quantitative computed topography (pQCT). The results indicate that in comparison to patients with extracapsular fractures, patients with intracapsular fractures showed significant decreases in the trabecular thickness of superior and posterior portions in the cancellous bone. The cortical bone thickness was significantly decreased in the superior portion. Bone density was significantly decreased in the superior portion, while in the extracapsular fracture group density tended to be lower in the inferior, anterior, and posterior portions, although this was not statistically significant. Although there have been previous studies on the bone quality of the femoral head isolated from intracapsular fracture of the femoral head, most reports are of two-dimensional analysis of coronal sections. As far as we are aware, there have been no previous reports comparing individual locations to extracapsular fractures. In view of the various reports that bone density is lower in the extracapsular fracture compared to the intracapsular fracture, we speculate that extracapsular fracture results from the effects of external forces on decreased bone density, while in the intracapsular fracture type, thinning of the superior portion of the cortical bone creates fragile areas in the superior and posterior portions of the cancellous bone; therefore, the factors involved in the development of the fracture are similar to a fatigue fracture. (author)

  13. Femoral neck trabecular bone: loss with aging and role in preventing fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C David L; Mayhew, Paul M; Power, Jon; Poole, Kenneth Es; Loveridge, Nigel; Clement, John G; Burgoyne, Chris J; Reeve, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Hip fracture risk rises 100- to 1000-fold over six decades of age, but only a minor part of this increase is explained by declining BMD. A potentially independent cause of fragility is cortical thinning predisposing to local crushing, in which bone tissue's material disintegrates at the microscopic level when compressed beyond its capacity to maintain integrity. Elastic instability or buckling of a much thinned cortex might alternatively occur under compression. In a buckle, the cortex moves approximately at right angles to the direction of load, thereby distorting its microstructure, eventually to the point of disintegration. By resisting buckling movement, trabecular buttressing would protect the femoral neck cortex against this type of failure but not against crushing. We quantified the effect of aging on trabecular BMD in the femoral neck and assessed its contribution to cortical elastic stability, which determines resistance to buckling. Using CT, we measured ex vivo the distribution of bone in the midfemoral necks of 35 female and 33 male proximal femurs from cases of sudden death in those 20-95 yr of age. We calculated the critical stress sigma(cr), at which the cortex was predicted to buckle locally, from the geometric properties and density of the cortical zone most highly loaded in a sideways fall. Using long-established engineering principles, we estimated the amount by which stability or buckling resistance was increased by the trabecular bone supporting the most stressed cortical sector in each femoral neck. We repeated these measurements and calculations in an age- and sex-matched series of femoral necks donated by women who had suffered intracapsular hip fracture and controls, using histological measurements of cortical thickness to improve accuracy. With normal aging, trabecular BMD declined asymmetrically, fastest in the supero-lateral one-half (in antero-posterior projection) of the trabecular compartment. When viewed axially with respect to the femoral neck, the most rapid loss of trabecular bone occurred in the posterior part of this region (supero-posterior [S-P]), amounting to a 42% reduction in women (34% in men) over five decades of adult age. Because local cortical bone thickness declined comparably, age had no significant effect on the relative contributions of cortical and trabecular bone to elastic stability, and trabecular bone was calculated to contribute 40% (in men) and 43% (in women) to the S-P cortex of its overall elastic stability. Hip fracture cases had reduced elastic stability compared with age-matched controls, with a median reduction of 49% or 37%, depending on whether thickness was measured histologically or by CT (pQCT; p < 0.002 for both). This effect was because of reduced cortical thickness and density. Trabecular BMD was similar in hip fracture cases and controls. The capacity of the femur to resist fracture in a sideways fall becomes compromised with normal aging because cortical thickness and trabecular BMD in the most compressed part of the femoral neck both decline substantially. This decline is relatively more rapid than that of femoral neck areal BMD. If elastic instability rather than cortical crushing initiates the fracture event, interventions that increase trabecular bone in the proximal femur have great potential to reduce fracture risk because the gradient defining the increase in elastic stability with increasing trabecular BMD is steep, and most hip fracture cases have sufficient trabecular bone for anabolic therapies to build on. PMID:19419312

  14. Ruptured true superficial femoral artery aneurysm / Aneurisma verdadeiro roto de arteria femoral superficial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ani Loize, Arendt; Robinson de Menezes do, Amaral; Mariana Sesterhenn, Vieira; Rafael de Nogueira, Ribeiro; Rodrigo, Argenta.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas de artéria femoral são raros e ocorrem geralmente em pacientes idosos. Estão frequentemente associados a outros aneurismas, tanto periféricos como de aorta abdominal. O presente relato refere-se a um jovem portador de aneurisma de artéria femoral superficial (AFS), cuja apresentação cl [...] ínica foi a ruptura. O paciente foi submetido ao tratamento convencional, com ressecção do aneurisma e interposição de veia safena magna ipsilateral. A revisão da literatura corrobora a raridade do caso Abstract in english Femoral artery aneurysms are rare and generally affect elderly patients. They are often diagnosed in combination with aneurysms in other locations, such as peripheral and aortic aneurysms. This case report describes a young patient whose superficial femoral artery (SFA) had a clinical presentation s [...] uggestive of a ruptured aneurysm. The patient underwent standard treatment, with aneurysmectomy and interposition of the ipsilateral saphenous vein. A review of the literature confirms the rarity of this case

  15. Ruptured true superficial femoral artery aneurysm / Aneurisma verdadeiro roto de arteria femoral superficial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ani Loize, Arendt; Robinson de Menezes do, Amaral; Mariana Sesterhenn, Vieira; Rafael de Nogueira, Ribeiro; Rodrigo, Argenta.

    2013-09-25

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas de artéria femoral são raros e ocorrem geralmente em pacientes idosos. Estão frequentemente associados a outros aneurismas, tanto periféricos como de aorta abdominal. O presente relato refere-se a um jovem portador de aneurisma de artéria femoral superficial (AFS), cuja apresentação cl [...] ínica foi a ruptura. O paciente foi submetido ao tratamento convencional, com ressecção do aneurisma e interposição de veia safena magna ipsilateral. A revisão da literatura corrobora a raridade do caso Abstract in english Femoral artery aneurysms are rare and generally affect elderly patients. They are often diagnosed in combination with aneurysms in other locations, such as peripheral and aortic aneurysms. This case report describes a young patient whose superficial femoral artery (SFA) had a clinical presentation s [...] uggestive of a ruptured aneurysm. The patient underwent standard treatment, with aneurysmectomy and interposition of the ipsilateral saphenous vein. A review of the literature confirms the rarity of this case

  16. Early roentgenological grading of femoral shortening is correlated to the late outcome after femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using orthoradiography, the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the intercondylar notch was assessed at regular intervals in 144 patients who were followed for a 2-year period after osteosynthesis of a femoral neck fracture. Late complications, such as segmental collapse and non-union, occurred in 27% of the patients. The degree of femoral shortening was significantly correlated to the incidence of late complications. At 1 month, femoral shortening of more than 5 mm was observed in 85% of patients who developed late complications, and in only 5% of patients without such complications. Thus, the observation of a shortening of more than 5 mm predicted a greater than 6-fold increase of the incidence of late complications. The prognostic accuracy of this observation 1 month after treatment was 92%. (orig.)

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab for posterior capsule neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Gehedan, Saeed; Dhibi, Hassan Al

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of rapid regression of extensive posterior capsule neovascularization in a 67-year-old diabetic male patient, who developed posterior capsule opacity with neovascularization one year post cataract surgery, after a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) followed by neodymium:YAG capsulotomy. Rapid regression of the posterior capsule neovascularization, and visual improvement was observed 9 days after the intervention. Posterior capsulotomy was performed successfully without bleeding. Prior to posterior capsulotomy, intravitreal bevacizumab can result in rapid and dramatic regression of posterior capsule neovascularization. PMID:23960877

  18. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, F. E-mail: fkhosa@hotmail.com; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O' Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated.

  19. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  20. Femoral Prosthesis Infection by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa?

    OpenAIRE

    Savini, Vincenzo; Sozio, Federica; Catavitello, Chiara; Talia, Marzia; Manna, Assunta; Febbo, Fabio; Balbinot, Andrea; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Piccolomini, Raffaele; Parruti, Giustino; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    This case report is a case history of a femoral prosthesis infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a human immunodeficiency virus patient. Though the pathogenicity of this organism for bone tissue has been previously reported, this is the first reported case of an orthopedic prosthesis infection by this species of the genus Rhodotorula.

  1. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K; Delfi, Tzvetelina; Vangkilde, Signe; Starrfelt, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and...... apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects and...

  2. [Posterior thoracotomy in ventral decubitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V D; Grigir'eva, S P; Parshin, V V; Khetagurov, M A; Dydykin, S S; Laptina, V I

    2013-01-01

    The rigidity of the chest wall, thank to its bone framework, determines the variety of operative access in thoracic surgery, both thoracoscopic and open. The posterior thoracotomy on the bed of the resected rib in ventral decubitus is traditionally but gratuitously rarely used access. The method permits comfortable access to trachea, bifurcation, main bronchi and thoracic esophagus. It can also be used in cases of foregoing thoracothomy. Authors own the experience of 111 cases with the use of posterior thoracotomy in ventral decubitus. The access proved to be preferable for the operations on the membranous part of the trachea and main bronchi, some localizations of thoracic tracheoesophageal fistula. The access suggests fast mobilization of the root of the lung without foregoing pneumolisis, which is important in cases of pleural cavity obliteration after tuberculosis or pleural empyem. PMID:23715388

  3. Osificación del ligamento longitudinal posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Malpica Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La osificación del ligamento longitudinal posterior es una de las principales causas de neuropatía en Japón y en países de Oriente Medio; su incidencia es infrecuente en Latinoamérica y su presentación clínica es variable. El tratamiento quirúrgico consiste en descompresión medular, anterior o posterior, y en fusión en caso necesario; el pronóstico es reservado, ya que depende de la extensión de la neuropatía y del tipo de osificación. Se comunica el caso de un paciente no oriental, a quien se le practicó (en el Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Puebla, ISSSTE una laminoplastia cervical en C3, C4, C5 y C6, con injerto óseo de la cresta iliaca; también se realiza una discusión de la bibliografía médica.

  4. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.)

  5. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksin, M.F.; Zurlo, J.V. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States); Levy, A.S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  6. Posterior glenohumeral joint capsule contracture

    OpenAIRE

    Dashottar, Amitabh; Borstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Glenohumeral joint posterior capsule contracture may cause shoulder pain by altering normal joint mechanics. Contracture is commonly noted in throwing athletes but can also be present in nonthrowers. The cause of contracture in throwing athletes is assumed to be a response to the high amount of repetitive tensile force placed on the tissue, whereas the mechanism of contracture in nonthrowers is unknown. It is likely that mechanical and cellular processes interact to increase the stiffness and...

  7. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions ...

  8. Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

  9. All-Inside Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: GraftLink Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Matthew R; Stuart, Michael J; King, Alexander H; Sousa, Paul L; Levy, Bruce A

    2015-10-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries account for nearly 20% of knee ligament injuries. PCL injuries can occur in isolation or, more commonly, in the setting of multiligamentous knee injuries. Isolated PCL disruptions are commonly treated nonoperatively; however, symptomatic grade III injuries, as well as PCL injuries found in multiligamentous injuries, are frequently treated surgically. Several reconstructive techniques exist for the treatment of PCL deficiency without a clear optimal approach. We describe our preferred operative technique to reconstruct the PCL using an all-inside arthroscopic approach with a quadrupled tibialis anterior or peroneus longus allograft with both tibial and femoral suspensory fixation. PMID:26900564

  10. All-Inside Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: GraftLink Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Matthew R.; Stuart, Michael J.; King, Alexander H.; Sousa, Paul L.; Levy, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries account for nearly 20% of knee ligament injuries. PCL injuries can occur in isolation or, more commonly, in the setting of multiligamentous knee injuries. Isolated PCL disruptions are commonly treated nonoperatively; however, symptomatic grade III injuries, as well as PCL injuries found in multiligamentous injuries, are frequently treated surgically. Several reconstructive techniques exist for the treatment of PCL deficiency without a clear optimal approach. We describe our preferred operative technique to reconstruct the PCL using an all-inside arthroscopic approach with a quadrupled tibialis anterior or peroneus longus allograft with both tibial and femoral suspensory fixation.

  11. Contribution to the method for determining femoral neck axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An?elkovi? Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck axis plotting is of great significance in measuring parameters that define femoral head-neck junction sphericity in the group of patients with the femoroacetabular impingement. Literature methods of femoral neck axis determination have weaknesses associated with the risk of obtaining inaccurate values of certain parameters. Objective. Method of plotting of the femoral neck axis by two parallel lines that belong to the medial quarter of the femoral neck is proposed. Method was tested on the anatomic specimens and the respective radiograms. Methods. A total of 31 anatomic specimens of the proximal femur and respective radiographs were used, on which three axes of the femoral neck were plotted; accordingly, alpha angle value was determined and tested with corresponding parametric tests, with the measurement error of less than 5% and the strength of the applied tests of 80%. Results. Alpha angle values obtained by plotting femoral neck axis using the literature and methods we have proposed were not significantly different in our series, and, in more than a half of the specimens, the two axes overlapped each other. Conclusion. The advantage of the proposed method does not depend on the position of the femoral head rotation center in relation to the femoral neck, which favors proposed method for measuring the angles of femoral head sphericity in patients with the femoral head translation. Disadvantage of the study is a small sample size for valid conclusions about the applicability of this method in clinical practice.

  12. Common site of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head based on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the common sites of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head (SIF) based on three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of MR images. In 33 hips of 31 consecutive patients diagnosed with SIF, 3-D reconstruction of the bone, fracture, and acetabular edge was performed using MR images. These 3-D images were used to measure the fractured areas and clarify the positional relationship between the fracture and degree of acetabular coverage. The fractured area in the anterior portion was significantly larger than in the posterior area. In 11 cases, the fractures contacted the acetabular edge and were distributed on the lateral portion. The indices of acetabular coverage (center-edge angle and acetabular head index) in these cases were less than the normal range. In the remaining 22 cases, the fractures were apart from the acetabular edge and distributed on the mediolateral centerline of the femoral head. The majority of these cases had normal acetabular coverage. The common site of SIF is the anterior portion. In addition, two types of SIF are proposed: (1) Lateral type: the contact stress between the acetabular edge and lateral portion of the femoral head causes SIF based on the insufficient acetabular coverage, and (2) Central type: the contact stress between the acetabular surface and the mediolateral center of the femoral head causes SIF independent from the insufficiency of acetabular coverage. These findings may be useful for considering the treatment and prevention of SIF. (orig.)

  13. Quiste óseo simple de cóndilo mandibular / Simple bone cyst of the mandibular condyle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Cifuentes; Ariel, Barrera; Daniel, Jerez; Stephanie, Bohmann.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El quiste óseo simple (QOS) es una entidad descrita por primera vez por Lucas en 1929. En 1946, Rushton describió las paredes internas del quiste que consistían en tejido óseo sin contenido patológico o químico. Esta entidad intraósea también es conocida con múltiples sinónimos como quiste óseo soli [...] tario, quiste óseo traumático, quiste óseo hemorrágico, quiste unicameral, cavidad ósea idiopática y cavidad o quiste óseo progresivo. Cuando afecta a los maxilares suelen ser asintomáticos, siendo su diagnóstico habitualmente un hallazgo radiológico. Las áreas comúnmente afectadas son entre los caninos inferiores y la región de los terceros molares y, en segundo lugar, la sínfisis mandibular. Los QOS de cóndilo son raros, habiéndose referido previamente 15 casos en la literatura. En el caso referido se describirá el tratamiento y se hará una revisión de la enfermedad. Abstract in english Simple bonecysts (SBC) have been a recognized entity since 1929, when they were first described by Lucas. In 1946, Rushton described the inner walls of the cyst, consisting of bone and no pathological or chemical content. This intraosseous entity, is also known by a variety of synonyms including sol [...] itary bone cyst, traumatic bone cyst, hemorrhagic bone cyst, unicameral cyst, idiopathic bone cavity and progressive bone cyst or cavity. There are few clinical features within the jaws, and the diagnosis is made mainly from radiographical findings. The most frequently affected sites are the region between inferior canines and third molars, and secondly in the mandibular symphysis. SBC of the condyle are rare, and there are approximately 15 cases in the current literature. Treatment of the case will be described, and a literature review of the disease and its management will be presented.

  14. Intravitreal bevacizumab for posterior capsule neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mohaimeed, Mansour; Al-Gehedan, Saeed; Dhibi, Hassan Al

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of rapid regression of extensive posterior capsule neovascularization in a 67-year-old diabetic male patient, who developed posterior capsule opacity with neovascularization one year post cataract surgery, after a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) followed by neodymium:YAG capsulotomy. Rapid regression of the posterior capsule neovascularization, and visual improvement was observed 9 days after the intervention. Posterior capsulotomy was performed success...

  15. TRÍGONO FEMORAL: ¿CUÁL ES SU VERDADERO LÍMITE MEDIAL? FEMORAL TRIGON: WHAT IS THE REAL MEDIAL LIMIT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El trígono femoral es una región topográfica triangular ubicada en el tercio próximal de la cara anterior del muslo, donde transcurren los vasos femorales, nervio femoral y sus ramas. El conocimiento de sus límites es de importancia en los procedimientos invasores y en la evaluación de patologías de esta región. Referente a la determinación del lado medial de este trígono, la literatura muestra divergencias. La mayoría de los autores afirma que el límite medial del trígono está dado por el borde medial del músculo aductor largo, mientras que otros, consideran al borde lateral del referido músculo. A través de este trabajo, los autores buscan estandarizar el límite medial de este trígono. Se efectuaron exámenes en individuos adultos, vivos, de ambos sexos y en cadáveres humanos fijados en formaldeído al 10%. Se identificó el límite medial del trígono femoral, el cual fue delimitado a través de métodos propedéuticos de inspección y palpación. El borde lateral del músculo aductor largo fue fácilmente visualizado y palpado. De esta forma, los autores proponen la padronización del borde lateral del músculo aductor largo como límite medial del trígono femoral, y en consequencia, excluyen tal músculo del piso de este trígonoThe femoral trigonus is a topographic triangle-shaped region located in the proximal third of the anterior aspect of the thigh, where femoral vessels, femoral nerve and its branches transit. The knowledge of its limits is very important for invasive procedures and for assessment of pathologies in this region. As far as the determination of the medial aspect of this triangle is concerned, literature diverges. Most authors state that this limit is the the medial edge of the Adductor lo2ngus muscle, while others assume it to be the lateral edge of the aforementioned muscle. In the present paper authors try to padronize the medial limit of this triangle. With this purpose, examinations were performed on individuals of both sexes and dissection on human corpses that were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The femoral trigonus was delimitated by propedeutical methods of inspection and palpation and it was found that, in the living person, the lateral aspect of the Adductor longus muscle was easily palpated. Therefore the authors propose the padronization of the lateral edge of the Adductor longus muscle as the medial limit of the femoral trigonus and, as a consequence, this muscle should be excluded from the trigonus floor. The femoral trigonus is then assumed as a well-defined area where important vascular and nerve structures of the thigh are found

  16. TRÍGONO FEMORAL: ¿CUÁL ES SU VERDADERO LÍMITE MEDIAL? / FEMORAL TRIGON: WHAT IS THE REAL MEDIAL LIMIT?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos, Buarque de Gusmão; Vanessa, Alves Guimarães; Inaldo de Albuquerque, Medeiros Diégues Júnior.

    Full Text Available El trígono femoral es una región topográfica triangular ubicada en el tercio próximal de la cara anterior del muslo, donde transcurren los vasos femorales, nervio femoral y sus ramas. El conocimiento de sus límites es de importancia en los procedimientos invasores y en la evaluación de patologías de [...] esta región. Referente a la determinación del lado medial de este trígono, la literatura muestra divergencias. La mayoría de los autores afirma que el límite medial del trígono está dado por el borde medial del músculo aductor largo, mientras que otros, consideran al borde lateral del referido músculo. A través de este trabajo, los autores buscan estandarizar el límite medial de este trígono. Se efectuaron exámenes en individuos adultos, vivos, de ambos sexos y en cadáveres humanos fijados en formaldeído al 10%. Se identificó el límite medial del trígono femoral, el cual fue delimitado a través de métodos propedéuticos de inspección y palpación. El borde lateral del músculo aductor largo fue fácilmente visualizado y palpado. De esta forma, los autores proponen la padronización del borde lateral del músculo aductor largo como límite medial del trígono femoral, y en consequencia, excluyen tal músculo del piso de este trígono Abstract in english The femoral trigonus is a topographic triangle-shaped region located in the proximal third of the anterior aspect of the thigh, where femoral vessels, femoral nerve and its branches transit. The knowledge of its limits is very important for invasive procedures and for assessment of pathologies in th [...] is region. As far as the determination of the medial aspect of this triangle is concerned, literature diverges. Most authors state that this limit is the the medial edge of the Adductor lo2ngus muscle, while others assume it to be the lateral edge of the aforementioned muscle. In the present paper authors try to padronize the medial limit of this triangle. With this purpose, examinations were performed on individuals of both sexes and dissection on human corpses that were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The femoral trigonus was delimitated by propedeutical methods of inspection and palpation and it was found that, in the living person, the lateral aspect of the Adductor longus muscle was easily palpated. Therefore the authors propose the padronization of the lateral edge of the Adductor longus muscle as the medial limit of the femoral trigonus and, as a consequence, this muscle should be excluded from the trigonus floor. The femoral trigonus is then assumed as a well-defined area where important vascular and nerve structures of the thigh are found

  17. Barrier function of the posterior capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of the rabbit lens and human cataractous lens posterior capsule to epinephrine and trypan blue and the absorption of ultraviolet and visible light through the posterior capsule were studied in vitro. The posterior capsule served as a barrier to large nonelectrolytes or negative electrolytes other than trypan blue, but it did not impede epinephrine, ultraviolet or visible light

  18. The blood flow to the femoral head/neck junction during resurfacing arthroplasty: a comparison of two approaches using Laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, H W; Costa, M L; Foguet, P; Krikler, S J; Prakash, U; Griffin, D R

    2008-04-01

    We used Laser Doppler flowmetry to measure the effect on the blood flow to the femoral head/neck junction of two surgical approaches during resurfacing arthroplasty. We studied 24 hips undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Of these, 12 had a posterior approach and 12 a trochanteric flip approach. A Laser probe was placed under radiological control in the superolateral part of the femoral head/neck junction. The Doppler flux was measured at stages of the operation and compared with the initial flux. In both groups the main fall in blood flow occurred during the initial exposure and capsulotomy of the hip joint. There was a greater reduction in blood flow with the posterior (40%) than with the trochanteric flip approach (11%). PMID:18378916

  19. Veia gástrica posterior: hipertensão porta Posterior gastric vein: portal hipertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A veia gástrica posterior não é muito citada nos livros de anatomia e nos trabalhos sobre hipertensão porta. Estudou-se sua anatomia, freqüência e desembocadura. Ela foi encontrada em 54% dos casos e, em 100%, desembocava na veia esplênica. Discute-se a vantagem ou não de sua ligadura ou preservação no tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão porta.The posterior gastric vein has not been mentioned very often neither in anatomy textbooks nor in portal hypertension papers. The authors studied the anatomy, frequency and confluence of this vein because is a huge variety in the presentation of esophageal varices. Twenty-six adult preserved corpses (twenty females and six males had a wide abdominal incision allowing the dissection of the portal system, identifying the frequency and confluence of its tributaries, notably the posterior gastric vein. The portal vein, in all cases, was formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric vein with the splenic vein and had a mean length of 6.4 cm. The splenic vein had a mean length of 6.5 cm. The left gastric vein was tributary of the portal vein in 50% of the cases and in 30% of the cases in the splenic vein. The right gastric vein had it's confluence to portal vein in 30 % of the cases and to the splenic vein in 4 %. The inferior mesenteric vein was tributary of the splenic vein in 54% of the cases and in the superior mesenteric vein in 46%. The left gastro-omental vein had its confluence to the splenic vein in 50% of the cases and to the inferior polar vein in 34 %. The middle colic vein had its confluence to superior mesenteric vein in 42% of the cases, to inferior mesenteric vein in 12% and to splenic vein in 8%. The posterior gastric vein was found in 54% of the corpses, and in all cases it was a tributary of the splenic vein, in retropancreatic position, coming from the esophageal-gastric junction. These findings agree with previous papers describing a prevalence of 60% of posterior gastric vein in patients submitted to surgery in portal hypertension, and in all cases, this vein was tributary of the splenic vein. The identification of this vein may influence the treatment, because if left untied during cases of portal-azigos disconnection, they may predispose to postoperative bleeding, but in cases of splenorenal anastomosis may preserve its patency in cases of anastomosis occlusion, or can lead again to postoperative bleeding feeding the esophageal varices. To ligate or not this vein will depends on the surgeon 's experience and common sense. Regarding to previous papers and to this data presented here, the authors believe that the prevalence of this vein is between 50 and 60% in the population.

