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Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species.

Darrigran G; Damborenea C; Tambussi A

2011-02-01

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Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species. PMID:21437394

Darrigran, G; Damborenea, C; Tambussi, A

2011-02-01

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Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) na Patagônia: o papel potencial da mudança climática em sua dispersão e estabelecimento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species.Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) mostra um grande alcance de distribuição natural na América do Sul, chegando até os 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Esta espécie foi introduzida propositalmente no sudeste da Ásia, por volta de 1980 e, mais tarde, se submeteu a uma dispersão de forma rápida intencional ou acidental em muitos países da região. Também foi introduzido na América do Norte, América Central e Havaí. Nesta contribuição se confere a presença de P. canaliculata na Patagônia e se considera a influência das alterações climáticas no novo estabelecimento desta espécie no local referido. Três coletas (entre setembro de 2004 até abril de 2005) foram realizadas (38º 58' 20.2" S and 68º 11' 27.3" W). Nelas encontraram-se dois exemplares adultos de P. canaliculada e numerosas desovas. P. canaliculata distribui-se naturalmente nas regiões das Bacias do Prata e Amazonas. O limite sul desta espécie foi estabelecido nas isotermas de 14 ºC e 16 ºC na província de Buenos Aires, com precipitações de 900 a 600 mm. Também são analisadas as variações na temperatura anual e a precipitação na Patagônia. As médias de temperatura mostram um aumento no decorrer de dois anos. Modificações importantes no regime de precipitação no norte da Patagônia poderiam ser benéficas para o estabelecimento das populações de P. canaliculata nesta nova área, onde as precipitações aumentaram o suficiente até atingir os valores similares aos da região mais austral citada para a distribuição desta espécie.

G. Darrigran; C. Damborenea; A. Tambussi

2011-01-01

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Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

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Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

1990-01-01

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Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

Mesquita, Eliane de Fátima Marques de; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos dos Santos; Santos, Jefferson Andrade dos

1990-01-01

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Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

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Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

1990-01-01

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Physiological response to low temperature in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold hardiness of the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, varies seasonally. We investigated lethal factors and physiological changes arising from exposure of P. canaliculata to low temperatures. Snails did not survive freezing. The supercooling point of cold-acclimated (cold tolerant) snails (-6.6+/-0.8 degrees C) did not differ significantly from that of non-acclimated ones (-7.1+/-1.5 degrees C) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, snails died even under more moderately low temperatures approaching 0 degrees C. These results indicate that indirect chilling injury is a factor in the death of P. canaliculata at low temperatures. Regardless of whether the snails were acclimated to low temperatures, all of the dead, and even some of the snails still alive at 0 degrees C, had injured mantles, indicating that the mantle may be the organ most susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. The concentration of glucose in the posterior chamber of the kidney and concentration of glycerol in the digestive gland were significantly higher in cold-acclimated snails than in non-acclimated ones, suggesting carbohydrate metabolic pathways are altered in snails during cold acclimation. PMID:19648400

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

2009-08-01

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Physiological response to low temperature in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cold hardiness of the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, varies seasonally. We investigated lethal factors and physiological changes arising from exposure of P. canaliculata to low temperatures. Snails did not survive freezing. The supercooling point of cold-acclimated (cold tolerant) snails (-6.6+/-0.8 degrees C) did not differ significantly from that of non-acclimated ones (-7.1+/-1.5 degrees C) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, snails died even under more moderately low temperatures approaching 0 degrees C. These results indicate that indirect chilling injury is a factor in the death of P. canaliculata at low temperatures. Regardless of whether the snails were acclimated to low temperatures, all of the dead, and even some of the snails still alive at 0 degrees C, had injured mantles, indicating that the mantle may be the organ most susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. The concentration of glucose in the posterior chamber of the kidney and concentration of glycerol in the digestive gland were significantly higher in cold-acclimated snails than in non-acclimated ones, suggesting carbohydrate metabolic pathways are altered in snails during cold acclimation.

Matsukura K; Tsumuki H; Izumi Y; Wada T

2009-08-01

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Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an alb (more) uminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

Mesquita, Eliana de Fátima Marques de; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos dos Santos; Santos, Jefferson Andrade dos

1990-01-01

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Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminif (more) erous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

Mesquita, Eliana de Fátima Marques de; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos dos Santos; Santos, Jefferson Andrade dos

1990-01-01

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Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

1990-01-01

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Lipoproteins of the egg perivitelline fluid of Pomacea canaliculata snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lipid and protein composition of the perivitelline fluid of the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata was investigated. Two lipoproteins (PV 1 and PV 2) and one lipoprotein fraction (PV 3) were detected for the first time in gastropods. They represent 57.0, 7.5, and 35.5% of the egg total proteins, respectively. PV 1 is a glyco-carotene-protein complex with characteristics of a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). It has 0.33% lipids, mainly free sterols and phospholipids. The particle has a MW of 300 Kd and is composed of three subunits of 35, 32, and 28 Kd, respectively. PV 2 particle is a VHDL of 400 Kd and 3.75% lipids. The major lipid classes are free sterols and phospholipids and also have significant quantities of energy-providing triacylglycerides and free fatty acids. It is composed of two apoproteins of 67 and 31 Kd. PV 3 density corresponds to a high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It was fractionated into two subfractions "h" and "p". Fraction "h" contains 5.16% lipids, mainly free sterols, phospholipids, and free fatty acids, and two particles of 100 and 64 Kd. Dissociating electrophoresis showed two subunits of 34 and 29 Kd. Fraction "p" is composed of a single particle of 26 Kd that contains 9.5% lipids, which represents 30% of the total egg lipids. It has high levels of a carotenoid pigment. Besides it contains free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, sterified sterols, and triacylglycerides. These three fractions are probably the major supply of lipids and amino acids for the developing embryo.

Garin CF; Heras H; Pollero RJ

1996-12-01

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[Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].  

Science.gov (United States)

The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text]. PMID:19459504

Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan

2009-02-28

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[Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text].

Zhou XN; Zhang Y; Lv S

2009-02-01

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Molecular characteristics of HSC70 gene and its expression in the golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The heat shock cognate 70 (PHSC70) gene of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, was cloned and characterized, which was 2275base pairs (bp) containing a single 1950bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a polypeptide of 650 amino acids. Genomic DNA of PHSC70 in P. canaliculata confirmed the presence of nine introns located at the coding region as well as the 5?-terminal untranslated region (UTR). BLAST analysis revealed that the PHSC70 gene shared high similarity with other known HSC70 genes. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a separate clustering of the PHSC70 with constitutive members from other mollusk species. Expression of PHSC70 in different tissues (gill, digestive gland, kidney and foot muscle) of the snails exposed to high (36°C) and low (9°C) temperatures was investigated. The results showed that PHSC70 transcript levels were constitutively modulated in non-stressed condition in above tissues. After the cold treatment, PHSC70 transcript levels decreased significantly in the gill, but had no obvious changes in the digestive gland, kidney and foot muscle. However, PHSC70 transcript levels increased significantly in all the tissues under the heat shock condition. In addition, PHSC70 protein was detected in different tissues from both young and adult snails by a Western blot. The result of quantitative immunofluorescence indicated that a large amount of PHSC70 proteins localize in the gill lamella cells. These results strongly suggested that PHSC70 may play an important role in mediating the physiological responses to the high temperature.

Zheng G; Dong S; Hou Y; Yang K; Yu X

2012-08-01

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Pomacea canaliculata egg mass inducing collector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a pomacea canaliculata egg mass inducing collector which comprises a cylindrical egg bed and support legs, wherein pomacea canaliculata toll bait can be fixed on the cylindrical egg bed the cylindrical egg bed has a head which can be exposed above the water level and the support legs are arranged under the cylindrical egg bed. The utility model can be used for inducing the pomacea canaliculata for centralized egg laying, is suitable for the dynamic monitoring of the egg laying of the pomacea canaliculata and the centralized treatment and killing of the egg mass, and can be used for monitoring, prediction and integrated control of the Pomacea canaliculata. The utility model has the advantages of simple use method and convenient manufacture, and is convenient for popularized application to wide rural areas.

HUADI WANG

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The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

18

Changes in chemical components in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in relation to the development of its cold hardiness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is an invasive freshwater snail. It increases its cold hardiness before winter. However, the physiological mechanism of cold hardiness in molluscs is poorly understood, especially in freshwater molluscs. In this study, we examined the changes in low molecular weight compounds, glycogen and lipids, in the body of P. canaliculata in association with the development of cold hardiness. When snails without cold hardiness were experimentally cold-acclimated, the amount of glycerol, glutamine, and carnosine increased, while glycogen and phenylalanine decreased. Overwintering cold-tolerant snails collected from a drained paddy field in November also showed increased glycerol in their bodies with decreasing glycogen concentration, compared to summer snails collected from a submerged field. Water content also decreased during the cold acclimation, although the water loss was minimal. These results indicate that the freshwater snail, P. canaliculata enhances cold hardiness by accumulation of some kinds of low molecular weight compounds in its body as some insects do. However, the actual function of each low molecular compound is still unknown. PMID:18190902

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

2007-12-08

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Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae) from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae)  

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Full Text Available Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. from the intestine of the prosobranch mollusc Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801), is described. The host snail was collected from a lenitic biotope belonging to the Riachuelo basin (Corrientes province, Argentina) during 1985-1986. So far the species of the genus Catadiscus Cohn, 1904 have been recorded in amphibians and reptiles. This is the first instance of a species of that genus parasitizing a mollusc.

Monika Inés Hamann

1992-01-01

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Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae) from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. from the intestine of the prosobranch mollusc Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801), is described. The host snail was collected from a lenitic biotope belonging to the Riachuelo basin (Corrientes province, Argentina) during 1985-1986. So far the species of the genus Catadiscus Cohn, 1904 have been recorded in amphibians and reptiles. This is the first instance of a species of that genus parasitizing a mollusc.

Hamann, Monika Inés

1992-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited.

Ruamthum W; Visetson S; Milne JR; Bullangpoti V

2010-01-01

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Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

2010-01-01

23

Kit and method for detecting angiostrongylus cantonensis in pomacea canaliculata  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a kit for detecting angiostrongylus cantonensis in pomacea canaliculata. The kit comprises (A) CTAB lysis buffer ( containing 2% CTAB, 20 m mol/L EDTA, 0.1mol/L Tris-Cl, 1.4mol/L NaCl) (B) mercaptoethanol (C) protease K (20mg/mL) (D) phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (the ratio of the three componets is 25:24:1) (E) Tris- EDTA buffer (10 m mol/L Tris-Cl, 1m mol/L EDTA, pH 8.0) (F) 2*Master PCR Mix and (G) a primer (10 mu mol/L). Furthermore, the invention also discloses a method for detecting angiostrongylus cantonensis in the pomacea canaliculata. The invention has the advantages that the kit has high sensitivity, strong specificity and good repetitiveness, and the detection method is simple and practical, provides convenience for carrying out detection on pomacea canaliculata molecules for the primary level and provides effective means for detection of winkles after the angiostrongylus cantonensis disease breaks out.

LING HU; HEXIANG LIU; SHAN LU; FURONG WEI; YI ZHANG; XIAONONG ZHOU

24

Occurrence of a blood group A-like substance in eggs of the prosobranch snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the eggs of the prosobranch snails Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea insularum a blood group A-like substance has been detected by anti-A from the snails Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa and Cepaea nemoralis.

Uhlenbruck G; Steinhausen G; Cheesman DF; Helm B

1976-03-01

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REGISTRO DE POMACEA CANALICULATA (LAMARCK, 1822) (AMPULLARIIDAE), MOLUSCO EXOTICO PARA EL NORTE DE CHILE RECORD OF POMACEA CANALICULATA (LAMARCK, 1822) (AMPULLARIIDAE), EXOTIC MOLLUSK FOR TO NORTH CHILE  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo informamos acerca de la presencia en la costa de Choapa (IV Región de Coquimbo, Chile), de un molusco de agua dulce Pomacea canaliculata (Lammarck, 1822) (Ampullariidae). Se describe la morfología, habitat y relaciones con otros moluscos de agua dulce. Se discute su potencial rol con relación a la zoonosis parasitaria.In this paper we inform about the presence in the coast of Choapa (IV Region of Coquimbo, Chile), of a non-local freshwater mollusk -Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Ampullariidae). We describe its morphology, habitat and relations with other freshwater mollusks. We also discuss its potential role as link to the zoonosis parasitaria.

Douglas Jackson; Donald Jackson

2009-01-01

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[Characteristics of Pomacea canaliculata reproduction under natural conditions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: A three-year breeding experiment was conducted in a paddy field in Zixing City of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the characteristics of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) reproduction under natural conditions. Under the natural conditions in southern Hunan Province, the snails could approximately reproduce three generations per year. The average sexual maturity periods of the first, the second, and the third generation of the female snails were 59.3, 45.4 and 213.0 days, respectively, and those of the male snails were 4.3 days earlier than the females'. The natural sex ratio of the females to the males was 1.54:1. The average copulation duration was 19.2 hours, but spawning did not always occur after each time of copulation. The number of the egg masses produced by the females per month was significantly positively correlated with the mean monthly air temperature (r = 0.756) , while the average incubation duration of the egg masses was significantly negatively correlated with the daily air temperature (gamma = -0.726x + 23.064, r = -0.980). The average incubation time of the egg masses was 20.7 days, average incubation rate was 44.1%, and the average life expectancy of the female and male snails was 2.40 and 1.98 years, respectively. A female snail in its lifetime could averagely spawn 13764 eggs and reproduce 6070 young snails. PMID:22586987

Liu, Jun; He, Yue-Jin; Tan, Ji-Cai; Xu, Cheng-Xiang; Zhong, Lang; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Liao, Qian-Guo

2012-02-01

27

[Characteristics of Pomacea canaliculata reproduction under natural conditions].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: A three-year breeding experiment was conducted in a paddy field in Zixing City of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the characteristics of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) reproduction under natural conditions. Under the natural conditions in southern Hunan Province, the snails could approximately reproduce three generations per year. The average sexual maturity periods of the first, the second, and the third generation of the female snails were 59.3, 45.4 and 213.0 days, respectively, and those of the male snails were 4.3 days earlier than the females'. The natural sex ratio of the females to the males was 1.54:1. The average copulation duration was 19.2 hours, but spawning did not always occur after each time of copulation. The number of the egg masses produced by the females per month was significantly positively correlated with the mean monthly air temperature (r = 0.756) , while the average incubation duration of the egg masses was significantly negatively correlated with the daily air temperature (gamma = -0.726x + 23.064, r = -0.980). The average incubation time of the egg masses was 20.7 days, average incubation rate was 44.1%, and the average life expectancy of the female and male snails was 2.40 and 1.98 years, respectively. A female snail in its lifetime could averagely spawn 13764 eggs and reproduce 6070 young snails.

Liu J; He YJ; Tan JC; Xu CX; Zhong L; Wang ZG; Liao QG

2012-02-01

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[Investigation on snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Panyu region of Guangzhou City].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the natural infection status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City. METHODS: The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata captured from the field were digested with the artificial stomach fluid. The third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were examined and counted under a microscope. The collected third-stage larvae were used to infect SD rats. RESULTS: A total of 367 Achatina fulica and 357 Pomacea canaliculata were examined. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica was 22.62%, with a mean intensity of 57.00 larvae per positive snail. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata was 3.08%, with a mean intensity of 1.64 larvae per positive snail. The infection rates of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica from Dagang, Shiqi, Hualong, and Lanhe towns and Nansha District, were 13.33%, 15.00%, 20.93%, 73.68% and 8.41%, respectively. Those in Pomacea canaliculata were 5.88%, 2.88%, 1.89%, 0% and 3.96%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A. cantonensis infection exists in Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City, and the infection in Achatina fulica is more serious than that in Pomacea canaliculata. The infection rates of the snails among five sites are different.

Chen CX; He HF; Yin Z; Zhou JH; Li SQ; Li FH; Chen JM; Zhu WJ; Zhong XM; Yang KY; Liu GP; Jia X; Chen WT; Li XM; Chen YC; Luo XD; Chen DX; Shen HX

2012-06-01

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REGISTRO DE POMACEA CANALICULATA (LAMARCK, 1822) (AMPULLARIIDAE), MOLUSCO EXOTICO PARA EL NORTE DE CHILE/ RECORD OF POMACEA CANALICULATA (LAMARCK, 1822) (AMPULLARIIDAE), EXOTIC MOLLUSK FOR TO NORTH CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo informamos acerca de la presencia en la costa de Choapa (IV Región de Coquimbo, Chile), de un molusco de agua dulce Pomacea canaliculata (Lammarck, 1822) (Ampullariidae). Se describe la morfología, habitat y relaciones con otros moluscos de agua dulce. Se discute su potencial rol con relación a la zoonosis parasitaria. Abstract in english In this paper we inform about the presence in the coast of Choapa (IV Region of Coquimbo, Chile), of a non-local freshwater mollusk -Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Ampullariidae). We describe its morphology, habitat and relations with other freshwater mollusks. We also discuss its potential role as link to the zoonosis parasitaria.

Jackson, Douglas; Jackson, Donald

2009-01-01

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Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve) (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae)/ Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve) (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856). Em amostragens (more) realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da família Naididae. As espécies Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero) nivea Aiyer, 1929 e Dero (Dero) sawayai Marcus, 1943 apresentaram a maior abundância relativa (43,68%, 12,32% e 10,08%, respectivamente). Espécimes de Haemonais waldvogeli foram encontrados em todos os períodos sazonais, o que demonstra sua afinidade com este tipo de substrato. Os resultados indicam que várias espécies de Naididae encontram no umbílico da concha (que contém detrito fino) um habitat favorável para seu estabelecimento. Abstract in english The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856). Samples were (more) collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%). In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero) nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero) sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively). Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus) a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.

Gorni, Guilherme R.; Alves, Roberto da G.

2006-12-01

31

Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve) (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae) Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve) (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856). Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%). In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero) nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero) sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively). Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus) a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856). Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da família Naididae. As espécies Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero) nivea Aiyer, 1929 e Dero (Dero) sawayai Marcus, 1943 apresentaram a maior abundância relativa (43,68%, 12,32% e 10,08%, respectivamente). Espécimes de Haemonais waldvogeli foram encontrados em todos os períodos sazonais, o que demonstra sua afinidade com este tipo de substrato. Os resultados indicam que várias espécies de Naididae encontram no umbílico da concha (que contém detrito fino) um habitat favorável para seu estabelecimento.

Guilherme R. Gorni; Roberto da G. Alves

2006-01-01

32

On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822) collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; (more) operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86); aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72). Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.

Thiengo, Silvana C.; Borda, Carlos E.; Araújo, J. L. Barros

1993-03-01

33

On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822) collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86); aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72). Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.

Silvana C. Thiengo; Carlos E. Borda; J. L. Barros Araújo

1993-01-01

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Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of "100 of the world's worst invasive alien species". The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310-0.966 and 0.523-0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

Chen L; Xu H; Li H; Wu J; Ding H; Liu Y

2011-01-01

35

Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of "100 of the world's worst invasive alien species". The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310-0.966 and 0.523-0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. PMID:22016640

Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

2011-09-16

36

Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

Lian Chen; Haigen Xu; Hong Li; Jun Wu; Hui Ding; Yan Liu

2011-01-01

37

Histopathological effects of contaminated sediments on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata, Lamarck 1822).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pomacea canaliculata were exposed experimentally to contaminated sediments from a tributary of the Mae Klong River, Thailand, for 3 months. The highest concentration of Cr, Zn and Fe accumulated in the digestive gland while the gill exhibited the highest concentration of Cu. In addition, histopathological changes (increased mucus vacuoles, loss of cilia, dilation of cells in the epithelial cells of digestive tract organs, and an increase in the number of dark granules in the digestive cells) were observed. The gill exhibited loss of cilia, wider hemolymph space, and degeneration of columnar epithelial cells.

Kruatrachue M; Sumritdee C; Pokethitiyook P; Singhakaew S

2011-06-01

38

Histopathological effects of contaminated sediments on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata, Lamarck 1822).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomacea canaliculata were exposed experimentally to contaminated sediments from a tributary of the Mae Klong River, Thailand, for 3 months. The highest concentration of Cr, Zn and Fe accumulated in the digestive gland while the gill exhibited the highest concentration of Cu. In addition, histopathological changes (increased mucus vacuoles, loss of cilia, dilation of cells in the epithelial cells of digestive tract organs, and an increase in the number of dark granules in the digestive cells) were observed. The gill exhibited loss of cilia, wider hemolymph space, and degeneration of columnar epithelial cells. PMID:21516297

Kruatrachue, M; Sumritdee, C; Pokethitiyook, P; Singhakaew, S

2011-04-23

39

Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata, as new paratenic hosts of Gnathostoma spinigerum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquatic snails, Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata were experimentally found to be suitable paratenic hosts for advanced third-stage larvae (L3) of the nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum, the causative parasite of gnathostomiasis in humans. G. spinigerum (L3) were found to be encapsulated in the tissue of the snail's foot and its internal organs. The infection, intensity and survival of third-stage larvae of G. spinigerum in both species of aquatic snails are described. This is the first evidence to reveal that not only vertebrates but also invertebrates (snails) can serve as paratenic hosts to this parasite. Aquatic snails are one of several sources of human gnathostomiasis in Thailand.

Komalamisra C; Nuamtanong S; Dekumyoy P

2009-03-01

40

Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata, as new paratenic hosts of Gnathostoma spinigerum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquatic snails, Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata were experimentally found to be suitable paratenic hosts for advanced third-stage larvae (L3) of the nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum, the causative parasite of gnathostomiasis in humans. G. spinigerum (L3) were found to be encapsulated in the tissue of the snail's foot and its internal organs. The infection, intensity and survival of third-stage larvae of G. spinigerum in both species of aquatic snails are described. This is the first evidence to reveal that not only vertebrates but also invertebrates (snails) can serve as paratenic hosts to this parasite. Aquatic snails are one of several sources of human gnathostomiasis in Thailand. PMID:19323008

Komalamisra, Chalit; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Dekumyoy, Paron

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
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MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF VULGARONE B FROM ARTEMISIA DOUGLASIANA (BESSER) AGAINST THE INVASIVE, ALIEN, MOLLUSC PEST, POMACEA CANALICULATA (LAMARCK)  

Science.gov (United States)

Golden apple snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), is a native of South America. It was introduced to Asia as a protein source and a source of income for farmers in the rural underdeveloped areas. However, the demand dropped because GAS was found to transfer the rat lungworm parasite (Angios...

42

Should apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) be used as bioindicator for BDE-209?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apple snail Pomacea canaliculata has been reported to accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and was recently proposed as PBDE bioindicator. This work investigates the ability of P. canaliculata to accumulate BDE-209 by dietary exposure under controlled experimental conditions. A 30-day long enrichment feeding assay was carried out using 30 adult apple snails, placed in individual aquaria. Food was enriched at three BDE-209 concentrations (400, 4,700, and 8,300 ?g g(-1) lipid weight). Correlation between BDE-209 values in food and snail tissue were estimated according to Stockholm Convention suggested criteria for chemicals with KOW >5. All animals survived with no evident physical alterations, and all of them accumulated BDE-209. BDE-209 levels in tissue samples increased exponentially with the exposure concentration. The bioaccumulation factor vs. food concentration plot showed a peculiar pattern, in which at intermediate concentrations the snails accumulated less BDE-209 than expected. Our results suggest that P. canaliculata would present a detoxification mechanism for BDE-209 different from the most commonly reported metabolic pathways.

Koch E; Altamirano JC; Covaci A; Lana NB; Ciocco NF

2013-09-01

43

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: experimental study on the susceptibility of apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata compared to Pila polita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six groups (15 snails/group) of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila polita were infected orally with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 first-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L1). The respective mean+/-SD third stage larvae (L3) worm recovery 1-month post-infection (p.i.) for P. canaliculata was 0, 1.4+/-5.42 (0.7%), 0.13+/-0.35 (0.03%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.009%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.004%), 0, and for P. polita 0, 64.33+/-21.38 (32.25%), 115.36+/-36.82 (28.93%), 265.33+/-90.01 (33.27%), 471.33+/-92.98 (29.60%) and 849.00+/-243.23 (26.61%). The susceptibility of A. cantonensis in P. polita was dose-dependent (p<0.001). In the three groups (nine snails/group) of P. polita given 500 L1, we studied the distribution of L3 in the internal organs (i.e., foot, head+esophagus, kidney, albumin gland, mantle, intestine, digestive gland) and found the highest density after 1, 2 and 3 months p.i. in the mantle at 29.37%, 31.09% and 37.45%. The infection rate in P. canaliculata was too low to study distribution rates. PMID:18154954

Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach

2007-11-19

44

Uric acid deposits and estivation in the invasive apple-snail, Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physiological ability to estivate is relevant for the maintenance of population size in the invasive Pomacea canaliculata. However, tissue reoxygenation during arousal from estivation poses the problem of acute oxidative stress. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant in several systems and it is stored in specialized tissues of P. canaliculata. Changes in tissue concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and allantoin were measured during estivation and arousal in P. canaliculata. Both TBARS and uric acid increased two-fold during 45 days estivation, probably as a consequence of concomitant oxyradical production during uric acid synthesis by xanthine oxidase. However, after arousal was induced, uric acid and TBARS dropped to or near baseline levels within 20 min and remained low up to 24h after arousal induction, while the urate oxidation product allantoin continuously rose to a maximum at 24h after induction, indicating the participation of uric acid as an antioxidant during reoxygenation. Neither uric acid nor allantoin was detected in the excreta during this 24h period. Urate oxidase activity was also found in organs of active snails, but activity shut down during estivation and only a partial and sustained recovery was observed in the midgut gland. PMID:21182978

Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Abud, María A; Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2010-12-21

45

Uric acid deposits and estivation in the invasive apple-snail, Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physiological ability to estivate is relevant for the maintenance of population size in the invasive Pomacea canaliculata. However, tissue reoxygenation during arousal from estivation poses the problem of acute oxidative stress. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant in several systems and it is stored in specialized tissues of P. canaliculata. Changes in tissue concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and allantoin were measured during estivation and arousal in P. canaliculata. Both TBARS and uric acid increased two-fold during 45 days estivation, probably as a consequence of concomitant oxyradical production during uric acid synthesis by xanthine oxidase. However, after arousal was induced, uric acid and TBARS dropped to or near baseline levels within 20 min and remained low up to 24h after arousal induction, while the urate oxidation product allantoin continuously rose to a maximum at 24h after induction, indicating the participation of uric acid as an antioxidant during reoxygenation. Neither uric acid nor allantoin was detected in the excreta during this 24h period. Urate oxidase activity was also found in organs of active snails, but activity shut down during estivation and only a partial and sustained recovery was observed in the midgut gland.

Giraud-Billoud M; Abud MA; Cueto JA; Vega IA; Castro-Vazquez A

2011-04-01

46

[Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in Pomacea canaliculata].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish a multiplex PCR assay for detecting Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in Pomacea canaliculata. METHODS: A pair of specific primers was designed based on the sequences of the small subunit rDNA of A. cantonensis (GenBank jAY295804), in combination with 16s rDNA specific primers of P. canaliculata, a multiplex PCR was developed. The PCR was performed on positive and negative snails, and the amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. DNA template of 200 III stage larvae of A. cantonensis was diluted by negative snail DNA (1200 ng/microl, 120 ng/microl, 12 ng/microl, 1200 pg/microl, 120 pg/microl and 12 pg/microl), to find the minimum detectable level. Single blind method was used to evaluate the accuracy. After being detected by lung microscopy, 172 snails from field were tested by the multiplex PCR to assess the sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing analysis indicated that the target sequences were efficiently amplified by the PCR assay (550 bp for P. canaliculata, 405 bp for A. cantonensis). The minimum detectable level was 120 pg/microl. The coincidence between the two methods stood for 84.3% (145/172), including 45 positives and 100 negatives. 24 snails were PCR positive and microscopy negative, 3 snails were PCR negative and microscopy positive. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was 93.8% and 80.6%, respectively. Its positive rate (40.1%, 69/172) was significant higher than that of lung-microscopy (27.9%, 48/172)(chi2 = 14.8, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: A multiplex PCR method has been developed for the detection of A. cantonensis larvae in P. canaliculata.

Wei FR; Liu HX; Lv S; Hu L; Zhang Y

2010-10-01

47

Epigenetic modification in neurons of the mollusc Pomacea canaliculata after immune challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In human and rodents, the transcriptional response of neurons to stress is related to epigenetic modifications of both DNA and histone proteins. To assess the suitability of simple invertebrate models in studying the basic mechanisms of stress-related epigenetic modifications, we analyzed epigenetic modifications in neurons of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata after the injection of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phospho-acetylation of histone H3, together with the induction of stress-related factors, c-Fos and HSP70, were evaluated in large and small neurons of the pedal ganglia of sham- and LPS-injected snails. Immunocytochemical investigations showed that after LPS injection, the immunopositivity towards phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 and c-Fos increases in the nuclei of small gangliar neurons. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase of phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 in nuclear extracts from 2h LPS-injected animals. c-Fos protein levels were significantly augmented 6h after LPS injection. Immunocytochemistry and western blot indicated that no changes occurred in HSP70 distribution and protein levels. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of epigenetic changes in molluscan neurons after an immune challenge and indicate the gastropod P. canaliculata as a suitable model for evolutionary and translational studies on stress-related epigenetic modifications.

Ottaviani E; Accorsi A; Rigillo G; Malagoli D; Blom JM; Tascedda F

2013-09-01

48

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail's distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae while developing within P. canaliculata. The distribution of refractile granules in the larval body and characteristic head structures changed during the developmental cycle. Two well-developed, rod-like structures with expanded knob-like tips at the anterior part were observed under the buccal cavity as early as the late second developmental stage. A "T"-shaped structure at the anterior end and its tenacity distinguished the outer sheath from that shed during the second molting. Early first-stage larvae obtained from fresh rat feces are free moving and characterized by a coiled tail, whereas a mellifluous "Q"-movement was the behavioral trait of third-stage A. cantonensis larvae outside the host tissue. In combination, the distribution of refractive granules, distinct head features, variations in sheaths, and behavioral characteristics can be utilized for differentiation of larval stages, and for distinguishing A. cantonensis larvae from those of other free-living nematodes.

Lv S; Zhang Y; Liu HX; Zhang CW; Steinmann P; Zhou XN; Utzinger J

2009-06-01

49

Angiostrongylus cantonensis: morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail's distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae while developing within P. canaliculata. The distribution of refractile granules in the larval body and characteristic head structures changed during the developmental cycle. Two well-developed, rod-like structures with expanded knob-like tips at the anterior part were observed under the buccal cavity as early as the late second developmental stage. A "T"-shaped structure at the anterior end and its tenacity distinguished the outer sheath from that shed during the second molting. Early first-stage larvae obtained from fresh rat feces are free moving and characterized by a coiled tail, whereas a mellifluous "Q"-movement was the behavioral trait of third-stage A. cantonensis larvae outside the host tissue. In combination, the distribution of refractive granules, distinct head features, variations in sheaths, and behavioral characteristics can be utilized for differentiation of larval stages, and for distinguishing A. cantonensis larvae from those of other free-living nematodes. PMID:19172296

Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhang, Chao-Wei; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

2009-01-27

50

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs) harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3). However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. FINDINGS: We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1) in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

Chen R; Tong Q; Zhang Y; Lou D; Kong Q; Lv S; Zhuo M; Wen L; Lu S

2011-01-01

51

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs) harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3). However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1) in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

Chen Rui; Tong QunBo; Zhang Yi; Lou Di; Kong QingMing; Lv Shan; Zhuo MingMing; Wen LiYong; Lu ShaoHong

2011-01-01

52

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs) harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3). However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1) in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

2011-01-01

53

Sex Differences of the Digestive System and Observation on Ingestion Behavior in Pomacea canaliculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study on the structure and sex differences of the digestive system and ingestion behavior in Pomacea canaliculata with the methods of wild observation (indoor feeding) and anatomy. The results indicate that P. canaliculata owns special digestive organs. The pharynx with jaws and radula is efficiently able to obtain foods and developed saliva glands are helpful for mixing, digesting and swallowing foods. Folds, cartilage and gastric shield in the inner wall of the stomach are beneficial to contain and grind foods. The livers between the female and the male are different in color, namely, the liver with black lines of the female is grey while the one of the male is white and yellow in top but black and grey in ground. The measured values of the female are larger than those of the male, which is adaptable to their own growth. Pharynx length/digestive tract length and gastric length/digestive tract length in the male are significant larger than those in the female, and intestine length/digestive tract length and liver weight/body weight without shell in the male are larger than those in the female, but esophagus length/digestive tract length in the male is less than that in the female, which is probably relevant to somatotype, ingestion behavior and remedial mechanism of digestion of the male. The diets of P. canaliculata are wide and the structures of the digestive system are suitable to the ingestion behavior, thus this kind of snail is greatly able to the environments.

XIONG Hong-lin; ZHANG Ya; CHEN Lin; WU Wei-dong; LI Yu-hong; WANG Zhi-jian

2013-01-01

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Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

Li XY; Bian QQ; Zhao GH

2013-07-01

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Comparative analysis of circulating hemocytes of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molluscs are invertebrates of great relevance for economy, environment and public health. The numerous studies on molluscan immunity and physiology registered an impressive variability of circulating hemocytes. This study is focused on the first characterization of the circulating hemocytes of the freshwater gastropod Pomacea canaliculata, a model for several eco-toxicological and parasitological researches. Flow cytometry analysis identified two populations of hemocytes on the basis of differences in size and internal organization. The first population contains small and agranular cells. The second one displays major size and a more articulated internal organization. Light microscopy evidenced two principal morphologies, categorized as Group I (small) and II (large) hemocytes. Group I hemocytes present the characteristics of blast-like cells, with an agranular and basophilic cytoplasm. Group I hemocytes can adhere onto a glass surface but seem unable to phagocytize heat-inactivated Escherichia coli. The majority of Group II hemocytes displays an agranular cytoplasm, while a minority presents numerous granules. Agranular cytoplasm may be basophilic or acidophilic. Granules are positive to neutral red staining and therefore acidic. Independently from their morphology, Group II hemocytes are able to adhere and to engulf heat-inactivated E. coli. Transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly distinguished between agranular and granular hemocytes and highlighted the electron dense content of the granules. After hemolymph collection, time-course analysis indicated that the Group II hemocytes are subjected to an evident dynamism with changes in the percentage of agranular and granular hemocytes. The ability of circulating hemocytes to quickly modify their morphology and stainability suggests that P. canaliculata is endowed with highly dynamic hemocyte populations able to cope with rapid environmental changes as well as fast growing pathogens.

Accorsi A; Bucci L; de Eguileor M; Ottaviani E; Malagoli D

2013-05-01

56

Comparative analysis of circulating hemocytes of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molluscs are invertebrates of great relevance for economy, environment and public health. The numerous studies on molluscan immunity and physiology registered an impressive variability of circulating hemocytes. This study is focused on the first characterization of the circulating hemocytes of the freshwater gastropod Pomacea canaliculata, a model for several eco-toxicological and parasitological researches. Flow cytometry analysis identified two populations of hemocytes on the basis of differences in size and internal organization. The first population contains small and agranular cells. The second one displays major size and a more articulated internal organization. Light microscopy evidenced two principal morphologies, categorized as Group I (small) and II (large) hemocytes. Group I hemocytes present the characteristics of blast-like cells, with an agranular and basophilic cytoplasm. Group I hemocytes can adhere onto a glass surface but seem unable to phagocytize heat-inactivated Escherichia coli. The majority of Group II hemocytes displays an agranular cytoplasm, while a minority presents numerous granules. Agranular cytoplasm may be basophilic or acidophilic. Granules are positive to neutral red staining and therefore acidic. Independently from their morphology, Group II hemocytes are able to adhere and to engulf heat-inactivated E. coli. Transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly distinguished between agranular and granular hemocytes and highlighted the electron dense content of the granules. After hemolymph collection, time-course analysis indicated that the Group II hemocytes are subjected to an evident dynamism with changes in the percentage of agranular and granular hemocytes. The ability of circulating hemocytes to quickly modify their morphology and stainability suggests that P. canaliculata is endowed with highly dynamic hemocyte populations able to cope with rapid environmental changes as well as fast growing pathogens. PMID:23422816

Accorsi, Alice; Bucci, Laura; de Eguileor, Magda; Ottaviani, Enzo; Malagoli, Davide

2013-02-16

57

Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up to 8 ppt. Adult feeding on lettuce increased significantly at 8 ppt compared to 0 ppt (p = 0.002), while hatchling consumption of algae did not vary (p = 0.284). To see how these consumers responded to predators from the invaded ecosystem, we tested behavioural responses to predatory cues from fish, turtles, crayfish and adult applesnails. Results indicated that fish and crayfish prompted similar predator-avoidance behaviors in hatchlings (p's 0.05) between native (ramshorn) and exotic applesnails, whereas adult fish consumed more applesnails (x2, p < 0.001). Our current efforts focus on examining if predator presence or macrophyte choice alters applesnail feeding rates. Research providing insight into the basic ecology of applesnails can foster management efforts at the ecosystem scale.

Marfurt, R. K.; Boland, B. B.; Burks, R. L.

2005-05-01

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Old species and new concepts in the taxonomy of Pomacea (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The taxonomic history of the South American genus Pomacea Perry, 1810, and some shifts of systematic concepts during recent decades are briefly reviewed. Too many pre-evolutionist, shell-defined species created a gibberish, the only acceptable solution of which being perhaps a conventional, somewhat authoritarian decision based on expertise. The addition of other sources of morphological, biochemical, ecological or genetic information should not solve the problem if it is not accompanied by a sound reappraisal of the species concepts. Since the assumptions of each concept differ, any correspondence between them is irrelevant, and may drive to incompatible results. The shell variability of Pomacea canaliculata was acknowledged for most authors throughout more than a century. A recent insight into its life-history traits demonstrated they are as variable as the morphology. These findings stress the need of determining the ecological identity of any pest apple-snail population at a local scale, because its invading ability may be not exactly correlated to its taxonomical identity. Probably, all the canaliculata-like apple snails constitute a single, very variable "species" in most senses, even though different subsets may be recognized under other incommensurable concepts.

Cazzaniga NJ

2002-04-01

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Dependence on aerial respiration and its influence on microdistribution in the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invasive Neotropical snail Pomacea canaliculata is usually regarded as amphibious, although the relative significance of aerial and aquatic respiration is unknown. To investigate the degree of dependence on aerial respiration and its influences on microdistribution, experiments were performed in the laboratory and under seminatural and natural conditions. Restriction of aerial respiration negatively affected survivorship, activity and feeding, its effects worsening with temperature and water fouling; females were more seriously affected than males although the effect depended on reproductive effort. Snails were unevenly distributed relative to the access to air, both in a stream and in an outdoor tank, being concentrated less than 2-4 m from the nearest emergent substratum. Accessibility to air would be an important trait of waterbodies prone to invasions of P. canaliculata, especially in tropical areas. The effectiveness of some control measures could be increased by focusing on areas where snails are concentrated due to their dependence on air.

Seuffert Mari?aE; Marti?n PabloR

2010-06-01

60

Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction. PMID:17999015

Peña, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

2007-11-13

 
 
 
 
61

Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

2009-10-01

62

Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters.

San Martíns R; Gelmi C; de Oliveira JV; Galo JL; Pranto H

2009-10-01

63

Variation in worm assemblages associated with Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) in sites near the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Pomacea canaliculata is a common gastropod in freshwater habitats from Central and Northern Argentina, extending northwards into the Amazon basin. Several Platyhelminthes have been reported associated to P. canaliculata, sharing an intimate relationship with this gastropod host. The objectives of this study were to describe the symbiotic species assemblages associated to P. canaliculata in the study area, and to disclose differences among them. Samples were taken in three (more) typical small streams and one artificial lentic lagoon, all connected with the Río de la Plata estuary. The 81.53% were infested with different symbiotic (sensu lato) species. Among the Platyhelminthes, the commensal Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was highly prevalent in all samples, always in the mantle cavity. Four trematode taxa were recognized: (a) metacercariae of Echinostoma parcespinosum Lutz, 1924 in the mantle cavity and sporocysts in the digestive gland; (b) metacercariae of Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909) in the pericardial cavity; (c) unidentified xiphidiocercariae and (d) unidentified sporocysts and furcocercariae in the digestive gland. Nematode larvae and oligochaetes were found in two localities in the mantle cavity. Among the Annelida, Helobdella ampullariae Ringuelet, 1945 was found in the mantle cavity and lung of snails only from one locality. Our results show that although some of the symbionts are present in all localities, others are restricted to some particular ones, whether in their absolute numbers or in their relative abundance. Thus, each hosting population at the studied localities may be defined by the particular combination of symbionts that bears.

Damborenea, C.; Brusa, F.; Paola, A.

2006-12-01

64

Variation in worm assemblages associated with Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) in sites near the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata is a common gastropod in freshwater habitats from Central and Northern Argentina, extending northwards into the Amazon basin. Several Platyhelminthes have been reported associated to P. canaliculata, sharing an intimate relationship with this gastropod host. The objectives of this study were to describe the symbiotic species assemblages associated to P. canaliculata in the study area, and to disclose differences among them. Samples were taken in three typical small streams and one artificial lentic lagoon, all connected with the Río de la Plata estuary. The 81.53% were infested with different symbiotic (sensu lato) species. Among the Platyhelminthes, the commensal Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was highly prevalent in all samples, always in the mantle cavity. Four trematode taxa were recognized: (a) metacercariae of Echinostoma parcespinosum Lutz, 1924 in the mantle cavity and sporocysts in the digestive gland; (b) metacercariae of Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909) in the pericardial cavity; (c) unidentified xiphidiocercariae and (d) unidentified sporocysts and furcocercariae in the digestive gland. Nematode larvae and oligochaetes were found in two localities in the mantle cavity. Among the Annelida, Helobdella ampullariae Ringuelet, 1945 was found in the mantle cavity and lung of snails only from one locality. Our results show that although some of the symbionts are present in all localities, others are restricted to some particular ones, whether in their absolute numbers or in their relative abundance. Thus, each hosting population at the studied localities may be defined by the particular combination of symbionts that bears.

C. Damborenea; F. Brusa; A. Paola

2006-01-01

65

Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

Benliang Zhao; Wei Dai, Jia-en Zhang; Chaogang Cheng; Gen Li

2012-01-01

66

Geographic phenetic variation in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) based on geometric approaches to morphometrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe and explain morphological variation within and amongpopulations of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) using the geometric morphometricapproach. The foundation of this research is to describe patterns of morphological variation in bothnatural and managed populations. These descriptions are then used to frame hypotheses on the rolesnatural selection and geographical isolation play in evolution. Results showed variability within andamong populations of the pest. Results also showed a wide range of variability within, and amongpopulations of the golden apple snail and that geography alone could not explain such variability. Theresults of this study are discussed in the light of how variation within populations is translated intodifferences between populations.

Mark Anthony J. Torres; Ravindra C. Joshi; Leocadio S. Sebastian; Cesar G. Demayo

2011-01-01

67

Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).  

Science.gov (United States)

Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

2008-06-17

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Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata.

Dai L; Wang W; Dong X; Hu R; Nan X

2011-09-01

69

Juvenile growth and survival of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) reared at different constant temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that cultured under certain conditions could provide interesting rewards in research and aquaculture. P. canaliculata is usually reared at 25°C, though the optimal temperature for culturing this species, that balances growth and survival rates, is so far unknown. In this work we present results of growth and survival of cohorts reared in the laboratory at different constant water temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C) during the pre-reproductive period. FINDINGS: Two different groups were recognized among the five treatments: the two lower temperatures (15 and 20°C) that showed no mortality but with very low growth rates and the treatments of 25, 30 and 35°C in which snails grew faster but displayed a reduction in survival as temperature increases. After 10 weeks, the mean shell lengths attained at 30 and 35°C were only 2-3 mm higher than that of the treatment of 25°C and were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support using water temperatures of 25°C for the rearing of cohorts when the objective is to quickly obtain numerous large snails. Temperatures of 15 and 20°C may be appropriate if the aim is to preserve juveniles for long periods with a very low risk of mortality. The results reported here will be useful to the scheduling of laboratory trials intended for basic research, snail control or mass rearing for different applications of this species.

Seuffert ME; Martín PR

2013-01-01

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Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen. PMID:23818959

Godoy, Martín S; Castro-Vasquez, Alfredo; Vega, Israel A

2013-06-20

71

Predator-driven biotic resistance and propagule pressure regulate the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Japan  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species richness in local communities has been considered an important factor determining the success of invasion by exotic species (the biotic resistance hypothesis). However, the detailed mechanisms, especially the role of predator communities, are not well understood. We studied biotic resistance to an invasive freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata, at 31 sites in an urban river basin (the Yamatogawa) in western Japan. First, we studied the relationship between the richness of local animal species and the abundance of P. canaliculata, demonstrating a negative relationship, which suggests that the intensity of biotic resistance regulates local snail populations. This pattern was due to the richness of native predator communities rather than that of introduced species or non-predators (mainly competitors of the apple snail). Local snail abundance was also affected by immigration of snails from nearby rice fields (i.e. propagule pressure), where few predators occur. Second, we assessed short-term predation pressure on the snail by means of a tethering experiment. Predation pressure was positively correlated with the number of individual predators and negatively correlated with snail abundance. The introduced crayfish Procambarus clarkii was responsible for the variance in predation pressure. These results indicate that the predator community, composed of both native and introduced species, is responsible for resistance to a novel invader even in a polluted urban river.

Yamanishi Y; Yoshida K; Fujimori N; Yusa Y

2012-07-01

72

Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

Godoy MS; Castro-Vasquez A; Vega IA

2013-01-01

73

Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803

Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

2011-06-01

74

Endosymbiotic and Host Proteases in the Digestive Tract of the Invasive Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Diversity, Origin and Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

Godoy, Martin S.; Castro-Vasquez, Alfredo; Vega, Israel A.

2013-01-01

75

Cloning, genomic organization and expression of two glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) genes from golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cellulase cDNAs (GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) were successfully isolated and characterized from stomach tissue of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), a kind of herbivorous mollusca. Sequencing analysis revealed full-length cDNAs of 1300 and 1277 bp in length, respectively. The open reading frame (ORF) of cellulase cDNA was 1188 and 1191 bp, encoding 395 and 396 amino acid, respectively. Sequence alignment revealed that GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 shared high identity with glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) and had an overall similarity of 98 and 82% to those of Ampullaria crossean cellulase EGX. A neighbour-joining tree showed a clear differentiation between each species and also indicated that GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 from P. canaliculata and A. crossean EGX are closely related phylogenetically. The genomic organization of cellulase GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes was also investigated. The GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes spanned over 4937 and 4512 bp, respectively. Both genes contained 9 exons interrupted by eight introns. The result verified the endogenous origin of the GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes. Analysis of RNA by RT-PCR from several ages of P. canaliculata revealed that neither gene was expressed in eggs. GHF10-Pc1 was also expressed in 1- and 10-day-old juvenile snails whereas GHF10-Pc3 was expressed only in 1-day-old juvenile snails. The result showed that two GHF10-Pc transcripts were developmentally expressed. PMID:17852330

Imjongjirak, Chanprapa; Amparyup, Piti; Sittipraneed, Siriporn

2008-06-01

76

Imposex and novel mechanisms of reproductive failure induced by tributyltin (TBT) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on mortality and reproduction were studied in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata. The nominal median lethal concentration (LC50) was 9?µg TBT/L, after 28 d. The nominal no-observed effect on lethality concentration (NOECL ) was 6?µg TBT/L after the same period. Male-female couples and females that had been group-mated but were isolated from males during the experiment (isolated females) were exposed (for 28 d) to either 0?µg/L or 6?µg/L of TBT (nominal NOECL -exposed). Copulation and oviposition frequencies, egg clutch mass, and percentage of egg fertility were recorded. Gonads (both sexes) and the seminal receptacle (females) were studied histologically at the end of the experiment. A significant decrease in copulation frequency was observed in mated-exposed females. Exposure also decreased oviposition frequency of mated-exposed and isolated-exposed females, but only the latter reached significance. No differences in either egg clutch mass or percentage of fertility were observed at first oviposition, but both parameters were drastically reduced in subsequent egg clutches of exposed females. No histological alterations were observed in gonads of TBT-exposed animals; however, sperm storage in the seminal receptacle was drastically decreased in exposed females. Imposex but no oviductal obstruction was observed in all exposed females. It is concluded that TBT induces reproductive failure in P. canaliculata by decreasing copulation frequency and by severely affecting sperm storage by the female. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2365-2371. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23775621

Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Clément, María E; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2013-08-21

77

Imposex and novel mechanisms of reproductive failure induced by tributyltin (TBT) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on mortality and reproduction were studied in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata. The nominal median lethal concentration (LC50) was 9?µg TBT/L, after 28 d. The nominal no-observed effect on lethality concentration (NOECL ) was 6?µg TBT/L after the same period. Male-female couples and females that had been group-mated but were isolated from males during the experiment (isolated females) were exposed (for 28 d) to either 0?µg/L or 6?µg/L of TBT (nominal NOECL -exposed). Copulation and oviposition frequencies, egg clutch mass, and percentage of egg fertility were recorded. Gonads (both sexes) and the seminal receptacle (females) were studied histologically at the end of the experiment. A significant decrease in copulation frequency was observed in mated-exposed females. Exposure also decreased oviposition frequency of mated-exposed and isolated-exposed females, but only the latter reached significance. No differences in either egg clutch mass or percentage of fertility were observed at first oviposition, but both parameters were drastically reduced in subsequent egg clutches of exposed females. No histological alterations were observed in gonads of TBT-exposed animals; however, sperm storage in the seminal receptacle was drastically decreased in exposed females. Imposex but no oviductal obstruction was observed in all exposed females. It is concluded that TBT induces reproductive failure in P. canaliculata by decreasing copulation frequency and by severely affecting sperm storage by the female. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2365-2371. © 2013 SETAC.