  20. Tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral com celulas progenitoras autólogas em anemia falciforme / Femoral Head Necrosis treatment with autologous stem cells in sickle cell disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gildásio Cerqueira, Daltro; Vitor Antonio, Fortuna; Marco Aurélio Salvino de, Araújo; Paulo Itamar Ferraz, Lessa; Uirassú de Assis, Batista Sobrinho; Radovan, Borojevic.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação da segurança e eficácia do uso de células progenitoras autólogas da medula óssea (CMMO) no tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral (OCF) de pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 8 pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme, com OCF nos estágios I [...] e II (classificação de Ficat e Arlet). As CMMO retiradas da crista ilíaca posterior foram concentradas e reinfundidas na área central da osteonecrose. Os principais parâmetros avaliados foram segurança, sintomas clínicos e progressão da doença, através da avaliação clínica (Harris Hip Score) e radiológica. RESULTADOS: A maior parte dos pacientes (7 em 8) referiu melhora dos sintomas após o tratamento. Não houve complicações durante o procedimento anestésico e cirúrgico. A medida do escore (Harris Hip Score) no pré-operatório foi 78,5 +/- 6,2 pontos, com aumento significativo destes valores no pós-operatório (98,3 +/- 2,5 pontos) (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) implantation in necrotic lesions of the femoral head in patients with sickle cell disease. METHODS: We studied eight patients with stage-I or -II femoral head osteonecrosis according to the system by Ficat [...] and Arlet. BMMCs were harvested and re-infused into the necrotic zone. The primary endpoints studied were safety, clinical symptoms and disease progression, these being assessed according to the Harris hip score (HHS) and to X-ray studies. RESULTS: After eight months, seven of the eight patients reported improvement from symptoms. There were no complications during anesthetic and surgery procedures. There was a significant postoperative increase in the HHS (98.3 +/- 2.5 points) compared to preoperative HHS (78.5 +/- 6.2 points) (p

  1. Various influences on successful outcome after the trans-femoral amputation - a case of trans-femoral amputee due to osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ipavec

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of the rehabilitation of a trans-femoral amputee is described. Twenty-nine years ago the patient experienced substantial pain connected to the osteosarcoma tumor at the inner part of the left knee. The trans-femoral amputation of the left leg was performed following by chemotherapy for a year and a half according to the Compadri scheme. The treatment and the rehabilitation were successful. Presently, the patient is healthy, she graduated university and has been employed for 24 years full-time. She wears prosthesis every day for 16 hours, walks without support indoors and with a crutch outdoors. The aim of the paper is to compare all components and their fluctuations of the ground support force at the patient's prosthesis and at the patient's intact leg with the corresponding force at normal subject's left and right leg. The measured ground support force shows that the prosthesis bears 38.7\\% of the vertical load while standing on two legs. Fluctuations of the mediolateral and anterior-posterior components of the ground support force were larger in the patient than in the healthy subject when the measurements were performed with the eyes opened and comparable to the results of the healthy subject when the measurements were performed with the eyes closed.

  2. Postcatheterization Femoral Arteriovenous Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Stent-Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report our results of stent-graft implantation for the endovascular treatment of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) occurring between the deep femoral artery and the femoral vein.Methods: Endovascular treatment of iatrogenic femoral AVFs as a result of arterial puncture for coronary angiography and/or angioplasty was attempted in 10 cases. Balloon-expandable stent-grafts, one for each lesion, were used to repair the fistulas, which were between the deep femoral artery and the femoral vein in all cases. Stent-graft implantation to the deep femoral artery was performed by a contralateral retrograde approach.Results: All stent-grafts were deployed successfully. Complete closure of the fistulas was accomplished immediately in nine of 10 cases. In one case, complete closure could not be obtained but the fact that the complaint subsided was taken to indicate clinical success. In three cases, side branch occlusion of the deep femoral artery occurred. No complications were observed after implantation. Follow-up for 8-31 months (mean 18.5 months) with color Doppler ultrasonography revealed patency of the stented arterial segments without recurrent arteriovenous shunting in those nine patients who had successful immediate closure of their AVFs.Conclusion: Our results with a mean follow-up 18.5 months suggest that stent-graft implantation for the closure of postcatheterization femoral AVFs originating from the deep femoral artery is an effective, minimally invasive alternative procedure

  3. Atypical femoral fracture following zoledronic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atao?lu, Baybars; Kaptan, Ahmet Yi?it; Eren, Toygun Ka?an; Yapar, Ali Ekber; Berkay, Ahmet F?rat

    2016-04-01

    A 68-year-old female patient admitted to our clinic with right anterior thigh pain ongoing for six months and which increased in last two months. The patient had no trauma history. The patient had been followed-up for 15 years because of osteoporosis and administrated alendronate and ibandronate treatment for 10 years. Patient had three shots of zoledronate once a year during the last three years. Her pain was increasing when she was walking. Physical examination revealed pain in her right thigh. Radiogram showed thickened lateral cortex of the subtrochanteric area. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed thickening and edema of the same area. These images were correlated with atypical fracture in right femoral subthrochanteric zone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed that T score was -3.3 in lumbar region and -2.5 in femoral neck. Zoledronate treatment was ended. Prophylactic surgical fixation was performed with titanium elastic nails. PMID:26874637

  4. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  5. Femoral Vein Repair of Arterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Lilly, Jacob; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Vammen, Sten; Laustsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Success with the neoaortoiliac system (NAIS) bypass has previously been reported. Drawbacks to this procedure include prolonged operative times and significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a 2-team approach in addition to a consistent anastomosis technique reduces the operative time of the NAIS procedure. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review was performed for operations using femoral vein in arterial reconstruction from 2003 to 2012. RESULTS: A ...

  6. Femoral Tunnel Malposition in ACL Revision Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Joseph A; Dahm, Diane; Levy, Bruce; Stuart, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Multicenter Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Revision Study (MARS) group was formed to study a large cohort of revision ACL reconstruction patients. The purpose of this subset analysis study of the MARS database is to describe specific details of femoral tunnel malposition and subsequent management strategies that surgeons chose in the revision setting. The design of this study is a case series. The multicenter MARS database is compiled from a questionnaire regarding 460 ACL reconstructio...

  7. Fracture of femoral total hip replacement components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomechanical factors responsible for fatigue fracture of femoral total hip component stems were studied by laboratory loading simulations using implants which were instrumented with strain gauges. Stress levels were low when the prosthesis was rigidly fixed in acrylic along its entire length. Significantly higher stresses were recorded in stems which were loose in the acrylic or which were fixed in their distal portion only

  8. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    OpenAIRE

    Patwa J; Krishnan Ajay; Pamecha Chirayu

    2006-01-01

    Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck) and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck) in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior scr...

  9. Radiofrequency ablation of two femoral head chondroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pain relief and prevention of further growth. Open surgical techniques are associated with complications, particularly when the tumors are located in deep anatomical sites. The authors performed RF ablation in two cases of subarticular femoral head chondroblastomas and emphasize its positive impact. The clinical course, the radiological findings and the post treatment results are discussed

  10. Conservative condylectomy alone for the correction of mandibular asymmetry caused by osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a report of five cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jae-Young; Jeong, Chan-Woo; Park, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with conservative condylectomy for the correction of facial asymmetry in five patients with osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle. All five patients presented with malocclusion and facial asymmetry, which are common clinical findings of osteochondroma involving the mandibular condyle. We performed conservative condylectomy without additional orthognathic surgery for all five patients, preserving the vertical height of the condylar process as much as possible. Following surgery, intermaxillary traction using a skeletal anchorage system with rubber elastics was performed on all patients to improve occlusion, and, when necessary, additional minimal orthodontic treatment was performed. The mean follow-up period was 42 months. At the last follow-up visit, all patients exhibited satisfactory facial symmetry and remodeling of the remaining condyle, with stable health and no signs of recurrence. In conclusion, conservative condylectomy alone, without subsequent orthognathic surgery, is adequate for the restoration of facial symmetry and the preservation of vertical condylar height in select patients with condylar osteochondroma. PMID:26568928

  11. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Félix Companioni Rosildo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion.

  12. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-10-18

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  13. Malformação ílio-femoral Iliofemoral arterial malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala M. Pai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante uma dissecção de rotina realizada em um cadáver do sexo masculino com 65 anos de idade foi constatada malformação arterial iliofemoral. A aorta abdominal estava consideravelmente deslocada lateralmente e também bifurcava em nível mais alto. A artéria ilíaca comum dividia-se uma vértebra acima do nível normal e a artéria femoral dava origem à artéria femoral profunda aproximadamente l,2 cm abaixo do ligamento inguinal, o que é consideravelmente proximal ao seu nível normal. Aqui nós apresentamos uma breve revisão de literatura e base embriológica dessas anomalias.During routine dissection, an Iliofemoral arterial malformation was noticed in a 65 year old male cadaver. The abdominal aorta was considerably laterally displaced and also bifurcated higher up. The common iliac artery divided one vertebral level higher and the femoral artery gave the profunda femoris artery about 1.2 cm below the inguinal ligament, which is considerably proximal to its usual level of origin. A brief review of literature and embryological basis of the anomalies are discussed.

  14. MR imaging in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that conventional determination of the degree of epiphyseal slipping is not exact. Radiography and CT provide no information about the growth plate, joint effusion, or possible epiphyseal reattachment. Ten patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis were examined in both hip joints by means of frontal T1-weighted and opposed long TR gradient-echo (GRE) sequences and parasagittal T1-weighted images along the femoral neck. Normal measurements were established in 12 healthy adolescents. The authors imaged in various positions and different parasagittal angles to rule out errors due to positioning. Exact determination of the epipyseal angle was enabled by drawing a ventral tangent to the femoral neck. The average MR imaging angle was 40.3 degrees in epiphyseolysis and 66.0 degrees on the unaffected side. Healthy male juveniles reached 77.9 degrees at age 13-17 years and 69.9 degrees at age 5-9 years. Conventional measurements on Lauenstein projection gave measurements of 55.6 degrees for epiphyseolysis and 85.7 degrees on the unaffected side. Errors due to positioning are lower than 4 degrees

  15. Fractures of the occipital condyle clinical spectrum and course in eight patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krüger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs are considered to be rare injuries. OCFs are now diagnosed more often because of the widespread use of computed tomography. Our aim is to report the incidence, treatment and long term outcome of 8 patients with OCFs. Materials and Methods: All patients presenting with multiple trauma from 1993 to 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Characteristics and course of the treatment were evaluated. Follow-up was performed after 11,7 years (range 5,9 to 19,3 years. Results: Nine cases of OCF in 8 patients were identified. All injuries resulted from high velocity trauma. The average scores on the ISS Scale were 39,6 (24-75 and 7,3 (3-15 on the GCS. According to Anderson?s classification, 5 cases of Type III and 4 cases of Type I fractures were identified. According to Tuli?s classification, 5 cases of Type IIA and 4 cases of Type I were found. Indications for immobilization with the halo-vest were type III injuries according to Anderson?s classification or Tuli?s type IIA injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli?s type I injuries were treated with a Philadelphia collar for 6 weeks. In one patient with initial complete tetraplegia and one with incomplete neurological deficits the final follow-up neurologic examination showed no neurological impairment at all (Frankel-grade A to E, respectively B to E. At follow-up, 3 patients were asymptomatic. Four patients suffered from mild pain when turning their head, pain medication was necessary in one case only. Discussion: OCF`s are virtually undetectable using conventional radiography. In cases of high velocity, cranio-cervical trauma or impaired consciousness, high resolution CT-scans of the craniocervical junction must be performed. We suggest immobilization using a halo device for type III injuries according to Anderson?s classification or Tuli?s type IIa injuries, respectively. Patients with Tuli?s type I injuries should be treated with a Philadelphia collar.

  16. Comparative endurance testing of the Biomet Matthews Nail and the Dynamic Compression Screw, in simulated condylar and supracondylar femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic compression screw is a plate and screws implant used to treat fractures of the distal femur. The Biomet Matthews Nail is a new retrograde intramedullary nail designed as an alternative surgical option to treat these fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative endurance of both devices. Method The dynamic compression screw (DCS and Biomet Matthews Nail (BMN were implanted into composite femurs, which were subsequently cyclically loaded using a materials testing machine. Simulated fractures were applied to each femur prior to the application of load. Either a Y type fracture or a transverse osteotomy was prepared on each composite femur using a jig to enable consistent positioning of cuts. Results The Biomet Matthews Nail demonstrated a greater endurance limit load over the dynamic compression screw in both fracture configurations. Conclusion The distal locking screws pass through the Biomet Matthews Nail in a unique "cruciate" orientation. This allows for greater purchase in the bone of the femoral condyle and potentially improves the stability of the fracture fixation. As these fractures are usually in weak osteoporotic bone, the Biomet Matthews Nail represents a favourable surgical option in these patients.

  17. Idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head. Clinical long-term results of transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy and histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term clinical results after transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy for idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head and histopathological study of the removed femoral head were evaluated in patients who eventually underwent arthroplasty. From 1987 to 1996, transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy was used to treat 35 hips in 26 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Every hip case had anterior rotational osteotomy and follow-up periods ranged from ten to 18 years. When the end point of the study was defined as postoperative progress to collapse of the femoral head, the 10-year survival rate was 84% and that of the 15-year was 76%. When the end point was defined as an advanced stage after operation, the 10-year survival rate was 68% and the 15-year, 35%. This operation that indicates the ratio of the intact area of the posterior part of the femoral head to the total articular surface on the lateral view of the hip roentgenogram patients should be more than 33%, and for postoperative patients, the transposed intact area should occupy more than 36% of the acetabular weight-bearing area after osteotomy and the intentional varus position. In addition, excellent results were obtained in patients within the limits of the above indications. The risk factors for postoperative progressive collapse include advanced types, 66% or less, and 40% or less of the intact area of the posterior part on the lateral view of the hip roentgenogram. Even though favorable medium-term results had excellent success, in some patients an advanced stage was observed in the long-term results of more than 10 years, resulting in arthroplasty. In the removed femoral head in 8 cases eventually undergoing arthroplasty, repair of the osteonecrotic area was histopathologically evaluated. Large sections and 1/4 section specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The osteonecrotic area, a band-like sclerotic area, and an intact area were identified on the large section specimens, leading to measurement of the following: the maximum thickness of appositional bone formation, the mean thickness of the creeping substitution, coverage of the necrosis trabecula, and the area of all bone trabecula. The osteonecrosis was repaired when the appositional bone was formed from the band-like sclerotic area to the area around the necrotic bone, resulting in proximal expansion throughout the entire necrotic area. Pathological features of the osteonecrotic area without weight-bearing stress were almost identical to MRI findings. The final pathological findings in the repair of osteonecrosis constitutes not replacement with intact tissues, but filled with thickened trabeculae following the disappearance of necrotic tissues and fibrosis. (author)

  18. MR evaluation of femoral neck version and tibial torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, James Karl; Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California, San Diego, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pring, Maya E. [Rady Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Abnormalities of femoral neck version have been associated with a number of hip abnormalities in children, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis, proximal femoral focal deficiency, coxa vara, a deep acetabulum and, rarely, developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedic surgeons also are interested in quantifying the femoral neck anteversion or retroversion in children especially to plan derotational osteotomies. Historically, the angle of femoral version and tibial torsion has been measured with the use of radiography and later by CT. Both methods carry with them the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Techniques that utilize MR are used less often because of the associated lengthy imaging times. This article describes a technique using MRI to determine femoral neck version and tibial torsion with total scan times of approximately 10 min. (orig.)

  19. MR evaluation of femoral neck version and tibial torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities of femoral neck version have been associated with a number of hip abnormalities in children, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis, proximal femoral focal deficiency, coxa vara, a deep acetabulum and, rarely, developmental dysplasia of the hip. Orthopedic surgeons also are interested in quantifying the femoral neck anteversion or retroversion in children especially to plan derotational osteotomies. Historically, the angle of femoral version and tibial torsion has been measured with the use of radiography and later by CT. Both methods carry with them the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Techniques that utilize MR are used less often because of the associated lengthy imaging times. This article describes a technique using MRI to determine femoral neck version and tibial torsion with total scan times of approximately 10 min. (orig.)

  20. MRI morphometry, cartilage damage and impaired function in the follow-up after slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess rotation deficits, asphericity of the femoral head and localisation of cartilage damage in the follow-up after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Magnetic resonance imaging studies were obtained in adult patients with a history of SCFE. A total of 35 hips after SCFE in 26 patients (mean age 24.1 ± 6.5, mean follow-up 11.9 ± 6.1 years) were evaluated. The control group comprised 20 healthy hips from 10 young adults with an average age of 23.9 ± 3.7 years. The MR protocol included a T1-weighted sequence with a 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold sequence and a radial 2D proton density-weighted sequence around the femoral neck. Images were evaluated for alpha angle and cartilage damage in five positions around the femoral head. Hip function was evaluated at the time of MRI and correlated with MRI results. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. In the hips after SCFE alpha angles were significantly increased in the anterosuperior (74.1 ± 18.8 ) and superior (72.5 ± 21.5 ) positions and decreased in the posterior position (25.0 ± 7.2 ). Cartilage damage was dominant in the anterosuperior and superior positions. Impaired rotation significantly correlated with increased anterosuperior, superior and posterosuperior alpha angles. The data support an anterosuperior and superior cam-type deformity of the femoral head-neck junction in the follow-up after SCFE. MRI after SCFE can be used to assess anterosuperior and superior alpha angles, since the anterior alpha angle by itself may underestimate asphericity and is not associated with rotation deficits. (orig.)

  1. Correlation of intra-articular osseous measurements with posterior cruciate ligament length on MRI scans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Orakzai, S H

    2010-01-01

    Six patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) rupture, based on a positive posterior drawer test, had a normal appearance of the PCL on an MRI scan. It is postulated that the PCL had been ruptured but healed in a lengthened state. 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma underwent an MRI scan of the knee. In this control group (n = 12), there was a close correlation between the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane and the PCL length, with a ratio of 2:1 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.817-2.095). In the clinically abnormal group (n = 6), the ratio was 1.49:1 (95% CI = 1.206-1.782) (p< 0.0005). In conclusion, the ratio of the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane to the PCL length is a useful index for diagnosing PCL attenuation and lengthening in the presence of a normal morphological MR appearance.

  2. Positioning of the femoral tunnel for arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparative study of 2 techniques Posicionamento do túnel femoral na reconstrução artroscópica do LCA: estudo comparativo de duas técnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Freire da Mota Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of positioning of the femoral tunnel in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament by means of 2 techniques: tibial tunnel and anteromedial portal. METHOD: Femoral tunnels were drilled in 20 knees from human cadavers by means of arthroscopy. Group I had the femoral tunnel drilled via a trans-tibial tunnel, and Group II via the anteromedial portal. Four variables were measured: A posterior wall thickness; B tunnel positioning at the notch; C tunnel inclination in relation to the femoral axis; and D distance between the wire guide exit and the lateral epicondyle. RESULTS: As above, respectively, A 2.23 mm for group I and 2.36 mm for group II (P =.54; B 25.5° for group I and 30.0° for group II (P =.23; C 23.9° for group I and 32.0° for group II (P =.02; D 7.8 cm for group I and 3.9 cm for group II (P OBJETIVO: Comparar a acurácia do posicionamento do túnel femoral na reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior através de duas vias: túnel tibial e portal ântero - medial. MÉTODO: Foram perfurados túneis femorais em vinte joelhos de cadáveres humanos por via artroscópica. Grupo I: túnel femoral por acesso trans túnel tibial. Grupo II: via portal ântero-medial. Quatro variáveis foram estudadas: A espessura da parede posterior; B posicionamento do túnel no intercôndilo; C angulação do túnel em relação ao eixo do fêmur; D distância entre a saída do fio guia e o epicôndilo lateral. RESULTADO: A grupo I: 2,23 mm, grupo II: 2,36 mm (p=0,543; B grupo I: 25,5º, grupo II: 30º (p=0,226; C grupo I: 23,9º, grupo II: 32º (p= 0,014; D grupo I: 7,8 cm, grupo II 3,9 cm (p<0,001. CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas obteveram o posicionamento desejado da entrada do túnel femoral e espessura adequada da cortical posterior. A perfuração via portal ântero-medial pode propiciar maior proteção contra rotura da parede posterior.

  3. The reconstruction of large laryngeal defect with medial condyle femur corticoperiosteal free flap-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewski, Jacek; Gaggl, Alexander; Buerger, Heinz; Wierzbicka, Malgorzata; Pabiszczak, Maciej; Pastusiak, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold

    2016-02-01

    The larynx is a complicated organ with very important functions. Reconstructive operations of the larynx often result in some function reduction caused by scars and stenoses. The aim of this report is to present the results of the one-stage reconstructive operation after a large excision of the chondrosarcoma of the larynx. The patient was male, aged 48 with the history of the operation of the highly mature cartilaginous sarcoma of the thyroid on the right side with tumor recurrence. The one-stage reconstructive surgery using medial condyle femur corticoperiosteal free flap which reshaped the cartilage scaffold and restored an inner layer as the mucosa was made. The flap survived without local and systemic complications. Six months follow-up revealed no local recurrence and good breathing results. There was no restriction of movement of the lower limbs. The patient returned to work previously performed. Results were shown in endoscopic examinations and computer tomography. The medial condyle femur corticoperiosteal free flap may be an option for reconstruction of large laryngeal defect with restoring its shape and inner layers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:157-160, 2016. PMID:26456549

  4. Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Gerhardt de, Oliveira; Luciano Engelmann, Morais; Daniela Nascimento, Silva; Helena Willhelm de, Oliveira; Cláiton, Heitz; Lêonilson, Gaião.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT) imaging using 3D reformations (3DR) with shaded surface display (SSD) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared fin [...] dings with multiplanar reformation (MPR) images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ). Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374) was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

  5. Dynamic MRI motion analysis of the condyle and articular disk in the sagittal plane during mouth opening and closing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the velocity and excursion of the condyle and articular disk during mouth opening and closing. These parameters were compared between individuals with clicking sounds in the temporomandibular joint (TMD group, n=6) and those with no abnormalities in the joint (normal group, n=7). We used a Signa Horizon LX (1.5 Tesla, GE Inc., Wisconsin, USA) at fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR), 7.7/1.4 ms echo time/repetition time (TR/TE), 8 mm thickness, and 40 sec duration. Each subject was instructed to open as widely as possible and then to close over a period of 40 seconds, during which time we measured the velocity and excursion of the condyle and articular disk. The degree of anterior displacement of the articular disk was quantified in the TMD patients. Compared with normal subjects, the degree of variance in movement velocity for opening and closing movements was significantly greater for the TMD patients. These findings suggest that dynamic MRI is useful for observing and quantifying the dynamics of the articular disk and that the degree of fluctuation in the velocity of articular disk movement is significantly greater for patients with clicking sounds. (author)

  6. Is 3D-CT reformation using free software applicable to diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the agreement of computed tomography (CT imaging using 3D reformations (3DR with shaded surface display (SSD and maximum intensity projection (MIP in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and compared findings with multiplanar reformation (MPR images, used as the criterion standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Axial CT images of 44 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 22 patients with RA were used. Images were recorded in DICOM format and assessed using free software (ImageJ. Each sample had its 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP results compared in pairs with the MPR results. RESULTS: Slight agreement (k = 0.0374 was found in almost all comparisons. The level of agreement showed that 3DR-SSD and 3DR-MIP yielded a number of false-negative results that was statistically significant when compared with MPR. CONCLUSIONS: 3DR-SSD or 3DR-MIP should only be used as adjuvant techniques to MPR in the diagnosis of bone changes in mandibular condyles.

  7. Structural variation of the distal condyles of the third metacarpal and third metatarsal bones in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined 3-dimensional (3D) distribution of sectors with contrasting density in the equine third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bones with a view to explaining the aetiology of distal condylar fractures. Macroradiography and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were used in the nondestructive study of bones obtained from horses, most of which were Thoroughbreds in race training. Distal condylar regions of McIII and MtIII were also studied in microradiographs of 100 mu m thick mediolateral sections cut perpendicular to the dorsal and palmar/plantar articular surfaces. Qualitative and quantitative results from all methods used (radiography, CTand microradiographic stereology) demonstrated densification (sclerosis) of subchondral bone located in the palmar/plantar regions of the medial and lateral condyles of both McIII and MtIII, Substantial density gradients between the denser condyles and the subchondral bone of the sagittal groove were shown to equate with anatomical differences in loading intensity during locomotion. It is hypothesised that such differences in bone density results in stress concentration at the palmar/plantar aspect of the condylar grooves, which may predispose to fracture

  8. Femoral nerve palsy secondary to iliopsoas haemorrhage in patients with haemophilia: results from biceps femoral transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piña-Quintero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia causes injuries of peripheral nerves secondary to compressions by hematoma. In general, these injuries recover spontaneously after the cause of the compression is solved. A case of a 16-year-old adolescent with injury of the left femoral nerve, causing loss of the extension of the knee is described herein. During the evolution there was no recovery. For this reason a tendinous transfer of the femoral biceps was practiced. This technique was described formerly for the correction of poliomyelitis. Excellent results were obtained with complete recovery of the extension and force 4+/5.

  9. Ruptured Common Femoral Artery Aneurysm or Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Niino; Satoshi Unosawa; Haruka Kimura

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient with a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to rupture of a common femoral artery aneurysm. A 77-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with left groin pain and shock. Computed tomography demonstrated a large retroperitoneal hematoma involving the left iliofemoral segment with extravasation of contrast into the left groin from a ruptured left common femoral artery aneurysm. The patient also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Reconstruction of the common femoral art...

  10. Detection of Femoral Artery Calcification by Bone Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Uslu, Hatice. M.D.; Varoglu, Erhan. M.D.; Yildirim, Mustafa. M.D.; Polat, Pinar. M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in a 76-year-old male with prostatic cancer. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy showed a linear markedly increased accumulation of radioactivity in both femoral arteries. Radiopharmaceutical uptake in femoral arteries was confirmed with a colour Doppler ultrasonography as femoral artery calcification. This increased uptake of Tc-99m MDP in the patient is strongly related to the calcium deposition. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy d...

  11. Concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anuj; Aggarwal, Prakash; Pankaj, Amite

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to report our experience on concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures.Methods: Nine patients (8 male, 1 female; mean age: 30.9; range: 19-49 years) presented to our emergency room with an ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fracture, following road traffic accident. Six patients had open fracture. Two patients had ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture, two patients had fracture of intercondylar part of distal femur, one had f...

  12. LATE OPEN REDUCTION AND INTERNAL FIXATION FOR FRACTURES OF LATERAL CONDYLE OF HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Neglected fracture of the lateral condyle of distal humerus in children is very common. Patients with non union of the lateral condylar fracture have pain, instability or a progressive cubitus valgus deformity, condylar prominence. A neglected displaced lateral humeral condyle fracture remains a difficult problem to treat. The bone ends become indistinct and soft tissue becomes contracted; making anatomic reduction difficult. Moreover a n attempt to mobilize the fragment by stripping the soft tissues may lead to avascular necrosis. Several authors have recommended operative treatment for such patients, while others do not recommend operative intervention because stiff elbow and AVN are th e usual outcomes. The present study was undertaken to assess the results of open reduction and internal fixation in neglected lateral humeral condyle fracture in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This is a prospective study carried out between November 2008 and July 2011 in the department of orthopedics at Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and research centre, Moradabad. Eighteen patients (14M:4F with an average age of 7.3years (range 5.5 to 14 years who had lateral humeral condyle fracture and reporte d 3 or more weeks after sustaining injury, were included in the study. The fractures were classified according to the Jacobs system. All patients were operated using the lateral approach and fixation was done using K wire or screw with or without bone graf ting. The results were graded as excellent, good, fair or poor according to the modified criteria of Agarwal et al. RESULTS : There were 14 males and 4 females with a mean age of 7 years and 3 months (range 4 - 14 years. Among the nine (50% patients who pr esented between 5 to 8 weeks after injury, the results were excellent in 3, good in 4, fair in 1 and poor in 1 patient. Excellent to good results were seen in all the five (27% patients presenting between 3 - 5 weeks of injury. Among four (23% patients out of total 18 patients who presented between 9 - 12 weeks of injury, 2 had poor results and 1 each had good and fair results. Maximum number of patients had Jacobs type 2 fractures. In our study 25% of these patients had showed excellent results, whereas only 12.5% of patients with type 3 fracture showed excellent results. Fo u rteen (n=14 patients underwent internal fixation with K wire and in four patients’ fixation was done by cancellous screws. The commonest complication seen was pin tract infection (n=10, followed by occasional pain (n=5 around the elbow. There were no cases of avascular necrosis. CONCLUSION : Satisfactory functional results can be obtained even in late presenting fractures lateral condyles of the humerus in children with modification of s urgical technique

  13. Luxação posterior crónica do ombro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Carvalho; Filipe, Sousa; Paulo, Silva; Miguel, Vicente.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ao contrário da luxação anterior, a luxação posterior é uma entidade nosológica rara, muitas vezes com mau prognóstico. Apesar dos poucos dados epidemiológicos, estas lesões ocorrem maioritariamente na sequência de um quadro de convulsões, eletrocussão, traumatismo de alta energia ou ainda, na sequê [...] ncia de terapia eletroconvulsiva. Apesar dos avanços na área da imagiologia, esta é uma lesão muitas vezes diagnosticada tardiamente. Para um diagnóstico correto e atempado é fundamental um exame fisico completo e, uma elevada suspeita clínica da lesão em indivíduos de alto risco, juntamente com uma investigação radiográfica adequada. Uma multiplicidade de técnicas cirúrgicas, desde a simples redução incruenta até a procedimentos de estabilização do osso e partes moles e, ainda a artroplastia estão disponíveis para o tratamentos destas lesões. A seleção da opção de tratamento mais apropriada é complexa e multifactorial. Dada a raridade destas lesões, protocolos de tratamento baseados em evidências são difíceis de conceber. Os autores pretendem demonstrar com este caso clinico a importância de um correto diagnóstico, pois são lesões que facilmente são subdiagnosticadas, e os bons resultados que se conseguiram obter com este tipo de tratamento cirúrgico. Doente de 34 anos de idade, género masculino, com dor e limitação funcional do ombro direito com 2 semanas de evolução após queda com traumatismo local. Radiografia na incidência axilar e TC revelou uma luxação posterior do ombro com uma lesão de Hill-Sachs reversa. Foi efetuada redução e preenchimento do defeito ósseo com fragmento do troquino e tendão subescapular. Aos 6 meses de follow-up, o doente tem ótimos resultados ao DASH e Constant score. Abstract in english Unlike the anterior dislocation, the posterior dislocation is a rare entity, often with poor prognosis. Despite the few epidemiological data, these lesions occur mainly as a result of convulsions, electrocution, high-energy trauma or following electroconvulsive therapy. Despite advances in the field [...] of diagnostic imaging, this injury is often misdiagnosed. For a correct and timely diagnosis it’s essential to have a complete physical examination and a high clinical suspicion of injury in high-risk individuals, along with appropriate radiographic investigation. Since the closed reduction, until bone and soft tissues stability procedures and arthroplasties, there are numerous surgical procedures available for the treatment of these lesions. Selecting one of them is complex and multifactorial. Given the rarity of these lesions, treatment protocols based on evidence is difficult to develop. The authors aimed to demonstrate with this clinical case, the importance of a correct diagnosis, because these lesions are usually misdiagnosed, and the good results that can be achieved with surgical treatment. Male, 34 years of age with pain and functional limitation of the right shoulder with 2 weeks of evolution after fall with local trauma. Axillary radiograph and CT scan revealed a posterior dislocation of the shoulder with a reverse Hill-Sachs injury. A reduction and filling the bony defect with the subscapularis tendon and troquino fragment was performed. At 6-month follow-up, the patient has great outcomes in DASH and Constant score.

  14. Femoral head histology subsequent to ischemia, reperfusion and steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Thomas; Cremer, Dirk; Becker, Cordelia; Hansen, Ebbe S; Bünger, Cody; Drescher, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    An episode of ischemia followed by reperfusion of the femoral head (FH) is thought to be a common pathway in the pathogenesis of femoral head necrosis (FHN). Femoral head histology was investigated after short-term high-dose steroid treatment and femoral head ischemia and reperfusion in a large animal model. Twenty-two pigs were randomized to receive methylprednisolone 20mg/day/kg bodyweight intamuscularly for 3 days followed by methylprednisolone 10mg/day/kg bodyweight for 11 days (n=11), where...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images with the histopathological findings in the femoral head, the histopathology of 24 femoral heads, 15 with osteonecrosis, five with osteoarthritis and four with other hip disorders were subjected to preoperative MR imaging which demonstrated low intensity areas due to long T1 relaxation time in the femoral head. The MR signal was low where fibrovascular tissue, disintegrated fibrovascular tissue, amorphous necrotic material, bone, or cartilagenous tissue occupied the medullary space. From this study, it seems possible to predict the histopathologic changes in the femoral head using MR images. (author)

  16. Tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral com celulas progenitoras autólogas em anemia falciforme Femoral Head Necrosis treatment with autologous stem cells in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildásio Cerqueira Daltro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação da segurança e eficácia do uso de células progenitoras autólogas da medula óssea (CMMO no tratamento da Osteonecrose da Cabeça Femoral (OCF de pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 8 pacientes portadores de anemia falciforme, com OCF nos estágios I e II (classificação de Ficat e Arlet. As CMMO retiradas da crista ilíaca posterior foram concentradas e reinfundidas na área central da osteonecrose. Os principais parâmetros avaliados foram segurança, sintomas clínicos e progressão da doença, através da avaliação clínica (Harris Hip Score e radiológica. RESULTADOS: A maior parte dos pacientes (7 em 8 referiu melhora dos sintomas após o tratamento. Não houve complicações durante o procedimento anestésico e cirúrgico. A medida do escore (Harris Hip Score no pré-operatório foi 78,5 +/- 6,2 pontos, com aumento significativo destes valores no pós-operatório (98,3 +/- 2,5 pontos (pPURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC implantation in necrotic lesions of the femoral head in patients with sickle cell disease. METHODS: We studied eight patients with stage-I or -II femoral head osteonecrosis according to the system by Ficat and Arlet. BMMCs were harvested and re-infused into the necrotic zone. The primary endpoints studied were safety, clinical symptoms and disease progression, these being assessed according to the Harris hip score (HHS and to X-ray studies. RESULTS: After eight months, seven of the eight patients reported improvement from symptoms. There were no complications during anesthetic and surgery procedures. There was a significant postoperative increase in the HHS (98.3 +/- 2.5 points compared to preoperative HHS (78.5 +/- 6.2 points (p< 0.001. X-ray evaluation and cell parameters were found to be favorable. CONCLUSION: The autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells implantation seems to be a safe and effective treatment for early stages of femoral head osteonecrosis in patients with sickle cell disease. Although promising, the interpretation of these early results is limited due to the small sample and to the short duration of follow-up. Further studies and advanced cellular assays are required to confirm the results.

  17. Primary Burkitt lymphoma in the posterior mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaari, Zied; Charfi, Slim; Hentati, Abdessalem; Ayadi, Ines; Abid, Hanene; Frikha, Imed

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with complaints of posterior chest pain and dyspnea. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed a mass in the posterior mediastinum, extending from T8 to T11 with intraspinal involvement. A percutaneous core needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. He was treated according to the Lymphoma Malignancy B protocol 2001 arm C3, but he presented with liver and brain relapses and died 7.5 months after admission. Although lymphoma is rarely localized in the posterior mediastinum, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posterior mediastinal masses in children. PMID:26038605

  18. Femoral nerve palsy secondary to iliopsoas haemorrhage in patients with haemophilia: results from biceps femoral transfer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Vergara-Amador; Marcela, Piña-Quintero; Fernando, Galván-Villamarín; Camilo, Abril-Aguilar.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemofilia causa lesiones de nervio periférico secundarias a compresiones por hematoma. En general estas lesiones se recuperan espontáneamente después de resolverse la causa de la compresión. Se describe el caso de un adolescente de 16 años con lesión del nervio femoral izquierdo que ocasionó la p [...] érdida de la extensión en la rodilla. Como durante la evolución no hubo recuperación, se hizo una transferencia tendinosa del bíceps femoral, técnica descrita antiguamente para correcciones en poliomielitis. Hubo un excelente resultado con recuperación completa de la extensión y fuerza 4+/5. Abstract in english Hemophilia causes injuries of peripheral nerves secondary to compressions by hematoma. In general, these injuries recover spontaneously after the cause of the compression is solved. A case of a 16-year-old adolescent with injury of the left femoral nerve, causing loss of the extension of the knee is [...] described herein. During the evolution there was no recovery. For this reason a tendinous transfer of the femoral biceps was practiced. This technique was described formerly for the correction of poliomyelitis. Excellent results were obtained with complete recovery of the extension and force 4+/5.

  19. Femoral Offset and its Relationship to Femoral Neck-shaft Angle and Torsion Angle / Desplazamiento Femoral y su Relación con el Ángulo Cuello-Diáfisis Femoral y el Ángulo de Torsión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ming, Han; Yongkui, Zhang; Tao, Shan.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar el desplazamiento femoral y su relación con el ángulo cuello-diáfisis femoral y el ángulo de torsión. Se utilizaron 100 pares de fémures (50 hombres y 50 mujeres) y se tomaron las medidas del desplazamiento femoral, ángulo cuello-diáfisis femoral y ángulo de torsión. Los dat [...] os fueron analizados con el software SPSS. El desplazamiento femoral en los hombres fue 44,40±4,56 mm en el lado derecho y 42,70±4,95 mm en el lado izquierdo, y en las mujeres, fue de 39,90±6,00 mm y 38,90±6,18 mm para el lado derecho e izquierdo, respectivamente. El ángulo de torsión femoral del lado derecho en los hombres fue 6,02±10,85° y 7,08±9,30° del izquierdo; mientras que en las mujeres, fue de 10,02±11,69° y 6,02±10,85° para el lado derecho e izquierdo, respectivamente. Los ángulos cuello-diáfisis fueron 131,80±4,36° en el lado derecho, y 134,00±4,78° en el izquierdo, para los hombres, mientras que en las mujeres fueron de 132,10±5,94° en el lado derecho y 132,80±4,93° en el izquierdo. No hubo diferencias según sexo en los dos ángulos femorales (P>0,05), mientras que si hubo una diferencia significativa en el desplazamiento femoral (P Abstract in english The aims to study the femoral offset and its relationship to femoral neck-shaft angle and torsion angle. One hundred paired (50 males and 50 females) Chinese femurs were used to measure the femoral offset, femoral neck-shaft angle and torsion angle. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Femoral o [...] ffsets were male right 44.40±4.56 mm, left 42.70±4.95 mm; female right 39.90±6.00 mm, left 38.90±6.18 mm. Femoral torsion angles were male right 6.02±10.85°, left 7.08±9.30°; female right 10.02±11.69, ° left 6.02±10.85°. Neck-shaft angles were male right 131.80±4.36°, left 134.00±4.78°; female right 132.10±5.94°, left 132.80±4.93°. There were no sexual differences in the two femoral angles (P>0.05) while there was a significant sexual difference in the femoral offset (P

  20. Study on the proximal femoral parameters in the healthy Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of proximal femoral parameter in the healthy Chinese and provide anatomic basis for the design and research of the domestic prosthesis. Methods: One hundred computed radiographs perpendicular to the hip joint were selected randomly and the proximal femoral parameter were measured by means of Unisight software. These parameters include diameter of femoral head, length of femoral neck, neck-shaft angle, offset, high of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter, diameter and height of the narrow cavity, canal flare index(CFI) and metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI). The proximal femoral parameters among the Chinese, American and European were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the proximal femoral parameters between ours and American and European, especially in aspect of offset, height of femoral head, diameter of femoral head, the width of bone medullary cavity at the plane of lesser trochanter, 20mm above and below the lesser trochanter and diameter of the narrow cavity. The percentage of funnel-shaped femora (CFI>4.7) in our group was larger than that of the American or the European (P<0.01), which was 20%, 8%, and 11.5% respectively, but there was no significant difference between ours and other domestic scholar's. Conclusion: Computed radiograph system facililates to the research of the morphology of the proximal femur and the measurement of relative parameters and the survey of the characteristics of Chinese femoral. It is important for research and manufacture of the domestic prosthesis fitting the features of the femurs of the Chinese femoral to set up a database of the healthy Chinese proximal femora. (authors)

  1. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  2. Superficial femoral artery: current treatment options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, Gunnar; Schmehl, Joerg; Heller, Stephan; Wiesinger, Benjamin; Claussen, Claus D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Duda, Stephan H. [Jewish Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and International Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) has been among the least effective of all endovascular procedures in terms of long-term patency. The relatively small vessel lumen, in conjunction with a high plaque burden, slow flow, and a high frequency of primary occlusions, contributes to a considerable rate of acute technical failures. Because of these technical limitations a much effort has been made during the past years. This manuscript should summarize the hopes and limitations of different approaches such as brachytherapy, cutting balloons, stents and stent grafts, drug-eluting stents, and drug-coated balloons. (orig.)