Giraud-Billoud M; Vega IA; Wuilloud RG; Clément ME; Castro-Vazquez A

2013-10-01

78

A study of chlorophyll-like and phycobilin pigments in the C endosymbiont of the apple-snail pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigments present in the brown-greenish C morph of an intracellular endosymbiont of Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Acetone extracts of the endosymbiotic corpuscles showed an absorption spectrum similar to that of chlorophylls. Three fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of the acetone extracts (C(I), C(II), and C(III)), were studied by positive ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). Results indicated the presence of (1) a sterol in the yellow colored C(I) fraction; (2) a mixture ofpheophorbides a and b in the major green fraction, C(II); and (3) a modified pheophorbide a in the smaller green fraction, C(III). Aqueous extracts of the C endosymbiont did not show evidence of the occurrence of C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or phycoerithrin (light absorption, fluorescence emission, and electrophoresis of the protein moieties) while cyanobacterial cells (Nostoc sp.) showed evidence of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The possible phylogenetic and functional significance of the pigments present in the C endosymbiont is discussed. PMID:23185779

Vega, Israel A; Dellagnola, Federico A; Hurst, Jorge A; Godoy, Martín S; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2012-08-01

79

Development beyond the gastrula stage and digestive organogenesis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Architaenioglossa, Ampullariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Development of Pomacea canaliculata from the gastrula stage until the first day after hatching is described. Trochophore embryos are developed after gastrulation, showing the prototroch as a crown of ciliated orange-brownish cells. However, no true veliger embryos are formed, since the prototroch does not fully develop into a velum. Afterward, the connection between the fore- and midgut is permeated and the midgut becomes full of the pink-reddish albumen, which is stored into a central archenteron's lake, from where it is accumulated into the large cells forming the midgut wall ("giant cells"). Electron microscopy of giant cells in late embryos showed that albumen is engulfed by large endocytic vesicles formed between the irregular microvilli at the top of these cells. By the end of intracapsular development, giant cells become gradually replaced by two new epithelial cell types which are similar to those found in the adult midgut gland: the pre-columnar and the pre-pyramidal cells. Pre-columnar cells have inconspicuous basal nuclei and are crowned by stereocilia, between which small endocytic vesicles are formed. Pre-pyramidal cells have large nuclei with 2-3 nucleoli and show a striking development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The genesis of the three cell lineages (giant, pre-columnar and pre-pyramidal cells) is hypothetically attributed to epithelial streaks that occur at both sides of the midgut since early stages of development.

Koch E; Winik BC; Castro-Vazquez A

2009-04-01

80

Nuclear Sex-Determining Genes Cause Large Sex-Ratio Variation in the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary maintenance of genetic sex-ratio variation is enigmatic since genes for biased sex ratios are disadvantageous in finite populations (the “Verner effect”). However, such variation could be maintained if a small number of nuclear sex-determining genes were responsible, although this has not been fully demonstrated experimentally. Brood sex ratios of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata are highly variable among parents, but population sex ratios are near unity. In this study, the effect of each parent on the brood sex ratio was investigated by exchanging partners among mating pairs. There were positive correlations between sex ratios of half-sib broods of the common mother (r = 0.42) or of the common father (r = 0.47). Moreover, the correlation between full-sib broods was very high (r = 0.92). Thus, both parents contributed equally to the sex-ratio variation, which indicates that nuclear genes are involved and their effects are additive. Since the half-sib correlations were much stronger than the parent–offspring regressions previously obtained, the variation was caused by zygotic sex-determining genes rather than by parental sex-ratio genes. The number of relevant genes appears to be small.

Yusa, Yoichi

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Development beyond the gastrula stage and digestive organogenesis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Architaenioglossa, Ampullariidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of Pomacea canaliculata from the gastrula stage until the first day after hatching is described. Trochophore embryos are developed after gastrulation, showing the prototroch as a crown of ciliated orange-brownish cells. However, no true veliger embryos are formed, since the prototroch does not fully develop into a velum. Afterward, the connection between the fore- and midgut is permeated and the midgut becomes full of the pink-reddish albumen, which is stored into a central archenteron's lake, from where it is accumulated into the large cells forming the midgut wall ("giant cells"). Electron microscopy of giant cells in late embryos showed that albumen is engulfed by large endocytic vesicles formed between the irregular microvilli at the top of these cells. By the end of intracapsular development, giant cells become gradually replaced by two new epithelial cell types which are similar to those found in the adult midgut gland: the pre-columnar and the pre-pyramidal cells. Pre-columnar cells have inconspicuous basal nuclei and are crowned by stereocilia, between which small endocytic vesicles are formed. Pre-pyramidal cells have large nuclei with 2-3 nucleoli and show a striking development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The genesis of the three cell lineages (giant, pre-columnar and pre-pyramidal cells) is hypothetically attributed to epithelial streaks that occur at both sides of the midgut since early stages of development. PMID:19499886

Koch, E; Winik, B C; Castro-Vazquez, A

2009-04-01

82

A study of chlorophyll-like and phycobilin pigments in the C endosymbiont of the apple-snail pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pigments present in the brown-greenish C morph of an intracellular endosymbiont of Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Acetone extracts of the endosymbiotic corpuscles showed an absorption spectrum similar to that of chlorophylls. Three fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of the acetone extracts (C(I), C(II), and C(III)), were studied by positive ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). Results indicated the presence of (1) a sterol in the yellow colored C(I) fraction; (2) a mixture ofpheophorbides a and b in the major green fraction, C(II); and (3) a modified pheophorbide a in the smaller green fraction, C(III). Aqueous extracts of the C endosymbiont did not show evidence of the occurrence of C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or phycoerithrin (light absorption, fluorescence emission, and electrophoresis of the protein moieties) while cyanobacterial cells (Nostoc sp.) showed evidence of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The possible phylogenetic and functional significance of the pigments present in the C endosymbiont is discussed.

Vega IA; Dellagnola FA; Hurst JA; Godoy MS; Castro-Vazquez A

2012-08-01

83

Development beyond the gastrula stage and digestive organogenesis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Architaenioglossa, Ampullariidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of Pomacea canaliculata from the gastrula stage until the first day after hatching is described. Trochophore embryos are developed after gastrulation, showing the prototroch as a crown of ciliated orange-brownish cells. However, no true veliger embryos are formed, since the prototroch does not fully develop into a velum. Afterward, the connection between the fore- and midgut is permeated and the midgut becomes full of the pink-reddish albumen, which is stored into a central archenteron's lake, from where it is accumulated into the large cells forming the midgut wall ("giant cells"). Electron microscopy of giant cells in late embryos showed that albumen is engulfed by large endocytic vesicles formed between the irregular microvilli at the top of these cells. By the end of intracapsular development, giant cells become gradually replaced by two new epithelial cell types which are similar to those found in the adult midgut gland: the pre-columnar and the pre-pyramidal cells. Pre-columnar cells have inconspicuous basal nuclei and are crowned by stereocilia, between which small endocytic vesicles are formed. Pre-pyramidal cells have large nuclei with 2-3 nucleoli and show a striking development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The genesis of the three cell lineages (giant, pre-columnar and pre-pyramidal cells) is hypothetically attributed to epithelial streaks that occur at both sides of the midgut since early stages of development.

E. Koch; B.C. Winik; A. Castro-Vazquez

2009-01-01

84

A study of chlorophyll-like and phycobilin pigments in the C endosymbiont of the apple- snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pigments present in the brown-greenish C morph of an intracellular endosymbiont of Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Acetone extracts of the endosymbiotic corpuscles showed an absorption spectrum similar to that of chlorophylls. Three fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of the acetone extracts (C I, C II and C III), were studied by positive ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). Results indicated the presence of (1) a sterol in the yellow colored C I fraction; (2) a mixture of pheophorbides a and b in the major green fraction, C II; and (3) a modified pheophorbide a in the smaller green fraction, C III. Aqueous extracts of the C endosymbiont did not show evidence of the occurrence of C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or phycoerithrin (light absorption, fluorescence emission, and electrophoresis of the protein moieties) while cyanobacterial cells (Nostoc sp.) showed evidence of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The possible phylogenetic and functional significance of the pigments present in the C endosymbiont is discussed.

Israel A. Vega; Federico A. Dellagnola; Jorge A. Hurst; Martín S. Godoy; Alfredo Castro-Vazquez

2012-01-01

85

Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell  

Science.gov (United States)

We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

2005-07-01

86

Effects of food availability on reproductive output, offspring quality and reproductive efficiency in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenotypic plasticity in life history traits favors the establishment of invaders and may magnify their ecological impacts. Pomacea canaliculata, the only freshwater snail listed among the 100 worst invaders worldwide, is able to complete its life cycle within a wide range of conditions, a capacity attributed to its life history plasticity. Using snails from their native range in Argentina we investigated the changes in fecundity, egg mass traits, offspring quality, and efficiency of food conversion into eggs in response to different levels of food availability throughout different life stages. Pre-maturity mortality was not affected by chronic reductions of up to 80% in food availability. Females fed ad libitum demonstrated no significant reproductive output differences when mated with males raised at different food availability levels. For females, the number and total weight of eggs and the size of egg masses decreased at high levels of food deprivation. Their efficiency of conversion into eggs of the food ingested during the reproductive period increased with deprivation, as did the survival time of their offspring. In contrast, the egg mass laying rate and the individual egg weight did not differ under different food availability regimes. Reductions in food availability have been suggested as a control method but our results indicate that fecundity would be lessened only at deprivation levels higher than 50% and would be partially compensated by an increase in hatchling survival.

Tamburi Nicola?sE; Marti?n PabloR

2011-10-01

87

Development beyond the gastrula stage and digestive organogenesis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Architaenioglossa, Ampullariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Development of Pomacea canaliculata from the gastrula stage until the first day after hatching is described. Trochophore embryos are developed after gastrulation, showing the prototroch as a crown of ciliated orange-brownish cells. However, no true veliger embryos are formed, since the prototroch does not fully develop into a velum. Afterward, the connection between the fore- and midgut is permeated and the midgut becomes full of the pink-reddish albumen, which is stored (more) into a central archenteron's lake, from where it is accumulated into the large cells forming the midgut wall ("giant cells"). Electron microscopy of giant cells in late embryos showed that albumen is engulfed by large endocytic vesicles formed between the irregular microvilli at the top of these cells. By the end of intracapsular development, giant cells become gradually replaced by two new epithelial cell types which are similar to those found in the adult midgut gland: the pre-columnar and the pre-pyramidal cells. Pre-columnar cells have inconspicuous basal nuclei and are crowned by stereocilia, between which small endocytic vesicles are formed. Pre-pyramidal cells have large nuclei with 2-3 nucleoli and show a striking development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The genesis of the three cell lineages (giant, pre-columnar and pre-pyramidal cells) is hypothetically attributed to epithelial streaks that occur at both sides of the midgut since early stages of development.

Koch, E.; Winik, B.C.; Castro-Vazquez, A.

2009-04-01

88

A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

Aadrean; Wilson Novarino; Jabang

2011-01-01

89

Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod. PMID:23077161

Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Tosi, Martín E Rinaldi; Abud, María A; Calderón, María L; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2012-10-17

90

New approaches to the management of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck): An invasive alien pest species of rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Golden apple snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan, and to other countries in Asia to increase their income and to enrich the protein intake in their diet, and also as an aquarium pet. The Global Invasive Species (IAS) FAO report that it causes 1.2 billion USD losses to aquatic crops particularly rice, taro and morning glory in Asian countries and the USA. Aside from being a serious agricultural pest, it is also an environmental pest. In an attempt to control GAS resource-poor-farmers resort to 'shot-gun approach' of using toxic and non specific agrochemicals thereby aggravating ecosystem pollution, risking their health and causing loss of aquatic biodiversity. GAS is expanding its distribution westwards in Asia and poses new threats of its invasion in Australia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. At the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), my team focuses on two approaches. First we have to understand the field ecology of the GAS and identify weak-links in their life cycle. Then we use this basic information to manage GAS at the village level within the community in an ecologically sustainable socially acceptable and economically viable ways. I shall discuss how this LAS in transplanted lowland irrigated rice ecologies can be managed using locally available attractants during the vulnerable stage(s) of rice crop growth. New approaches will highlight the innovative and applied techniques on how to prevent the rampant abuse/misuse of agrochemicals, as well as GAS utilisation in weed management in rice fields and as aqua feed. In future, it is necessary to develop collaborative exploratory research with the IAEA and the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to develop an effective area-wide management of GAS in direct-seeded rice systems that will capitalise on an integrated approach and environment-friendly technologies. (author)

2005-01-01

91

Global shape and pH stability of ovorubin, an oligomeric protein from the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovorubin, a 300-kDa thermostable oligomer, is the major egg protein from the perivitellin fluid that surrounds the embryos of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. It plays essential roles in embryo development, including transport and protection of carotenoids, protease inhibition, photoprotection, storage, and nourishment. Here, we report ovorubin dimensions and global shape, and test the role of electrostatic interactions in conformational stability by analyzing the effects of pH, using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy, CD, and fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of SAXS data shows that ovorubin is an anisometric particle with a major axis of 130 A and a minor one varying between 63 and 76 A. The particle shape was not significantly affected by the absence of the cofactor astaxanthin. The 3D model presented here is the first for an invertebrate egg carotenoprotein. The quaternary structure is stable over a wide pH range (4.5-12.0). At a pH between 2.0 and 4.0, a reduction in the gyration radius and a loss of tertiary structure are observed, although astaxanthin binding is not affected and only minor alterations in secondary structure are observed. In vitro pepsin digestion indicates that ovorubin is resistant to this protease action. The high stability over a considerable pH range and against pepsin, together with the capacity to bear temperatures > 95 degrees C, reinforces the idea that ovorubin is tailored to withstand a wide variety of conditions in order to play its key role in embryo protection during development. PMID:18673387

Dreon, Marcos S; Ituarte, Santiago; Ceolín, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

2008-07-31

92

Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod.

Giraud-Billoud M; Vega IA; Tosi ME; Abud MA; Calderón ML; Castro-Vazquez A

2013-02-01

93

Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines  

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Full Text Available The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM) analysis. Specifically, this study aimed to determine conchologicalvariation in populations of GAS in the Philippines and Japan. Three aspects of the shell shape were studied, which includes the ventral/aperture,dorsal and the top/whorl portion of the shell using correlation analysis based on distances (CORIANDIS). CORIANDIS was used in order tovisualize congruence of multivariate traits among P. canaliculata populations. The results showed that P. canaliculata shell varies in shape andvariability may signify distinctive genotypes or adaptation to varying environments exhibited by Japan and the Philippines.

Carlo Stephen O. Moneva; Mark Anthony J. Torres; Takashi Wada; Ravindra Joshi; Cesar G. Demayo

2012-01-01

94

The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densities (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. Ther (more) e was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities.

JUNIOR, ESMAR SOUZA; BARROS, JOSE CARLOS N. DE; PARESQUE, KARLA; FREITAS, RODRIGO R. DE

2013-06-01

95

The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densities (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. There was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities.

Souza Júnior E; De Barros JC; Paresque K; De Freitas RR

2013-04-01

96

The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densities (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. There was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities.

ESMAR SOUZA JÚNIOR; JOSÉ CARLOS N. DE BARROS; KARLA PARESQUE; RODRIGO R. DE FREITAS

2013-01-01

97

The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densities (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. There was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities. PMID:23828367

Souza Júnior, Esmar; De Barros, José Carlos N; Paresque, Karla; De Freitas, Rodrigo R

98

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail.

Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-01-01

99

Intrahost distribution and trasmission of a new species of cyclopoid copepod endosymbiotic to a freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) from Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of cyclopoid copepod, Ozmana huarpium, is described as a symbiont to Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822) (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae). Rather large numbers (about one hundred copepods per snail) were found, although there was no evidence of harm to the host. To our knowledge, O. haemophila (symbiont to P. maculata), and the currently described species, O. huarpium, are the only copepod species ever recorded as endosymbionts to freshwater invertebrates. While O. haemophila is restricted to the haemocoel of its host, O. huarpium predominate in the penis sheath, the ctenidium and the mantle cavity, figuring in these pallial organs 63-65 % of total mature forms. The sex ratio of the symbiont is skewed to the female side in these organs, specially in male hosts. The hypothesis that a special female tropism for the male host's pallial organs might ensure interindividual transmission of the symbiont was tested, with indications that the symbiont is mainly transmitted during copulation.

C. D. Gamarra-Luques; I. A. Vega; E. Koch; A. Castro-Vazquez

2004-01-01

100

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

Yang, Ting-Bao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail.

Yang TB; Wu ZD; Lun ZR

2013-06-01

102

Intrahost distribution and transmission of a new species of cyclopoid copepod endosymbiotic to a freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), from Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new species of cyclopoid copepod, Ozmana huarpium, is described as a symbiont to Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822) (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae). Rather large numbers (about one hundred copepods per snail) were found, although there was no evidence of harm to the host. To our knowledge, O. haemophila (symbiont to P. maculata), and the currently described species, O. huarpium, are the only copepod species ever recorded as endosymbionts to freshwater invertebrates. While O. haemophila is restricted to the haemocoel of its host, O. huarpium predominate in the penis sheath, the ctenidium and the mantle cavity, figuring in these pallial organs 63-65% of total mature forms. The sex ratio of the symbiont is skewed to the female side in these organs, specially in male hosts. The hypothesis that a special female tropism for the male host's pallial organs might ensure interindividual transmission of the symbiont was tested, with indications that the symbiont is mainly transmitted during copulation.

Gamarra-Luques CD; Vega IA; Koch E; Castro-Vazquez A

2004-08-01

103

First report of Temnocephala rochensis (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) outside Uruguay: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurring in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1) the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2) the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3) the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.

Samantha A. Seixas; José F. R. Amato; Suzana B. Amato

2010-01-01

104

First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

Samantha A. Seixas; José F. R. Amato; Suzana B. Amato

2010-01-01

105

First report of Temnocephala rochensis (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) outside Uruguay: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurrin (more) g in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1) the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2) the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3) the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.

Seixas, Samantha A.; Amato, José F. R.; Amato, Suzana B.

2010-10-01

106

First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cell (more) s, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

Seixas, Samantha A.; Amato, José F. R.; Amato, Suzana B.

2010-06-01

107

Intrahost distribution and trasmission of a new species of cyclopoid copepod endosymbiotic to a freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) from Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A new species of cyclopoid copepod, Ozmana huarpium, is described as a symbiont to Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822) (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae). Rather large numbers (about one hundred copepods per snail) were found, although there was no evidence of harm to the host. To our knowledge, O. haemophila (symbiont to P. maculata), and the currently described species, O. huarpium, are the only copepod species ever recorded as endosymbionts to freshwater invertebrates. W (more) hile O. haemophila is restricted to the haemocoel of its host, O. huarpium predominate in the penis sheath, the ctenidium and the mantle cavity, figuring in these pallial organs 63-65 % of total mature forms. The sex ratio of the symbiont is skewed to the female side in these organs, specially in male hosts. The hypothesis that a special female tropism for the male host's pallial organs might ensure interindividual transmission of the symbiont was tested, with indications that the symbiont is mainly transmitted during copulation.

Gamarra-Luques, C. D.; Vega, I. A.; Koch, E.; Castro-Vazquez, A.

2004-08-01

108

Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

Shengzhang Dong; Guowan Zheng; Xiaoping Yu; Changhuan Fu

2012-01-01

109

Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in labor (more) atory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

Dong, Shengzhang; Zheng, Guowan; Yu, Xiaoping; Fu, Changhuan

2012-04-01

110

Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), life history traits and aquaculture potential  

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Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62%) and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL) = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates), and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

Ana R. A. Coelho; Gonçalo J. P. Calado; Maria T. Dinis

2012-01-01

111

Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata) = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata)  

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Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O) e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I)(50;96h), o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1) e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água), equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC). A CL (I)(50;96h) estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I)50;96h) estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN) para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1) e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1).Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata) under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I)50;96h), snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1) and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1), in triplicate and one control treatment in an entirely random delineation. Estimated LC (I)(50;96h) of copper sulfate was 0.02 mg copper sulfate L-1, with a0.01 mg L-1 lower limit and a 0.03 mg L-1 upper limit. Estimated lethal concentration 50% of the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves was 142.75 mL L-1, equivalent to 1.68 mg L-1 of azadirachtine, with a 130.89 mL L-1 (1.54 mg L-1) low limit and 155.69 mL L-1 (1.83 mg L-1)as the upper limit.

Francine Perri Venturini; Claudinei da Cruz; Robinson Antonio Pitelli

2008-01-01

112

Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata)  

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Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O) e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I)(50;96h), o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1) e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água), equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC). A CL (I)(50;96h) estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I)50;96h) estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN) para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1) e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1).Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata) under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I)50;96h), snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1) and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1), in triplicate and one control treatment in an entirely random delineation. Estimated LC (I)(50;96h) of copper sulfate was 0.02 mg copper sulfate L-1, with a 0.01 mg L-1 lower limit and a 0.03 mg L-1 upper limit. Estimated lethal concentration 50% of the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves was 142.75 mL L-1, equivalent to 1.68 mg L-1 of azadirachtine, with a 130.89 mL L-1 (1.54 mg L-1) low limit and 155.69 mL L-1 (1.83 mg L-1) as the upper limit.

Francine Perri Venturini; Claudinei da Cruz; Robinson Antonio Pitelli

2008-01-01

113

Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality  

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Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827), at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults) and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

Samantha A. Seixas; José F. R. Amato; Suzana B. Amato

2010-01-01

114

Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality  

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Full Text Available Abstract in english The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo co (more) llected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827), at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults) and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

Seixas, Samantha A.; Amato, José F. R.; Amato, Suzana B.

2010-04-01

115

Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on a high infestation  

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Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827) (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae), originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

Roberto Júnio P. Dias; Adalgisa F. Cabral; Isabel C. V. Siqueira-Castro; Inácio D. da Silva-Neto; Marta D'Agosto

2010-01-01

116

Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on a high infestation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827) (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae), originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of sp (more) ecimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

Dias, Roberto Júnio P.; Cabral, Adalgisa F.; Siqueira-Castro, Isabel C. V.; Silva-Neto, Inácio D. da; D'Agosto, Marta

2010-06-01

117

Radular ultrastructure of South American Ampullariidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).  

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The radula of five species of South American Ampullariidae was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the purpose of enlarging new studies on the systematic of this family. The studied species were Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) and Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). The central tooth shows different attributes which provide the means for generic determination; the analysis of the central tooth, the lateral and marginal ones by SEM adds further information for species differentiation. PMID:18278326

Martín, S M; Negrete, L H L

2007-11-01

118

Radular ultrastructure of South American Ampullariidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radula of five species of South American Ampullariidae was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the purpose of enlarging new studies on the systematic of this family. The studied species were Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) and Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). The central tooth shows different attributes which provide the means for generic determination; the analysis of the central tooth, the lateral and marginal ones by SEM adds further information for species differentiation.

Martín SM; Negrete LH

2007-11-01

119

[Population genetics of Pomacea spp. in mainland of China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the population structure of Pomacea spp. using genetic markers so as to provide the evidence for studying the invasion and expansion of it in the mainland of China. METHODS: The genetics of 581 specimens of Pomacea spp. from 60 sites was analyzed by sequencing CO I gene. The diversity of nucleotide and haplotypes were calculated in DnaSP 5.10.01. The haplotype network analysis was performed in Network 4.2.0.1. A phylogenetic tree was produced based on the haplotypes from the present study and those available from GenBank in order to understand the taxonomic status of Pomacea spp. in China. RESULTS: A total of 556 sequences were acquired in the present study and produced 25 unique haplotypes. Six haplotypes frequently occurred in the specimens and accounted for 96.0%. The phylogenetic analysis identified two Pomacea species in China, i. e. P. canaliculata and P. insularum. The usage of haplotypes of P. insularum in China reversed from the existing pattern in other countries. CONCLUSION: The complexity of population structure of Pomacea spp. in the mainland of China indicates multi-original introduction and complicated expansion patterns.

Lv S; Zhang Y; Liu HX; Hu L; Liu W; Liu Q; Li SZ; Hu W; Jürg U; Zhou XN

2011-04-01

120

Radular ultrastructure of South American Ampullariidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) Ultra-estrutura radular dos Ampullariidae sul-americanos (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)  

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Full Text Available The radula of five species of South American Ampullariidae was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the purpose of enlarging new studies on the systematic of this family. The studied species were Pomacea -canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) and Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). The central tooth shows different attributes which provide the means for generic determination; the analysis of the central tooth, the lateral and marginal ones by SEM adds further information for species differentiation.A rádula de cinco espécies sul-americanas de Ampullariidae é analisada ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura com objetivo de fornecer novos subsídios à sistemática desta família. As espécies estudadas são Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) e Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). O dente central apresenta novos subsídios à determinação genérica, o estudo ao microscópio eletrônico os dentes central, laterais e marginais acrescentam novos subsídios na determinação das espécies.

SM Martín; LHL Negrete

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radular ultrastructure of South American Ampullariidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)/ Ultra-estrutura radular dos Ampullariidae sul-americanos (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A rádula de cinco espécies sul-americanas de Ampullariidae é analisada ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura com objetivo de fornecer novos subsídios à sistemática desta família. As espécies estudadas são Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) e Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). O dente central apresenta novos subsídios à determinação genérica, (more) o estudo ao microscópio eletrônico os dentes central, laterais e marginais acrescentam novos subsídios na determinação das espécies. Abstract in english The radula of five species of South American Ampullariidae was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the purpose of enlarging new studies on the systematic of this family. The studied species were Pomacea -canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835), Pomella (P.) megastoma (Gray, 1847), Asolene (A.) platae (Maton, 1809) and Felipponea neritiniformis (Dall, 1919). The central tooth shows different attributes which provide the means for ge (more) neric determination; the analysis of the central tooth, the lateral and marginal ones by SEM adds further information for species differentiation.