  3. Atypical femoral head osteonecrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarile, Francesco; Ghozzy, Fahad; Morelec, Isabelle; Houzard, Claire; Hlaihel, Chadi; Clechet, Julien; Paycha, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man presented with polymyalgia rheumatica. After a week on corticosteroid (40 mg/d), pain was relieved rapidly. Bone scan, requested to precisely localize osteoarticular lesions, showed high uptake in the external aspect of the head of left femur. In the clinical setting, bone scan and MRI appearances are suggestive of osteonecrosis, probably of recent onset. The final diagnosis of atypical necrosis of the femoral head, most probably secondary to corticoid therapy, was thus established. PMID:21637058

  4. Prospective evaluation of a pragmatic treatment rationale: open reduction and internal fixation of displaced and dislocated condyle and condylar head fractures and closed reduction of non-displaced, non-dislocated fractures. Part I: condyle and subcondylar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, C A; Lipphardt, R

    2005-12-01

    This prospective study evaluated outcomes of closed reduction (CR) in non-displaced, non-dislocated condyle and subcondylar fractures (Class I) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of displaced (Class II) and dislocated (Class IV) fractures. Forty-five patients with 51 fractures (six (13%) with bilateral fractures), 11 (25%) CR and 34 (75%) ORIF, were enrolled in a 1-year follow up that 20 patients with 25 fractures completed. Condylar translation in Class I fractures recovered to 12mm for vertical opening, 9mm for protrusion, 8mm for mediotrusion; in Class II, respectively, 10, 7 and 9mm; and Class IV, respectively, 8, 7 and 7mm. Incisal movements recovered to 46, 8 and 9mm in Class I; 44, 7 and 9mm in Class II; and 43, 5 and 7mm in Class IV. Vertical and angular fragment reduction versus the non-fractured condyle was +0.3 to -1.9mm, +1.1 degrees to +1.8 degrees in Class I; -2.2 to -1.9mm, +0.6 degrees to -1.2 degrees in Class II; +2.9 to -1.1mm, +18.4 degrees to +6 degrees in Class IV. Malocclusion and joint locking were unreliable determinants for a treatment decision, being forged by concomitant fractures. All complications subsided after 6 months; translation and incisal movements returned to within the normal range in proportion to the severity of displacement and dislocation. Vertical opening translation in Class IV fractures remained short-to-normal and was compensated by rotation. Unacceptable clinical function according to predefined standards was not found after 1 year. Angular reposition was better than vertical reduction. This study documents successful evidence-based treatment according to predefined criteria. PMID:15979851

  5. Residual stress distribution in the bovine femoral diaphysis measured by synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of residual stresses in bone tissue has been noted, and the authors have reported that there are residual stresses in bone tissue. The tensile residual stresses in the bone axial direction on the cortical surface of the bovine femoral diaphyses were measured by X-ray diffraction method with characteristic Mo-K? X-rays. However, then the residual stresses inside the cortical bone could not be accurately determined. The study here used synchrotron white X-rays obtained from the BL28B2 beam line at SPring-8 and was able to measure the residual stresses in the bovine femoral diaphysis in depth. The measurement positions in the diaphysis specimen were at 1 mm intervals from the outer surface to the inner surface of the specimen in four parts of the diaphysis: anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial. The results showed that the residual stresses in the bone axial direction at the outer cortical surface were tensile and the stresses in the inner positions of the cortical bone were compressive. In the anterior part, the residual stress at the surface was 24.7 MPa. From 2 mm to 10 mm depths inside the diaphysis, compressive residual stresses were measured and the average of these stresses was -9.0 MPa. (author)

  6. STRANGULATED FEMORAL HERNIA IN A MALE PATIENT – DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strangulated femoral hernia in a male patient is a very rare clinical presentation. Here we report a case of right inguinal swelling mimicking that of lymphadenopathy , later developing perforation due to strangulation of femoral hernia. Laparotomy with ileostomy was done

  7. Post renal transplant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rahul N; Saxen, Sandip Kumar; Hartalkar, Amit

    2013-10-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is commonly associated with factors like hypertension, immunosuppression, uraemia, volume overload and electrolyte disturbances in post renal transplant patients. We report a case of (posterior reverssible encephalopathy syndrome) PRES in young post renal transplant patient where all these common associations were absent. High index of suspicion, clinical course and characteristic MRI finding was the key to the diagnosis. PMID:24772733

  8. Current concepts in total femoral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo Bp; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-12-18

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20(th) century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing literature is mainly composed of a rather heterogeneous mix of retrospective case series and a wide assortment of case reports. Numerous TFR prostheses are currently available and the surgeon must understand the unique implications of each implant design. Long-term functional outcomes are dependent on adherence to proper technique and an appropriate physical therapy program for postoperative rehabilitation. Revision TFR is mainly performed for periprosthetic infection and the severe femoral bone loss associated with aseptic revisions. Depending on the likelihood of attaining infection clearance, it may sometimes be advisable to proceed directly to hip disarticulation without attempting salvage of the TFR. Other reported complications of TFR include hip joint instability, limb length discrepancy, device failure, component loosening, patellar maltracking and delayed wound healing. Further research is needed to better characterize the long-term functional outcomes and complications associated with this complex procedure. PMID:26716087

  9. Current concepts in total femoral replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo BP; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20th century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing literature is mainly composed of a rather heterogeneous mix of retrospective case series and a wide assortment of case reports. Numerous TFR prostheses are currently available and the surgeon must understand the unique implications of each implant design. Long-term functional outcomes are dependent on adherence to proper technique and an appropriate physical therapy program for postoperative rehabilitation. Revision TFR is mainly performed for periprosthetic infection and the severe femoral bone loss associated with aseptic revisions. Depending on the likelihood of attaining infection clearance, it may sometimes be advisable to proceed directly to hip disarticulation without attempting salvage of the TFR. Other reported complications of TFR include hip joint instability, limb length discrepancy, device failure, component loosening, patellar maltracking and delayed wound healing. Further research is needed to better characterize the long-term functional outcomes and complications associated with this complex procedure. PMID:26716087

  10. Acute aortic dissection presenting as rupture of the femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Stephen R; Farber, Alik; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2004-01-01

    A 44-year-old male with Marfan's disease presented acutely with severe chest and left groin pain. A pulsatile mass was present in the left groin and the left leg was pale and pulseless. CT imaging demonstrated the presence of a distal thoracic aortic dissection (AD) involving the left iliofemoral segment with extravasation of contrast into the left groin. The patient was treated with an urgent femoral-femoral bypass, which repaired the femoral artery and restored perfusion to the left lower extremity. Whereas rupture of the aorta into the chest or pericardium is common, femoral artery rupture complicating AD has not been previously reported. This case illustrates the need for peripheral branch intervention when compromised by the dissection process including isolated iliofemoral segments, which are typically benign. Given frank femoral artery rupture, urgent surgical repair was required and resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:14727159

  11. Selective arterial DSA of the arteries of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective arterial DSA of the arteries of the femoral head was carried out in 39 patients. The appearances were studied in nine patients without any hip abnormality, in 13 idiopathic and eight post-traumatic cases of femoral head necrosis and in nine patients with recent fractures. In every patient the vessels were well demonstrated. In the presence of idiopathic aseptic necrosis there was always hypervascularity around the necrotic area. As in the normal controls, pathological findings were seen in the deep branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery and in the nutrient artery in one-third of patients. Post-traumatic aseptic necrosis, recent fractures and dislocations always showed abnormalities of the vessels to the femoral head. The changes in the femoral head vessels demonstrated by DSA are probably not of great significance for the development of idiopathic aseptic necrosis, however they are found regularly following trauma. (orig.)

  12. Adverse reaction to metal bearing leading to femoral stem fractures: a literature review and report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzani, Waheeb A.K.; Iqbal, Hafiz J.; John, Alun

    2016-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing in total hip replacement (THR) has a high failure rate due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). There is a spectrum of soft tissue and bony changes in ARMD including muscle necrosis and osteolysis. In our institution, more than 1500 MoM THRs were implanted since 2003. Recently, we have revised significant numbers of these. We report our experience and management of a mode of failure of MoM THR that has been infrequently reported—the distal femoral stem fracture. We report on two patients who presented with worsening pain attributable to fracture of the femoral stem. Severe femoral osteolysis led to loss of proximal stem support and eventual fatigue fracture of the component. Both patients were revised employing a posterior approach. Bone trephine was used to extract a well-fixed distal stem fragment without any windows. Both patients had successful outcome after revision with excellent pain relief and no complications. PMID:26846269

  13. Avaliação da prevalência do tratamento das fraturas de côndilo mandibular / Evaluation of prevalence in the treatment of mandible condyle fractures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássio Leandro, Rampaso; Tatiana Maria Folador, Mattioli; Josias de, Andrade Sobrinho; Abrão, Rapoport.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo do tratamento das fraturas do côndilo mandibular e discutir a terapêutica conservadora versus a cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 892 prontuários de traumatismo bucofacial, e selecionados aqueles em que haviam: relatos de fraturas condilares isoladas ou associadas a o [...] utros ossos da face, dados relativos à identificação, a história médico-odontológica, e o tratamento para a fratura de côndilo. Os dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva e comparados a~ terapêuticas conservadora e cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: As fraturas de côndilo perfizeram um total de 124 casos. O sexo masculino representou 72,0% da amostra, e a faixa etária mais acometida foi aquela dos 21 a 30 anos. O tratamento conservador foi empregado em 61,0% dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico foi utilizado em pacientes acima de dez anos de idade, vítimas de acidentes de trânsito e quedas, predominantemente, seguido de agressões, armas de fogo e acidente esportivo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study the treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle and discuss conservative versus surgical therapy. METHODS: We examined the medical records of 892 bucofacial traumas, from which we selected only those who had: reports of condylar fractures, isolated or associated with other f [...] acial bones, identification data, dental care history and treatment applied for the condylar fracture. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the conservative and surgical therapies were compared. RESULTS: Condyle fractures were present in 124 cases. Males represented 72.0% of the sample, the age group most affected being the one between 21 and 30 years. Conservative treatment was used in 61.0% of patients. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment was predominantly used in patients over ten years old, victims of traffic accidents and falls, followed by assaults, firearms and sporting accidents.

  14. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range: 12–75 months. Postoperative radiographs showed a near-anatomical fracture reduction in 78% of patients. The Harris hip score was negatively correlated with the ASA score and patient age. No cases of implant failure were observed. Three patients died before discharge (one due to pulmonary embolism, two due to cardiac arrest, and five patients died due to unrelated medical conditions within the first 3 months of the follow-up. Conclusion: Our study showed that proximal femoral nail is a reliable fixation with good fracture union, and it is not associated with major complications in any type of trochanteric femoral fracture. Keywords: ASA, femoral fracture, Harris score, proximal femoral nail

  15. Posterior capsule staining and posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Narumichi

    2002-11-01

    We report 2 cases of indocyanine green (ICG) staining used for posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (PCCC) in congenital cataract combined with anterior vitrectomy. In the first case, because of corneal opacity, the visibility of the posterior capsule was poor without staining. After the extraction of the cataract, a PCCC was performed after ICG staining of the posterior capsule. In the second case, after cataract removal, ICG staining was used to better visualize the posterior capsule. In both cases, the PCCC was successfully completed because of better visualization of the stained posterior capsule flap against the transparent anterior hyaloid face of the vitreous. Clear visual axes have been maintained. PMID:12457683

  16. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction: influence of femoral tunnel orientation in knee laxity analysed with a navigation system – an in-vitro biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imakiire Naoaki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports an in-vitro study for evaluating the influence of the femoral tunnel orientation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL double-bundle reconstructions. Methods This work describes the experimental protocol and results obtained for six cadaver knees using the FlashPoint optical system (Image Guided, Boulder, Colorado, USA and a computer-assisted technique for the elaboration of anatomical and kinematic data. Each specimen was examined by the same surgeon in the following steps: (1 intact knee stability was evaluated by performing antero-posterior displacement and internal-external rotation test at 90°; (2 the ACL was resected and the knee evaluated again; (3 the ACL was reconstructed using the gracilis semi-tendinous tendon (through horizontal tunnels in femur, and the new kinematics recorded; (4 the ACL was reconstructed again with the same tendon, but with a more vertical orientation of the femoral tunnel (vertical tunnel and kinematics was once more recorded; (5 finally the knee was dissected to digitise the anatomical structures. Results Off-line computer analysis of the acquired anatomical and kinematic data showed that there was a significant statistical difference (Wilcoxon test with the Montecarlo method for small samples – p = 0.035 between horizontal tunnel (HT and vertical tunnel (VT reconstruction both in the antero-posterior test (median antero-posterior displacement in horizontal tunnel was 0.8 mm less than in vertical tunnel reconstruction and in the internal-external (IE rotation test (median internal-external rotation in horizontal tunnel reconstruction was 5° less than in vertical tunnel reconstruction. Conclusion The analysis of graft behavior in reconstructed knees compared with normal and ACL-deficient knees suggests that the most horizontal tunnel performed better than the vertical tunnel, thus constraining optimally both antero-posterior and internal-external rotations. This finding suggests that femoral tunnel direction may be an important issue in ACL surgery.

  17. Radiographic assessment of posterior malleolar ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Olga; Fleming, Justin J; Meyr, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the posterior tibial malleolus plays an important role in the structure and function of the ankle mortise. With specific respect to ankle fractures, the presence, size, and displacement of posterior malleolar fractures (Volkmann's fracture) helps determine which will be amendable to operative fixation. The objective of the present study was to increase the body of knowledge with respect to the ability of foot and ankle reconstructive surgeons to assess posterior malleolar ankle fractures using plain film radiography. Three different variables were investigated on Sawbones(®) models: (1) differing size of posterior malleolar fractures (10%, 25%, and 50% of the tibial plafond), (2) differing displacement of posterior malleolar fractures (0 and 5 mm of proximal displacement), and (3) 2 different radiographic projections (standard lateral and externally rotated lateral projections). Accurate identification of the posterior malleolar fracture occurred on 86.67% (26 of 30) of standard lateral radiographs and 100% (30 of 30) of externally rotated lateral radiographs. Furthermore, the surgeons described the fracture with greater precision and had greater interclass correlation coefficient values with respect to measurement of sagittal plane displacement (0.977 versus 0.939) and percentage of involvement of the tibial plafond (0.972 versus 0.775) with an externally rotated lateral projection compared with a standard lateral projection. Our results provide evidence that an externally rotated lateral radiographic projection can provide surgeons with some additional information with respect to the presence, size, and displacement of posterior malleolar ankle fractures. PMID:25262838

  18. Aneurisma único de arteria femoral común: Caso clínico / Isolated common femoral artery aneurysm: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANDRÉS, REYES D; MALAO, RAFFO R; STEPHANIE, SIEGEL A; MARCO, RÍOS A; LISANDRO, STUARDO B; JORGE, GAETE V; GERMÁN, GUZMÁN S; JORGE, VERGARA C; JOAQUÍN, TORRES R.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica el caso de un paciente de 71 años, de sexo masculino, hipertenso, a quien en el postoperatorio de prostatectomia por hiperplasia benigna de la próstata, le fue palpada una masa pulsátil inguinal izquierda. La AngioTAC mostró una dilatación sacular única de la arteria femoral común, la qu [...] e fue resecada con éxito. Abstract in english We report a 71 years old male with high blood pressure. During the postoperative follow up after a prostatectomy for a benign prostate hyperplasia, a pulsatile mass was palpated in the left inguinal region. A chest, abdomen and lower limb AngioTC, disclosed a unique sacular aneurysm in the left comm [...] on femoral artery. The patient was subjected to a surgical excision of the aneurysm, with a favorable postoperative evolution.

  19. Morning Glory Syndrome Associated with Posterior Lenticonus

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Xiao-Guang; Li, Xiao-Xin; Bao, Yong-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    The clinical features of the morning glory syndrome (MSG) are demonstrated in a 12-year-old male patient with the posterior lenticonus in the left eye. This patient had retinal detachment in the left eye. A complete ocular examination was performed and the patient underwent a pars plana vitrectomy of the left eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed the posterior lenticonus with the posterior subcapsular opacities in the left eye. The fundus showed the symptoms of MGS. The discs were pink and deep...

  20. Bimanual microphaco for posterior polar cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haripriya, Aravind; Aravind, Srinivasan; Vadi, Kavitha; Natchiar, Govindappa

    2006-06-01

    We describe a technique in which bimanual microphacoemulsification technique through 2, 1.4 mm incisions is performed for posterior polar cataract extraction. The low-infusion and low-vacuum system provides good anterior chamber stability and followability. The irrigation and aspiration handpieces are interchangeable, enabling removal of the lens fragments without hydrodissection or nucleus rotation. Only 1 (12.5%) of the 8 cases presented here was complicated by posterior capsule rupture. This occurred after epinucleus removal without any vitreous disturbance. The bimanual microphacoemulsification technique appears to minimize the risk for complications, allowing posterior polar cataract extraction to be performed more safely. PMID:16814047

  1. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  2. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P. [University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona (United States); Graham, A. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Krupinski, E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  3. Femoral derotation osteotomy in cerebral palsy: precise determination by tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelji?, Goran; Djori?, Ivan; Bajin, Zoran; Despot, Borislav

    2006-11-01

    Femoral derotation osteotomy is used to treat increased femoral neck anteversion and to correct medial hip rotation deformity in patients with cerebral palsy. We investigated if there were significant differences between planned and achieved corrections of increased femoral neck anteversion and whether our method influenced walking ability and number of complaints. We retrospectively evaluated 17 ambulatory patients (21 femurs) with cerebral palsy and medial rotation deformity of the hip. The new method of determining femoral derotation osteotomy precisely and simply using tables was applied. The average followup was 11 years (range, 3-20 years), and the average age of the patients was 20 years (range, 9-42 years). The average planned correction of femoral neck anteversion was 31.9 degrees (range, 20 degrees - 45 degrees), and the average achieved correction was 32.19 degrees (range, 15 degrees - 40 degrees). Of the 17 patients evaluated, 13 no longer had complaints. Deterioration of walking ability was not observed in any patients. The new method of determining femoral derotation osteotomy precisely and simply corrects femoral neck ante- version in patients with cerebral palsy and medial rotation deformity of the hip, leading to reduction in complaints and improved walking ability. PMID:16760822

  4. Histomorphometric analysis of the femoral neck in patients with and without femoral neck fracture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caio Gonçalves de, Souza; Vanda, Jorgetti; Luciene Machado dos, Reis; Alberto Tesconi, Croci.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine, through bone histomorphometry in femoral neck, whether there are differences in the cancellous bone of the proximal femur from female patients over 60 years old who had femoral neck fracture and similar patients who did not have such fracture. METHODS: We analyzed the trabe [...] cular part of the femur of 13 female patients, aged over 60 years old, by the bone histomorphometry method. Seven of these patients had femoral neck fracture. All of them were subjected to hip arthroplasty. RESULTS: Bone densitometry showed no significant difference. There was no significant difference on the average thickness of the trabecular bone (124.38µm versus 147.09µm). The number of bone trabeculae was lower (1.52, versus 1.88) and the separation between them was larger (541,19µm versus 391,14µm) in the fracture group. CONCLUSION: A difference in histomorphometric parameters of cancellous bone of the femur neck was observed among patients who had fractures as compared to patients who had not. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies.

  5. Analysis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT with multiplanar reconstruction (CT/MPR) was used to assess 25 adolescents with known or suspected slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). CT/MPR localizes the epiphysis in three planes, establishing its relationship to the acetabulum and the metaphyseal neck. MPR facilitates measurements of head-neck angles, residusal head-neck contact, and relative retrovision. CT/MPR may establish the true age of the epiphyseal failure and can reveal subtle SCFE in the face of normal plain films. Patients often present with confusing histories; clues to the true age of failure include subtle signs of healing, remodeling, or new bone buttressing. Characterization of acute versus chronic conditions influences preoperative planning. Postoperatively, CT/MPR confirms early results and follows epiphyseal fusion and remodelling. It also detects complications, such as pin or graft migration avascular necrosis (AVN), or chondrolysis

  6. Corrosion of cemented titanium femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S R; Shukla, D; Latham, P D

    2004-09-01

    Cemented titanium stems in hip arthroplasty are associated with proximal cement-stem ebonding and early failure. This was well publicised with the 3M Capital hip. However, corrosion in this setting has been reported with only one stem design and is less widely accepted. We present a series of 12 cemented titanium Furlong Straight Stems which required revision at a mean of 78 months for thigh pain. At revision the stems were severely corroded in a pattern which was typical of crevice corrosion. Symptoms were eliminated after revision to an all-stainless steel femoral prosthesis of the same design. We discuss the likely causes for the corrosion. The combination of a titanium stem and cement appears to facilitate crevice corrosion. PMID:15446521

  7. [Femoral angioplasty. Long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, H; Carlier, C; Baudrillard, J C; Joffre, F; Cécile, J P

    1990-01-01

    A study on the long-term efficacy of femoral-popliteal angioplasty was carried out on 185 angioplasty cases over a 5 year follow-up period. A classification of data according to the type of lesion treated, revealed that results were favorable in case of stenosis (87%), short obstruction (70%) and long obstruction (35%). A special study of the outcome of treatments for stage IV arteritis was carried out. After comparing results with those obtained by other teams, the authors list the complications encountered, hematomas, and thromboses, and show their current tendency for regression. Lastly, the authors stress the advantages of angioscopy, which permits to identify the nature of the treated lesions and to predict possible complications, which are usually underrated by angiography. PMID:2145379

  8. Slipped upper femoral epiphysis with hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Deepa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy who had hemophilia A was reported with pain in the left thigh and hip on walking. He had no history of trauma. Severe hemophilia A is diagnosed with a Factor VIII level of < 1 iu/dl. The presumptive diagnosis was that of a spontaneous bleed into the hip joint. Factor VIII mutational analysis revealed a C to G substitution at nucleotide 6683 which results in a cystine change at codon 2194. However, the symptoms persisted and an X-ray demonstrated the presence of an acute on chronic slip of the upper femoral epiphysis. The patient was transferred to the center treating his hemophilia where the hip was pinned in situ under cover with Factor VIII. This case demonstrates the need to be aware of a possible traumatic diagnosis of hip pain in a hemophiliac child with a longstanding history of spontaneous bleeding into joints.

  9. Retrograde femoral interlocking nail in complex fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in 35 different cases of combination of complex femoral fractures. We performed this procedure in fractures of femoral shaft associated with fracture neck femur, pathological fractures of proximal third of femur with trochanteric pathology, ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia in polytrauma cases with multiple other injuries, in highly obese patients with fracture shaft femur. This technique was also used in cases of pregnancy with fracture shaft femur and in unstable pelvic fracture or dislocation hip associated with fracture shaft femur. Operative technique involved with retrograde insertion of un-reamed, non-cannulated custom made nail through entrance portal in intercondylar notch was applied for fixation of the shaft femur fracture. The other associated fracture around hip was stabilized separately using suitable implant according to type of fracture. In cases of ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia, femur was stabilized by retrograde interlocking nail and tibia was stabilized by antigrade interlocking nail through same incision at the same sitting. The case was followed up for three years; the average union time was 12 to 18 weeks. Out of 35 cases, 31 cases regained full knee movement. Out of the remaining 4 cases, 2 cases could regain up to 90 degrees of movement, these were old fractures and non-cooperative patients. In one case, patellofemoral arthritis was developed because of an operative error where a nail was not put inside the articular surface. Mal-union was observed in an early case of the series and implant failure was nil. Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in complex fracture problems. Multiple fractures of long bones can be stabilized in one stage, preventing multiple operations at different stages in polytraumatized patients. This resulted in early recovery, lesser hospital stay, and early rehabilitation of patient with good results and is economical also.

  10. Evaluation of Femoral Anteversion in Cerebral Palsy

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    Tülay T?FT?K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the femoral anteversion (FA angle with clinical and radiological evaluations in patients with cerebral palsy (CP and also to determine the relationship between radiologic imaging methods and clinical evaluation.Materials and Methods: For clinical evaluation of FA, Craig’s test, and for radiological evaluation of FA, direct radiography (the Rippstein-Müller method, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used.Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.2±1.77 (5-11 years. The mean FA angles were 38.2°±8.4° (20°-50° (Craig’s test, 56.5°±14.28° (25°-100° (radiograph, 29.0°±10.5° (7°-49° (CT and 37.3°±10.6° (11°-68° (MRI, respectively. The FA angle was significantly higher in patients with hip adductor muscle spasticity than in patients without adductor spasticity (p<0.05. The FA angles evaluated by Craig’s test and CT were correlated with hip internal rotation measurements and the FA angle with MRI was correlated with the difference between hip internal and external rotation measurements. When FA angle measurement methods were compared, Craig’s test positively correlated with CT and x-ray imaging and also, MRI positively correlated with direct radiography.Conclusion: The FA angle is high in children with CP. Hip adductor spasticity, increased hip internal rotation and the difference between hip internal and external rotation measurements on physical examination are cautionary signs for an increased FA angle. In this regard, Craig’s test appears to be a clinically relevant method for determining the FA angle. In addition, MRI may be preferred over CT in patients who have undergone femoral derotation osteotomy. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:26-31.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

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    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  12. Treatment of the femoral neck peudoarthrosis in childhood: Case report

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    Vukašinovi? Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents are rare. However, their complications are frequent - avascular necrosis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis, premature physeal closure with consequent growth disturbance and coxa vara deformity. Case Outline. A 9.5­year­old boy was injured in a car accident, and femoral neck fracture was diagnosed. Prior to admission at our hospital he was surgically treated several times. He was admitted at our hospital eight months following the accident. On the X­ray transcervical pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck was found, as well as coxa vara deformity and metaphyseal avascular necrosis. He was operated at our hospital; all previously placed ostefixation material was removed, valgus osteotomy of 30 degrees was done as well as additional local osteoplasty using the commercial osteoindactive agent (Osteovit®. Postoperatively, we applied skin traction, bed rest and physical therapy. At the final follow­up, the patient was recovered completely. He is now painless, the legs are of equal length, range of movements in the left hip is full, life activity is normal. The X­ray shows that the femoral neck pseudoarthrosis is fully healed. Conclusion. This case is presented in order to encourage other colleagues to challenge the problematic situation such as this one. Also, we would like to remind them what one should think about and what should be taken into consideration in the primary treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Valgus femoral osteotomy, as a part of the primary treatment of femoral neck fracture in children (identically as in the adults can prevent the occurrence of femoral neck pseudoarthrosis.

  13. Use of Huckstep nail in the periimplant femoral shaft fracture

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    Hong Kyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 87-year-old female underwent open reduction of distal femoral fracture and internal fixation with locking compression plate and bone graft. She was operated for ipsilateral proximal femoral fractures and stabilized by intramedullary interlocked nail 5 years ago. She developed stress fracture proximal to locked plate. We inserted Huckstep nail after removal of the previous operated proximal femoral nail without removing the remaining plate and screws. At 15 month followup the fractures have united. The Huckstep nail has multiple holes available for screw fixation at any level in such difficult situations.

  14. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Woolf; G. D. Summers; I. Pande; Scane, A. C.; D. J. Rawlings; Tuck, S. P.; Francis, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric), symptomatic vertebral (91), and distal forearm (67) fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur) measurements were per...

  15. Aneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated arterial aneurysm in childhood is extremely rare. We report a 1-year-old girl with an aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, presenting as an asymptomatic mass of the thigh. The aneurysm involved the whole superficial femoral artery (9 cm in length), and surgical treatment would have required replacement of the affected artery. Conservative treatment was chosen, influenced by the patient's rapid growth at that time. Non-invasive, 3-D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful as an alternative to conventional angiography for detailed evaluation of the femoral arteries, including the aneurysm. (orig.)

  16. Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, S.; Weidauer, S.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F. [Institute of Neuroradiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

  17. Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

  18. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is located inside your knee joint and connects the bones of your upper and lower leg. A PCL injury occurs when the ligament is stretched or torn. A partial PCL tear ...

  19. Cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R P; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1980-07-01

    A review of 207 male children with poterior urethral valves revealed an over-all incidence of cryptorchidism of 12 per cent. This association of cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves has not been described previously. PMID:6106069

  20. Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion

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    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed all the bypass arteries were patent. Postoperative DSA or CTA showed bypass arteries patent in 8 patients, among whom seven patients got obvious improvement on MR or CT perfusion. One patient died of heart failure on the 15th day postoperative. During the follow-up of eight patients, no stroke reoccurred, four patients got back to nearly normal life. Conclusion Most of the patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion could benefit from the posterior circulation revascularization, which should be confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials in the future.

  1. Posterior Intravaginal Slingplasty for Vaginal Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Zinat Ghanbari; Tahereh Eftekhar; Bahareh Hajibaratali; Maryam S Mireshghi; Mamak Shariat

    2008-01-01

    "nObjective: Urogynecologists are constantly looking for simple, safe and effective ways to cure vaginal apex prolapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (PIVS). Materials and methods: A total of 38 patients with advanced vaginal apical prolapse underwent posterior intravaginal slingplasty in Vali-e-Asr hospital in Tehran. In this clinical trial (before-after study), demographic, pre-operative, operative details and post-operative fol...

  2. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Muthu, Valliappan; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:26664169

  3. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  4. Mature Teratoma Confined to the Posterior Fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Christopher; Ngo, Thang; Drehner, Dennis; Maugans, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Mature teratomas located solely in the posterior fossa are rare. We describe a girl who presented with hydrocephalus caused by a posterior fossa tumor that was ultimately diagnosed as a mature teratoma following complete extirpation. Unusual imaging characteristics which produced confusion preoperatively were, however, very consistent with mature teratomas that are encountered in the gonads. Immature elements were universally absent; therefore, extirpation was curative. Hydrocephalus is unlikely to resolve after tumor removal, and cerebrospinal fluid diversion may be required. PMID:26730985

  5. Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Moreau, V. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Bulteau, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Neurology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Burstyn, J. [Dept. of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Lair Milan, F. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France); Kalifa, G. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, 75 Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres (``buttocks sign``) and fourth ventricle deformity. The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. (orig.)

  6. Vermian agenesis without posterior fossa cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 11 cases of vermian partial agenesis without posterior fossa cyst or hemispheric abnormalities. Characteristic MR signs were: absence of the posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, a narrow sagittal cleft separating the hemispheres (''buttocks sign'') and fourth ventricle deformity. The main clinical signs were complex oculomotor dysfunction and developmental delay. None of the patients had respiratory symptoms. Consideration is given to the relationship between Joubert syndrome and this entity as well as to embroyological data. (orig.)

  7. Posterior Basicranium Asymmetry and Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousie, D. L.; Joly, O; Berthoz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS a...

  8. An unusual cause of posterior mediastinal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Valliappan Muthu; Ritesh Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the mediastinum may be congenital or acquired. The differential diagnosis depends on their location in the mediastinum. Cysts in the posterior mediastinum are generally developmental cysts and are neurogenic or of foregut origin. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy, who presented with dry cough and progressively increasing breathlessness, and was found to have a cystic lesion in the posterior mediastinum. Fine needle aspiration from the cyst helped make a diagnosis of tu...

  9. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  10. Unusual Relationship between the Piriform Muscle and Sciatic, Inferior Gluteal and Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerves / Relación Inusual entre el Músculo Piriforme y los Nervios Isquiático, Glúteo Inferior y Cutâneo Femoral Posterior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. L, Jacomo; C. A. R, Martinez; S. O, Saleh; M, Andrade; F. E, Akamatsu.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome del músculo piriforme se ha reconocido cada vez más como una causa de dolor en los miembros inferiores. Tensión excesiva o variaciones anatómicas del nervio y del músculo piriforme se cree son las causas subyacentes de pinzamiento del nervio isquiático. Se presenta una variación no descr [...] ita anteriormente. Durante una disección de rutina en un cadáver de sexo masculino, se observó una división más alta del nervio isquiático y la presencia de un músculo piriforme accesorio. El nervio isquiático se dividía bajo el músculo piriforme y el nervio fibular común pasaba sobre el músculo piriforme accesorio. Por otra parte, el nervio tibial cruzaba entre los músculos piriforme accesorio y gemelo superior. Además, ambos nervios se comunicaban con un ramo lateral bajo el margen inferior del músculo piriforme accesorio y el nervio glúteo inferior se originaba desde el nervio fibular. Variaciones anatómicas y relaciones entre el músculo piriforme y nervio isquiático pueden estar presentes hasta en el 17% de la población. Seis variaciones diferentes se han descrito en este artículo y ninguna es similar a nuestra descripción. A pesar del completo entendimiento de la fisiopatología del síndrome del músculo piriforme, aún queda por esclarecer y conocer las posibles variaciones anatómicas que pueden ser útiles tanto para su diagnóstico como para el tratamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Piriformis muscle syndrome has been increasingly recognized as a cause of leg pain. Overuse, strain, or anatomical variations of the relationship between the nerve and the piriformis muscle are thought to be the underlying causes of the entrapment of the sciatic nerve. We report a variation not prev [...] iously described which was found during a routine dissection. During routine dissection of the left gluteal region of an adult male cadaver we observed a high division of the sciatic nerve and the presence of an accessory piriformis muscle. The sciatic nerve divided beneath the piriformis muscle and the common fibular nerve passed over the accessory piriformis muscle, whereas the tibial nerve reflected anteriorly to pass between the accessory piriformis and the superior gemellus muscle. Additionally, both nerves communicated with a side branch under the inferior border of the accessory piriformis muscle and the inferior gluteal nerve originated from the fibular nerve. Anatomical variations in the relationship between the piriformis muscle and the sciatic nerve may be present in up to 17% of the population. Six different variations have been described and none of them is similar to our description. Though complete understanding of the physiopathology of the piriformis muscle syndrome remains to be elucidated, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations may be useful for its adequate diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Role of femoral ring allograft in anterior interbody fusion of the spine.

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    Chotivichit A

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A review was carried out on 59 patients (10 males and 49 females who had anterior interbody fusion performed with femoral ring allograft packed with autograft bone chips with a minimum follow up of 2 years. The average age at the time of surgery was 49.1 year old (26 to 75. The total number of levels grafted was 141. The diagnosis consisted of multiple degenerative disease in 6, degenerative change below the long segment of fusion for scoliosis in 9, osteoporosis with collapsed fracture in 3, pseudarthrosis after posterior laminectomy and fusion in 35, congenital scoliosis in 3, scoliosis in 2 and paralytic scoliosis due to multiple sclerosis in one. The distribution of levels fused was T12-L1 in 6, L1-2 in 12, L2-3 in 17, L3-4 in 22, L4-5 in 35 and L5-S1 in 39. The remaining 10 levels were in the lower thoracic areas (T7-T12. The operations were performed as anterior fusion alone in 13 patients, one-stage anterior and posterior fusion in 26 patients and two-stage surgery in 20 patients. Anterior instrumentation was used in all 141 levels. At average follow-up (33.7 months there was no significant change in allograft angles (average = 1.6 degrees . Fusion of the allograft was classified by Bridwell's grading system. At 24 months of the follow up, 97 % of the allografts were in grade I (fully incorporated and 3% were in grade II (partially incorporated. Compared to 12 months follow-up only 76.2% of the grafts were in grade I, 28 % were in grade II and 0.8% were in grade III. Two patients had deep posterior infections which required further surgery (without resorption of the allograft anteriorly. One patient had a screw migration anteriorly which required removal. Three patients had persistence of radiolucent line at one of the vertebral end plates - graft interfaces but no subsidence of the graft or pain. In conclusion, the femoral ring allograft appeared to benefit the anterior interbody fusion in complex spinal surgery.

  12. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament by means of an anteromedial portal and femoral fixation using Rigidfix, / Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior pelo portal anteromedial e fixação femoral com Rigidfix

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Manoel, Inácio; Osmar Valadão, Lopes Júnior; André, Kuhn; José Idílio, Saggin; Paulo Renato Fernandes, Saggin; Leandro de Freitas, Spinelli; Daniela Medeiros de, Castro.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar uma série de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com tendões flexores pela técnica transportal anteromedial com o uso de Rigidfix para fixação femoral e analisar o posicionamento dos pinos por meio de tomografia. Métodos: Foram incluídos [...] no estudo 32 pacientes. A avaliação clínica foi feita com os escores de Lysholm, IKDC subjetivo e Rolimeter. Todos foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada com reconstrução em 3D para avaliação do ponto de entrada e do posicionamento dos pinos do Rigidfix em relação à cartilagem articular do côndilo lateral do fêmur. Resultados: A média do escore de Lysholm obtido foi de 87,81 e do IKDC subjetivo, de 83,72. Dos 32 pacientes avaliados, 43% retornaram a atividades consideradas muito vigorosas, 9% a vigorosas, 37,5% a moderadas e 12,5% a leves. Em 16 pacientes (50%), o ponto de entrada do pino distal do Rigidfix foi localizado fora da cartilagem (extracartilagem), em sete (21,87%) o pino distal lesou a cartilagem articular (intracartilagem) e em nove (28,12%) ficou na borda da cartilagem articular do côndilo lateral do fêmur. Conclusão: Os pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do LCA com o sistema Rigidfix pela técnica transportal anteromedial apresentaram um resultado clínico satisfatório no tempo de seguimento avaliado. Entretanto, o risco de lesão da cartilagem articular pelo pino distal do Rigidfix deve ser considerado quando a técnica via portal anteromedial é usada. Outros estudos com maior número de pacientes e com um tempo de seguimento mais longo devem ser feitos para melhor avaliação. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate a series of patients who underwent surgery for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with flexor tendons, by means of the anteromedial transportal technique using Rigidfix for femoral fixation, and to analyze the positioning of the pins by means of tomography. Me [...] thods: Thirty-two patients were included in the study. The clinical evaluation was done using the Lysholm, subjective IKDC and Rolimeter. All of them underwent computed tomography with 3D reconstruction in order to evaluate the entry point and positioning of the Rigidfix pins in relation to the joint cartilage of the lateral condyle of the femur. Results: The mean Lysholm score obtained was 87.81 and the subjective IKDC was 83.72. Among the 32 patients evaluated, 43% returned to activities that were considered to be very vigorous, 9% vigorous, 37.5% moderate and 12.5% light. In 16 patients (50%), the distal entry point of the Rigidfix pin was located outside of the cartilage (extracartilage); in seven (21.87%), the distal pin injured the joint cartilage (intracartilage); and in nine (28.12%), it was at the border of the lateral condyle of the femur. Conclusion: The patients who underwent ACL reconstruction by means of the anteromedial transportal using the Rigidfix system presented satisfactory clinical results over the length of follow-up evaluated. However, the risk of lesions of the joint cartilage from the distal Rigidfix pin needs to be taken into consideration when the technique via an anteromedial portal is used. Further studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up times should be conducted for better evaluation.

  13. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A ?catenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (?catenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  14. Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head using autologous cultured osteoblasts: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seok-Jung

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a progressive disease that leads to femoral head collapse and osteoarthritis. Our goal in treating osteonecrosis is to preserve, not to replace, the femoral head. Case presentation We present the case of a patient with bilateral osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with autologous cultured osteoblast injection. Conclusion Although our experience is limited to one patient, autologous cultured osteoblast transplantation appears to be effective for treating the osteonecrosis of femoral head.

  15. Biomechanical analysis of titanium plate systems in mandibular condyle fractures: a systematized literature review Análise biomecânica de sistemas de placas de titânio em fraturas de côndilo mandibular: uma revisão sistematizada da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa; Marcelo Ferraro Bezerra; Thyciana Rodrigues Ribeiro; Ernest Cavalcante Pouchain; Vicente de Paulo Aragão Sabóia; Eduardo Costa Studart Soares

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a systematized review of the literature about the main methodologies used to evaluate the biomechanical fixation systems with titanium plates in fractures of the mandibular condyle. METHODS: A systematized review of literature was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and MEDLINE without restriction of the publication date. The eligibility criteria were laboratory studies involving mandibular condyle fractures, studies using titanium plates, biomecha...

  16. Echocardiographic Wall Motion Abnormality in Posterior Myocardial Infarction: The Diagnostic Value of Posterior Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Darehzereshki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the purpose of ascertaining myocardial infarction (MI and ischemia, the sensitivity of the initial 12-lead ECG is inadequate. It is risky to diagnose posterior MI using only precordial reciprocal changes, since the other leads may be more optimally positioned for the identification of electrocardiographic changes. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between electrocardiography changes and wall motion abnormalities in patients with posterior MI for earlier and better diagnosis of posterior MI.Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled patients with posterior MI who had come to the Emergency Department of Shariati Hospital with their first episode of chest pain. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram using posterior leads (V7-V9 was performed for all participants. Patients with ST elevation >0.05 mV or pathologic Q wave in the posterior leads, as well as those with specific changes indicating posterior MI in V1-V2, were evaluated by echocardiography in terms of wall motion abnormalities. All data were analyzed using SPSS and p<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Of a total 79 patients enrolled, 48 (60.8% were men, and the mean age was 57.35±8.22 years. Smoking (54.4% and diabetes (48% were the most prevalent risk factors. In the echocardiographic evaluation, all patients had wall motion abnormalities in the left ventricle and 19 patients (24.1% had wall motion abnormalities in the right ventricle. The most frequent segment with motion abnormality among the all patients was the mid-posterior. The posterior leads showed better positive predictive value than the anterior leads for posterior wall motion abnormality.Conclusion: Electrocardiography of the posterior leads in patients with acute chest pain can help in earlier diagnosis and in time treatment of posterior MI.

  17. Agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas Agenesia do arco posterior do atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Torriani; José Leonardo Goes Lourenço

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the radiological findings and review the current literature concerning a rare congenital abnormality of the posterior arch of the atlas. CASE REPORT: An adult female without neurological symptoms presented with an absent posterior arch of the atlas, examined with plain films and helical computerized tomography. Complete agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas is a rare entity that can be easily identified by means of plain films. Although it is generally asymptomati...

  18. An unusual presentation of Meckel diverticulum as strangulated femoral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Evangelos; Papadopoulos, Vasilios; Athanasiou, Thanos; Ziprin, Paul; Zacharakis, Emmanouil

    2008-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a patient with strangulated Meckel diverticulum in a femoral hernia. A 65-year-old woman presented with a nonradiating, constant pain in the right groin with associated nausea and anorexia. Physical examination revealed a tender, irreducible lump in the right groin area. At operation, a hernia sac containing a strangulated Meckel diverticulum was clearly recognized going through the femoral ring. A diverticulectomy was performed, and the femoral ring was closed with a polypropylene plug. No recurrence has been observed during the 3 year follow-up. Strangulated Meckel diverticulum in a femoral hernia remains a challenging diagnosis due to its extremely rare occurrence. Surgical exploration provides definite diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:18176301

  19. Hygroma following endovascular femoral aneurysm exclusion : A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Morten; Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aneurysms in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal segments is a suggested alternative to open surgical repair. Careful selection of patients for endovascular treatment of SFA aneurysms is mandatory.

  20. 'Femoral head necrosis' in metabolic and hormonal osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenesis of bone necrosis is discussed with special attention and with respect to metabolic, hormonal, and vascular factors. The influence of statics and dynamics of the hip joint bones for the development of aseptic necrosis are discussed. 45 patients with ''idiopathic femoral head necroses'' were observed, including 6 cases of renal osteopathy following renal transplantation and immune suppression therapy, 14 cases of long term corticoid therapy, and 11 cases of liver diseases of different genesis. The femoral head necrosis understood as complication of an osteopathy. In our patients there were 31 males and 14 females - which means higher involvement of males. Plain radiological findings and CT-findings of changes of the femoral heat structure in different stages of the disease are described. Early diagnosis of metabolic and hormonal osteopathies is demanded for a joint keeping therapy of the beginning femoral head necrosis. (orig.)

  1. Femoral neck fractures complicating gaucher disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In normal children, fractures of the femoral neck are uncommon and accompany severe trauma and multiple injuries elsewhere in the skeleton. In children with Gaucher disease, a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism, midcervical or basicervical fractures can occur with minor or no trauma and without other injury to the skeleton. Three children with Gaucher disease who developed pathologic fractures of the femoral neck are described. In all three, the fractures occurred between five and nine years of age, and the fracture lines passed through areas of abnormal bone characterized by poorly defined patches of increased and decreased density and cortical thinning along the medial femoral necks. In the affected hips, there was no evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral heads at the time of injury. One child's fracture was preceeded by multiple bone 'crisis' localized to the proximal femora. (orig.)

  2. Delayed appearance of hypaesthesia and paralysis after femoral nerve block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landgraeber

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a female patient who underwent an arthroscopy of the right knee and was given a continuous femoral nerve block catheter. The postoperative course was initially unremarkable, but when postoperative mobilisation was commenced, 18 hours after removal of the catheter, the patient noticed paralysis and hypaesthesia. Examination confirmed the diagnosis of femoral nerve dysfunction. Colour duplex sonography of the femoral artery and computed tomography of the lumbar spine and pelvis yielded no pathological findings. Overnight the neurological deficits decreased without therapy and were finally no longer detectable. We speculate that during the administration of the local anaesthetic a depot formed, localised in the medial femoral intermuscular septa, which was leaked after first mobilisation. To our knowledge no similar case has been published up to now. We conclude that patients who are treated with a nerve block should be informed and physician should be aware that delayed neurological deficits are possible.

  3. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 5 out of 16 renal transplantation patients, osteonecrosis of the femoral head developed in the presence (p < 0.01) of significant uremic neuropathy; its possible pathogenetic role is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it was found to be smaller than the posterior communicating artery diameter (fetal circulation. Conclusions: The authors have documented the various anomalies as well as the differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature.