Martín, SM; Negrete, LHL

2007-11-01

122

Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martin Garcia Island, Rio de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative frequencies of occurrence within the littoral environments, while the Planorbidae D. cimex (23.83%) and D. kermatoides (11.59%) likewise did so in the inland ponds.

César II; Martín SM; Rumi A; Tassara M

2012-02-01

123

Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative frequencies of occurrence within the littoral environments, while the Planorbidae D. cimex (23.83%) and D. kermatoides (11.59%) likewise did so in the inland ponds. PMID:22437392

César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

2012-02-01

124

Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia) da Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiplos Ilha Martín García, Rio de La Plata: biodiversidade e ecologia  

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Full Text Available The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative frequencies of occurrence within the littoral environments, while the Planorbidae D. cimex (23.83%) and D. kermatoides (11.59%) likewise did so in the inland ponds.A Ilha de Martín García está localizada na parte alta do Rio de la Plata, ao sul da desembocadura do Rio Uruguay. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a biodiversidade dos moluscos de água doce da ilha e sua relação com variáveis ambientais. Doze pontos de amostragem foram selecionados: cinco foram ao longo da seção litoral da ilha e sete em lagunas interiores. Sete variáveis ambientais foram medidas: temperatura da água e do ar, porcentagem de saturação de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos e pH. Vinte e seis espécies de moluscos foram encontrados: Antillorbis nordestensis, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense e Limnoperna fortunei. A análise de agrupamento das espécies com base em sua ocorrência em diferentes condições ecológicas revelou dois grupos principais de espécies. A Análise de Correspondência Canônica sugere que a distribuição das espécies é relacionada com a condição físico-química da água. No eixo dois do diagrama de ordenação apresentado, há cerca de 96% de correlação entre as espécies e as variáveis ambientais. O oxigênio dissolvido, a condutividade, a temperatura da água e pH apresentaram as maiores oscilações durante o período de amostragem. A riqueza de espécies (S) apresentou relações principalmente com a temperatura da água e a condutividade. A biodiversidade de gastrópodes e bivalves da Ilha Martín García é de 26 espécies. Entre os Gastropoda, a famí

II César; SM Martín; A Rumi; M Tassara

2012-01-01

125

Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832).  

Science.gov (United States)

Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins. PMID:23185551

Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

2012-11-20

126

Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins.

Ituarte S; Dreon MS; Ceolin M; Heras H

2012-01-01

127

Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology/ Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia) da Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiplos Ilha Martín García, Rio de La Plata: biodiversidade e ecologia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Ilha de Martín García está localizada na parte alta do Rio de la Plata, ao sul da desembocadura do Rio Uruguay. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a biodiversidade dos moluscos de água doce da ilha e sua relação com variáveis ambientais. Doze pontos de amostragem foram selecionados: cinco foram ao longo da seção litoral da ilha e sete em lagunas interiores. Sete variáveis ambientais foram medidas: temperatura da água e do ar, porcentagem de saturação de (more) oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos e pH. Vinte e seis espécies de moluscos foram encontrados: Antillorbis nordestensis, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense e Limnoperna fortunei. A análise de agrupamento das espécies com base em sua ocorrência em diferentes condições ecológicas revelou dois grupos principais de espécies. A Análise de Correspondência Canônica sugere que a distribuição das espécies é relacionada com a condição físico-química da água. No eixo dois do diagrama de ordenação apresentado, há cerca de 96% de correlação entre as espécies e as variáveis ambientais. O oxigênio dissolvido, a condutividade, a temperatura da água e pH apresentaram as maiores oscilações durante o período de amostragem. A riqueza de espécies (S) apresentou relações principalmente com a temperatura da água e a condutividade. A biodiversidade de gastrópodes e bivalves da Ilha Martín García é de 26 espécies. Entre os Gastropoda, a família Planorbidae exibe a contribuição mais importante. O Lithogliphidae P. agapetus. (26,28%) e P. buschii (9,50%) apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de ocorrência dentro dos ambientes costeiros, enquanto o Planorbidae D. cimex (23,83%) e D. kermatoides (11,59%) também apresentaram frequências expressivas nas lagunas interiores. Abstract in english The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen sa (more) turation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods an

César, II; Martín, SM; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

2012-02-01

128

Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (pomacea).  

Science.gov (United States)

Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea) provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number) of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and managers can quickly identify, quantify and begin eradication of new non-native apple snail populations. PMID:24147069

Kyle, Colin H; Plantz, Allyson L; Shelton, Therese; Burks, Romi L

2013-10-16

129

Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil). (Prosobranchia, Pilidae)/ Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae) em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848). Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematód (more) eo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8%) B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526) dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352); em 1977, 16,1% (377) e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87) do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG), adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956) - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827), P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822) e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni. Abstract in english In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil) - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae) were introduced into 5 brooks and 2 ditches where Biomphalaria glabrata (primarily) and B. straminea (secondarily) predominated. From 1968 to 1971, the infection rate of B. glabrata by S. mansoni (more) ranged from 2.1% to 11.9%. None of the B. straminea specimens collected, however, were seen to be liberating cercariae of this trematode. After the introduction of Pilidae, only once were two positive B. glabrata specimens (1.8%) detected. A decrease in the planorbide population was observed, as well as an increase in the pomacea density to 20.0 and 121.6 specimens per square meter in the brooks and ditches, respectively. P. haustrum density was estimated by the "quadrat" method. Of the planorbides in the experiment, 65.2% (1,526) were collected from July/68 to July/72 and the rest were obtained after the introduction of the predator-competitor species, as follows: 15.0% (352) in 1976; 16.1% (377) in 1977; and 3.7% (87) in 1978. Although transferred from a lenitic medium (Sete Lagoas, MG), the pomaceae became perfectly adapted to the lotic collections of Baldim, and proved to be capable of replacing the original B. glabrata populations of several biotopes or, at least, of becoming predominant, with no damage to the new ecosystems. Based on the data presented above and the knowledge previously acquired in the study of the biology and ecology of the species, it is believed that, under similar conditions, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) - and, by extension, P. lineata (Spix, 1827) and P. canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), as well as other species from the same genus - may be successfully used in the biological control of the intermediate hosts of S. mansoni.

Milward-de-Andrade, Roberto; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

1979-06-01

130

Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil). (Prosobranchia, Pilidae) Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae) em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848). Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8%) B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526) dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352); em 1977, 16,1% (377) e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87) do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG), adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956) - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827), P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822) e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil) - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae) were introduced into 5 brooks and 2 ditches where Biomphalaria glabrata (primarily) and B. straminea (secondarily) predominated. From 1968 to 1971, the infection rate of B. glabrata by S. mansoni ranged from 2.1% to 11.9%. None of the B. straminea specimens collected, however, were seen to be liberating cercariae of this trematode. After the introduction of Pilidae, only once were two positive B. glabrata specimens (1.8%) detected. A decrease in the planorbide population was observed, as well as an increase in the pomacea density to 20.0 and 121.6 specimens per square meter in the brooks and ditches, respectively. P. haustrum density was estimated by the "quadrat" method. Of the planorbides in the experiment, 65.2% (1,526) were collected from July/68 to July/72 and the rest were obtained after the introduction of the predator-competitor species, as follows: 15.0% (352) in 1976; 16.1% (377) in 1977; and 3.7% (87) in 1978. Although transferred from a lenitic medium (Sete Lagoas, MG), the pomaceae became perfectly adapted to the lotic collections of Baldim, and proved to be capable of replacing the original B. glabrata populations of several biotopes or, at least, of becoming predominant, with no damage to the new ecosystems. Based on the data presented above and the knowledge previously acquired in the study of the biology and ecology of the species, it is believed that, under similar conditions, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) - and, by extension, P. lineata (Spix, 1827) and P. canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822), as well as other species from the same genus - may be successfully used in the biological control of the intermediate hosts of S. mansoni.

Roberto Milward-de-Andrade; Omar dos Santos Carvalho

1979-01-01

131

Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg. PMID:18213678

Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

2008-09-01

132

Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the pest risk analysis on Pomacea insularum, the island apple snail, prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Panel considers the Spanish pest risk analysis (PRA) to be clear and to provide appropriate supporting evidence. However, (i) the environmental impact assessment is incomplete and (ii) the estimates for the potentially endangered area are too limited. The Panel points out that large areas of the European Union have climatic conditions, that are very similar to those of the areas of native distribution of Pomacea spp. snails, and suitable host plants are available. The Panel agrees with the Spanish PRA on the following points with regard to the risk assessment area: (i) the potential consequences of the organism for rice crops are major; (ii) the probability for establishment of the organism is very likely and (iii) the probability of spread is estimated as likely. The Panel disagrees with the Spanish PRA on the following points and considers (i) the effects on the environment to be massive under suitable environmental conditions in the PRA area and (ii) the probability of entry of the organism to be high.Regarding risk reduction options the Panel agrees with the Spanish PRA that no single risk reduction method is sufficient to halt the introduction and spread of Pomacea spp. snails in the PRA area. However, a legislative ban on import of Pomacea spp. is the only risk reduction option identified that can reduce the probability of entry. The many other risk reduction options listed will help to reduce the probability of spread within the PRA area. The Panel considers that the risk reduction options should target the canaliculata complex, as Pomacea insularum and P. canaliculata, as well as other species from the complex, are almost indistinguishable. This is of particular importance for risk reduction options addressing both breeding and trade of the organism.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2012-01-01

133

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) Exposed to Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos or Carbaryl Insecticides  

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Full Text Available Long-acting inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are used in large amounts as insecticides in agriculture, and are thereby introduced into the evironment. By incubating golden apple snails in chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, or carbaryl, we determined the LD50’s to 3.7, 4.5 and 49 µM, respectively. AChE activities were measured in several organs; the highest activity was found in the gills. Following incubation in either of the three insecticides, the ED50’s for AChE inhibition in the gills were 0.37 µM, 0.22 µM, and 14 µM, respectively; there were no sex differences, but AChE inhibition was more marked in larger snails than in smaller ones, and incubation at 32 °C brought about a higher AChE inhibition than at 27 °C. The time course of AChE inhibition was studied in snails incubated at ED50 with either of the inhibitors. There was a 50% enzyme inhibition after about 6 min, 5 min, and 7 min, respectively. After 96 h incubation, enzyme inhibiton reached about 90% in all three groups. Following this exposure to inhibitor, the snails were transferred to fresh water; after 30 days there was virtually no recovery of AChE actvity in the snails exposed to chlorpyrifos or dichlorovos, whereas about 20% was recovered in snails exposed to carbaryl.

Sunisa Putkome; Voravit Cheevaporn

2008-01-01

134

Structure and stability of the neurotoxin PV2 from the eggs of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little information on the egg proteins of gastropod mollusks. Here we focus on PV2, a novel neurotoxin from snail eggs, studying its size, shape, structure, and stability, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, electron microscopy and partial proteolysis. Results indicate that PV2 is a compact and well folded oligomer of 130x44 A. It is an octamer of four 98 kDa heterodimers composed of 67 and 31 kDa subunits. Subunits are held together by disulfide bonds. Dimers are assembled into native PV2 by non-covalent forces. The larger subunit is more susceptible to proteolysis, indicating it is less compactly folded and/or more exposed. Quenching of tryptophan fluorescence showed a single class of tryptophyl side chains occluded in hydrophobic regions. Native structure shows loss of secondary structure (alpha+beta) at 6 M urea or 60-70 degrees C; the effects on the quaternary structure suggest an unfolding without disassembling of the protein. The 3D model of PV2 presented here is the first for an egg proteinaceous neurotoxin in animals. PMID:20215051

Frassa, María Victoria; Ceolín, Marcelo; Dreon, Marcos S; Heras, Horacio

2010-03-06

135

Structure and stability of the neurotoxin PV2 from the eggs of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is little information on the egg proteins of gastropod mollusks. Here we focus on PV2, a novel neurotoxin from snail eggs, studying its size, shape, structure, and stability, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, electron microscopy and partial proteolysis. Results indicate that PV2 is a compact and well folded oligomer of 130x44 A. It is an octamer of four 98 kDa heterodimers composed of 67 and 31 kDa subunits. Subunits are held together by disulfide bonds. Dimers are assembled into native PV2 by non-covalent forces. The larger subunit is more susceptible to proteolysis, indicating it is less compactly folded and/or more exposed. Quenching of tryptophan fluorescence showed a single class of tryptophyl side chains occluded in hydrophobic regions. Native structure shows loss of secondary structure (alpha+beta) at 6 M urea or 60-70 degrees C; the effects on the quaternary structure suggest an unfolding without disassembling of the protein. The 3D model of PV2 presented here is the first for an egg proteinaceous neurotoxin in animals.

Frassa MV; Ceolín M; Dreon MS; Heras H

2010-07-01

136

On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae) Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823) collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86); aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70). Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823), coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86); comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70). Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha) presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

1989-01-01

137

On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae)/ Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823) (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823), coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro (more) ; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86); comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70). Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha) presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas. Abstract in english A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823) collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and he (more) avy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86); aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70). Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.

Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

1989-09-01

138

Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)/ Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracteriza (more) r histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 %) son (1) inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm), (2) maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm), (3) maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm) y (4) madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm). En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el macho Abstract in english The "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis un (more) der laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P

CARREÓN-PALAU, AURA; URIA-GALICIA, ESTHER; ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ, FÉLIX; MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO, FERNANDO

2003-12-01

139

Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

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Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 %) son (1) inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm), (2) maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm), (3) maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm) y (4) madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm). En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis under laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P < 0.05) were (1) immature or not differenced (from 0.72 to 7 mm), (2) early maturation (from 18.95 ± 1.96 mm), (3) intermediate maturation (from 29.29 ± 4.9 mm), and (4) full maturity (from 35.89 ± 3.92 mm). This species is ovoviviparous, both sexes are separated, and fertilization is internal. Albumin and calcium carbonate secretion in females are performed through the albumin gland, a trait that distinguishes this species from others, such as P. paludosa and P. canaliculata. The stage of development can be identified by means of using anatomical traits, such as the albumin gland (in the case of females), or the intromittent organ (in males)

AURA CARREÓN-PALAU; ESTHER URIA-GALICIA; FÉLIX ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ; FERNANDO MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO

2003-01-01

140

RESPIRATORY METABOLISM OF THE AMPHYBIOUS MOLLUSC Pomacea lineata (SPIX, 1827): INFLUENCE OF ALIMENTARY CONDITION ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF WHOLE ANIMAL AND ITS RADULAR MUSCLE = METABOLISMO RESPIRATÓRIO DO MOLUSCO ANFÍBIO Pomacea lineata (SPIX, 1827): INFLUÊNCIA DA CONDIÇÃO ALIMENTAR NO CONSUMO DE OXIGÊNIO DO ANIMAL TOTAL E DE SEU MÚSCULO RADULAR  

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Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate the respiratory metabolism of the amphibious gastropoda Pomacea lineata, and to measure the oxygen-consumption of both whole animal and its radular muscle in different alimentary conditions (whether fed or starved). The species is interesting in a physioecologic aspect, because it is an important snail as a bioindicator of ecosystem quality. It was observed that respiratory metabolism obtained from respiratory rate variation was significantly reduced (P< 0,05) under starvation effect in the whole animals (0,473 in whether fed and 0,317 in starved), as well as in the respective radular muscles (0,884 in whether fed and 0,521 in starved). The respiratory rate average of the radular muscles was significantly greater (P<0,05) than respiratory rate average of the whole animals (whether fed and starved) as a result of the myoglobin quantity from these muscles. These results are in accordance with the morphofunctional characteristics of P. lineata. Its radular muscle works out actively for getting feed and constitutes the animal scraping bucal organ . This muscle needs enormous quantity of oxygen obtained from water or air environment, in order to justify the important role played for these amphibious gastropoda as a bioindicator of ecosystem quality. = A finalidade do presente trabalho foi estudar o metabolismo respiratório de Pomacea lineata, um gastrópode anfíbio, e determinar o consumo de oxigênio do animalinteiro e seu respectivo músculo radular em diferentes condições alimentares (jejunos e alimentados). Essa espécie é interessante no seu aspecto fisioecológico, pois trata-se de um molusco importante como bioindicador da qualidade de um ecossistema. Verificou-se que o metabolismo respiratório, estimado em termos de variação da taxa respiratória, diminuiu significativamente (P < 0,05) sob o efeito de jejum nos animais inteiros (0,473 nos alimentados e 0,317 nos jejunos), assim como nos respectivos músculos radulares (0,884 nos alimentados e 0,521 nos jejunos). A taxa respiratória média dos músculos radulares foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05), que a taxa respiratória média dos animais inteiros (alimentados e jejunos) devido à grande quantidade de mioglobina presente nesses músculos.Os resultados obtidos estão em conformidade com as característicasmorfofuncionais de P. lineata. Seu músculo radular é usado ativamente na obtenção do alimento e faz parte do órgão raspador do animal. Esse músculo necessita de grandes quantidades de oxigênio que o animal retira da água ou do meio aéreo, justificando a posição destacada desse gastrópodo anfíbio como bioindicador da qualidade de umecossistema.

Fernanda Aparecida Sampaio Mendonça; Gláucia Maria Tech dos Santos

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Laboratory observations on the biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata by a species of Pomacea (Ampullariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory experiments have shown that medium-sized (30-50 mm in shell height) Pomacea sp. snails consumed the egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata deposited either on glass or on the leaves of Salvinia, and that they also caused a high mortality rate among the newly hatched B. glabrata. When the two species of snail were kept in the same tank, the Pomacea sp. caused a reduction in the B. glabrata egg density in proportion to their relative numbers and the presence of Pomacea sp. prevented colonies of B. glabrata from becoming established. The identity of the Pomacea sp. has not yet been satisfactorily established.

Paulinyi HM; Paulini E

1972-01-01

142

Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula  

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Full Text Available Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52. No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of the genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

María Esther Diupotex-Chong; Néstor J. Cazzaniga; Alejandra Hernández-Santoyo; José Miguel Betancourt-Rule

2004-01-01

143

Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52. No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of t (more) he genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J.; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel

2004-12-01

144

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-05-01

145

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century (Rood et al. 1993). Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem's food web. Recent research by Malley et al. (1996) has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Bennetts, R.E.; Morton, A.

1997-01-01

146

Diospyrone, a new coumarinylbinaphthoquinone from Diospyros canaliculata (Ebenaceae): structure and antimicrobial activity  

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Full Text Available A new binaphthoquinone bearing two 4-hydroxy-5-methylcoumarin-3-yl units has been isolated from the stem bark of Diospyros canaliculata De Wildeman in addition to five known compounds: lupenone, betulinic acid, gerberinol, plumbagin and canaliculatin. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR experiments. Some of the above compounds showed a significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts.

J.G. Tangmouo; D. Lontsi; F.N. Ngounou; V. Kuete; A.L. Meli; R.N. Manfouo; H.W. Kamdem; P. Tane; V. Penlap Beng; B.L.Sondengam; J.D. Connolly

2005-01-01

147

Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

1998-01-01

148

Alguns dados bioecológicos de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predador-competidor de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 Some bioecological data regarding Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) predator-competitor of intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907  

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Full Text Available Foram feitas observações no laboratório e no campo, em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, com a finalidade de se obter informações biológicas e ecológicas sobre Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), molusco pilídeo, competidor-predador de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon 1907.Observations carried out in the laboratory and the field (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) offered the following biological and ecological informations Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1853), mollusk pilid, predator and competitor of Schistosoma mansoni intermediary host.

Roberto Milward-de-Andrade; Omar dos Santos Carvalho; Carlos Tito Guimarães

1978-01-01

149

Karyological and electrophoretic differences between Pomacea flagellata and P. patula catemacensis: Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The widespread Mexican apple snail Pomacea flagellata (Say 1827) and the strictly endemic "tegogolo" P. patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (restricted to Lake Catemaco), are the only known American Ampullariidae that have haploid complements n=13. Pomacea patula catemacensis has suffered a critical reduction in abundance due to immoderate fishing for human consumption. Chromosome slides were obtained from colchicine-injected Pomacea snails collected from nine locations alon (more) g the coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico, including Lake Catemaco, for use in principal component analysis (PCA). Total proteins in foot homogenates were analyzed through isoelectric focusing (IEF) and native-PAGE electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. The chromosome number 2n=26 was confirmed for snails from all locations, with a uniform 9 m + 4 sm formula. However, P. patula catemacensis showed significantly larger chromosomes (absolute size) than any population of P. flagellata. Pomacea patula catemacensis also differed from all populations of P. flagellata in a PCA with standardized data, i.e., independently of the absolute size difference between species. Proteins with an acid isoelectric point were dominant in the foot of both species. The electrophoresis analysis showed that P. flagellata has 17 protein bands, with an upper bound at IEF=7.6, while P. patula catemacensis has only 15 bands, with an upper bound at IEF=7 and a more evenly spaced band pattern. Molecular weights ranged from 40 to approximately 130 kDa in both species. Proteins with high values (>94 kDa) were the most abundant. Pomacea patula catemacensis showed a band of 93 kDa, which was absent from all specimens of P. flagellata. Samples of P. flagellata did not cluster according to any geographical pattern in the statistical analyses, nor did they show any taxonomically useful differences in their electrophoretic patterns that merit sub-specific discrimination.

Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel

2007-12-01

150

Karyological and electrophoretic differences between Pomacea flagellata and P. patula catemacensis: Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae  

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Full Text Available The widespread Mexican apple snail Pomacea flagellata (Say 1827) and the strictly endemic "tegogolo" P. patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (restricted to Lake Catemaco), are the only known American Ampullariidae that have haploid complements n=13. Pomacea patula catemacensis has suffered a critical reduction in abundance due to immoderate fishing for human consumption. Chromosome slides were obtained from colchicine-injected Pomacea snails collected from nine locations along the coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico, including Lake Catemaco, for use in principal component analysis (PCA). Total proteins in foot homogenates were analyzed through isoelectric focusing (IEF) and native-PAGE electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. The chromosome number 2n=26 was confirmed for snails from all locations, with a uniform 9 m + 4 sm formula. However, P. patula catemacensis showed significantly larger chromosomes (absolute size) than any population of P. flagellata. Pomacea patula catemacensis also differed from all populations of P. flagellata in a PCA with standardized data, i.e., independently of the absolute size difference between species. Proteins with an acid isoelectric point were dominant in the foot of both species. The electrophoresis analysis showed that P. flagellata has 17 protein bands, with an upper bound at IEF=7.6, while P. patula catemacensis has only 15 bands, with an upper bound at IEF=7 and a more evenly spaced band pattern. Molecular weights ranged from 40 to approximately 130 kDa in both species. Proteins with high values (>94 kDa) were the most abundant. Pomacea patula catemacensis showed a band of 93 kDa, which was absent from all specimens of P. flagellata. Samples of P. flagellata did not cluster according to any geographical pattern in the statistical analyses, nor did they show any taxonomically useful differences in their electrophoretic patterns that merit sub-specific discrimination.

María Esther Diupotex-Chong; Néstor J Cazzaniga; Manuel Uribe-Alcocer

2007-01-01

151

Controle biológico: Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, pilidae) sobre planorbíneos, em laboratório Biological control: Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca pilidae) over planorbids under laboratory conditions  

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Full Text Available Foi acompanhado em laboratório o controle de planorbíneos (Biomphalaria straminea Dunker, 1848; B. tenagophila Orbigny, 1835 e B. glabrata Say, 1818), hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni, através da predação de suas desovas pelo pilídeo Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856. De 829 desovas ovipostas por B. straminea, 203 (24,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum; destas, 200 (98,3%) foram predadas. De 892 desovas ovipostas por B. tenagophia, 201 (22,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum; destas, 194 (97,0%) foram predadas. De 1.300 desovas ovipostas por B. glabrata, 657 (50,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum sendo totalmente predadas. Paralelamente, procurou-se observar as possíveis interações ocorridas entre pomáceas e planorbíneos quando da coabitação do mesmo aquário.The biological control of planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea Dunker, 1848; B. tenagophila Orbigny, 1835 and B. glabrata Say, 1818) through the predation of their eggmasses by the pilid Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856, was observed under laboratory conditions. Of 829 eggmasses laid by B. straminea, 203 (24.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of P. haustrum and 200 (98.3%) of them were predation. Of 892 eggmasses laid by B. tenagophila, 210 (22.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of P. haustrum and 194 (97.0%) were predate. Of 1,300 eggamsses laid by B. glabrata, 657 (50.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of P. haustrum and were totally predate. Parallel to this the possible interaction of pomaceas and planorbids when they lived in the same aquarium has been observed.

Carlos Tito Guimarães

1983-01-01

152

Controle biológico: Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, pilidae) sobre planorbíneos, em laboratório/ Biological control: Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca pilidae) over planorbids under laboratory conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi acompanhado em laboratório o controle de planorbíneos (Biomphalaria straminea Dunker, 1848; B. tenagophila Orbigny, 1835 e B. glabrata Say, 1818), hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni, através da predação de suas desovas pelo pilídeo Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856. De 829 desovas ovipostas por B. straminea, 203 (24,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum; destas, 200 (98,3%) foram predadas. De 892 desovas ovipostas por B. tenagophia, 20 (more) 1 (22,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum; destas, 194 (97,0%) foram predadas. De 1.300 desovas ovipostas por B. glabrata, 657 (50,5%) foram expostas a 10 exemplares de P. haustrum sendo totalmente predadas. Paralelamente, procurou-se observar as possíveis interações ocorridas entre pomáceas e planorbíneos quando da coabitação do mesmo aquário. Abstract in english The biological control of planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea Dunker, 1848; B. tenagophila Orbigny, 1835 and B. glabrata Say, 1818) through the predation of their eggmasses by the pilid Pomacea haustrum Reeve, 1856, was observed under laboratory conditions. Of 829 eggmasses laid by B. straminea, 203 (24.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of P. haustrum and 200 (98.3%) of them were predation. Of 892 eggmasses laid by B. tenagophila, 210 (22.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of (more) P. haustrum and 194 (97.0%) were predate. Of 1,300 eggamsses laid by B. glabrata, 657 (50.5%) were exposed to 10 specimens of P. haustrum and were totally predate. Parallel to this the possible interaction of pomaceas and planorbids when they lived in the same aquarium has been observed.

Guimarães, Carlos Tito

1983-04-01

153

Gender-based differences in Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastropod movements have been studied in the context of habitat selection, finding food and mates, and avoiding predation. Many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory, where constraints on spatial scale influence behavior. We conducted a field study of Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements using telemetry. We hypothesized that Florida apple snail movements were driven by reproductive activity, and that gender differences would be evident. We documented male and female directions and distances traveled. We also conducted a trapping study that included conspecific bait to test if the presence of females attracted more males as measured by M:F ratios in traps. The greatest distances traveled were by males, and males were more likely to maintain a consistent bearing compared to females. Male distances peaked in what typically corresponds to peak breeding season. M:F ratios in traps were positively associated with reproductive activity in the study population as measured by egg cluster counts. Conspecific bait had no effect on the number of males or females captured. However, if a female crawled into the trap, we observed greater numbers of males compared to those with no trapped females. Males may have tracked females to increase mating encounters, following slime trails, as seen in other aquatic (including other Pomacea) snails. The capacity for mate finding has implications for reproductive success in the relatively low density populations often seen for Pomacea paludosa.

Valentine-Darby, P. L.; Darby, P. C.; Percival, H. F.

2011-01-01

154

Alguns dados bioecológicos de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predador-competidor de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907/ Some bioecological data regarding Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) predator-competitor of intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram feitas observações no laboratório e no campo, em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, com a finalidade de se obter informações biológicas e ecológicas sobre Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), molusco pilídeo, competidor-predador de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon 1907. Abstract in english Observations carried out in the laboratory and the field (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) offered the following biological and ecological informations Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1853), mollusk pilid, predator and competitor of Schistosoma mansoni intermediary host.

Milward-de-Andrade, Roberto; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Guimarães, Carlos Tito

1978-03-01

155

Phytotoxic, antifungal activities and acute toxicity studies of the crude extract and compounds from Diospyros canaliculata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro biological activities including phytotoxic, antifungal activities as well as acute toxicity of the methanol extract, fractions and/or isolated compounds from the stem bark of Diospyros canaliculata were investigated. Well agar diffusion and macrodilution assays were used for investigating the antifungal activity. A phytotoxicity assay was performed against Lemna minor while an acute toxicity assay was performed in mice via oral administration. As a result, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone) and two known pentacyclic triterpenes (lupeol and lupenone) were isolated from the extract. With regards the antifungal activities, the inhibition zones varied from 16.51 to 24.86 mm and from 20.50 to 25.10 mm for the extract and plumbagin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extract and plumbagin ranged between 12.5-25 and 0.78-1.56 µg mL(-1), respectively. At 50 µg mL(-1), the hexane fraction showed phytotoxic activities similar to paraquat, the standard phytotoxic inhibitor. The extract was found to be non-toxic to mice after administration per os. Based on the current findings, we can conclude that this extract is non toxic, with significant phytotoxic and antifungal properties due to the presence of plumbagin.

Dzoyem JP; Kechia FA; Kuete V; Pieme AC; Akak CM; Tangmouo JG; Lohoue PJ

2011-04-01

156

Phytotoxic, antifungal activities and acute toxicity studies of the crude extract and compounds from Diospyros canaliculata.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro biological activities including phytotoxic, antifungal activities as well as acute toxicity of the methanol extract, fractions and/or isolated compounds from the stem bark of Diospyros canaliculata were investigated. Well agar diffusion and macrodilution assays were used for investigating the antifungal activity. A phytotoxicity assay was performed against Lemna minor while an acute toxicity assay was performed in mice via oral administration. As a result, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone) and two known pentacyclic triterpenes (lupeol and lupenone) were isolated from the extract. With regards the antifungal activities, the inhibition zones varied from 16.51 to 24.86 mm and from 20.50 to 25.10 mm for the extract and plumbagin, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extract and plumbagin ranged between 12.5-25 and 0.78-1.56 µg mL(-1), respectively. At 50 µg mL(-1), the hexane fraction showed phytotoxic activities similar to paraquat, the standard phytotoxic inhibitor. The extract was found to be non-toxic to mice after administration per os. Based on the current findings, we can conclude that this extract is non toxic, with significant phytotoxic and antifungal properties due to the presence of plumbagin. PMID:21462073

Dzoyem, J P; Kechia, F A; Kuete, V; Pieme, A C; Akak, C M; Tangmouo, J G; Lohoue, P J

2011-04-01

157

Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae) a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae), a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae) from Py (Pyrenean mountains, France), is described and illustrated. The present species can be separated from the other two members of the same genus, A. flexilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Morand, 1990 and A. tauricus Korol and Spiridonov, 1991, by size measurements, number and disposition of the male's genital papillae, shape of the spicule and number of eggs in the female. PMID:12122432

Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

2002-04-30

158

Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae) a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agfa morandi sp. n. (Rhabditida, Agfidae), a parasite of Limax sp. (Gastropoda, Limacidae) from Py (Pyrenean mountains, France), is described and illustrated. The present species can be separated from the other two members of the same genus, A. flexilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Morand, 1990 and A. tauricus Korol and Spiridonov, 1991, by size measurements, number and disposition of the male's genital papillae, shape of the spicule and number of eggs in the female.

Ribas A; Casanova JC

2002-08-01

159

PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica) e aruá (Pomacea lineata). Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado): triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49). Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos), mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

S. H. R. BARBOZA; D. P. S. COSTA; P. F. ROMANELLI

2009-01-01

160

First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)  

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Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae), Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae), Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae), Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae) and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae); and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae) and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae). The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae), Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae), Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae), Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae) e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae); e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae) e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889 (Tokophrydae). Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que P. lineata constitui o microambiente de uma comunidade de protozoários ciliados que exibem interações tróficas complexas.

Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias; Sthefane D'Ávila; Marta D'Agosto

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas c (more) onchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae), Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae), Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae), Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae) e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae); e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae) e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889 (Tokophrydae). Os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que P. lineata constitui o microambiente de uma comunidade de protozoários ciliados que exibem interações tróficas complexas. Abstract in english This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five (more) peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae), Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae), Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae), Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae) and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae); and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae) and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae). The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.

Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; D'Ávila, Sthefane; D'Agosto, Marta

2006-09-01

162

Estudio Histológico del Tubo Digestivo y Aparato Venenoso de Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae)/ Histologic Study of Digestive Tract and Venom Apparatus of Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se describe anatómica e histológicamente el tubo digestivo y aparato venenoso de Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae) en ejemplares colectados al Noroeste de la Plataforma Continental Yucateca. Se determinó que el tipo de epitelio que reviste a cada una de las zonas del tubo digestivo (probóscide, esófago anterior, medio y posterior, estómago, glándula digestiva e intestino) y al aparato venenoso, es diferente a lo reportado para otros túrridos; por lo que se infiere el posible mecanismo de alimentación para esta especie. Abstract in english In this paper we realized anatomical and histologically description of the digestive tract and venom apparatus of Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae) specimens collected northwest of the Yucatan Shelf. Results of analysis show that there are differences in the type of epithelium coating each of the areas of the digestive tract (proboscis, anterior, middle and posterior esophagus, stomach, digestive gland and intestine) and of a venom apparatus with respect to that reported for other turrid snails. This suggests the possible feeding mechanism for this species.

Santibañez Aguascalientes, Norma Angélica; Ortíz Ordóñez, Esperanza; Falcón Alcántara, Andrés; Heimer de la Cotera, Edgar P

2013-03-01

163

Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullariidae) Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullaridae)  

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Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78); spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13); aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73). The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2) and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78); comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13); comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73). Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2) e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha) presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

1987-01-01

164

Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia) in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution  

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Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC), fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves). Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine).

A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

2011-01-01

165

Algumas observações de laboratório sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856)  

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Full Text Available Observações de laboratório sobre o pilideo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) competidor-predador de planorbineos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Machos e fêmeas atingem maturidade sexual após um ano de idade, copulando preferencialmente pela manhã e ovipondo à noite. O tempo gasto nestes atos é variável; no caso da oviposição ele depende do número de ovos a serem postos. Os ovos são arredondados, com diâmetro médio de 3mm e coloração rósea que vai se alterando à medida que os embriões se desenvolvem. Com um período de incubaçãod e 15 a 23 dias, condicionado pela temperatura ambiente, eles resistem até 5 a 6 dias imersos em água sem danos aos embriões; independem de luz para eclodir. Os exemplares recém-eclodido têm, em média, 2,4 por 1,7mm de altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Criados em isolamento crescem e sobrevivem mais que quando criados em grupo. Resistem pelo menos 90 dias fora d'água, mantendo-se neste período dentro das conchas, com o opérculo hermeticamente fechado, em anidrobiose. Nesta fase, podem morrer por ataque de larvas de dípteros.Laboratory observation on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), competitor and predator of Manson's schistosomiasis intermediate hosts, have shown that: Males and females reach sexual maturity after one year, copulating preferably in the morning and laying eggs at night. The time spent in these acts is variable; in the case of egglaying it depends on the number of eggs to be laid. The eggs are round, about 3mm in diameter, and have a pink color that changes with the development of the embryos. With an average incubation time of 15 to 23 days and conditioned by the temperature of the environment, they resist for 5 to 6 days immersed in water without damage to th embryos and they do not need light to hatch. The newly-hatched specimens have about 2.4 x 1,7 mm of height and diameter, respectively. The specimens bred alone grow more and survive better that when in a group. They resist for at least 90 days when left dry, remaining during this period enclosed in the shell, with the operculum hermetically closed, in hydrobiosis. In this phase, death by attack of diptera-larvae may occur.

Carlos Tito Guimarães

1981-01-01

166

Algumas observações de laboratório sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Observações de laboratório sobre o pilideo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) competidor-predador de planorbineos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Machos e fêmeas atingem maturidade sexual após um ano de idade, copulando preferencialmente pela manhã e ovipondo à noite. O tempo gasto nestes atos é variável; no caso da oviposição ele depende do número de ovos a serem postos. Os ovos são arredondados, com diâmetro médio de 3mm (more) e coloração rósea que vai se alterando à medida que os embriões se desenvolvem. Com um período de incubaçãod e 15 a 23 dias, condicionado pela temperatura ambiente, eles resistem até 5 a 6 dias imersos em água sem danos aos embriões; independem de luz para eclodir. Os exemplares recém-eclodido têm, em média, 2,4 por 1,7mm de altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Criados em isolamento crescem e sobrevivem mais que quando criados em grupo. Resistem pelo menos 90 dias fora d'água, mantendo-se neste período dentro das conchas, com o opérculo hermeticamente fechado, em anidrobiose. Nesta fase, podem morrer por ataque de larvas de dípteros. Abstract in english Laboratory observation on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), competitor and predator of Manson's schistosomiasis intermediate hosts, have shown that: Males and females reach sexual maturity after one year, copulating preferably in the morning and laying eggs at night. The time spent in these acts is variable; in the case of egglaying it depends on the number of eggs to be laid. The eggs are round, about 3mm in diameter, and have a pink color that changes with the d (more) evelopment of the embryos. With an average incubation time of 15 to 23 days and conditioned by the temperature of the environment, they resist for 5 to 6 days immersed in water without damage to th embryos and they do not need light to hatch. The newly-hatched specimens have about 2.4 x 1,7 mm of height and diameter, respectively. The specimens bred alone grow more and survive better that when in a group. They resist for at least 90 days when left dry, remaining during this period enclosed in the shell, with the operculum hermetically closed, in hydrobiosis. In this phase, death by attack of diptera-larvae may occur.

Guimarães, Carlos Tito

1981-03-01

167

Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators. PMID:18642077

Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

2008-07-19

168

Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Darby, P. C.; Bennetts, R. E.; Percival, H. F.

2008-01-01

169

Izolované populace praménky Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857) (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) v okolí Prahy Isolated populations of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857) (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in Prague surroundings (Czech Republic)  

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Full Text Available This paper completes the knowledge of an occurrence of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857) (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in surroundings of Prague – capital of the Czech Republic. However, this species is not rare in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, sites on north-western otskirts of Prague are isolated far from the main distribution area. Altogether, 63 sites potentially suitable for B. austriaca were investigated in this area, and occurrence of this species was confirmed in 11 of them. B. austriaca was found in springs, rivulets and small brooks, more numerous populations were found in springs. Historical occurrence data in this area were compared with results of research done in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Actual situation of this species in Prague surroundings is problematic and survival of some populations is not guaranteed.

Luboš Beran

2010-01-01

170

Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullariidae)/ Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha (more) = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78); comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13); comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73). Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2) e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha) presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas. Abstract in english This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78); spire length/shell length = 0.10 (more) - 0.18 (mean 0.13); aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73). The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2) and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.

Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

1987-12-01

171

LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE) EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in Medellín, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae), molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

DANIELA VERGARA; LUZ ELENA VELÁSQUEZ

2009-01-01

172

LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE) EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA/ Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in Medellín, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae), molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas (more) se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea. Abstract in english The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photogra (more) phs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

VERGARA, DANIELA; VELÁSQUEZ, LUZ ELENA

2009-04-01

173

New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839) vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874) is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gosteliisp. n. (Pristilomatidae), Turanena demirsoyisp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatussp. n., Rhabdoena gosteliisp. n. (all Enidae), Metafruticicola kizildagensissp. n. (Hygromiidae), and Assyriella thospitis menkhorstissp. n. (Helicidae). For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

Gümü? BA; Neubert E

2012-01-01

174

New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae)  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839) vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874) is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae), Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae), Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae), and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae). For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

Burçin Gümüs; Eike Neubert

2012-01-01

175

Confocal Raman and electronic microscopy studies on the topotactic conversion of calcium carbonate from Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite bioceramic materials in phosphate media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conversion of Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic materials was investigated by their in vitro treatment with phosphate solutions, at room temperature. Confocal Raman microscopy revealed that the conversion proceeds at distinct rates through the nacreous or periostracum sides of the shell. The conversion can be accelerated using powdered samples, yielding biocompatible materials of great interest in biomedicine.

dePaula SM; Huila MF; Araki K; Toma HE

2010-12-01

176

Confocal Raman and electronic microscopy studies on the topotactic conversion of calcium carbonate from Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite bioceramic materials in phosphate media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion of Pomacea lineate shells into hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic materials was investigated by their in vitro treatment with phosphate solutions, at room temperature. Confocal Raman microscopy revealed that the conversion proceeds at distinct rates through the nacreous or periostracum sides of the shell. The conversion can be accelerated using powdered samples, yielding biocompatible materials of great interest in biomedicine. PMID:20678941

dePaula, S M; Huila, M F G; Araki, K; Toma, H E

2010-07-15

177

LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE) EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae), molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea. Palabras claves: cercarias, digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Philophthalmidae, Redias. ABSTRACT The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed. Key words: Cercariae, Digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Philophthalmidae, Rediae.

VERGARA DANIELA; VELÁSQUEZ LUZ ELENA

2009-01-01

178

Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-?pH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. Results We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles.

Fernández-Marín Beatriz; Míguez Fátima; Becerril José; García-Plazaola José

2011-01-01

179

Activation of violaxanthin cycle in darkness is a common response to different abiotic stresses: a case study in Pelvetia canaliculata  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the violaxanthin (V) cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z) when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-?pH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. Results We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage). Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE) have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles.

2011-01-01

180

Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina) Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina)  

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Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata), Chironomidae (Diptera), Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919) (Bivalvia: Hyriidae), and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae) and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae) and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) (Characidae) in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata), Chironomidae (Diptera), Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919) (Bivalvia: Hyriidae), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae) y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae) y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) (Characidae) en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que la estrategia predominante fue de tipo generalista. En general, en los macroinvertebrados, los valores de los isótopos estables confirmaron los resultados obtenidos por el análisis del contenido estomacal. En los peces, los isótopos estables demostraron que ambas especies son depredadores, aunque B. iheringii tiene un comportamiento más omnívoro. Además, el estudio de la alimentación, nos permitió establecer las conexiones tróficas entre los taxa estudiados. La principal fuente de alimento para los macroinvertebrados estudiados fueron el detritus y las diatomeas. En el arroyo La Choza la materia orgánica particulada es una fuente de recursos ilimitada con influencia significativa en toda la comunidad.

María V. López van Oosterom; Carolina S. Ocón; Florencia Brancolini; Miriam E. Maroñas; Eduardo D. Sendra; Alberto Rodrigues Capítulo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina)/ Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata), Chironomidae (Diptera), Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919) (Bivalvia: Hyriidae), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae) y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae) y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) (Characidae) en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base (more) del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que la estrategia predominante fue de tipo generalista. En general, en los macroinvertebrados, los valores de los isótopos estables confirmaron los resultados obtenidos por el análisis del contenido estomacal. En los peces, los isótopos estables demostraron que ambas especies son depredadores, aunque B. iheringii tiene un comportamiento más omnívoro. Además, el estudio de la alimentación, nos permitió establecer las conexiones tróficas entre los taxa estudiados. La principal fuente de alimento para los macroinvertebrados estudiados fueron el detritus y las diatomeas. En el arroyo La Choza la materia orgánica particulada es una fuente de recursos ilimitada con influencia significativa en toda la comunidad. Abstract in english The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata), Chironomidae (Diptera), Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919) (Bivalvia: Hyriidae), and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae) and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae) and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) (Characidae) in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina w (more) ere assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

López van Oosterom, María V.; Ocón, Carolina S.; Brancolini, Florencia; Maroñas, Miriam E.; Sendra, Eduardo D.; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

2013-03-01

182

Applying weight gain in Pomacea lineata (Spix 1824) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) as a measure of herbicide toxicity Aplicando o ganho de peso em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1824) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) como uma medida de toxicidade a herbicida  

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Full Text Available Pomacea lineata, an extremely ubiquitous snail and pest to rice farmers throughout Asia, holds promise as a valuable resource for monitoring water quality in northeast Brazil. In this paper, we present data demonstrating the rate of weight gain in P. lineata neonates as a consistent measure of the stress imposed by sublethal concentrations of the herbicides Paraquat and Round-up. Our secondary agenda is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating bioassay into the standard municipal and state procedure of monitoring water quality. Growth data to assess chronic toxicity were generated in experiments of four and four, eight, twelve and sixteen days for Paraquat and Round-up, respectively. We estimated a 96 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Paraquat of 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L. The 96 h Round-up data yielded NOEC and LOEC values, respectively, of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L. All concentrations of Round-up tested for the 192 h exposure yielded significantly lower growth than the control. Consequently, no NOEC could be derived. The LOEC was Pomacea lineata, um molusco amplamente distribuído e considerado como peste em plantações de arroz no Oriente, pode ser considerado como um valioso recurso para monitorar a qualidade da água no Nordeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, apresentamos dados que demonstram que o incremento de peso em moluscos neonatos é uma medida consistente que responde eficientemente ao estresse imposto por concentrações tóxicas subletais dos herbicidas Paraquat e Round-up. Os resultados de crescimento para avaliar a toxicidade crônica foram obtidos em experimentos de quatro e quatro, oito, doze e dezesseis dias para Paraquat e Round-up, respectivamente. A maior concentração de efeito não observado (NOEC) e a menor concentração de efeito observado (LOEC) para Paraquat, após 96 horas, foram respectivamente de 0,12 e 0,25 mg/L. Para o Round-up, os valores de NOEC e LOEC estimados foram respectivamente de 0,25 e 0,5 mg/L. Todas as concentrações de Round-up testadas após 192 horas de exposição provocaram diminuições nas taxas de crescimento, sendo significativamente diferentes do controle. Conseqüentemente não pode ser estimado o valor de NOEC. O valor de LOEC foi menor do que 0,12 mg/L. Além disso, não houve nenhuma mortalidade durante o teste. Por conseguinte, nenhum NOEC pôde ser derivado e o LOEC era < 0,12 mg/L. Para as mais baixas concentrações de Paraquat testadas (0,005 mg/L), houve um aumento do crescimento que foi significativamente maior que o controle, sugerindo a ocorrência de um efeito hormético.

R. A. Coler; R. R. Coler; E. K. G. Felizardo; T. Watanabe

2005-01-01

183

Applying weight gain in Pomacea lineata (Spix 1824) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) as a measure of herbicide toxicity/ Aplicando o ganho de peso em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1824) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) como uma medida de toxicidade a herbicida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pomacea lineata, um molusco amplamente distribuído e considerado como peste em plantações de arroz no Oriente, pode ser considerado como um valioso recurso para monitorar a qualidade da água no Nordeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, apresentamos dados que demonstram que o incremento de peso em moluscos neonatos é uma medida consistente que responde eficientemente ao estresse imposto por concentrações tóxicas subletais dos herbicidas Paraquat e Round-up. Os resultados (more) de crescimento para avaliar a toxicidade crônica foram obtidos em experimentos de quatro e quatro, oito, doze e dezesseis dias para Paraquat e Round-up, respectivamente. A maior concentração de efeito não observado (NOEC) e a menor concentração de efeito observado (LOEC) para Paraquat, após 96 horas, foram respectivamente de 0,12 e 0,25 mg/L. Para o Round-up, os valores de NOEC e LOEC estimados foram respectivamente de 0,25 e 0,5 mg/L. Todas as concentrações de Round-up testadas após 192 horas de exposição provocaram diminuições nas taxas de crescimento, sendo significativamente diferentes do controle. Conseqüentemente não pode ser estimado o valor de NOEC. O valor de LOEC foi menor do que 0,12 mg/L. Além disso, não houve nenhuma mortalidade durante o teste. Por conseguinte, nenhum NOEC pôde ser derivado e o LOEC era Abstract in english Pomacea lineata, an extremely ubiquitous snail and pest to rice farmers throughout Asia, holds promise as a valuable resource for monitoring water quality in northeast Brazil. In this paper, we present data demonstrating the rate of weight gain in P. lineata neonates as a consistent measure of the stress imposed by sublethal concentrations of the herbicides Paraquat and Round-up. Our secondary agenda is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating bioassay into the sta (more) ndard municipal and state procedure of monitoring water quality. Growth data to assess chronic toxicity were generated in experiments of four and four, eight, twelve and sixteen days for Paraquat and Round-up, respectively. We estimated a 96 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Paraquat of 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L. The 96 h Round-up data yielded NOEC and LOEC values, respectively, of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L. All concentrations of Round-up tested for the 192 h exposure yielded significantly lower growth than the control. Consequently, no NOEC could be derived. The LOEC was

Coler, R. A.; Coler, R. R.; Felizardo, E. K. G.; Watanabe, T.

2005-11-01

184

Algumas observações de campo sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) (Mollusca, Pilidae)/ Some field observation on biology and ecology of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) (Mollusca, Pilidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Algumas observações de campo sobre o pilídeo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predador-competidor de planorbíneos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Cópula e oviposição são realizadas, preferencialmente, à noite e de madrugada. As desovas - cujas dimensões e formas dependem do número de ovos e tipos dos suportes - sao ovipostas, na maioria das vezes, de 6 a 10 cm acima do nível da água eclodindo após 9 a 30 dias de incubaç? (more) ?o; o número médio de ovos por desova foi de 236. A alimentação habitual deste molusco consiste de algas confervóides, além de vegetais aquáticos natantes e submersos; entretanto, e comum a utilização de outros materiais como alimento.Tem como habitat a zona marginal mais rasa das coleções hídricas onde e encontrado, predominando, aparentemente, nos ambientes lênticos. A distribuição espacial esta condicionada por determinadas características dos biótopos. Algumas aves aquáticas - anatídeos, ralídeos, etc.- revelaram-se importantes inimigos naturais, atacando além das desovas exemplares jovens e adultos; em determinadas condições podem constituir fator impeditivo da implantação e colonização de novos biótopos. Abstract in english Some field observations on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predator-competitor of schistosomiasis mansoni planorbid intermediate hosts have shown that: Copula and oviposition are preferably carried out at night or at dawn. Eggmasses - whose dimension and shape depend on the number of eggs and types of supports - are often laid from 6 to 10 com above the water level and hatched 9 to 30 days after incubation; the average number of eggs/egg-mass was 236. Habitual (more) food consist of confervoid algae, besides natant and submerged aquatic vegetation; it is common, however, the utilization of the other material as food. Its habitat is the shallower marginal zone of hidric collections, predominatly in lentic surrounding. Its spacial distribution is conditioned to the biotipe special characteristics. Some aquatic birds - anatid, ralid, etc. - reveal important natural enemies, attacking both young and adult specimens, besides the egg-masses; under certain conditions they may be an impedictive factor to the establishment and colonization of this pilid in new biotopes.