  5. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF VERTICAL GROOVE ON ANTERIOR SURFACE OF TIBIAL LATERAL CONDYLE AND ITS RELATION WITH SQUATTING

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    Narinder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy dry tibiae of adult and unknown sex were collected from the department of Anatomy Government Medical College Jammu. The region under the course of the ligamentum patellae of every tibia was carefully examined and studied for the presence or absence of a vertical groove and its characteristics like shape, length and depth were noted. In India, one of the commonest mode of sitting is squatting. Squatters are known to show certain adap tational features in the lower extremities like vertical groove on the anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia. This groove is produced on the tibia by pressure of the tendon of quadriceps femoris (ligamentum patellae. The pressure of the tendon of q uadriceps femoris occurs due to great deal of flexion of knee joint, occuring during squatting. Squatting is one of the frequently used exercise in the field of strength and conditioning. It is also an integral component in the sport of competitive weight lifting and power lifting and regarded as a supreme test of lower body strength. (1,2 INTRODUCTION: A vertical groove is present is present on the anterior surface of tibial lateral condyle in squatters. In India most of the people have a habit of sitting down by squatting. During squatting there is excessive flexion of the knee joint which exerts a great deal of pressure on the strong tendon of quadriceps femoris (ligamentum patellae which is inserted on the tibial tuberosity. The pressure so exerted lead s to the formation of a groove on the unattached part of the ligamentum patella. This vertical groove so formed is also called as quadracipital groove. (3 It is shallow but distinct with a prominent lateral lip and extends proximally in a vertical directio n. It is inverted “J” shaped as described by Hughes and Sunderland 1946. (4 The lateral lip is prominent due to lateral angulation between femur and tibia. If the groove is absent then either the person is a non - squatter (eg Europeans or is weak and flabb y with poorly developed muscles which are unable to produce impressions on bones. This groove is of help in side determination of tibia when only a fragment of bone is available. Ther e fore it has got anthropological and medicolegal importance and so is app ropriately called as quadricipital groove. (3

  6. Hiperplasia de cóndilo mandibular: Reporte de doce casos / Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle: Considerations in a series of 12 patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dahiana, Pulgar B; Ignacio, Goñi E; Carmen, Reinoso D; Rolando, Schulz R; Fernando, Hormazábal N; Alex, Vargas D; Hernán, Ramírez S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La hiperplasia condilar (HC) se define como un crecimiento patológico no neoplásico que afecta tanto al tamaño como a la morfología del cóndilo mandibular. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y riesgos del tratamiento quirúrgico de la HC. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo, serie de caso [...] s. Se incluyó a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de HC tratados en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero de 2010 y febrero de 2014. Resultados: Doce pacientes fueron operados en nuestra institución por HC. El promedio de edad fue 19,3 ± 3,4 años. La forma de presentación más frecuente fue presencia de asimetría facial. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados con SPECT que evidenció diferencia de captación mayor a 50% ± 3,1% entre ambos cóndilos. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con condilectomía mandibular alta del lado afectado y en 3 casos, se realizó además cirugía ortognática en el mismo tiempo para corrección de maloclusión dental. La mediana de seguimiento fue de meses 16 (5 a 54 meses). En todos los pacientes se evidenció una mejora en la oclusión dental y simetría facial, con desaparición de la disfunción articular previa. Conclusiones: La HC es una entidad de poca frecuencia. La cirugía es eficaz y segura para el tratamiento de la HC. Abstract in english Introduction: Condylar hiperplasia is defined as a pathological non neoplastic growth which compromises both size and shape of the mandibular condyle and is characterized by progressive facial asymmetry. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and risks of surgical treatment of HC. Material and method: Descri [...] ptive study, cohort of cases. All patients between 2010 and February 2014 with diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia at Hospital Clínico P. Universidad Católica de Chile were included. Results: Twelve patients were operated at our institution because of condylar hyperplasia. Age average was 19.3 ± 3.4 years. The most frequent presentation was facial asymmetry. All patients were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with differential intake more than 50 ± 3.1% between both condyles. All patients were treated with mandibular condylectomy of the affected site and in 3 cases orthognatic surgery was performed at the same time of the condylectomy to correct dental malocclusion. Average follow up was 16 months (5 to 54 months). All patients recovered facial symmetry and occlusion with absence of the previous joint dysfunction. Conclusions: Condylar hyperplasia is an unfrequent condition and surgery is efficient and safe for the treatment of the deformity.

  7. Continuous sagittal radiological evaluation of stair-climbing in cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasties using image-matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Shimoto, Takeshi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Hidehiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vivo kinematics of stair-climbing after posterior stabilized (PS) and cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using radiographic-based image-matching techniques. Mid-flexion anteroposterior stability was demonstrated in all knees after CR TKA. However, paradoxical femoral translation at low flexion angles was seen in both designs. The post-cam mechanism did not function after PS TKA. Larger posterior tibial slope in PS TKA was linked to forward sliding of the femur at mid-flexion and unintended anterior tibial post impingement at knee extension. CR TKA is more sagittally stable in mid-flexion during stair climbing and attention must be given to minimize posterior tibial slope when using late cam-post engaging PS TKA designs. PMID:25618811

  8. Periprosthetic subtrochanteric femoral fracture in a megaprosthesis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishya Raju

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?We report a rare case of periprosthetic posttraumatic fracture of subtrochanteric region of femur after a megaprosthesis of the knee, done for resistant nonunion of distal femur with secondary osteoarthrosis in a 51 years old man. Treatment with a locking femoral plate was able to achieve primary union with a good result. Key words: Periprosthetic fractures; Femur; Femoral fractures; Knee

  9. Femoral compressive neuropathy from iliopsoas haematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganu, Sneha; Mehta, Yesha

    2013-05-13

    Dengue fever is a debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue virus. We reported a case of femoral compression neuropathy due to iliopsoas hematoma complicating dengue hemorrhagic fever. Iliopsoas muscle hematoma can cause femoral neuropathy with resultant pain and paralysis. Such manifestations are not well documented in the literature. The pathogenesis of hematoma and compressive neuropathy with its appropriate management is discussed. PMID:23608387

  10. Reconstruction Technique Affects Femoral Tunnel Placement in ACL Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kaseta, Maria K.; DeFrate, Louis E.; Charnock, Brian L.; Sullivan, Robert T.; Garrett, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Grafts placed too anteriorly on the femur are reportedly a common cause of failure in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Some studies suggest more anatomic femoral tunnel placement improves kinematics. The ability of the transtibial technique and a tibial tunnel-independent technique (placed transfemorally outside-in) to place the guide pin near the center of the femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament was compared in 12 cadavers. After arthroscopic placement of the guide...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    OpenAIRE

    Brijesh R. Aghera; Priyanka Karunakar; Sujatha. K; Fathima T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedu...

  12. Stage-I osteochondritis dissecans versus normal variants of ossification in the knee in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) has a better prognosis than the adult type. We postulated that the excellent prognosis of juvenile OCD could be explained, at least in part, by the erroneous diagnosis of some developmental variants of ossification as stage-I OCD. Knee MRIs of 38 children, ages 7.5-17.7 years (mean and median age 13 years), were retrospectively reviewed to look for features that might separate normal variants of ossification from stage-I OCD. These included age, gender, site, configuration of the lesion, residual cartilaginous model and presence of edema. Twenty-three patients (32 condyles) had ossification defects with intact articular cartilage suggestive of stage-I lesions. No stage-II lesions were seen in the posterior femoral condyles. Accessory ossification centers were seen in 11/16 posterior condyles and 3/16 central condyles. Spiculation of existing ossification was seen in 12/16 posterior condylar lesions and 1/16 central condyles. There was a predominance of accessory ossifications and spiculations in the patients with 10% or greater residual cartilaginous model. No edema signal greater than diaphyseal red-marrow signal was seen in the posterior condyles. Clinical follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 38 months, with clinical improvement in 22 out of 23 patients. Inclusion of normal variants in the stage-I OCD category might explain, in part, the marked difference in published outcome between the juvenile and adult forms of OCD. Ossification defects in the posterior femoral condyles with intact overlying articular cartilage, accessory ossification centers, spiculation, residual cartilaginous model, and lack of bone-marrow edema are features of developmental variants rather than OCD. (orig.)

  13. [Treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle. Experiences at the Department of Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery at Toulon-La-Seyne/Mer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, J Y; Lestage, F; Gacon, J; Vittel, P; Roubaudi, G; Pernice, L; Jeannenot, J; Laroche, D; Fourestier, J

    1997-11-01

    The fractures of the gnathic condyle are constantly increasing due to the violent impact on the chine. The functional treatment is essential for good results whereas the restitution of a functional joint, i.e. teeth that engage into one another, is satisfactory for the patient as it can also justify a possible surgical reduction in such cases when significant shifts of fragments resulting from the fractures are present. PMID:9471694

  14. Total hip arthroplasty using a posterior minimally invasive approach - results after six years / Artroplastia total do quadril feita por via posterior minimamente invasiva - Resultados após seis anos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ricardo Negreiros, Vicente; Helder Souza, Miyahara; Carlos Malheiros, Luzo; Henrique Melo, Gurgel; Alberto Tesconi, Croci.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado clínico-funcional em médio prazo (seguimento mínimo de seis anos) da artroplastia total do quadril não cimentada feita por acesso minimamente invasivo (MIS) posterior comparado ao acesso lateral direto (LD) tradicional. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo comparativo prospectivo, 22 [...] 4 pacientes adultos foram submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril em caráter eletivo, por diagnóstico de osteoartrose primária ou secundária, e se comparou o grupo MIS posterior (103 pacientes) com o grupo acesso LD tradicional (121). A média de tempo de seguimento dos pacientes da amostra foi 7,2 anos. Avaliamos os resultados clínico-funcionais e radiográficos e a ocorrência de solturas, assim como complicações ocorridas com um seguimento mínimo de seis anos. RESULTADOS: A análise clínico-funcional antes e seis anos após o procedimento cirúrgico foi semelhante nos dois grupos (p = 0,88 e p = 0,55). Um paciente do grupo MIS foi submetido à revisão do componente acetabular e dois do grupo controle foram submetidos ao mesmo procedimento, p = 0,46. O teste clínico de Trendelenburg, que evidenciou uma fraqueza da musculatura abdutora do quadril, estava presente em cinco pacientes operados pela via lateral tradicional e ausente em todos os submetidos ao MIS (p = 0,06). Não houve diferença quanto aos parâmetros radiográficos obtidos tanto do posicionamento acetabular quanto do femoral (p = 0,32, p = 0,58). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados em médio prazo, clínicos e radiográficos, e a taxa de complicações foram semelhantes entre os pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril pelo acesso posterior minimamente invasivo e pela via lateral tradicional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the medium-term clinical-functional results (minimum follow-up of six years) from total uncemented hip arthroplasty performed by means of a posterior minimally invasive access, in comparison with the traditional right lateral access. METHODS: In a comparative prospective stud [...] y, 224 adult patients underwent elective total hip arthroplasty due to a diagnosis of primary or secondary osteoarthrosis. A group of 103 patients with posterior minimally invasive access was compared with a group of 121 patients with the traditional right lateral access. The mean length of follow-up among the patients of this sample was 7.2 years. We evaluated the clinical-functional and radiographic results and occurrences of loosening, along with any complications that occurred, with a minimum follow-up of six years. RESULTS: The clinical-functional analyses before the surgical procedure and six years afterwards were similar in the two groups (p = 0.88 and p = 0.55). One patient in the minimally invasive group underwent revision of the acetabular component and two patients in the control group underwent the same procedure (p = 0.46). The Trendelenburg clinical test, which showed weakness of the hip abductor musculature, was present in five patients operated using the traditional lateral route and absent in all those who underwent the minimally invasive procedure (p = 0.06). There was no difference regarding the radiographic parameters obtained, either in acetabular or in femoral positioning (p = 0.32 and p = 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: The medium-term clinical and radiographic results and the complication rates were similar between the patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty by means of the posterior minimally invasive access and those with the traditional lateral access.

  15. Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Neuber Martins; Ferreira Fernando Xavier; Ruzi Roberto Araújo; Pereira Gulherme Carnaval Souza

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3). Sai da pelve através do forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps fe...

  16. OUTCOME OF INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES TREATED WITH SHORT FEMORAL NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadkikar Shriniwas V, Yadkikar Vishnu S, Patel Mayank, Dhruvilkumar Gandhi, Kunkulol Rahul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the functional and anatomical outcome of Inter trochanteric fractures of femur treated with Short femoral nail. Method: This was retrospective study carried out in which 60 patients (50 Male & 10 Female of 5th to 8th decade of life who underwent Short femoral nail fixation for both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures. From the records each patient data was assessed for time required for mobilization, average fracture healing time, degree and grade of hip range of movements, complications, anatomical reduction achieved using Short femoral nail fixation. Results: 55 cases achieved Anatomical reduction. Good to Excellent Hip range of Motion was in 55 (90 % cases. Fracture union was seen in all cases. No evidence of Z Effect, AVN of femoral head, Implant failure, Fracture of femoral shaft below the Nail tip was seen in any case, However Reverse Z Effect was seen in 4 & shortening of less than 2 cm was seen in 2 cases, External rotation of 10 degree was seen in1 case. Average fracture Union time was 14 weeks. Conclusion: Short femoral nail appears to be better implant for fixation of both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures as it fulfills the biomechanical demands being minimally invasive, less blood loss , it prevents excessive varus collapse at fracture site, produces less stress riser effect below the nail tip, Short operative time, Facilitates early mobilization & functional recovery of patients. But Anatomical fracture reduction & optimal implant placement are absolutely must for better results.

  17. Aneurisma verdadero de la arteria femoral: Reporte de caso / True anneurysm of the femoral artery: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julián, Moreno; Claudia, Corso.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los aneurismas verdaderos de la arteria femoral son un problema clínico infrecuente, y generalmente son publicados como reporte de caso en la literatura; su presentación puede ser variada, y aunque la mayoría son asintomáticos, pueden presentarse con cualquiera de sus complicaciones. Se expone el ca [...] so de un paciente de 85 años con aneurisma roto de la arteria femoral común izquierda, quien ingresa al servicio de urgencias y es intervenido quirúrgicamente de manera satisfactoria. Abstract in english True aneurysms of the femoral artery are a rare clinical problem and are generally published as a case report in the literature. Its presentation can be varied, and although most are asymptomatic, they may present with any of its complications. We present the case of a 85 years old patient with rupt [...] ured aneurysm of the left common femoral artery, who was admitted to the emergency room and underwent surgery successfully.

  18. Ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze, summarize and describe ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis. METHODS: Clinical data of 16 patients(21 eyeswith posterior scleritis diagnosed in our hospital from October 2008 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of type-B ultrasonic, fundus chromophotograph, fundus fluorescein angiography, CT were recorded for comprehensive evaluation and analysis of ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis. RESULTS: All patients underwent type-B ultrasonic examination and manifested as diffuse and nodular types. The diffuse type showed diffusely thickened sclera and a dark hypoechoic area that connected with the optic nerve to form a typical “T”-shaped sign. The nodular type showed scleral echogenic nodules and relatively regular internal structure. FFA showed that relatively weak mottled fluorescences were visible in the arterial early phase and strong multiple needle-like fluorescences were visible in the arteriovenous phase, which were then progressively larger and fused; fluorescein was leaked to the subretinal tissue in the late phase; varying degrees of strong fluorescences with less clear or unclear boundaries were visible in the optic disk. CT results showed thickened eyeball wall. CONCLUSION: Posterior scleritis is common in young female patients, whose ophthalmic imaging features are varied and more specific in type-B ultrasonic. Selection of rational ophthalmic imaging examination method, combined with clinical manifestations, can accurately diagnose posterior scleritis and avoid the incidence of missed and delayed diagnosis.

  19. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture.

  20. Abordagem simplificada do nervo ciático por via posterior, no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com uso de neuroestimulador Abordaje simplificado del nervio ciático por vía posterior, en el punto medio del sulco glúteo-femoral, con uso de neuroestimulador Simplified sciatic nerve approach by the posterior route at the median gluteus-femoral sulcus region, with a neurostimulator

    OpenAIRE

    Neuber Martins Fonseca; Fernando Xavier Ferreira; Roberto Araújo Ruzi; Gulherme Carnaval Souza Pereira

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo ciático pode ser realizado por várias abordagens com vantagens e desvantagens. O nervo ciático é o maior nervo do corpo humano em diâmetro e comprimento. É a continuação do fascículo superior do plexo sacral (L4, L5, S1, S2 e S3). Sai da pelve através do forâmen isquiático maior, passando por baixo do músculo piriforme, desce entre o trocânter maior do fêmur e a tuberosidade isquiática, e ao longo do dorso da coxa, anterior aos músculos bíceps fe...

  1. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN THE ORIGIN OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Pradipkumar Darji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris artery, which is the largest branch of femoral artery. The knowledge of origin and branching patterns of the lateral circumflex femoral artery is valuable for various surgeries and clinical procedures. Objectives: To determine mode of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery and to determine the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery and from mid-inguinal point. Materials and Method: 130 femoral triangles were studied and various measurements were noted and analysed from the department of anatomy of various Medical colleges of Gujarat. Result and conclusion: The lateral circumflex femoral artery originated from profunda femoris artery in 119 cases and from femoral artery in 11 cases. In most of the cases, the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery was ranging from 11 to 40 mm on both the sides.

  2. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ?30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  3. The bihemispheric posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rarely, a solitary posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) will supply both cerebellar hemispheres. We report four cases of this variant. We present a retrospective review of clinical information and imaging of patients undergoing angiography at our institution to identify patients with a bihemispheric PICA. There were four patients: three males and one female. One patient presented with a ruptured arteriovenous malformation, and one with a ruptured aneurysm. Two patients had normal angiograms. The bihemispheric PICA was an incidental finding in all cases. The bihemispheric vessel arose from the dominant left vertebral artery, and the contralateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery was absent or hypoplastic. In all cases, contralateral cerebellar supply arose from a continuation of the ipsilateral PICA distal to the choroidal point and which crossed the midline dorsal to the vermis. We conclude that the PICA may supply both cerebellar hemispheres. This rare anatomic variant should be considered when evaluating patients with posterior fossa neurovascular disease. (orig.)

  4. Probabilities of exoplanet signals from posterior samplings

    CERN Document Server

    Tuomi, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the marginal likelihoods is an essential feature of model selection in the Bayesian context. It is especially crucial to have good estimates when assessing the number of planets orbiting stars when the models explain the noisy data with different numbers of Keplerian signals. We introduce a simple method for approximating the marginal likelihoods in practice when a statistically representative sample from the parameter posterior density is available. We use our truncated posterior mixture estimate to receive accurate model probabilities for models with differing number of Keplerian signals in radial velocity data. We test this estimate in simple scenarios to assess its accuracy and rate of convergence in practice when the corresponding estimates calculated using deviance information criterion can be applied to receive trustworthy results for reliable comparison. As a test case, we determine the posterior probability of a planet orbiting HD 3651 given Lick and Keck radial velocity data. The posterio...

  5. Incidence of posterior capsule opacification in eyes with and without posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, O

    1986-09-01

    The incidence of posterior capsule opacification after extracapsular cataract extraction was significantly lower in eyes implanted with posterior chamber intraocular lenses than in nonimplanted eyes. The number of loops fixated in the bag was significantly smaller in the eyes that became opacified than in those that did not. These findings suggest that the posterior chamber lens suppresses the two processes that lead to opacification: the development of a ring-shaped opacity at the site of contact between the anterior capsule rim and the posterior capsule and the migration of lens epithelial cells toward the center of the capsule. These suppressive effects were greater when the posterior chamber lens was fixated in the bag. PMID:3772787

  6. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support. This was a retrospective interventional case series. Fifteen eyes underwent PPV with primary posterior iris claw IOL implantation performed by a single vitreoretinal surgeon. The main outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment complications. A total of 15 eyes were included in this study. Eight had nucleus drop, three had IOL drop during cataract surgery and four had traumatic posterior dislocation of lens. The final postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/60 or better in 11 patients. This procedure is a viable option in achieving good functional visual acuity in eyes without capsular support.

  7. Management of distal femoral periprosthetic fractures by distal femoral locking plate: A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Thukral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures is difficult. Osteoporosis, comminution and bone loss, compromise stability with delayed mobility and poor functional outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with anatomic distal femoral (DF locking plate permits early mobilization. However, this usually necessitates bone grafting (BG. Biological fixation using minimally invasive techniques minimizes periosteal stripping and morbidity. Materials and Methods: 31 patients with comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures were reviewed retrospectively from October 2006 to September 2012. All patients underwent fixation using a DF locking compression plate (Synthes. 17 patients underwent ORIF with primary BG, whereas 14 were treated by closed reduction (CR and internal fixation using biological minimally invasive techniques. Clinical and radiological followup were recorded for an average 36 months. Results: Mean time to union for the entire group was 5.6 months (range 3-9 months. Patients of ORIF group took longer (Mean 6.4 months, range 4.5-9 months than the CR group (mean 4.6 months, range 3-7 months. Three patients of ORIF and one in CR group had poor results. Mean knee society scores were higher for CR group at 6 months, but nearly identical at 12 months, with similar eventual range of motion. Discussion: Locked plating of comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures permits stable rigid fixation and early mobilization. Fixation using minimally invasive biological techniques minimizes morbidity and may obviate the need for primary BG.

  8. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazzam, Shafagh [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Orthopedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Dwek, Jerry R. [Rady Children' s Hospital and Health Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center for Hip Preservation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, TriCity Medical Center, Oceanside, CA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  9. Multiplanar CT assessment of femoral head displacement in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent changing approaches to the management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), the accurate radiographic assessment of maximum extent of displacement is crucial for planning surgical treatment. To determine what plane best represents the maximum SCFE displacement as quantified by the head-neck angle difference (HNAD), whether HNAD can quantitatively differentiate the SCFE cohort from the normal cohort, based on CT, and how Southwick slip angle (SSA) compares to HNAD. We reviewed 19 children with SCFE (23 affected hips) with preoperative CT scans and 27 age- and sex-matched children undergoing abdominal CT for non-orthopedic problems. Head-neck angle (HNA), the angle between the femoral epiphysis and the neck axis, was measured in three planes on each hip and the HNAD (affected - unaffected hip) was determined. SSA was measured on radiographs. The coronal HNAD (mean 8.7 ) was less than both the axial-oblique (mean 30.7 ) and sagittal (mean 37.4 ) HNADs, which were also greater than the HNADs of the normal cohort. Grouping HNAD measurements by SSA severity classification did not consistently distinguish between SCFE severity levels. Axial-oblique and sagittal planes best represent the maximum SCFE displacement while biplanar radiograph may underestimate the extent of the displacement, thereby potentially altering the management between in situ pinning and capital realignment. (orig.)

  10. Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, So Hwa; Kim, Ki Sun; Kim, Ki Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Traumatic sternoclavicular joint dislocation is an uncommon injury, and posterior sternoclavicular dislocation occurs less frequently compared to anterior sternoclavicular dislocation. However, this type of dislocation has the potential for serious complications due to compression or laceration of the mediastinal structures. The diagnosis can be difficult using plain radiographs alone due to radiographic-anatomic superimposition. Therefore, posterior sternoclavicular dislocation is easily missed at the initial clinical evaluation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is required for a definite diagnosis and to assess associated mediastinal injuries.