Guimarães, Carlos Tito

1981-12-01

185

Algumas observações de campo sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) (Mollusca, Pilidae) Some field observation on biology and ecology of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856) (Mollusca, Pilidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algumas observações de campo sobre o pilídeo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predador-competidor de planorbíneos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Cópula e oviposição são realizadas, preferencialmente, à noite e de madrugada. As desovas - cujas dimensões e formas dependem do número de ovos e tipos dos suportes - sao ovipostas, na maioria das vezes, de 6 a 10 cm acima do nível da água eclodindo após 9 a 30 dias de incubação; o número médio de ovos por desova foi de 236. A alimentação habitual deste molusco consiste de algas confervóides, além de vegetais aquáticos natantes e submersos; entretanto, e comum a utilização de outros materiais como alimento.Tem como habitat a zona marginal mais rasa das coleções hídricas onde e encontrado, predominando, aparentemente, nos ambientes lênticos. A distribuição espacial esta condicionada por determinadas características dos biótopos. Algumas aves aquáticas - anatídeos, ralídeos, etc.- revelaram-se importantes inimigos naturais, atacando além das desovas exemplares jovens e adultos; em determinadas condições podem constituir fator impeditivo da implantação e colonização de novos biótopos.Some field observations on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856), predator-competitor of schistosomiasis mansoni planorbid intermediate hosts have shown that: Copula and oviposition are preferably carried out at night or at dawn. Eggmasses - whose dimension and shape depend on the number of eggs and types of supports - are often laid from 6 to 10 com above the water level and hatched 9 to 30 days after incubation; the average number of eggs/egg-mass was 236. Habitual food consist of confervoid algae, besides natant and submerged aquatic vegetation; it is common, however, the utilization of the other material as food. Its habitat is the shallower marginal zone of hidric collections, predominatly in lentic surrounding. Its spacial distribution is conditioned to the biotipe special characteristics. Some aquatic birds - anatid, ralid, etc. - reveal important natural enemies, attacking both young and adult specimens, besides the egg-masses; under certain conditions they may be an impedictive factor to the establishment and colonization of this pilid in new biotopes.

Carlos Tito Guimarães

1981-01-01

186

Contribució a l’estudi dels mol·luscs terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda) del Parc de la Serralada Litoral (Barcelona)  

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Full Text Available Contribution to the study of terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) Serralada LitoralPark (Barcelona)The population of molluscs in Serralada Litoral Park (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula) was assessed, contributing to the conservation plan. A wildlife inventory was conducted based on fieldwork and literature. Gastropod communities in various natural environments and conchological species of interest for conservation are also described. Several environmental aspects that determine the distribution and abundance of snails are discussed and management measures to meet their ecological requirements are suggested.

Bros, V.

2013-01-01

187

Migration, isolation, and speciation of hydrothermal vent limpets (Gastropoda; Lepetodrilidae) across the Blanco Transform Fault.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Sovanco Fracture Zone and Blanco Transform Fault separate the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda ridge systems of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To test whether such offsets in the ridge axis create barriers to along-axis dispersal of the endemic hydrothermal vent animals, we examined the genetic structure of limpet populations previously identified as Lepetodrilus fucensis McLean, 1988 (Gastropoda, Lepetodrilidae). Mitochondrial DNA sequences and patterns of allozyme variation revealed no evidence that the 150-km-long Sovanco Fracture Zone impeded gene flow between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca populations. In contrast, the 450-km-long Blanco Transform Fault separates the limpets into highly divergent northern and southern lineages that we recognize as distinct species. We describe southern populations from the Gorda Ridge (Seacliff) and Escanaba Trough as Lepetodrilus gordensis new species and refer northern populations from the Explorer and Juan de Fuca ridge systems to L. fucensis sensu stricto. The species are similar morphologically, but L. gordensis lacks a sensory neck papilla and has a more tightly coiled teleconch. To assess the degree of isolation between these closely related species, we used the Isolation with Migration method to estimate the time of population splitting, effective sizes of the ancestral and derived populations, and rates of migration across the Blanco Transform Fault.

Johnson SB; Young CR; Jones WJ; Warén A; Vrijenhoek RC

2006-04-01

188

Migration, isolation, and speciation of hydrothermal vent limpets (Gastropoda; Lepetodrilidae) across the Blanco Transform Fault.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sovanco Fracture Zone and Blanco Transform Fault separate the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda ridge systems of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To test whether such offsets in the ridge axis create barriers to along-axis dispersal of the endemic hydrothermal vent animals, we examined the genetic structure of limpet populations previously identified as Lepetodrilus fucensis McLean, 1988 (Gastropoda, Lepetodrilidae). Mitochondrial DNA sequences and patterns of allozyme variation revealed no evidence that the 150-km-long Sovanco Fracture Zone impeded gene flow between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca populations. In contrast, the 450-km-long Blanco Transform Fault separates the limpets into highly divergent northern and southern lineages that we recognize as distinct species. We describe southern populations from the Gorda Ridge (Seacliff) and Escanaba Trough as Lepetodrilus gordensis new species and refer northern populations from the Explorer and Juan de Fuca ridge systems to L. fucensis sensu stricto. The species are similar morphologically, but L. gordensis lacks a sensory neck papilla and has a more tightly coiled teleconch. To assess the degree of isolation between these closely related species, we used the Isolation with Migration method to estimate the time of population splitting, effective sizes of the ancestral and derived populations, and rates of migration across the Blanco Transform Fault. PMID:16641519

Johnson, Shannon B; Young, Curtis R; Jones, William J; Warén, Anders; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

2006-04-01

189

18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

Yoon SH; Kim W

2007-02-01

190

18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda. PMID:17464213

Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

2007-02-28

191

Cargols terrestres (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) del Parc Natural de la Muntanya de Montserrat (Barcelona, NE península Ibèrica).  

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Full Text Available Land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) in the Natural Park of Montserrat (Barcelona, NE Iberian Peninsula).- The inventory of 73 land snails in the Natural Park of Montserrat was updated following the review of 130 publications. Planned field study was also conducted in areas of different habitats on the Montserrat mountain to provide a preliminary description of the communities of land snails in the study area. A total of 342 samples of land snails were studied and 50 species were identified. The most frequent were Pomatias elegans, Helicigona lapicida, Pseudotachea splendida, Abida polyodon and Otala punctata. In this region of the prelittoral Catalan mountain range, the level of endemism was high for Abida secale bofilli, Montserratina bofilliana and Xerocrassa montserratensis. The results of the field work extend the faunistic catalogue of the Natural Park of Montserrat to include references to Hygromia cinctella, Microxeromagna lowei, Paralaoma servilis and Punctum pygmaeum in the area. Finally, investigation and conservation programmes are suggested for the endemic species Xerocrassa montserratensis, protected by the Plan for Areas of Natural Interest (PEIN) approved by Decree 328/1992.

Bros, Vicenç

2006-01-01

192

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda, efeitos citotóxico e espasmolítico de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)/ Evaluation of the acute toxicity, cytotoxic and spasmolytic effects of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pomacea sp. e sua desova têm uso popular para tratar diarréia e doenças respiratórias. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade aguda e os efeitos citotóxico e espasmolítico dos liófilos de Pomacea lineata e de sua desova. Os liófilos não apresentaram toxicidade aguda (até 2 g/kg v.o.) ou efeito citotóxico (até 1 mg/mL). P. lineata relaxou a traquéia pré-contraída com CCh na presença (Emax = 48,8 ± 6,4%) e na ausência (Emax = 47,3 ± 9,1%) de epitél (more) io, já a desova relaxou apenas na presença (Emax = 36,3 ± 2,5%) de epitélio. Os liófilos foram ineficazes sobre o tônus espontâneo da traquéia. P. lineata foi mais potente em inibir as contrações do íleo induzidas por ACh (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,04 µg/mL) que por hist. (logCI50 = 2,7 ± 0,04 µg/mL). A desova inibiu igualmente as contrações induzidas por ACh (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,02 µg/mL) e hist. (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,06 µg/mL). P. lineata foi mais potente em relaxar o íleo pré-contraído com ACh (logCE50 = 1,7 ± 0,12 µg/mL) do que com KCl (logCE50 = 2,4 ± 0,06 µg/mL) ou hist. (logCE50 = 2,2 ± 0,18 µg/mL). A desova relaxou equipotentemente o íleo pré-contraído com KCl (logCE50 = 2,3 ± 0,15 µg/mL), ACh (logCE50 = 1,9 ± 0,14 µg/mL) ou hist. (logCE50 = 2,2 ± 0,16 µg/mL), sugerindo um bloqueio dos CaV. P. lineata e sua desova apresentam efeito espasmolítico justificando a sua utilização no tratamento de diarréia e de doenças respiratórias. Abstract in english Pomacea sp. and its eggs are used against diarrhea and respiratory diseases in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, cytotoxic and spasmolytic activity of lyophilized Pomacea lineata and its eggs. P. lineata and its eggs present no acute toxicity (until 2 g/kg p.o.) or cytotoxic effect (until 1 mg/mL). P. lineata and its eggs have no effect on guinea-pig trachea spontaneous tonus. P. lineata relaxed trachea pre-contracted with CCh in the (more) presence (Emax = 48.8 ± 6,4 %) and absence (Emax = 47.3 ± 9,1 %) of epithelium, the eggs relaxed only in the presence (Emax = 36.3 ± 2.5 %) P. lineata was more potent to inhibit contractions induced by ACh (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.04 µg/mL) than histamine (logIC50 = 2.7 ± 0.04 µg/mL). The eggs inhibited contractions induced by ACh (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.02 µg/mL) and histamine (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.06 µg/mL) in a non-selective manner. P. lineata was more potent in relax ileum pre-contracted with ACh (logEC50 = 1.7 ± 0.12 µg/mL) than KCl (logEC50 = 2.4 ± 0.06 µg/mL) or histamine (logEC50 = 2.2 ± 0.18 µg/mL). The eggs were equipotent in relax ileum pre-contracted with of KCl (logEC50 = 2.3 ± 0.15 µg/mL), ACh (logEC50 = 1.9 ± 0.14 µg/mL) or histamine (logEC50 = 2.2 ± 0.16 µg/mL), that is suggestive of the blockade of the voltage-operated calcium channels. Collectively, the results validate folk use of P. lineata and its eggs to treat diarrhea and respiratory diseases.

Pessôa, Hilzeth L.F.; Oliveira, Rita C.M.; Silva, Joelmir L.V.; Santos, Rosimeire F.; Duarte, José C.; Costa, Maria J.C.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

2007-03-01

193

Avaliação da toxicidade aguda, efeitos citotóxico e espasmolítico de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) Evaluation of the acute toxicity, cytotoxic and spasmolytic effects of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pomacea sp. e sua desova têm uso popular para tratar diarréia e doenças respiratórias. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade aguda e os efeitos citotóxico e espasmolítico dos liófilos de Pomacea lineata e de sua desova. Os liófilos não apresentaram toxicidade aguda (até 2 g/kg v.o.) ou efeito citotóxico (até 1 mg/mL). P. lineata relaxou a traquéia pré-contraída com CCh na presença (Emax = 48,8 ± 6,4%) e na ausência (Emax = 47,3 ± 9,1%) de epitélio, já a desova relaxou apenas na presença (Emax = 36,3 ± 2,5%) de epitélio. Os liófilos foram ineficazes sobre o tônus espontâneo da traquéia. P. lineata foi mais potente em inibir as contrações do íleo induzidas por ACh (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,04 µg/mL) que por hist. (logCI50 = 2,7 ± 0,04 µg/mL). A desova inibiu igualmente as contrações induzidas por ACh (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,02 µg/mL) e hist. (logCI50 = 2,5 ± 0,06 µg/mL). P. lineata foi mais potente em relaxar o íleo pré-contraído com ACh (logCE50 = 1,7 ± 0,12 µg/mL) do que com KCl (logCE50 = 2,4 ± 0,06 µg/mL) ou hist. (logCE50 = 2,2 ± 0,18 µg/mL). A desova relaxou equipotentemente o íleo pré-contraído com KCl (logCE50 = 2,3 ± 0,15 µg/mL), ACh (logCE50 = 1,9 ± 0,14 µg/mL) ou hist. (logCE50 = 2,2 ± 0,16 µg/mL), sugerindo um bloqueio dos CaV. P. lineata e sua desova apresentam efeito espasmolítico justificando a sua utilização no tratamento de diarréia e de doenças respiratórias.Pomacea sp. and its eggs are used against diarrhea and respiratory diseases in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, cytotoxic and spasmolytic activity of lyophilized Pomacea lineata and its eggs. P. lineata and its eggs present no acute toxicity (until 2 g/kg p.o.) or cytotoxic effect (until 1 mg/mL). P. lineata and its eggs have no effect on guinea-pig trachea spontaneous tonus. P. lineata relaxed trachea pre-contracted with CCh in the presence (Emax = 48.8 ± 6,4 %) and absence (Emax = 47.3 ± 9,1 %) of epithelium, the eggs relaxed only in the presence (Emax = 36.3 ± 2.5 %) P. lineata was more potent to inhibit contractions induced by ACh (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.04 µg/mL) than histamine (logIC50 = 2.7 ± 0.04 µg/mL). The eggs inhibited contractions induced by ACh (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.02 µg/mL) and histamine (logIC50 = 2.5 ± 0.06 µg/mL) in a non-selective manner. P. lineata was more potent in relax ileum pre-contracted with ACh (logEC50 = 1.7 ± 0.12 µg/mL) than KCl (logEC50 = 2.4 ± 0.06 µg/mL) or histamine (logEC50 = 2.2 ± 0.18 µg/mL). The eggs were equipotent in relax ileum pre-contracted with of KCl (logEC50 = 2.3 ± 0.15 µg/mL), ACh (logEC50 = 1.9 ± 0.14 µg/mL) or histamine (logEC50 = 2.2 ± 0.16 µg/mL), that is suggestive of the blockade of the voltage-operated calcium channels. Collectively, the results validate folk use of P. lineata and its eggs to treat diarrhea and respiratory diseases.

Hilzeth L.F. Pessôa; Rita C.M. Oliveira; Joelmir L.V. Silva; Rosimeire F. Santos; José C. Duarte; Maria J.C. Costa; Bagnólia A. Silva

2007-01-01

194

Effects of sublethal chronic copper exposure on the growth and reproductive success of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 microg/L, 16 microg/L, 24 microg/L), for one generation to examine uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F(0) generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F(1) generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8-16 microg/L Cu had high Cu accumulation (whole body, foot, viscera, and shell) and significantly reduced clutch production (8-16 microg/L) and egg hatching (16 microg/L). Apple snails exposed to the 24 microg/L Cu had low survival and the treatment was therefore terminated. Concentrations of minerals (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) in tissues were maintained regardless of Cu exposure, but the distribution of Cu in the body of snails differed, depending on exposure concentrations. Higher exposure concentrations resulted in a greater percentage of Cu accumulated in the viscera of the snail. Copper exposure to the F(0) generation did not affect the survival, growth, or whole body Cu concentrations in the F(1) generation. These finding are significant, given the importance of the Florida apple snail in the Everglades food chain. Changes in the abundance of apple snail populations, as a result of Cu exposure, could ultimately affect foraging success of predators.

Rogevich EC; Hoang TC; Rand GM

2009-04-01

195

PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica) e aruá (Pomacea lineata). Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado): triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49). Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos), mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

S. H. R. BARBOZA; D. P. S. COSTA; P. F. ROMANELLI

2009-01-01

196

Effects of sublethal chronic copper exposure on the growth and reproductive success of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa).  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 microg/L, 16 microg/L, 24 microg/L), for one generation to examine uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F(0) generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F(1) generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8-16 microg/L Cu had high Cu accumulation (whole body, foot, viscera, and shell) and significantly reduced clutch production (8-16 microg/L) and egg hatching (16 microg/L). Apple snails exposed to the 24 microg/L Cu had low survival and the treatment was therefore terminated. Concentrations of minerals (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) in tissues were maintained regardless of Cu exposure, but the distribution of Cu in the body of snails differed, depending on exposure concentrations. Higher exposure concentrations resulted in a greater percentage of Cu accumulated in the viscera of the snail. Copper exposure to the F(0) generation did not affect the survival, growth, or whole body Cu concentrations in the F(1) generation. These finding are significant, given the importance of the Florida apple snail in the Everglades food chain. Changes in the abundance of apple snail populations, as a result of Cu exposure, could ultimately affect foraging success of predators. PMID:18846313

Rogevich, Emily C; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

2008-10-10

197

Occurrence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associated with Gastropoda mollusks in horticultural channels in Southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 in four species of mollusks collected in irrigation channels of a horticultural garden in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. The collections were made from June 2005 to January 2006. Of the four species of mollusks analysed, we could not detect the presence of C. limnaei in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). There were recorded 320 specimens of C. limnaei in association with Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 and Biomphalaria sp., the latter having the highest number of associated Naididae. PMID:21180913

Martins, R T; Alves, R G

2010-11-01

198

Occurrence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associated with Gastropoda mollusks in horticultural channels in Southeastern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 in four species of mollusks collected in irrigation channels of a horticultural garden in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. The collections were made from June 2005 to January 2006. Of the four species of mollusks analysed, we could not detect the presence of C. limnaei in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). There were recorded 320 specimens of C. limnaei in association with Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 and Biomphalaria sp., the latter having the highest number of associated Naididae.

Martins RT; Alves RG

2010-11-01

199

Mitogenome of the small abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve and phylogenetic analysis within Gastropoda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complete mitochondrial coding regions of three small abalones Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, two collected from Vietnam and one from southern China, were successfully sequenced. The molecular feature of the mitochondrial genome is identical with the general description of the family Haliotidae mtDNAs that have been sequenced so far. The sequenced nucleotides are 16,186-16,266bp in length. The mitogenome encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Between adjacent genes trnH and nad5 there is an overlapping region. Comparison of the ratios of Ka and Ks among four species of Haliotis (H. diversicolor, H. discus hannai, H. rubra and H. tuberculata tuberculata) reveals that values of Ka/Ks in some NADH dehydrogenase and ATPase genes such as nad2, nad6 and atp8 are higher than those in other mitochondrial genes. Genome-wide gene arrangement among four species of Haliotis has been compared. Although all gene arrangement is the same in H. diversicolor, H. discus hannai and H. rubra, the location of trnS? and trnF in H. tuberculata tuberculata are inter-exchanged. Both gene arrangement and phylogenetic analysis support that the family Haliotidae is at a relatively primordial phylogenetic position in Gastropoda. Through alignment between Vietnam and southern China individuals, 111 SNPs are detected, most SNPs are synonymous mutations, and 7, 94 and 10 SNPs are observed at NCR, protein-coding region and RNA region, respectively. The result of SNP analysis also demonstrates that the difference is mainly in some NADH dehydrogenase genes between the Vietnam and southern China individuals.

Xin Y; Ren J; Liu X

2011-12-01

200

Two glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes purified from Bulinus truncatus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We purified and characterized two major glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes (GST2 and GST3) from snail Bulinus truncatus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Planorbidae) tissue. The Km with respect to 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) for both isoenzymes was increased as the pH decreased. Km of both isoenzymes with respect to glutathione (GSH) doubled when the pH was increased from 6.0 to 6.5. Acid inactivated GST2 and GST3 and the two enzymes were almost inactive at pH 3.5. However, they retain the full activity for at least 20 h when incubated at pH between 6.0 and 9.0. The optimum temperature was 45 degrees C for GST2 and 50 degrees C for GST3. The half lifetime at 50 degrees C was 70 min and 45 min for GST2 and GST3 isoenzymes, respectively. Addition of 5 mM GSH to the incubation buffer increased the half life of both isoenzymes more than fourfold. The activation energy for catalyzing the conjugation of CDNB was 1.826 and 3.435 kcal/mol for GST2 and GST3, respectively. I50 values for Cibacron blue, bromosulphophthalein, indocyanine green, hematin and ethacrynic acid were 0.76 microM, 47.9 microM, 7.59 microM, 0.03 microM and 0.79 microM for GST2, and 0.479 microM, 79.4 microM, 89.1 microM, 32.4 microM and 1.15 microM for GST3, respectively. Cibacron blue and indocyanine green were non-competitive inhibitors, while hematin was a mixed inhibitor. Bromosulphophthalein was found to be a competitive inhibitor for GST2 and a mixed inhibitor for GST3. PMID:16311050

Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; El-Mogy, Mohamed; Farid, Nevin M; El-Sharabasy, Mohamed

2005-11-28

 
 
 
 
201

Exposure routes of copper: short term effects on survival, weight, and uptake in Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The uptake and effects (survival, weight) of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) via exposures to copper-enriched agricultural soil-water and water-only treatments were investigated. Soils were collected from citrus sites in south Florida and flooded with laboratory freshwater for 14d. Neonate apple snails (96-h-old) were then exposed to either Cu from a soil-overlying water (i.e., flooded agricultural soils) treatment or overlying water-only (i.e., equilibrated overlying water produced from 14d flooding of agriculture soils) treatment for 14d under standard laboratory conditions. Survival, weight (dry, wet), and whole body Cu uptake were measured. Copper exposure via soil-water exposures resulted in higher mortality and whole body Cu uptake than water-only exposures, indicating Cu uptake from soils. However, snail wet and dry weights were higher in soil-water treatments than in water-only treatments. Micronutrients from soils may be consumed by snails increasing weights. Survival, apple snail dry weight, and whole body Cu concentrations were significantly correlated with soil and water Cu concentrations in soil-water treatments. Survival was significantly correlated with the concentration of Cu(CO3)2(2-) in water-only treatments. This suggests that Cu(CO3)2(2-) is toxic to apple snails. Whole body Cu concentrations were higher in surviving snails than dead snails, suggesting that apple snails have the ability to detoxify accumulated Cu (e.g., through metallothionein induction, granules).

Hoang TC; Rand GM

2009-07-01

202

Development of a captive breeding program for the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa: Relaxation and sex ratio recommendations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stock enhancement of the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa, is a potential management strategy for the conservation of the endangered snail kite which is dependent upon the snail as its predominant food source. Reliable culture techniques that provide high growth and survival rates for juvenile snails have been established; however, additional research is needed to improve breeding in captivity. The goals of this study were to efficiently relax the snails to identify the sex in order to conduct a study to understand the effect of different sex ratios on reproductive output. Of the seven chemical solutions used to relax the snails, benzocaine mixed in methanol was the most effective. To examine the effect of sex ratio, 10 snails were stocked into 75L tanks within a recirculating aquaculture system at the ratios of 3F:7M, 5F:5M, 7F:3M, and 8F:2M for 8weeks. There was a significant positive relationship between the number of egg clutches produced and a higher number of females in the tank. However, there were no significant differences in the number of eggs per clutch, egg diameter, percent hatch rates, female production (egg clutches per female per week), or the number of juvenile snails produced per female. The number of copulations was observed for the first three weeks of the experiment. When standardized to the number of copulations per male snails, no significant differences between treatments were detected. Our results suggest that a female-biased sex ratio may prove optimal and cost effective for large-scale captive breeding production. Future studies should determine the minimal proportion of males needed to limit the loss of genetic diversity in a female-biased stock enhancement program.

Garr AL; Posch H; McQuillan M; Davis M

2012-12-01

203

The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH. PMID:18180860

Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

2008-05-01

204

Exposure routes of copper: short term effects on survival, weight, and uptake in Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake and effects (survival, weight) of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) via exposures to copper-enriched agricultural soil-water and water-only treatments were investigated. Soils were collected from citrus sites in south Florida and flooded with laboratory freshwater for 14d. Neonate apple snails (96-h-old) were then exposed to either Cu from a soil-overlying water (i.e., flooded agricultural soils) treatment or overlying water-only (i.e., equilibrated overlying water produced from 14d flooding of agriculture soils) treatment for 14d under standard laboratory conditions. Survival, weight (dry, wet), and whole body Cu uptake were measured. Copper exposure via soil-water exposures resulted in higher mortality and whole body Cu uptake than water-only exposures, indicating Cu uptake from soils. However, snail wet and dry weights were higher in soil-water treatments than in water-only treatments. Micronutrients from soils may be consumed by snails increasing weights. Survival, apple snail dry weight, and whole body Cu concentrations were significantly correlated with soil and water Cu concentrations in soil-water treatments. Survival was significantly correlated with the concentration of Cu(CO3)2(2-) in water-only treatments. This suggests that Cu(CO3)2(2-) is toxic to apple snails. Whole body Cu concentrations were higher in surviving snails than dead snails, suggesting that apple snails have the ability to detoxify accumulated Cu (e.g., through metallothionein induction, granules). PMID:19364620

Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

2009-04-11

205

Protein expression during the embryonic development of a gastropod.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the potential use of gastropod embryos in basic and applied research, little is known about their protein expression. We examined, for the first time, changes in proteomic profile during embryonic development of Pomacea canaliculata from an embryo without a shell (stage II) to an embryo with a fully formed shell (stage III) to understand the roles that proteins play in critical developmental events, such as the formation of shell, operculum and heart, and the differentiation of head and foot. To analyze protein expression during development, we used 2-DE to detect, MS to analyze, and de novo peptide sequencing followed by MS-BLAST to identify the proteins. The de novo cross-species protein identification method was adopted because of a lack of genomic and proteomic data in the whole class of Gastropoda. 2-DE detected approximately 700 protein spots. Among the 125 spots that were abundant, 52% were identified, a marked improvement over the conventional direct MS-BLAST method. These proteins function in perivitelline fluid utilization, shell formation, protein synthesis and folding, and cell cycle and cell fate determination, providing evidence to support that this embryonic period is a period of dynamic protein synthesis and metabolism. The data shall provide a basis for further studies of how gastropod embryos respond to natural and human-induced changes in the environment.