  11. Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in poststretococcal acute glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (LEPR) is a clinical entity that affects radiation usually the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. It is frequently associated with acute arterial hypertension and immunosuppressive therapy, among other causes. The clinical presentation is varied, with headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness and abnormal behavior, seizures and visual disturbances, symptoms that often regress. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images show white matter edema predominantly in posterior regions of the brain. We present a 10 year old boy with leprosy in the course of a nephrotic syndrome secondary to acute diffuse glomerunefritis (GNDA) poststreptococcal. (author)

  12. Malignant ectomesenchymoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical management of a four years old female child, presented at the Islamic International Medical Complex (IIMC), Islamabad, with three months history of recurrent chest infections and failure to thrive, is discussed. Posterior mediastinal tumor was diagnosed radiologically. Tumor had flimsy attachments with pericardium and thoracic aorta but was densely adherent with lower lobe of left lung. The tumor was completely removed along with a segment of lung. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The diagnosis of malignant ectomesenchymoma was made on histopathology. The patients is well in follow-up. This is the first reported case of malignant ectomesenchymoma arising within posterior mediastinum. (author)

  13. Cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturkmen Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The use of cement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate in elderly patients, hence cementless hemiarthroplasty is suggested. We evaluated the results of cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients (29 females, 19 males with a mean age of 88 years (range: 78 to 102 years. having femoral neck fractures were treated with the use of cementless hemiarthroplasty. Porous-coated femoral stems were used in 30 patients (62% and modular type femoral revision stems in 18 patients (38%. Bipolar femoral heads were used in all patients. Radiological follow-up after operation was done at the one, three, six months and annually. Results: The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 18 months to eight years. None of the patients died during hospitalization. Medical complications occurred in six patients (12% within the follow-up period and four patients (8% died within this period. Only two hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty due to acetabular erosion. Femoral revision was planned for one patient with a subsidence of > 3 mm. None of the patients had acetabular protrusion or heterotopic ossification. The mean Harris-hip score was 84 (range: 52 to 92. Dislocation occured in one patient (2%. Conclusion: Cementless hemiarthroplasty is a suitable method of treatment for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems especially of a cardiopulmonary nature. This method decreases the risk of hypotension and fat embolism associated with cemented hemiarthroplasty.

  14. Structural and functional studies of bioobjects prepared from femoral heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Popova, K. S.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2015-11-01

    Results of examination of physicomechanical characteristics of samples of medial femoral head cuts are presented. The samples of medial femoral head cuts resected in 6 patients with coxarthrosis in primary endoprosthetic replacement of a coxofemoral joint have been tested for micro- and nanohardness. Young's modulus and elemental composition of bone tissue have been investigated. To estimate the architectonics of cancellous tissue of the femoral head, adjacent cuts of the same patient have been analyzed. The porosity of bone tissue was estimated from macroscopic images obtained using macrophotography. The total porosity is calculated as the ratio of the total length of straight line segments overlapping pores to the total length of secants. A three-point bending test of the samples has shown that their strength changed from 0.187 to 1.650 MPa and their elasticity modulus changes from 1.69 to 8.15 MPa. The microhardness of the samples changes in the range 220-265 MPa and the average microhardness of medial femoral head cuts is 240 MPa. The elemental composition of medial femoral head cuts is represented by basic Ca, P, O, Na and Mg elements as well as by Sn, S, Fe, Cr, and C in microamounts. The atomic Ca to P ratio for bone tissue is 1.55. It is revealed that pores of the upper part of the femoral head have a more regular shape and in the lower part they are more elongated along the cut and occupy a larger volume. The lower part of the femoral head has a higher porosity (39 and 33%) than the upper part (34 and 30%). The total porosity of all samples does not exceed 37%.

  15. Fracturing of revision of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after fracturing of a ceramic femoral head, with diffuse metallosis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We presente a case of a fracture of a cobalt-chrome femoral head after revision of a hip total prosthesis with ceramic femoral head fracture. During surgery we found the cobalt-chrome femoral head fracture, wear of the polyethylene and massive metallosis in muscular and cartilaginous tissue. Both femoral stem and acetabular cup were stable and without apparent wearing. After surgical debridement, we promoted the substitution of the femoral head and the acetabular polyethylene by similar ones. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient has no pain complaints, function limit or systemic signs associated with malign metallosis

  16. MORFOLOGÍA Y MORFOMETRÍA DEL ANILLO FEMORAL EN EL HOMBRE MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHOMETRY OF THE FEMORAL RING IN THE MALE

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio José Casado Ramalho; Gaspar de Jesus Lopes Filho; Luis Carlos Buarque de Gusmão; Rodrigo Fernando de Amorim; Marconi Santos Da Silva

    2004-01-01

    La hernia femoral se forma cuando un divertículo peritoneal pasa a través del anillo femoral. Es más frecuente en mujeres que en hombres y en el lado derecho. La literatura es controvertida sobre la forma del anillo femoral quirúrgico, y se omiten sus dimensiones. Por otro lado, no existen explicaciones de naturaleza fisiológica o anatómica que justifiquen la mayor incidencia de la hernia femoral en el lado derecho. Buscando determinar la forma más frecuente del anillo femoral quirúrgico y su...

  17. Frequency and topography of lesions of the femoro-tibial cartilage at spiral CT arthrography of the knee: a study in patients with normal knee radiographs and without history of trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and topography of cartilage lesions involving the femoro-tibial joints in patients with normal knee radiographs and without a remembered history of trauma.Design and patients. A radiologist retrospectively reviewed the dual-detector spiral CT knee arthrograms performed in 209 consecutive patients (mean age 37.6 years) with normal knee radiographs. Images were analyzed for the presence, grade (Noyes classification system) and location of cartilage lesions, the location being designated by dividing each articular surface into a grid of 16 parts.Results. Fifty-three percent of knees had cartilage lesions of grade 2A or higher that involved articular surfaces to a variable extent: lateral tibial plateau (31%), medial femoral condyle (27%), medial tibial plateau (14%) and lateral femoral condyle (5%). Areas of the posterior half of the lateral tibial plateau and of the inner half of the medial femoral condyle were statistically more frequently involved than their counterparts (P<0.0001). The bare area of the medial tibial plateau, but not that of the lateral tibial plateau, was more frequently involved than the corresponding meniscus-covered area (P<0.0001).Conclusion. Cartilage lesions of grade 2A or higher, detected at spiral CT arthrography in 53% of the knees, predominantly involved the posterior half of the lateral tibial plateau, the inner half of the medial femoral condyle and the bare area of the medial tibial plateau. (orig.)

  18. Frequency and topography of lesions of the femoro-tibial cartilage at spiral CT arthrography of the knee: a study in patients with normal knee radiographs and without history of trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vande Berg, B.C.; Lecouvet, F.E.; Malghem, J. [Department of Radiology, Clinique St Luc, 10 avenue Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-11-01

    To determine the frequency and topography of cartilage lesions involving the femoro-tibial joints in patients with normal knee radiographs and without a remembered history of trauma.Design and patients. A radiologist retrospectively reviewed the dual-detector spiral CT knee arthrograms performed in 209 consecutive patients (mean age 37.6 years) with normal knee radiographs. Images were analyzed for the presence, grade (Noyes classification system) and location of cartilage lesions, the location being designated by dividing each articular surface into a grid of 16 parts.Results. Fifty-three percent of knees had cartilage lesions of grade 2A or higher that involved articular surfaces to a variable extent: lateral tibial plateau (31%), medial femoral condyle (27%), medial tibial plateau (14%) and lateral femoral condyle (5%). Areas of the posterior half of the lateral tibial plateau and of the inner half of the medial femoral condyle were statistically more frequently involved than their counterparts (P<0.0001). The bare area of the medial tibial plateau, but not that of the lateral tibial plateau, was more frequently involved than the corresponding meniscus-covered area (P<0.0001).Conclusion. Cartilage lesions of grade 2A or higher, detected at spiral CT arthrography in 53% of the knees, predominantly involved the posterior half of the lateral tibial plateau, the inner half of the medial femoral condyle and the bare area of the medial tibial plateau. (orig.)

  19. Posterior urethral valves with vesical calculus: A rare association

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya Himanshu; Dhende N; Mane S; Obaidah Abu

    2009-01-01

    Posterior urethral valve and vesical calculus are individually among the most common causes of obstructive lower urinary complaints in children. There are very few reports of association between posterior urethral valves and bladder calculus. We report three such cases. This association of the vesical calculi with posterior urethral valves may lead to a delay in the diagnosis of the posterior urethral valves. The diagnosis of posterior urethral valves should be suspected in all children with ...

  20. Aortofemoral thromboendarterectomy / Trombendarterectomia aorto-femoral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Toledo de, Aguiar; Alex, Lederman; Cid José, Sitrângulo Júnior; Pedro, Puech-Leão.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a exeqüibilidade da trombendarterectomia em todos os portadores de obstrução aortilíaco-femoral aterosclerótica, seus resultados imediatos e tardios. MÉTODO: Trabalho clínico, prospectivo e descritivo feito em hospital universitário. Os critérios de inclusão foram: obstrução aortil [...] íaco-femoral aterosclerótica associada ou não a obstruções fêmoro-poplíteas, condições clínicas para suportar cirurgia de grande porte e ausência de restaurações arteriais nos territórios aortofemoral e fêmoro-poplíteo. Os critérios de exclusão foram: aneurismas, doença arterial inflamatória e restauração arterial prévia reconhecidos apenas no ato cirúrgico. Foram incluídos 80 doentes. Nove (11,2%) foram excluídos. Participaram do estudo 71 doentes, 54 homens (76,1%) e 17 mulheres (23,9%), com média de idades igual a 57,3+9,9 anos. As indicações cirúrgicas foram claudicação intermitente e isquemia crítica. A técnica da trombendarterectomia com anéis foi empregada em todos doentes. Os resultados foram relacionados: a idade, sexo, queixa, diabetes mellitus, extensão da trombendarterectomia, extensão da doença obstrutiva arterial. Para a análise estatística foram empregados os testes de Qui quadrado ou exato de Fisher quando necessários e Wilkoxon (Gehan) para comparação de curvas de sobrevivência. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e oito (100%) restaurações estavam pérvias. A obstrução imediata ocorreu em 13 (18,3%) doentes e 12 foram reoperados com sucesso. Não houve diferenças significativas na distribuição das reoperações em relação às variáveis estudadas. Houve três amputações (4,2%) no grupo de isquemia crítica. A mortalidade foi 4,2% e aumentou significativamente nos pacientes diabéticos e nos que apresentaram obstruções fêmoro-poplíteas associadas. Após cinco anos 87,0±5,6% das restaurações estavam pérvias; isquemia crítica e endarterectomias aorto-ilíacas ou ilíaco-femorais estavam associadas à durabilidade menor. Após cinco anos 85,3±5,8% dos doentes estavam vivos; diabetes, idade acima de 65 anos e obstruções fêmoro-poplíteas associadas estavam relacionadas à diminuição da sobrevida dos pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A trombendarterectomia pode ser aplicada em aproximadamente 90% dos casos de obstruções ateroscleróticas aortilíaco-femorais, a mortalidade imediata é aceitável, a taxa de amputações maiores imediatas é baixa, a taxa de reoperações imediatas é mais alta, os óbitos tardios são de causa cárdio-vascular na sua maioria, a restauração é durável principalmente quando indicada para tratamento da claudicação intermitente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To study whether endarterectomy is feasible in all patients with aortofemoral atherosclerotic obstruction, considering early and late results. METHODS: A clinical, prospective, and descriptive study carried out in a university hospital. Inclusion criteria were atherosclerotic aortofemoral o [...] bstructive disease, clinical status compatible with major surgery, and absence of prior restorative procedure. Exclusion criteria were aneurysm, inflammatory arterial disease, and prior restorative procedure found during surgery. Eighty patients entered the protocol, but 9 were excluded (11.2%). Seventy-one patients, mean age of 57.3 years, underwent endarterectomy. Operative indications were intermittent claudication and critical ischemia. A ring-stripper endarterectomy technique was employed in all patients. Results were related to age, gender, symptoms, presence of diabetes mellitus, extension of endarterectomy, and extent of obstructive disease. Chi square or Fisher exact tests were used when appropriate, and the Wilkoxon (Gehan) test was used to compare survival curves. RESULTS: Sixty-eight (100%) endarterectomies were patent at discharge. The mortality rate was 4.2%. The amputation rate (4.3%) was higher in diabetic patients and when there was associated femoropopliteal obstruction. The 5-year survival rate was 83.3%, and late deaths were mostly

  1. A biomechanical comparison of proximal femoral nails and locking proximal anatomic femoral plates in femoral fracture fixation A study on synthetic bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The proximal femoral intramedullary nail provides more stability and allows for earlier weight bearing than the locking plate when used for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. Clinicians should be cautious for early weight bearing with locking plate for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures.

  2. Osteotomia femoral em cúpula para correção do ângulo de inclinação do colo do fémur Femoral cupola osteotomy for correction of femoral neck inclination angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo lamaguti

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a osteotomia femoral em cúpula em um cão que apresentava aumento do ângulo de inclinação do colo do fêmur e subluxação da articulação coxofemoral. A linha de osteotomia situou-se cerca de 1 cm distal ao trocanter menor, no sentido látero-medial. Para a imobilização utilizou-se um fio de Steinmann passando pelo trocanter maior e por toda a extensão do fêmur. Um fio de aço foi colocado em orifícios ósseos produzidos nos segmentos proximal e distal do fêmur para a realização de sutura óssea. A técnica empregada culminou em: diminuição de 35° no ângulo de inclinação, rebaixamento da cabeça do fêmur, elevação do trocanter maior, congruência da articulação e encurtamento de 3cm do membro. A consolidação ocorreu cerca de 90 dias após a cirurgia.Femoral cupola osteotomy was performed in a dog with a large femoral inclination angie and hip subluxation. Osteotomy owas performed 1 cm distal to the lesser trochanter from lateral to medial cortex. Immobilization was performed owith a Steinamnnpin drivenfrom the greater trochanter and through two boles drilled proximal and distal to the osteotomy line. The technique produced: 35° decrease on inclination angle, lowering of the femoral head, elevation of the greater trochanter, congruity of the hip and 3cm limb shortening. Consolidation occured 90 days after the surgery.

  3. Femoral cementing technique for hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Rudi G; Heisel, Christian; Silva, Mauricio; Schmalzried, Thomas P

    2007-04-01

    The resurgence of metal-metal bearings has renewed interest in hip resurfacing, but a paucity of information exists regarding femoral cementing technique. We developed a laboratory model in which 72 open-cell foam specimens were used to simulate bone. Analyses of two cement viscosities, two foam porosities, and six cementing techniques were performed: manual cement application only, manual application and filling of one quarter of the component with cement, filling of half of the component, manual application and half component filling, full component filling, and manual application and full component filling. For manual application, cement was pressurized into the foam by rolling the finger tips. For component filling, a defined quantity of cement was poured into the component before pressing it onto the foam. Specimens were cut into quarters, and cement penetration was quantified in seven areas: top, chamfer, wall, interior area, and proximal, medial, and distal stem. The manual technique showed a 3-mm thick, even cement penetration of the outer fixation surface (top = 26 +/- 0 mm(2), chamfer = 14.9 +/- 0.2 mm(2), wall = 55.6 +/- 5.2 mm(2)). None of the other techniques showed a significantly higher penetration in these areas. Large differences were found between all techniques at the medial stem (27.7 +/- 17.5 mm(2), p < 0.001) and the interior area (128.5 +/- 69.6 mm(2), p = 0.013). An increasing degree of penetration occurred from manual cement application to manual application and full component filling. Sixteen specimens showed incomplete seating, which occurred with all techniques except the manual technique. The manual technique consistently gave an approximately 3-mm thick even cement penetration over the outer fixation area. Pouring any cement into the shell resulted in variable degrees of deeper penetration and a risk of incomplete seating, which have been associated with bone necrosis and early fracture. PMID:17262829

  4. CT findings of posterior pararenal effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The posterior pararenal space(PPS) is a potential space between the posterior renal fascia and the transversalis fascia. We reviewed 12 cases of posterior pararenal effusion. The causes of the effusion were retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to trauma(7 cases) or rupture of renal tumor(1 case), pancreatitis(2 cases), urinoma (1 case) and amebic colitis of the cecum(1 case). The CT findings of the effusion were semilunar fluid density in the dependant portion of the PPS(9/12), partial obliteration of the PPS extending to the flank stripe(2/12), and total obliteration of the PPS extending to the anterior abdominal wall(1/12). The effusion in the ipsilateral perirenal space and thickening of the ipsilateral posterior renal fascia were combined in all cases. The effusion in the ipsilateral anterior pararenal space was associated in 11 cases of 12. The effusion in the PPS is not uncommon findings of retroperitoneal hemorrhage or effusion, but usually related with perirenal or anterior pararenal effusion with no clinical significance

  5. %179200 RADIAL HEADS, POSTERIOR DISLOCATION OF [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 179200 FIELD TI %179200 RADIAL HEADS, POSTERIOR DISLOCATION OF FIELD TX CLINICAL FEATUR ... y in the father's antecubital fossae, raising skin web s. Reichenbach et al. (1995) reported on 4 cases of ... t. 55: 101-104, 1995. 5. Shun-Shin, M.: Congenital web ... formation. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 36: 268-271, 19 ...

  6. Posterior instability caused by batter's shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Richard W; Mahony, Gregory T; Harris, Thomas C; Dines, Joshua S

    2013-10-01

    In summary, batter’s shoulder is a rare and only recently recognized entity. This condition is posterior shoulder instability caused by a missed attempt at hitting a pitch, especially with an outside pitch. The lack of counterforce from hitting a ball produces increased forces imparted on the posterior capsulolabral complex of the lead shoulder during batting. If the player fails conservative management, she or he can undergo an arthroscopic posterior labral repair instead of debridement. After treatment, the player can expect to return to play after approximately 6 to 7 months. Initial results from a small, retrospective series demonstrate greater than 90% excellent results. These findings are similar to current literature for arthroscopic treatment of posterior instability, which reports success rates that range from 75% to 91%. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to determine the natural history and prognosis or batter’s shoulder. Based on initial results, the authors predict good to excellent results for most players with batter’s shoulder who undergo proper treatment. Additionally, with the exception of switch hitters, the nonthrowing arm is affected. This can also improve the athlete’s return to play. PMID:24079435

  7. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. (orig.)

  8. [Dyamic screw fixation for slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Treatment results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbroch, M H; Kumm, D A; Rütt, J

    2002-09-01

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis always requires surgical treatment. The operative technique depends on the degree of dislocation and the type of the slip. The goal of treatment is to achieve physeal stability until the epiphyseal plate closes without harming the further femoral growth. In situ fixation is generally recommended for slipped capital femoral epiphyses of a mild degree. For this purpose the technique of dynamic screw fixation (DSF) is applicable using a long cannulated screw with a short thread.DSF is easy to handle, provides sufficient long-term fixation of the epiphysis, does not promote premature closure of the epiphysis, and engenders few complications. Therefore, this technique is also applicable for the prophylactic treatment of the contralateral unaffected hip, which we always perform. Moreover, DSF can be used following gentle reduction of acute epiphysiolysis, if the amount of eventual residual dislocation does not exceed 30 degrees. We report our results with dynamic screw fixation of 29 slipped capital femoral epiphyses of a mild degree, and the prophylactic dynamic screw fixation of 34 unaffected hips. The fixation technique achieved a reliable stabilization with no visible growth disturbance of the femoral neck in all cases. PMID:12232705

  9. Analysis of Femoral Components of Cemented Total Hip- Arthroplasty

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    In cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), material chosen for femoral stem and cross section of stem itself, proved to be critical parameters for, stress distribution in the femoral components, interfacial stresses and micro movements. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), when used as a material for femoral stem, recorded large displacement as compared to Chromium alloy (CoCrMo) stems. This large displacement in case of Ti6Al4V caused the stem to bend inside the cement mantle, thus destroying it. Thus, CoCrMo proved to be a better in cemented THA. Failure in THA may occur at cement-stem or cement-bone interface, thus interfacial stresses and micro movements were analysed in the present study. Comparison between trapezium and circular cross section showed that, femoral stem with trapezium cross section underwent lesser amount of sliding and debonding, at both interfaces, as compared to circular cross section. Moreover, trapezium cross section also generated lower peak stresses in femoral stem and cortical femur. The pres...

  10. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  11. Surgical anatomy of the initial segment of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalovi? Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The lateral circumflex femoral artery usually originates from the lateral side of the initial part of the deep femoral artery, or less frequently from the femoral artery. If it is a branch of the femoral artery, it arises directly above the point of origin of the deep femoral artery. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, its origin distance from the midpoint of the inguinal ligament and the topographical relations of the origin, which have a great significance in clinical work. Material and Methods. A dissection was performed on the autopsy group of 42 thighs, followed by the analysis of anatomical relationships of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. All data were entered into the custom-made protocol, which contained the case number, age and sex, side, topographical- anatomical relations of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, artery dimensions and variations, and the distance between the place of origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. Results. In our study, the lateral circumflex femoral artery most frequently originated from the deep femoral artery, i.e. in 78.6% of cases. In 19.0% of limbs, it originated from the femoral artery, and in one case (2.4% from a common stem of the deep femoral artery and the lateral circumflex femoral artery, coming from the femoral artery. Conclusion. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to know the origin variations of the lateral circumflex femoral artery while planning and performing various surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures in the inguino-femoral region.

  12. Clinical use of femoral artery hemostasis sticking after interventional procedure via femoral artery access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of the use of femoral artery hemostasis sticking V+PAD after the interventional procedure via femoral artery access. Methods: By using random permutation list 80 patients, who decided to receive coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, were randomly selected. Of the 80 patients, hemostasis sticking V + PAD was employed in 40 patients with even numbers (trial group), only manual compression was adopted to stop bleeding in another 40 patients with odd numbers (control group). All the patients were informed about this trial and had to sign a consent letter. The pressure time, the treatment method of access site after hemostasis, the posture in bed, the immobilization time, the comfort degree of patients, the complications of access site prior to discharge, etc. were observed and the results were compared between two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups as respect to age, gender ratios,activated clotting time (ACT) value and blood pressure. However, significantly difference in the compression time and bed rest time existed between the two groups. The compression time in trial group and control group was (7.9 ± 0.5) min and (19.8 ± 5.1) min respectively (P<0.01), while the bed rest time in trial group and control group was (6.1 ± 5.0) hours and (23.9 ± 0.2) hours respectively (P<0.01). All patients in trial group was supine in bed with the head side of the bed raised at 30 degree immediately after the procedure, and the head side of the bed was further raised to 90 degree one hour later. The puncture site was bandaged with conventional compression and immobilization was not employed. Patients could lie in bed with free posture and the patient's comfort degree was greatly improved. During hospitalization no complications related to puncture site occurred in all patients except one obese woman in trial group who developed pseudoaneurysm. Conclusion: Femoral artery hemostasis sticking V + PAD has quick hemostatic effect, it can also improve the degree of patient's comfort and lighten the clinical work load for medical staff. Therefore, it is worth popularizing hemostasis sticking V + PAD in clinical practice. (authors)

  13. Version of Femoral Neck: A Cadaveric Dried Bone Study / Versión del Cuello Femoral: Estudio Cadavérico sobre Huesos Secos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kimaporn, Khamanarong; Wiphawi, Hipkaeo; Piyawan, Chatuparisute; Surachai, Sae-Jung; Kaewjai, Tepsutamarat.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue medir el cuello femoral en fémures humanos de tailandeses adultos. La versión del cuello femoral es muy variable. Es importante conocer la versión de cuello femoral en una población en particular para llevar a cabo con éxito una cirugía reconstructiva. Se utilizaron 216 fémures secos [...] de adultos tailandeses obtenidos de la colección del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Khon Kaen, Tailandia. La anteversión femoral (AFM) media+DE fue de 16,21±5,24. El intervalo de confianza del 95% de la AFM fue entre 15,48 a 16,94. El promedio de intervalos de confianza del 95% en hombres y mujeres fue desde 14,75 a 16,90 y 15,59 a 17,59, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia significativa entre hombres y mujeres en ambos grupos de anteversión y retroversión. La AFM promedio en hombres no mostró diferencia significativa con la anteversión media de las mujeres. Se observó un promedio de -8,22 a -4,80 y -7,71 a -4,47 en el 95% de los intervalos de confianza entre hombres y mujeres, respectivamente. La retroversión promedio en hombres no mostró ninguna diferencia significativa con la retroversión media en las mujeres. Estos grados de AFM deben ser considerados en la planificación de una cirugía reconstructiva del cuello femoral. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to measure the version of femoral neck on dried Thai human femora. The version of femoral neck varies widely. It is important to know the version of femoral neck in a particular population to undertake successful femoral neck reconstructive surgery. Paired 216 dried femora [...] of adult Thais from the bone collection maintained in the Department of Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, were used to measure the version of femoral neck. The mean+SD femoral anteversion (FNA) was 16.21+5.24 degrees. The 95% confidence interval of FNA was from 15.48 to 16.94 degrees. The 95% confidence intervals of male and female average FNA were 14.75 to 16.90 and 15.59 to 17.59 degrees respectively. There was no significance difference of the FNA between males and females in both anteversion and retroversion groups. The average male FNA showed no statistical difference to average female anteversion. The 95% confidence intervals of males and females average retroversion were -8.22 to -4.80 and -7.71 to -4.47 degrees respectively. The average male retroversion showed no statistical difference to average female retroversion. The overall 95% confidence interval of femoral neck anteversion and retroversion were 15.48 to 16.94 degrees and -7.33 to -5.27 with no significant difference between males and females. These degrees of FNA must be considered when the femoral neck reconstructive surgery is planned.

  14. Femoral arteriographic finding in acute ergotism: Report of A Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute ergotism with angiographic demonstration of bilateral femoral artery involvement is reported. A 27-year-old married woman was admitted because of sudden onset of severe pain in both flanks and lower legs, followed by numbness and coldness of the skin on both legs. The attack occurred after the administration of ergot tartrate as postpartum care. Femoral arteriography was performed on 10th day of illness with the Seldinger technic. The femoral arteries were generally smaller in caliber than normal. There was no definite evidence of occlusive disease. Findings were more or less symmetrical and extended to lower legs where only fine branches were visualized. The final diagnosis was diffuse vasospasm due to acute ergotism with secondary occlusion of the arteries of lower leg bilaterally

  15. Detection of femoral artery calcification by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in a 76-year-old male with prostatic cancer. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy showed a linear markedly increased accumulation of radioactivity in both femoral arteries. Radiopharmaceutical uptake in femoral arteries was confirmed with a colour Doppler ultrasonography as femoral artery calcification. This increased uptake of Tc-99m MDP in the patient is strongly related to the calcium deposition. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy depicts a wide spectrum of non-osseous disorders. Abnormal soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP demostrates hormonal, neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, traumatic, excretory and artifactural entities. Hormonal disturbances in calcium metabolism, particularly in hyperparathyroidism, can lead to metastatic calcification and can be visualized with Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Mechanisms leading to increased extraosseous Tc-99m MDP uptake include extracellular fluid expansion, enhanced regional vascularity and permeability, and the presence of other metallic ions (eg, iron and magnesium) are also important (Au)

  16. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-07-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse. PMID:26213697

  17. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Pouya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continuesto be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse.

  18. Distribution of the X-ray density, compressive and tensile breaking strength in the human femoral shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    105 cross sections of 21 femora (13 male, 8 female) were examined with respect to X-ray density, compressive and tensile breaking strength. On X-ray photographs of each specimen, the density measurements were obtained with photographic equidenses in 4 sites: anterior, medial, posterior and lateral. Then the compressive and tensile breaking strength were determined on 817 standardized samples from the same sites.The results show, that the X-ray density, compressive and tensile breaking strength respectively represent characteristic features of their distributions, and that these three factors are correlated with one another. From these facts it is derived, that the resultant force in the femoral shaft may be within the cross section of femur, and that the functional adaptation of the bone on its mechanical stress is reached by several factors of bone materials at the same time. (author)

  19. Trans-tibial guide wire placement for femoral tunnel in single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skand Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The free hand trans-tibial creation of the femoral tunnel leads to satisfactory coronal obliquity, but it is difficult to recreate anatomic femoral tunnel by this method as the tunnel is consistently anterior in the sagittal plane.

  20. Stress fracture of the femoral neck in a child (stress fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral neck stress fracture is extremely rare in childhood. We report a case of femoral neck stress fracture in an 11-year-old girl. Differentials diagnosis and a brief review of the literature follow. (orig.)

  1. Posterior scleral tuberculoma: case report / Tuberculoma escleral posterior: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto Velasco e, Cruz; Fernando, Chahud; Rodrigo, Feldman; Patricia Mitiko Santello, Akaishi.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formação de granuloma tuberculoso na esclera posterior é um evento extremamente raro. Os poucos relatos de acometimento escleral na tuberculose referem-se a casos de esclerite anterior. No presente trabalho é descrito um caso de granuloma escleral posterior em um paciente portador de artrite reuma [...] tóide. A lesão provocou descolamento da retina e perda visual e só foi diagnosticada após enucleação por suspeita de melanoma de coróide. Abstract in english Posterior scleral tuberculoma formation is an extremely rare condition. The few reports on scleral involvement in tuberculosis refer to cases of anterior scleritis. In the present manuscript we describe a patient who had rheumatoid arthritis and developed a large posterior scleral tuberculoma. The l [...] esion provoked retinal detachment and visual loss and was diagnosed only after enucleation due to a misdiagnosis of choroidal melanoma.

  2. Hypertensive posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome causing posterior fossa edema and hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Hodis, Brendan; Wassef, Shafik N; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2014-02-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well characterized entity resulting from the inability of cerebral autoregulation to adequately protect the brain from uncontrolled hypertension. It primarily affects the occipital lobes, but can also involve the structures in the posterior fossa including the brainstem and cerebellum. Treatment usually consists of strict blood pressure control, but more aggressive management may be indicated with acutely worsening neurological status. We present a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy that resulted in hydrocephalus and brainstem compression necessitating surgical decompression requiring ventriculostomy and suboccipital craniectomy. In rare cases, PRES can present with severe brainstem compression requiring emergent posterior fossa decompression. When brainstem signs are present on exam, emergent posterior fossa decompression may be safer than ventriculostomy alone. PMID:24126039

  3. Mordida cruzada posterior: uma classificação mais didática Posterior crossbite: a more didactic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Locks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma nova classificação de mordida cruzada posterior, sendo esta mais didática e de fácil entendimento, diferindo das demais em sua nomenclatura, preservando, no entanto, os princípios fundamentais que regem a Ortodontia. Essa classificação torna o processo de diagnóstico da mordida cruzada posterior sistematizado, tornando-o mais preciso, auxiliando o clínico na elaboração de um plano de tratamento adequado e, como conseqüência, levando a um prognóstico mais favorável dessa má oclusão.The aim of this work is to present a new posterior crossbite classification, being this more didactic and of easy understanding, differing from the others in your nomenclature, preserving, however, the basic principles that govern the Orthodontics. This new classification makes the posterior crossbite diagnosis process systematized and accurate, assisting the clinician in the elaboration of a suitable treatment plan and as consequence, leading to more favorable prognostic of this malocclusion.

  4. Open femoral hernia repair: one skin incision for all

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    El-Masry Nabil S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral hernias are relatively uncommon, however they are the most common incarcerated abdominal hernia, with strangulation of a viscus carrying significant mortality. Classically three approaches are described to open femoral hernia repair: Lockwood's infra-inguinal, Lotheissen's trans-inguinal and McEvedy's high approach. Each approach describes a separate skin incision and dissection to access the femoral sac. The decision as to which approach to adopt, predominantly dependent on the suspicion of finding strangulated bowel, is often a difficult one and in our opinion an unnecessary one. Methods We propose a technique for open femoral hernia repair that involves a single skin incision 1 cm above the medial half of the inguinal ligament that allows all of the above approaches to the hernia sac depending on the operative findings. Thus the repair of simple femoral hernias can be performed from below the inguinal ligament. If found, inguinal hernias can be repaired. More importantly, resection of compromised bowel can be achieved by accessing the peritoneal cavity with division of the linea semilunaris 4 cm above the inguinal ligament. This avoids compromise of the inguinal canal, and with medial retraction of the rectus abdominis muscle enables access to the peritoneal cavity and compromised bowel. Discussion This simple technique minimises the preoperative debate as to which incision will allow the best approach to the femoral hernia sac, allow for alteration to a simple inguinal hernia repair if necessary, and more importantly obviate the need for further skin incisions if compromised bowel is encountered that requires resection.

  5. Biophysical stimulation in osteonecrosis of the femoral head

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    Massari Leo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is the endpoint of a disease process that results from insufficient blood flow and bone-tissue necrosis, leading to joint instability, collapse of the femoral head, arthritis of the joint, and total hip replacement. Pain is the most frequent clinical symptom. Both bone tissue and cartilage suffer when osteonecrosis of the femoral head develops. Stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs has been shown to be useful for enhancing bone repair and for exerting a chondroprotective effect on articular cartilage. Two Italian studies on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with PEMFs were presented in this review. In the first study, 68 patients suffering from avascular necrosis of the femoral head were treated with PEMFs in combination with core decompression and autologous bone grafts. The second one is a retrospective analysis of the results of treatment with PEMFs of 76 hips in 66 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. In both studies clinical information and diagnostic imaging were collected at the beginning of the treatment and at the time of follow up. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. Both authors hypothesize that the short-term effect of PEMF stimulation may be to protect the articular cartilage from the catabolic effect of inflammation and subchondral bone-marrow edema. The long-term effect of PEMF stimulation may be to promote osteogenic activity at the necrotic area and prevent trabecular fracture and subchondral bone collapse. PEMF stimulation represents an important therapeutic opportunity to resolve the Ficat stage-I or II disease or at least to delay the time until joint replacement becomes necessary.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of a synthetic femoral spiral fracture model: Do end caps improve retrograde flexible intramedullary nail fixation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Lucas M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastic Stable intramedullary Nailing (ESIN of dislocated diaphyseal femur fractures has become an accepted method for the treatment in children and adolescents with open physis. Studies focused on complications of this technique showed problems regarding stability, usually in complex fracture types such as spiral fractures and in older children weighing > 40 kg. Biomechanical in vitro testing was performed to evaluate the stability of simulated spiral femoral fractures after retrograde flexible titanium intramedullary nail fixation with and without End caps. Methods Eight synthetic adolescent-size femoral bone models (Sawbones® with a medullar canal of 10 mm and a spiral fracture of 100 mm length identically sawn by the manufacturer were used for each group. Both groups underwent retrograde fixation with two 3.5 mm Titanium C-shaped nails inserted from medial and lateral entry portals. In the End Cap group the ends of the nails of the eight specimens were covered with End Caps (Synthes Company, Oberdorf, Switzerland at the distal entry. Results Beside posterior-anterior stress (4.11 Nm/mm vs. 1.78 Nm/mm, p Conclusion In this biomechanical study the use of End Caps did not improve the stability of the intramedullary flexible nail osteosynthesis.

  7. Agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas Agenesia do arco posterior do atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Torriani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To illustrate the radiological findings and review the current literature concerning a rare congenital abnormality of the posterior arch of the atlas. CASE REPORT: An adult female without neurological symptoms presented with an absent posterior arch of the atlas, examined with plain films and helical computerized tomography. Complete agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas is a rare entity that can be easily identified by means of plain films. Although it is generally asymptomatic, atlantoaxial instability and neurological deficits may occur because of structural instability. Computerized tomography provides a means of assessing the extent of this abnormality and can help evaluate the integrity of neural structures. Although considered to be rare entities, defects of the posterior arch of the atlas may be discovered as incidental asymptomatic findings in routine cervical radiographs. Familiarity with this abnormality may aid medical professionals in the correct management of these cases.OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados radiológicos e revisar a literatura de uma anormalidade congênita rara do arco posterior do atlas. RELATO DE CASO: Uma paciente adulta sem queixas neurológicas apresentava ausência do arco posterior do atlas, examinada através de radiografias simples e tomografia computadorizada helicoidal. A agenesia completa do arco posterior do atlas é uma entidade rara que pode ser facilmente identificada através de radiografias simples. Apesar de ser geralmente assintomática, instabilidade atlanto-axial e queixas neurológicas podem ocorrer devido à instabilidade estrutural. A tomografia computadorizada possibilita a avaliação da extensão desta anormalidade e pode auxiliar na análise da integridade de estruturas neurais. Apesar de serem considerados entidades raras, os defeitos do arco posterior do atlas podem ser achados incidentais em radiografias cervicais de rotina. A familiaridade com esta anormalidade pode auxiliar profissionais da área médica no correto manejo destes pacientes.

  8. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The posterior sagittal, transphincteric approach to treat different pelvic problems has been known since last century. Although some surgeons have embraced it and have enthusiastically advocated it s use, it has never become an overly popular technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, both from an historical perspective and from the authors experience. The international literature on the subject was reviewed since 1877 up to the present date. A retrospective evaluation of the authors experience was conducted, and the results reviewed. Specific attention was paid to the final result obtained in the treatment of the original condition, surgical complications and the effect of the surgical approach on bowel and urinary control. The experiential review included 114 cases. They were divided into two groups. A included 85 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal transphincteric approach that included 49 cases of Hirschsprung s disease (primary 21, secondary 28, 15 presacral masses; 10 rectaltumors; 7 acquired rectogenito- urinary fistulae; and 4 cases of idiopathic rectal prolapse. Group B included 29 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal trans-anorectal approach, in which theanterior wall of the rectum and the sphincter was divided as well.. This group included 12 cases of urogenital sinuses; 8 acquired urethral stricture or atresia after trauma; and 9 posterior urethralmasses. Post-operative bowel control was normal all cases except in those patients whose basiccondition had resulted in fecal incontinence, or who had sustained an irreversible injury prior tothe operation. Urinary control was normal except in cases with pre-operative incontinence. Complications included recurrence ofrecto-genitourinary fistulae in 3 cases, recto-cutaneous fistula in 3 Hirschsprung s patients and 2 partial wound dehisences. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach represents a useful technical alternative. It seems to be particularly useful to treat complications after surgery for Hirschsprung s disease, pre-sacral masses, acquired recto-genito-urinary fistula and idiopathic rectal prolapse. Thetransanorectal approach provides excellent exposure to the posterior urethra and vagina. Boweland urinary control are not compromised.

  9. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Sang Ho; Kim, Hyoug Ho [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Ho; Lee, Jeong Sang [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Abnormal dilations of arteries or veins are called aneurysm. There is a pseudoaneurysm which does not have the structure of arterial wall. The patient with a pseusoaneurysm should be treated as soon as possible to avoid potential dangers from it. Here, we made a model of a femoral pseudoaneurysm to study its hemodynamics, which help to develop new treatment methods that reduce a recurrence and side effects from treatments. We interpreted hemodynamics in a femoral pseudoaneurysm and found that there is continuous and repetitive pressure to the pseudoaneurysm wall and that the pressure is bigger in the 90 .deg. model than in the 45 .deg. model.

  10. Isolated intrauterine femoral fracture in an otherwise normal fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioz, Dagistan Tolga; Koken, Gulengul Nadirgil; Koken, Resit; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Cevrioglu, Arif Serhan

    2008-02-01

    Multiple fractures of the long bones can be seen in the intrauterine period as a result of disorders such as skeletal dysplasias or maternal trauma, but isolated intrauterine femoral fracture is an extremely rare condition. Congenital short femur should be kept in mind, especially during the intrauterine period in the differential diagnosis. We report a case diagnosed as isolated femoral fracture in the 34th gestational week with post-partum confirmation of the diagnosis by X-rays and physical examination. PMID:18226137

  11. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced. PMID:24110820

  12. Appearance of trabecular bone in the femoral neck (Singh index)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 89 consecutive cases trabecular bone mass of the second or third lumbar vertebra was subjectively estimated in post mortem specimens, using frontal sections 1 cm in thickness. The trabecular appearence of the femoral neck (Singh index) at radiography and the thickness of the femoral cortical bone were also determined. Agreement between vertebral bone mass and either of the two radiologic indices was present in only two thirds of the cases, and most often these indices underestimated the presence of vertebral osteoporosis. The results indicate that neither of these radiologic indices can be used for clinical guidance of the diagnosis of vertebral osteoporsis in the individual case. (Auth.)

  13. Role of drugs in fractures of the femoral neck

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Richard; Rashiq, S

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the role of drugs in the rising incidence of fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly a case-control study inquiring about the use of prescribed drugs was carried out. The drug histories of 102 patients with femoral neck fractures were obtained from general practice records and compared with those of 204 controls matched for age and sex from the same practices. At the time of fracture 41 patients with fractures and 126 controls were receiving at least one prescription (rela...

  14. Optimization of a Cemented Femoral Prosthesis Considering Bone Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Leandro Luis; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Schnaid, Fernando; Zanrosso, Crisley Dossin; Marczak, Rogério José

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a numerical methodology for minimizing the bone loss in human femur submitted to total hip replacement (THR) procedure with focus on cemented femoral stem. Three-dimensional computational models were used to describe the femoral bone behavior. An optimization procedure using the genetic algorithm (GA) method was applied in order to minimize the bone loss, considering the geometry and the material of the prosthesis as well as the design of the stem. Internal and external bone remodeling were analyzed numerically. The numerical method proposed here showed that the bone mass loss could be reduced by 24%, changing the design parameters. PMID:26540616

  15. The axial view of the patello-femoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new and simple method for the axial view of the patello-femoral joint is described. The patients are examined in the erect position with a standardized inclination of the lower leg of 150. If a high or a low vertical position of the patella occurs, the device allows a change of the inclination of the lower leg with optimum axial views as a result in more than 94% of 300 knee examinations. The device is recommended for standardized and reproducible examinations of the patello-femoral joint. (orig.)

  16. Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If it would be possible to detect lack of flow and/or the development of ischemia in bone, we might have a way of predicting whether a broken bone will heal. We established microdialysis (MD) and laser Doppler (LD) flow measurement in the human femoral head in order to be able to detect ischemia and measure changes in blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 9 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthrosis, two MD catheters were inserted into the femoral head throu...

  17. Experiences in total knee arthtroplasty after distal femoral varus osteotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Röschke; Alexander Schuh; Wolfgang Hönle

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is only little information available about total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following distal femoral varus osteotomy (DFVO). The aim of our study was to show our experiences and mid-term results of TKA after a previous DFVO. Material and method: In a retrospective study we identified 36 consecutive patients who had undergone TKA after a previous distal femoral varus osteotomy. The average duration of follow-up after the TKA was 8.2 years (min: 5.0, max: 9.2). X-rays were take...

  18. Modul femur prosthesis for major upper femoral bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Koelner modul femur prosthesis MECROSET represents a device to be composed of standardised units. It allows the surgeon dealing with large bone defects of the upper femoral end to meet the special local requirements by building up the appropriate implant. This device may cope with bone losses of up to 22 cms, measured down from the tip of the major trochanter. Combination with ordinary cups is possible. Indications proven are upper femoral defects following disease, exchange of prosthesis and trauma. The ten patients thus provided did not show any complications during a 2-year period of observation. Long-term results are still to be awaited. (orig.)

  19. No benefit of a proximal stem centralizer in cementing of a femoral prosthesis in human cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Lind-Hansen, Thomas; Aleksyniene, Ramune; Nyengaard, Jens R; Nielsen, Poul T; Søballe, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose A proximal stem centralizer may be beneficial regarding cementing pressures, cement penetration, and stem alignment. We measured these parameters when cementing a mat-surfaced femoral component with and without the use of a proximal stem centralizer. Material and methods 8 femoral prostheses with proximal centralizers and 8 femoral prostheses without proximal centralizers were cemented according to third-generation cementing technique in 8 pairs of embalmed cadaveric femor...

  20. High origin of the deep femoral artery: a case report and literature review / Origem alta da artéria femoral profunda: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vishal, Kumar; Veerannasetty Vinay, Kumar; Bukkambudhi Virupakshamurthy, Murlimanju; Natanahalli Sathyanarayana, Naveen.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações arteriais no triângulo femoral têm sido pouco relatadas na literatura. No presente artigo, relatou-se um caso de origem alta da artéria femoral profunda, que estava se originando pouco abaixo do ligamento inguinal. Também foi observado que a artéria femoral circunflexa originava-se diretam [...] ente da artéria femoral, ao invés de ser originada da artéria femoral profunda. Discutiu-se sobre anatomia, base embriológica e implicações clínicas dessas variações junto com uma revisão da literatura pertinente. A importância do conhecimento sobre essas variações no quadro das intervenções diagnósticas e terapêuticas é discutida. Abstract in english Arterial variations of the femoral triangle are rarely reported in the literature. In the present article, we have reported a case of high origin of the deep femoral artery, which was originating just lower to the inguinal ligament. It was also observed that the lateral circumflex femoral artery aro [...] se directly from the femoral artery instead from the deep femoral artery. We have discussed the anatomy, embryological basis, and clinical implications of these variations along with relevant literature review. The importance of knowledge about these variations in therapeutic and diagnostic interventions is discussed.