Sun J; Zhang Y; Thiyagarajan V; Qian PY; Qiu JW

2010-07-01

206

Protein expression during the embryonic development of a gastropod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the potential use of gastropod embryos in basic and applied research, little is known about their protein expression. We examined, for the first time, changes in proteomic profile during embryonic development of Pomacea canaliculata from an embryo without a shell (stage II) to an embryo with a fully formed shell (stage III) to understand the roles that proteins play in critical developmental events, such as the formation of shell, operculum and heart, and the differentiation of head and foot. To analyze protein expression during development, we used 2-DE to detect, MS to analyze, and de novo peptide sequencing followed by MS-BLAST to identify the proteins. The de novo cross-species protein identification method was adopted because of a lack of genomic and proteomic data in the whole class of Gastropoda. 2-DE detected approximately 700 protein spots. Among the 125 spots that were abundant, 52% were identified, a marked improvement over the conventional direct MS-BLAST method. These proteins function in perivitelline fluid utilization, shell formation, protein synthesis and folding, and cell cycle and cell fate determination, providing evidence to support that this embryonic period is a period of dynamic protein synthesis and metabolism. The data shall provide a basis for further studies of how gastropod embryos respond to natural and human-induced changes in the environment. PMID:20455212

Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

2010-07-01

207

Diversidad genética de dos poblaciones del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) en Yucatán, México, con microsatélite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro) mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares del tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He) de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas (more) poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49) y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos) entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones. Abstract in english Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are i (more) n the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.

Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; García de León, Francisco J; Tello Cetina, Jorge

2011-09-01

208

Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años) y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%). Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.Terrestrial mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Costa Rica: classification, distribution and conservation. Terrestrial mollusks are poorly known worldwide. The country has 183 reported species, 30% endemic and 7% are probably extinct. About 400 species are expected to inhabit the country. Biology, ecology, distribution, genetics and other areas of research are unknown for more than 95% of the species. The most diverse families are Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae and Subulinidae. However, the family that may have more species is Euconulidae. Euconulids inhabit the highlands, where less work has been done. The study of species of highlands will also rise the endemism rate. Future taxonomic, biological and ecological work should consider their low vagility, tendency to produce new taxa in sympatry, specific microhabitat requirements, hermaphroditism, high evolutionary rate (10% per million years), and divergence between species (2 to 30%). Urgent studies to protect the Costa Rican malacofauna include: distribution, abundance, effect of land use and climate changes on populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1165-1175. Epub 2010 December 01.

Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

2010-01-01

209

Diversidad genética de dos poblaciones del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) en Yucatán, México, con microsatélite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro) mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares del tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He) de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49) y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos) entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones.Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.

Roberto Zamora-Bustillos; Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul; Francisco J García de León; Jorge Tello Cetina

2011-01-01

210

Statement on the identity of apple snails : Scientific Opinion, EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs (EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH), 2012). The Panel concludes on the risk to plant health posed by Pomacea species in the ‘canaliculata complex’, that out of the around 50 species in the genus of Pomacea, four species P. canaliculata, P. insularum, P. lineata and P. maculata belong to the ‘canaliculata complex’, where P. insularum and P. maculata are recently considered to be synonyms. Current methods of identification imply high uncertainty if risk reduction options are applied at the Pomacea single species level. The Spanish pest risk analysis identifies important plant health risks connected to Pomacea species. The available scientific evidence indicates that other Pomacea species may pose similar risks to plant health as identified for P. insularum. The Panel clarifies that risk reduction options should not be targeted to single species of the genus Pomacea considering: (i) the dynamical situation in the current study on the systematics of the Ampullariidae species and the genus Pomacea in particular; (ii) the uncertainties and the possible unexpected evolution of the invasive potential of species of Pomacea other than P. insularum and P. canaliculata; (iii) the poor knowledge on the trophic habits of many species of the genus Pomacea, with possible overlaps in the trophic niche (macrophytes); (iv) the high uncertainty on the identification of the different Pomacea species.

Baker, R.; Candresse, T.

2012-01-01

211

The effect of stocking density and diet on the growth and survival of cultured Florida apple snails, Pomacea paludosa  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been interest in culturing the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa, for stock enhancement purposes in central and south Florida to help promote snail kite (Rostramus sociabilis) recovery. In 2007, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University began to research techniques necessary to culture Florida apple snails at a commercial scale (tens of thousands per year). This article reviews stocking density and diet experiments that have yielded a protocol for large-scale culture of Florida apple snails. The objectives of this research were to determine the stocking density that supports efficient production and to determine whether diet choice affects growth and survival and can improve captive growth rates at higher stocking densities. Juvenile apple snails were stocked at six densities (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 snails/m²) in recirculating aquaculture systems with a raised substrate. Although growth was faster in the lowest stocking density compared to the highest density during the first month, the difference subsided in the second month, and overall growth rates and final shell lengths were not statistically different. Survival was not affected by density. A second experiment testing higher densities (100, 175, and 250 snails/m²) showed that snails could be stocked as high as 250 snails/m² and confirmed that the lowest density is optimal for first-month growth. An initial diet study examining six diets (romaine lettuce, two combination diets of plant material and catfish chow, and three ingredient-only diets) showed shell length growth rates of 3mm/wk for snails fed the macroalgae Ulva Diet and Catfish Diet (catfish chow only) for two months. In a subsequent experiment, snails stocked at 250 snails/m² and fed the Ulva Diet grew faster than those at the same density fed the Catfish Diet. The greatest growth occurred in snails fed the Ulva Diet and stocked at 100 snails/m². Based on these results, it is recommended that the Florida apple snail be cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems with a raised substrate at 100 snails/m² and an artificial diet of Ulva macroalgae mixed with catfish chow. Snails cultured in this manner are suitable for release into the wild after three months when they reach adult size (25mm) and reproductive maturity.

Garr AL; Lopez H; Pierce R; Davis M

2011-02-01

212

Metal contamination in the sediment, pondweed, and snails of a stream receiving effluent from a lead/zinc mine in southern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the potential of Potamogeton crispus and Pomacea canaliculata as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination. The results indicate P. crispus possesses several attributes of a biomonitor and its tissue concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn may reflect the levels of sedimentary contamination by these metals. Although P. canaliculata can accumulate metals to high levels and serve as an indicator of metal contamination, its tissue metal concentrations did not correlate with those of the sediments or macrophytes. PMID:18480956

Deng, P Y; Shu, W S; Lan, C Y; Liu, W

2008-05-15

213

First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health. PMID:19651152

Berry, John P; Lind, Owen

2009-08-03

214

First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health.

Berry JP; Lind O

2010-05-01

215

Estado de conocimiento de los Gastrópodos dulceacuícolas de Chile Current state of knowledge of the freshwater Gastropoda of Chile  

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Full Text Available De acuerdo a la literatura, los gastrópodos dulceacuícolas chilenos están compuestos por 73 especies, i.e., 30 spp. de Chilinidae (género Chilina Gray 1828), 4 spp. de Physidae (género Physa Draparnaud 1801), 5 spp. de Lymnaeidae (género Lymnaea Lamarck 1799), 7 spp. de Planorbidae (género Biomphalaria Preston 1910), 5 spp. de Ancylidae (género Anisancylus Pilsbry 1924 y Uncancylus Pilsbry 1913), y 22 spp. de Hydrobiidae (género Potamolithus Pilsbry 1896 y Littoridina Souleyet 1852). La distribución del conjunto de especies de gastrópodos se extiende desde Arica en el norte hasta Magallanes en el sur. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de las especies tiene su rango geográfico restringido a una o unas pocas cuencas hidrográficas contiguas a lo largo del gradiente latitudinal. La mayor concentración de especies de gastrópodos se localiza entre las regiones administrativas VII y X. Actualmente existe una importante falta de conocimiento en relación a la taxonomía, biología, ecología, biogeografía y estado de conservación de prácticamente todas las especies de gastrópodos dulceacuícolas chilenos.According to literature, the Chilean freshwater gastropoda is currently composed by 73 species, i.e., 30 spp. of Chilinidae (genus Chilina Gray 1828), 4 spp. of Physidae (genus Physa Draparnaud 1801), 5 spp. of Lymnaeidae (genus Lymnaea Lamarck 1799), 7 spp. of Planorbidae (genus Biomphalaria Preston 1910), 5 spp. of Ancylidae (genus Anisancylus Pilsbry 1924 and Uncancylus Pilsbry 1913), and 22 spp. of Hydrobiidae (genus Potamolithus Pilsbry 1896 and Littoridina Souleyet 1852). The distribution of the set of species of gastropods spans from Arica in the north to Magallanes in the far south. However, most species have a restricted geographic range, comprising one or a few hydrographical contiguous basins along the latitudinal gradient. The largest concentration of gastropods species is found between the VII and X administrative Regions. An important lack of knowledge exist in relation to the taxonomy, biology, ecology, biogeography and conservation state of practically all the species of Chilean freshwater gastropods.

Claudio Valdovinos Zarges

2006-01-01

216

Estado de conocimiento de los Gastrópodos dulceacuícolas de Chile/ Current state of knowledge of the freshwater Gastropoda of Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish De acuerdo a la literatura, los gastrópodos dulceacuícolas chilenos están compuestos por 73 especies, i.e., 30 spp. de Chilinidae (género Chilina Gray 1828), 4 spp. de Physidae (género Physa Draparnaud 1801), 5 spp. de Lymnaeidae (género Lymnaea Lamarck 1799), 7 spp. de Planorbidae (género Biomphalaria Preston 1910), 5 spp. de Ancylidae (género Anisancylus Pilsbry 1924 y Uncancylus Pilsbry 1913), y 22 spp. de Hydrobiidae (género Potamolithus Pilsbry 1896 y Littor (more) idina Souleyet 1852). La distribución del conjunto de especies de gastrópodos se extiende desde Arica en el norte hasta Magallanes en el sur. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de las especies tiene su rango geográfico restringido a una o unas pocas cuencas hidrográficas contiguas a lo largo del gradiente latitudinal. La mayor concentración de especies de gastrópodos se localiza entre las regiones administrativas VII y X. Actualmente existe una importante falta de conocimiento en relación a la taxonomía, biología, ecología, biogeografía y estado de conservación de prácticamente todas las especies de gastrópodos dulceacuícolas chilenos. Abstract in english According to literature, the Chilean freshwater gastropoda is currently composed by 73 species, i.e., 30 spp. of Chilinidae (genus Chilina Gray 1828), 4 spp. of Physidae (genus Physa Draparnaud 1801), 5 spp. of Lymnaeidae (genus Lymnaea Lamarck 1799), 7 spp. of Planorbidae (genus Biomphalaria Preston 1910), 5 spp. of Ancylidae (genus Anisancylus Pilsbry 1924 and Uncancylus Pilsbry 1913), and 22 spp. of Hydrobiidae (genus Potamolithus Pilsbry 1896 and Littoridina Souleyet (more) 1852). The distribution of the set of species of gastropods spans from Arica in the north to Magallanes in the far south. However, most species have a restricted geographic range, comprising one or a few hydrographical contiguous basins along the latitudinal gradient. The largest concentration of gastropods species is found between the VII and X administrative Regions. An important lack of knowledge exist in relation to the taxonomy, biology, ecology, biogeography and conservation state of practically all the species of Chilean freshwater gastropods.

Valdovinos Zarges, Claudio

2006-06-01

217

Variación espacio-temporal de Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea, de fondos someros de la isla San José, Golfo de California  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizaron seis expediciones a la isla San José, Golfo de California entre los años 1999 y 2000 en donde se llevaron a cabo las observaciones y muestreos. Con base en los muestreos se determinó el componente específico de tres filos de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en nueve localidades: Cnidaria (Scleractinia y Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia y Cephalopoda), y Echinodermata (Echinoidea, Asteroidea y Holothuroidea). La abundancia del macrobentos conspic (more) uo se estimó visualmente mediante buceo libre a una profundidad entre 2 y 6 m a lo largo de dos transectos en banda paralelos a la línea de costa. Se determinó un total de 38 táxones de los tres grupos. Las especies más abundantes son Tripneustes depressus (44,9%), Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3), Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la diversidad (H?), equidad (J) y riqueza de especies (S) entre los meses y localidades. El análisis de similitud identificó a dos grupos de las localidades del litoral oriental y occidental. Abstract in english Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California. Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observations and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractini (more) a and Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44,9%),Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3%),Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No significant differences between diversity (H?), equity (J) and richness of the species (S) during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1189-1199. Epub 2008 September 30.

Holguin Quiñones, Oscar Efraín; González Medina, Felipe de Jesús; Solís Marín, Francisco; Félix Pico, Esteban F

2008-09-01

218

Variación espacio-temporal de Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea, de fondos someros de la isla San José, Golfo de California  

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Full Text Available Se realizaron seis expediciones a la isla San José, Golfo de California entre los años 1999 y 2000 en donde se llevaron a cabo las observaciones y muestreos. Con base en los muestreos se determinó el componente específico de tres filos de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en nueve localidades: Cnidaria (Scleractinia y Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia y Cephalopoda), y Echinodermata (Echinoidea, Asteroidea y Holothuroidea). La abundancia del macrobentos conspicuo se estimó visualmente mediante buceo libre a una profundidad entre 2 y 6 m a lo largo de dos transectos en banda paralelos a la línea de costa. Se determinó un total de 38 táxones de los tres grupos. Las especies más abundantes son Tripneustes depressus (44,9%), Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3), Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la diversidad (H’), equidad (J) y riqueza de especies (S) entre los meses y localidades. El análisis de similitud identificó a dos grupos de las localidades del litoral oriental y occidental.Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California. Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observations and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractinia and Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44,9%),Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3%),Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No significant differences between diversity (H’), equity (J) and richness of the species (S) during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1189-1199. Epub 2008 September 30.

Oscar Efraín Holguin Quiñones; Felipe de Jesús González Medina; Francisco Solís Marín; Esteban F Félix Pico

2008-01-01

219

Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al. (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) y faunas asociadas del Cámbrico tardío del Angosto de la Quesera, provincia de Salta/ Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al. (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) y faunas asociadas del Cámbrico tardío del Angosto de la Quesera, Provincia de Salta  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio paleontológico en la Formación Lampazar que aflora en la localidad Angosto de La Quesera, franja oeste de la Cordillera Oriental, provincia de Salta. En dicha unidad se ha registrado el género Strepsodiscus Knight (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea), el cual ha reforzado anteriores investigaciones que revelan una edad cámbrica tardía para la asociación fosilífera y los estratos portadores. En esta oportunidad se realiza un d (more) iagnóstico de la morfología funcional de la especie Strepsodicus austrinus Pinilla et al., la cual se documenta asociada a trilobites característicos de la Biozona de Parabolina frequens argentina [Parabolina (Neoparabolina) frequens (Barrande), Olenidae indet., Micragnostus sp.], Hyolitha gen et sp. indet., placas de crinoideos y trazas fósiles de la ichnofacies de Cruziana. Abstract in english A paleontological study on the Lampazar Formation outcropping at Angosto de la Quesera locality, western Cordillera Oriental, Salta Province, is achieved. The occurrence of the genus Strepsodiscus Knight (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) supports a latest Cambrian age for the formation. This paper includes an analysis of the functional morphology of Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al., which is associated with some characteristic trilobites of the Parabolina frequens arg (more) entina Zone [Parabolina (Neoparabolina) frequens (Barrande), Olenidae indet., Micragnostus sp.], Hyolitha gen et sp. indet, crinoid plates, and trace fossils of the archetypical Cruziana Ichnofacies.

Pinilla, Karina; Sabattini, Nora; Aceñolaza, Guillermo F; Tortello, M. Franco; Esteban, Susana B

2009-06-01

220

A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda Pulmonata, Helicodontidae)  

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Full Text Available A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda Pulmonata, Helicodontidae A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

C. R. Altaba

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum) in the southeastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species. PMID:23451090

Byers, James E; McDowell, William G; Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Pintor, Lauren M; Wilde, Susan B

2013-02-22

222

Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum) in the southeastern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

Byers JE; McDowell WG; Dodd SR; Haynie RS; Pintor LM; Wilde SB

2013-01-01

223

Daños por depredación y tamaño de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se compararon las abundancias y tamaños de conchas del gasterópodo Neritina virginea de acuerdo a los daños presentados en especimenes vivos y muertos (n= 5066) recolectados en el río Mameyes, Puerto Rico (Antillas Mayores). Se observaron daños por depredación de aves y camarones, y signos de erosión por la acción del raspado de la rádula por parte de otros individuos de la misma especie. La depredación fue aparentemente baja ((more) depredados por aves y camarones fueron significativamente diferentes. Las primeras se especializan en los individuos residentes más grandes, mientras que los segundos se especializan en individuos juveniles que presentan un comportamiento migratorio. Estos tamaños no fueron diferentes entre dos hábitats, aunque se observó más conchas depredadas por decápodos que por aves. El desgaste fue común en conchas de todos los tamaños. A pesar de su baja contribución a la dinámica poblacional de los gasterópodos, la depredación podría ser un control importante de respuestas de comportamiento dependientes del tamaño, tales como la migración río arriba y la selección de microhábitats. Abstract in english Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators? damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e. (more) g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1069-1080. Epub 2009 December 01.

Blanco-Libreros, Juan Felipe; Arroyave-Rincón, Andrea

2009-12-01

224

Daños por depredación y tamaño de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico  

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Full Text Available Se compararon las abundancias y tamaños de conchas del gasterópodo Neritina virginea de acuerdo a los daños presentados en especimenes vivos y muertos (n= 5066) recolectados en el río Mameyes, Puerto Rico (Antillas Mayores). Se observaron daños por depredación de aves y camarones, y signos de erosión por la acción del raspado de la rádula por parte de otros individuos de la misma especie. La depredación fue aparentemente baja (Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1069-1080. Epub 2009 December 01.

Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea Arroyave-Rincón

2009-01-01

225

A new dimeric iridal triterpenoid from Belamcanda chinensis with significant molluscicide activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An unprecedented dimeric triterpenoid, designated dibelamcandal A, with a six-membered ring linking two iridal type triterpenoid nuclei, was isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic measurements, including IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. It demonstrated significant molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata.

Song ZJ; Xu XM; Deng WL; Peng SL; Ding LS; Xu HH

2011-02-01

226

A new dimeric iridal triterpenoid from Belamcanda chinensis with significant molluscicide activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

An unprecedented dimeric triterpenoid, designated dibelamcandal A, with a six-membered ring linking two iridal type triterpenoid nuclei, was isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis. Its structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic measurements, including IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. It demonstrated significant molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata. PMID:21174449

Song, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Xue-Min; Deng, Wen-Long; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Xu, Han-Hong

2010-12-21

227

Occurrence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associated with Gastropoda mollusks in horticultural channels in Southeastern Brazil/ Ocorrência de Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associado com moluscos Gastropoda em canais de horticultura no sudeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 em quatro espécies de moluscos coletadas em canais de irrigação de uma horticultura no município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas de junho de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. Dentre as quatro espécies de moluscos analisadas, apenas em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) não foi detectada a presença de C. limnaei. Foram registrados 320 espécimes de (more) C. limnaei associadas a Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 e Biomphalaria sp., sendo esta última a espécie de molusco com o maior número de Naididae associados. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 in four species of mollusks collected in irrigation channels of a horticultural garden in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. The collections were made from June 2005 to January 2006. Of the four species of mollusks analysed, we could not detect the presence of C. limnaei in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). There were recorded 320 specimens of C. limnae (more) i in association with Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 and Biomphalaria sp., the latter having the highest number of associated Naididae.

Martins, RT.; Alves, RG.

2010-11-01

228

Occurrence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associated with Gastropoda mollusks in horticultural channels in Southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 (Oligochaeta, Naididae) associado com moluscos Gastropoda em canais de horticultura no sudeste do Brasil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 in four species of mollusks collected in irrigation channels of a horticultural garden in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil. The collections were made from June 2005 to January 2006. Of the four species of mollusks analysed, we could not detect the presence of C. limnaei in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827). There were recorded 320 specimens of C. limnaei in association with Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 and Biomphalaria sp., the latter having the highest number of associated Naididae.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de Chaetogaster limnaei K. von Baer, 1927 em quatro espécies de moluscos coletadas em canais de irrigação de uma horticultura no município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas de junho de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. Dentre as quatro espécies de moluscos analisadas, apenas em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) não foi detectada a presença de C. limnaei. Foram registrados 320 espécimes de C. limnaei associadas a Aplexa rivalis Mastou & Rackett, 1898, Lymnaea columella Say, 1818 e Biomphalaria sp., sendo esta última a espécie de molusco com o maior número de Naididae associados.

RT. Martins; RG. Alves

2010-01-01

229

Influence of processing on the quality of pomaceas juice (Pyrus communis and Malus domestica)/ Influência do processamento na qualidade do suco de pomáceas (Pyrus communis e Malus domestica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pera (Pyrus communis), terceira fruta cultivada em climas temperados e subtropicais e somente superada pela maçã e o pêssego, guardam semelhanças físicas e químicas enquanto pomaceas. Somente há processamento de pera na falta de maçã enquanto matéria prima, o que sugere que a mesma linha tecnológica possa ser usada. São compatíveis, sendo permitida a adição de suco de pera no suco de maçã pela legislação. Os indicadores de qualidade mais acentuados no (more) suco de pera foram acidez, o teor de compostos fenólicos totais e a capacidade antioxidante. Na distribuição de açúcares os teores de frutose foram expressivamente mais acentuados no suco de pera, com menores valores quando era empregado o método enzimático. A intensidade de cor, determinada instrumentalmente, foi mais expressiva no suco de pera, em especial no despolpamento, enquanto que no de maçã, no enzimático. Os resultados indicam de forma clara que a pera se comporta como matéria-prima aos processos com aptidão ao processamento de maçã, todavia cada fruta tem o seu próprio perfil de qualidade. Os resultados claramente apontam para os procedimentos mais adequados para obter bons produtos eis que as etapas de moagem e a de extração seguramente contribuem para a modificação da qualidade dos sucos de pera e de maçã. Abstract in english Pear (Pyrus communis), which is intensively cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates, has recently attained the 3rd position in the world fruit ranking, just after apple and peach. This fruit exhibits certain similarities to apple with respect to the pulp, but pear is used as a raw material only when apple is no longer available, which suggests that the same technology line may be utilized. Both fruits do have processing compatibilities, and it is permissible to a (more) dd pear juice to apple juice at levels defined by law. Quality indicators, such as pH, total acidity, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were used. The simple sugar analysis clearly defines fructose as the main component in pear juice, and lower figures were found when enzymatic processing was used. Color intensity measured instrumentally was much greater in pear juice with all processing methods and in apple juice when an enzymatic method was used. The results clearly indicate proper ways of processing pear and apple, aiming to have better products, as the grinding and extraction processing steps surely affect the fruit juice quality.

Rocha, Andressa Schaia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan

2013-03-01

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Verspreiding van Burnupia capensis (Walker, 1912) en Burnupia stenochorias (Melvill & Ponsonby, 1903) (Gastropoda: Ancylidae) in Suid-Afrika  

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Full Text Available Die voorkoms van verteenwoordigers van die Ancylidae in Suid-Afrika is reeds in 1848 gerapporteer. Die eerste omvattende studie van hierdie familie in Suid-Afrika is egter eers in 1923 gepubliseer. Alhoewel verskeie bydraes sedertdien gepubliseer is, is verskeie outeurs van mening dat bestaande kennis oor die Ancylidae steeds gebrekkig is en dat hersiening nie net op spesievlak nie maar ook op genus-vlak nodig is. Tans is daar 14 Burnupia spesies op rekord in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV). Hierdie bydrae handel oor die geogra? ese verspreiding en habitats van B. capensis en B. stenochorias die twee Ancylidae spesies waarvan die meeste versamelpunte in die databasis van die NVWSV op rekord is en wat ook die mees wydverspreide geogra? ese verspreiding van hierdie familie vertoon. Alhoewel beide spesies in die meerderheid van die verskeidenheid van waterliggame wat in die databasis vermeld word, aangetref is, is die grootste getal monsters van albei in standhoudende riviere en spruite en op ’n klipperige substraat versamel. Albei spesies is nie gerapporteer uit die droër streke van Suid-Afrika nie waarskynlik as gevolg van ’n beperkte vermoë om desikkasie te kan oorleef in gebiede waar standhoudende habitats ’n uitsondering is. Resultate dui daarop dat hoogte bo seevlak en aard van die substraat ’n belangrike rol gespeel het in die daarstelling van hul gedokumenteerde geogra? ese verspreiding soos weerspieël deur die rekords in die NVWSV. Min is oor die bewaringstatus van die Ancylidae van Suid-Afrika bekend, maar die karige inligting wat wel tot ons beskikking is, dui op rede tot kommer. Om sinvolle uitsprake oor die bewaringstatus en spesiediversiteit van die Mollusca van Suid-Afrika te kan maak, word aanbeveel dat van die versamelpunte op rekord weer besoek behoort te word waarna die resultate met die bestaande rekords in die databasis van die NVWSV vergelyk kan word.  AbstractDistribution of Burnupia capensis (Walker, 1912) and Burnupia stenochorias (Melvill & Ponsonby, 1903) (Gastropoda: Ancylidae) in South Africa The presence of Ancylidae in South Africa was established as early as 1848 but the ?rst comprehensive study on this family was reported in 1923. This author came to the conclusion that extensive work still had to be done before it could be declared that knowledge pertaining to the South African representatives of this family could be considered as satisfactory. Another important contribution on South African Ancylidae was published in 1939. After a detailed morphological and histological study on Burnupia mooiensis three decades later the authors stated that the axonomy of the Ancylidae still remained unsatisfactory, a view that was supported by authors as recently as 2002. The National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC) was established in 1956 but he oldest sample of Ancylidae on record dates back to 1954 and at present 14 species of Burnupia are represented in the database of the NFSC. This contribution deals with the geographical distribution and speci?c characteristics of the habitats of B. capensis and B. stenochorias the two most widespread species of this genus in South Africa. Very little is known of the conservation status of the Ancylidae of this country but some results pertaining to this subject are brie?y discussed. Burnupia species are relatively inconspicuous organisms that are usually attached to solid objects on the substratum or aquatic vegetation and need to be speci? cally looked for during surveys. Personnel of government authorities and municipalities who made substantial contributions to the number of samples in the NFSC therefore received special training in sampling echniques during workshops. Identi?cation of the specimens was largely based on shell and radula characteristics and on he location of the site of collection. Only samples of which the sampling sites could be located on the 1:250 000 topo cadastral map series of South Africa were considered for further analysis. Respectively 702 and 435

Kenné de Kock; Corrie Wolmarans

2009-01-01

231

An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis in Guanging, People's Republic of China: migrants vulnerable to an emerging disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Angiostrongyliasis has been frequently reported from the People's Republic of China during the last decade. An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis among migrant laborers in Guangning, Guangdong Province is described here. A questionnaire was developed to collect epidemiological and clinical information about 17 migrant laborers from the Bai ethnic group in Dali, Yunnan Province. Serum samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats and mollusks from the same area where patients had collected Pomacea canaliculata were examined for presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. All 17 Bai migrant laborers consumed P. canaliculata and six had meningitis 3-19 days after consumption of P. canaliculata. Headache, myalgia and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Blood samples from 5 patients were positive for antibodies to A. cantonensis. The places where the migrant laborers collected P. canaliculata were identified as endemic areas for A. cantonensis. This outbreak highlights the vulnerability of migrants to angiostrongyliasis.

Deng ZH; Lv S; Lin JY; Lin RX; Pei FQ

2011-09-01

232

An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis in Guanging, People's Republic of China: migrants vulnerable to an emerging disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiostrongyliasis has been frequently reported from the People's Republic of China during the last decade. An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis among migrant laborers in Guangning, Guangdong Province is described here. A questionnaire was developed to collect epidemiological and clinical information about 17 migrant laborers from the Bai ethnic group in Dali, Yunnan Province. Serum samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats and mollusks from the same area where patients had collected Pomacea canaliculata were examined for presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. All 17 Bai migrant laborers consumed P. canaliculata and six had meningitis 3-19 days after consumption of P. canaliculata. Headache, myalgia and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Blood samples from 5 patients were positive for antibodies to A. cantonensis. The places where the migrant laborers collected P. canaliculata were identified as endemic areas for A. cantonensis. This outbreak highlights the vulnerability of migrants to angiostrongyliasis. PMID:22299428

Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Lv, Shan; Lin, Jin-Yan; Lin, Rong-Xing; Pei, Fu-Quan

2011-09-01

233

Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile/ Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan aproximadamente el 95 % de la línea costera de este país. Aunque se ha publicado un importante volumen de literatura sobre C. concholepas, existen escasos ant (more) ecedentes acerca de su desarrollo larval temprano en condiciones naturales, principalmente debido a que estos estadios han sido escasamente recolectados en la naturaleza. Este estudio es el primer intento por determinar los patrones de abundancia espacial y temporal de larvas de C. concholepas a través de su desarrollo hasta el asentamiento, en su ambiente natural. Para ello, fueron recolectadas muestras de plancton semanalmente en superficie y 8 m de profundidad en cuatro canales del sur de Chile. Temperatura y salinidad fueron registradas simultáneamente en cada sector. El asentamiento fue cuantificado usando un sustrato artificial en los cuatro sectores. En este estudio se observó que el desarrollo larval de C. concholepas ocurre durante todo el año en las aguas interiores del sur de Chile, observándose estados tempranos principalmente entre agosto y marzo, estados competentes entre junio y agosto, y asentamiento entre julio y agosto. Así, C. concholepas parece tener un largo periodo de desarrollo larval cuya duración fue estimada entre 6 a 12 meses en este estudio. Finalmente se sugiere que la hidrología local puede afectar el desarrollo larval de C. concholepas en esta región. Nuevas investigaciones oceanográficas y ecológicas son necesarias para responder las interrogantes e hipótesis surgidas de este estudio Abstract in english The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about ear (more) ly larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this study

MOLINET, CARLOS; ARÉVALO, ALEJANDRA; GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA TERESA; MORENO, CARLOS A.; ARATA, JAVIER; NIKLITSCHEK, EDWIN

2005-09-01

234

Two new triterpenoids from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta and their molluscicidal and cytotoxic activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new triterpenoids, 2?-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-3?-trans- isoferulate (1) and 2?, 3?, 24-trihydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid (2), together with three known triterpenoids (3-5) were isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 exhibited molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. All isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells. PMID:22178417

Li, Jingjing; Xu, Hanhong; Tang, Wenwei; Song, Zhijun

2011-12-03

235

Two new triterpenoids from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta and their molluscicidal and cytotoxic activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new triterpenoids, 2?-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-3?-trans- isoferulate (1) and 2?, 3?, 24-trihydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid (2), together with three known triterpenoids (3-5) were isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 exhibited molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. All isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against Spodoptera litura (SL) cells.

Li J; Xu H; Tang W; Song Z

2012-03-01

236

Molluscicidal activity of Aglaia duperreana and the constituents of its twigs and leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methanol (MeOH) extract of the twigs and leaves of Aglaia duperreana was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. The extract was found to exhibit significant molluscicidal activity. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract showed the most potent molluscicidal activity among different solvent fractions. The bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction led to a new triterpenoid along with 15 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques as well as mass spectroscopic analysis. The molluscicidal activities of compounds 2-16 against P. canaliculata were also investigated. Naringenin trimethyl ether showed significant molluscicidal activity with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 3.9 ?g/mL, which was indicated higher potency than the positive control, tea saponin (LC(50)=4.5 ?g/mL).

Zhang H; Xu HH; Song ZJ; Chen LY; Wen HJ

2012-09-01

237

Molluscicidal activity of Aglaia duperreana and the constituents of its twigs and leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol (MeOH) extract of the twigs and leaves of Aglaia duperreana was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata. The extract was found to exhibit significant molluscicidal activity. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract showed the most potent molluscicidal activity among different solvent fractions. The bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction led to a new triterpenoid along with 15 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques as well as mass spectroscopic analysis. The molluscicidal activities of compounds 2-16 against P. canaliculata were also investigated. Naringenin trimethyl ether showed significant molluscicidal activity with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 3.9 ?g/mL, which was indicated higher potency than the positive control, tea saponin (LC(50)=4.5 ?g/mL). PMID:22595538

Zhang, Heng; Xu, Han-Hong; Song, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Lin-Yan; Wen, Hao-Ju

2012-05-15

238

[The first national survey on natural nidi of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To reveal the natural distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the mainland of China. METHODS: The potential areas of A. cantonensis and its main intermediate host Pomacea canaliculata were predicted based on degree-day models using GIS technique. A grid sampling was performed on the prediction map and 5% grids were randomly sampled. A total of 55 sampled sites were selected for the survey on A. cantonensis and its hosts in September-October of 2006. RESULTS: Nineteen Provinces/Municipalities/Autonomous Regions were found as potential habitats for P. canaliculata in the mainland of China. It was then confirmed that the snails distributed in the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Yunnan. Higher prevalence of A. cantonensis in P. canaliculata was detected in Jianou of Fujian (36.6%), Xingguo of Jiangxi (19.9%), Rui'an of Zhejiang (16.0%), Rucheng of Hunan (5.0%), Huazhou of Guangdong (6.3%), Shangsi of Guangxi (39.1%) and Wuzhishan of Hainan (25.0%). CONCLUSION: Natural nidi of A. cantonensis have been found in seven provinces where natural infection in P. canaliculata has been detected.

Zhang Y; Lv S; Yang K; Liu HX; Hu L; Li LS; Deng ZH; Zhang HM; Hu XM; Yao LN; Zeng XJ; Li ZX; Chen Z; Wang LY; Zhou XN

2009-12-01

239

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion  

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Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

Silvana C Thiengo; Monica A Fernandez; M Fernanda Boaventura; Carlos E Grault; Heucler FR Silva; Aline C Mattos; Sonia B Santos

2001-01-01

240

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (M (more) oricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Grault, Carlos E; Silva, Heucler FR; Mattos, Aline C; Santos, Sonia B

2001-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Epidemic status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hainan island, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current epidemiological status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hainan island and provide the scientific evidences for prevention and control of the disease. METHODS: The investigation on nature infection condition of intermediate hosts and final hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were carried out in five counties, Hainan Province, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect antibodies of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in human hosts. RESULTS: A total of 1612 molluscs were examined, 21.3% of which harbored L3 of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Among them, the infection rates of Pomacea canaliculata, Achatina fulica, Cepaea and Phlegm bilineatus were 12.36%(64/518), 22.66%(121/534), 20.93%(9/43), and 28.24%(146/517), respectively. Of the 118 rats trapped, 13 Rattus norvegicus were found to be infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis. A total of 459 serum samples were collected and tested. 92 serum samples were Angiostrongylus cantonensis antibody-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The survey revealed a wide distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hainan island. Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica are main intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Rattus novegicus is a nature definitive host, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks in future.

Hu X; Du J; Tong C; Wang S; Liu J; Li Y; He C

2011-04-01

242

Moluscos aquáticos do Estado de Rondônia (Brasil), com especial referência ao gênero Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae)/ Freshwater mollusks from the State of Rondônia (Brazil), with special reference to the genera Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil, levantamento malacológico com o objetivo de estabelecer a distribuição geográfica dos moluscos aquáticos, com ênfase especial no gênero Biomphalaria. Foram pesquisados 11 municípios ao longo da rodovia BR-364, totalizando 162 ecossistemas límnicos, dos quais 77 (48%) apresentaram-se positivos para, pelo menos, uma espécie de molusco. As seguintes espécies foram encotradas: Gastropoda, Planorbidae: Biomphalaria sp., (more) B.amazônica, B.occidentalis, Drepanotrema cimex, D.anatinum, D.lucidum e D.depressissimum; Physidae: Stenophysa marmorata; Ancylidae: Gundlachia sp.; Thiaridae: Aylacostoma sp.; Ampullaridae: Pomacea sp.; Pelecypoda, Sphaeriidae: Eupera primei e Pisidium sp. São apresentados dados de distribuição geográfica e discutida a importância epidemiológica dos achados. Abstract in english A malacological survey was carried in the State of Rondônia, Brazil, in order to establish the geographical distribution of aquatic mollusks with special emphasis on the genera Biomphalaria. Eleven counties along the BR-364 highway were studied, totaling 162 limnic ecossistems, of which 77 (48%) were positive for at least one species of mollusk. The following species were found: Gastropoda, Planorbidae: Biomphalaria sp., B. amazônica, B. occidentalis, Drepanotrema anati (more) num, D. lucidum, D. depressissimum and D. cimex; Physidae: Stenophysa marmorata; Ancylidae: Gundlachia sp.; Thiariidae: Aylacostoma sp.; Ampullariidae: Pomacea sp.; Pelecypoda, Sphaeriidae: Eupera primei and Pisidium sp.. New geographical data are given and the epidemiological importance of these findings are discussed.

Coimbra Júnior, Carlos E.A.; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

1986-06-01

243

Moluscos aquáticos do Estado de Rondônia (Brasil), com especial referência ao gênero Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) Freshwater mollusks from the State of Rondônia (Brazil), with special reference to the genera Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae)  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil, levantamento malacológico com o objetivo de estabelecer a distribuição geográfica dos moluscos aquáticos, com ênfase especial no gênero Biomphalaria. Foram pesquisados 11 municípios ao longo da rodovia BR-364, totalizando 162 ecossistemas límnicos, dos quais 77 (48%) apresentaram-se positivos para, pelo menos, uma espécie de molusco. As seguintes espécies foram encotradas: Gastropoda, Planorbidae: Biomphalaria sp., B.amazônica, B.occidentalis, Drepanotrema cimex, D.anatinum, D.lucidum e D.depressissimum; Physidae: Stenophysa marmorata; Ancylidae: Gundlachia sp.; Thiaridae: Aylacostoma sp.; Ampullaridae: Pomacea sp.; Pelecypoda, Sphaeriidae: Eupera primei e Pisidium sp. São apresentados dados de distribuição geográfica e discutida a importância epidemiológica dos achados.A malacological survey was carried in the State of Rondônia, Brazil, in order to establish the geographical distribution of aquatic mollusks with special emphasis on the genera Biomphalaria. Eleven counties along the BR-364 highway were studied, totaling 162 limnic ecossistems, of which 77 (48%) were positive for at least one species of mollusk. The following species were found: Gastropoda, Planorbidae: Biomphalaria sp., B. amazônica, B. occidentalis, Drepanotrema anatinum, D. lucidum, D. depressissimum and D. cimex; Physidae: Stenophysa marmorata; Ancylidae: Gundlachia sp.; Thiariidae: Aylacostoma sp.; Ampullariidae: Pomacea sp.; Pelecypoda, Sphaeriidae: Eupera primei and Pisidium sp.. New geographical data are given and the epidemiological importance of these findings are discussed.

Carlos E.A. Coimbra Júnior; Ricardo Ventura Santos

1986-01-01

244

The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails. Results Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida). The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north. Conclusion The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group. Clarifying species identifications permits a more accurate assessment of introduction histories and distributions, and provides a very different picture of the tempo and pattern of invasions than was inferred when the three species with channeled sutures were considered one. Matching introduced and native-range haplotypes suggests the potential for range expansion, with implications for native aquatic ecosystems and species, agriculture, and human health.

Rawlings Timothy A; Hayes Kenneth A; Cowie Robert H; Collins Timothy M

2007-01-01

245

Bulimulidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) do nordeste do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Results from studies with Bulimulidae from Northeast Brazil, with special reference to the State of Pernambuco, are presented. About 14 spp., of Bulimulidae s.s. were collected and represent one of the most diversified families of land snails in this area. From these, Drymaeus rufolineatus (Droüet, 1859) and Simpulopsis corrugata, Guppy, 1866, were recorded for the first time in Northeast Brazil and a new subspecies Drymaeus b. goianensis is described. Data of geografic distribution, ecology and shell morphology for each species are given.

Dutra-Clarke, A.V.C.; Souza, F.B.V.A. de

1990-01-01

246

Bulimulidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) do nordeste do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results from studies with Bulimulidae from Northeast Brazil, with special reference to the State of Pernambuco, are presented. About 14 spp., of Bulimulidae s.s. were collected and represent one of the most diversified families of land snails in this area. From these, Drymaeus rufolineatus (Droüet, 1859) and Simpulopsis corrugata, Guppy, 1866, were recorded for the first time in Northeast Brazil and a new subspecies Drymaeus b. goianensis is described. Data of geografic distribution, ecology and shell morphology for each species are given.

A.V.C. Dutra-Clarke; F.B.V.A. de Souza

1990-01-01

247

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments, aquatic plant and histopathological effects on the golden apple snail in Beung Boraphet reservoir, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in the seasonal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in water, sediments, snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and aquatic plants (Ipomoea aquatica) in three selected tributaries of the Beung Boraphet reservoir, Nakhon Sawan Province, central Thailand. Only Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were detected by FAAS in all samples collected. The water quality of Beung Boraphet was medium clean with Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations well below internationally accepted limits. According to the criteria proposed for sediments by the EPA Region V, Zn and Mn concentrations were within the non-polluted range while Fe and Cu (wet season) concentrations fell into the class of severely polluted sediment. Both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica bioconcentrated more Mn in their tissues than were found in sediments, especially in the wet season. The results of Pearson correlation study and BCF values also indicated similar findings. Only Mn showed the importance of sediment-to-snail concentration and high BCF values in both snails and plants. P. canaliculata exposed to contaminated sediment for two months, showed higher accumulation of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in the digestive tracts and digestive glands than in the foot muscles. Histopathological changes included alterations in the epithelial lining of the digestive tracts, digestive glands and the gills. Loss of cilia and increase in mucous cells were observed in the digestive tracts and gills, while the digestive glands exhibited an increase of dark granules and basophilic cells, and dilation of digestive cells. The results indicated that both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica could be used as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination for the Beung Boraphet reservoir.

Dummee V; Kruatrachue M; Trinachartvanit W; Tanhan P; Pokethitiyook P; Damrongphol P

2012-12-01

248

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments, aquatic plant and histopathological effects on the golden apple snail in Beung Boraphet reservoir, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the seasonal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in water, sediments, snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and aquatic plants (Ipomoea aquatica) in three selected tributaries of the Beung Boraphet reservoir, Nakhon Sawan Province, central Thailand. Only Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were detected by FAAS in all samples collected. The water quality of Beung Boraphet was medium clean with Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations well below internationally accepted limits. According to the criteria proposed for sediments by the EPA Region V, Zn and Mn concentrations were within the non-polluted range while Fe and Cu (wet season) concentrations fell into the class of severely polluted sediment. Both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica bioconcentrated more Mn in their tissues than were found in sediments, especially in the wet season. The results of Pearson correlation study and BCF values also indicated similar findings. Only Mn showed the importance of sediment-to-snail concentration and high BCF values in both snails and plants. P. canaliculata exposed to contaminated sediment for two months, showed higher accumulation of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in the digestive tracts and digestive glands than in the foot muscles. Histopathological changes included alterations in the epithelial lining of the digestive tracts, digestive glands and the gills. Loss of cilia and increase in mucous cells were observed in the digestive tracts and gills, while the digestive glands exhibited an increase of dark granules and basophilic cells, and dilation of digestive cells. The results indicated that both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica could be used as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination for the Beung Boraphet reservoir. PMID:23079739

Dummee, Vipawee; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Damrongphol, Praneet

2012-10-15

249

Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

Lv S; Zhang Y; Liu HX; Hu L; Yang K; Steinmann P; Chen Z; Wang LY; Utzinger J; Zhou XN

2009-01-01

250

Secondary production and diet of an invasive snail in freshwater wetlands: implications for resource utilization and competition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive species can monopolize resources and thus dominate ecosystem production. In this study we estimated secondary production and diet of four populations of Pomacea canaliculata, a freshwater invasive snail, in wetlands (abandoned paddy, oxbow pond, drainage channel, and river meander) in monsoonal Hong Kong (lat. 22°N). Apple snail secondary production (ash-free dry mass [AFDM]) ranged from 165.9 to 233.3 g m?² year?¹, and varied between seasons. Production was lower during the cool dry northeast monsoon, when water temperatures might have limited growth, but fast growth and recruitment of multiple cohorts were possible throughout much (7-10 months) of the year and especially during the warm, wet southwest monsoon. The diet, as revealed by stomach-content analysis, consisted mainly of detritus and macrophytes, and was broadly consistent among habitats despite considerable variation in the composition and cover of aquatic plants. Apple snail annual production was >10 times greater than production estimates for other benthic macroinvertebrates in Hong Kong (range 0.004-15 g AFDM m?² year?¹, n = 29). Furthermore, annual production estimates for three apple snail populations (i.e. >230 g AFDM m?² year?¹) were greater than published estimates for any other freshwater snails (range 0.002-194 g AFDM m?² year?¹, n = 33), regardless of climatic regime or habitat type. High production by P. canaliculata in Hong Kong was attributable to the topical climate (annual mean ~24°C), permitting rapid growth and repeated reproduction, together with dietary flexibility including an ability to consume a range of macrophytes. If invasive P. canaliculata can monopolize food resources, its high productivity indicates potential for competition with other macroinvertebrate primary consumers. Manipulative experiments will be needed to quantify these impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function in wetlands, combined with management strategies to prevent further range extension by P. canaliculata.

Kwong KingLun; Dudgeon David; Wong PakKi; Qiu Jian-Wen

2010-05-01

251

Enzootic angiostrongyliasis in Guangzhou, China, 2008-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to gain an understanding of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection status of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in Guangzhou, China. A total of 430 rats were captured and 23 rats, from two species, were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.35%. A total of 795 Achatina fulica snails and 734 Pomacea canaliculata snails were collected. The average infection rates of these two species were 13.96% (111 of 795) and 1.50% (11 of 734), respectively. As for the seroprevalence of different occupations, the rate among the "general group" was significantly lower than the "occupational group." From this survey, Guangzhou is implicated to be the natural focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and Achatina fulica play important roles in spreading this nematode in Guangzhou. Residents who live in Guangzhou, especially those working in certain industries such as agriculture, food-making, and aquaculture, face a higher risk of infection.

Yang X; Qu Z; He H; Zheng X; He A; Wu Y; Liu Q; Zhang D; Wu Z; Li Z; Zhan X

2012-05-01

252

Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae) Extracts  

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Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae) extracts (root and pod) to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE) in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

Jakkaphun Nanuam; Khobkul Nongnutch; Chawanrat Somnuek; Voravit Cheevaporn

2013-01-01

253

Enzootic angiostrongyliasis in Guangzhou, China, 2008-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to gain an understanding of the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection status of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in Guangzhou, China. A total of 430 rats were captured and 23 rats, from two species, were infected, with an average infection rate of 5.35%. A total of 795 Achatina fulica snails and 734 Pomacea canaliculata snails were collected. The average infection rates of these two species were 13.96% (111 of 795) and 1.50% (11 of 734), respectively. As for the seroprevalence of different occupations, the rate among the "general group" was significantly lower than the "occupational group." From this survey, Guangzhou is implicated to be the natural focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and Achatina fulica play important roles in spreading this nematode in Guangzhou. Residents who live in Guangzhou, especially those working in certain industries such as agriculture, food-making, and aquaculture, face a higher risk of infection. PMID:22556086

Yang, Xiao; Qu, Zhenyu; He, Hualiang; Zheng, Xiaoying; He, Ai; Wu, Yu; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Dongjing; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Zhuoya; Zhan, Ximei

2012-05-01

254

Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively. PMID:17539279

Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

2007-03-01

255

Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

Sri-aroon P; Butraporn P; Limsoomboon J; Kaewpoolsri M; Chusongsang Y; Charoenjai P; Chusongsang P; Numnuan S; Kiatsiri S

2007-03-01

256

Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) and Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827) in an urban eutrophic watershed/ Levantamento malacológico e infestação natural de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) por Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) e Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827) em uma bacia hidrográfica eutrofizada urbana (MG, Brasil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento malacológico na bacia do reservatório de Ibirité, na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), e avaliar a taxa de infestação natural de Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)por Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) e Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). As amostragens foram realizadas de julho a agosto de 2002. Os espécimes de B. straminea coletados foram levados para (more) o laboratório e as avaliações da taxa de infestação foram realizadas semanalmente. O levantamento malacológico identificou cinco espécies de moluscos presentes na bacia do reservatório: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus e Pomacea austrum. As observações em laboratório mostraram que os espécimes de B. straminea estavam infectados somente por C. limnaei. Apesar de não ter sido encontrado S. mansoni, a presença desse planorbídeo deve ser vista com atenção, em decorrência da possibilidade de infecção com esquistossomose humana para a população local. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)by Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the lab (more) oratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified fivemollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus,and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni,presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population.

Callisto, M.; Moreno, P.; Gonçalves, J. F. Jr.; Ferreira, W. R.; Gomes, C. L. Z.

2005-05-01

257

Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) and Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827) in an urban eutrophic watershed Levantamento malacológico e infestação natural de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) por Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) e Chaetogaster limnaei (K. von Baer, 1827) em uma bacia hidrográfica eutrofizada urbana (MG, Brasil)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)by Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the laboratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified fivemollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus,and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni,presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population.O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento malacológico na bacia do reservatório de Ibirité, na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), e avaliar a taxa de infestação natural de Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)por Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) e Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). As amostragens foram realizadas de julho a agosto de 2002. Os espécimes de B. straminea coletados foram levados para o laboratório e as avaliações da taxa de infestação foram realizadas semanalmente. O levantamento malacológico identificou cinco espécies de moluscos presentes na bacia do reservatório: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus e Pomacea austrum. As observações em laboratório mostraram que os espécimes de B. straminea estavam infectados somente por C. limnaei. Apesar de não ter sido encontrado S. mansoni, a presença desse planorbídeo deve ser vista com atenção, em decorrência da possibilidade de infecção com esquistossomose humana para a população local.

M. Callisto; P. Moreno; J. F. Jr. Gonçalves; W. R. Ferreira; C. L. Z. Gomes

2005-01-01

258

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans.

Deng ZH; Zhang QM; Huang SY; Jones JL

2012-01-01

259

Multicellular spheroid formation and evolutionary conserved behaviors of apple snail hemocytes in culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hemocyte primary culture system for Pomacea canaliculata in a medium mimicking hemolymphatic plasma composition was developed. Hemocytes adhered and spread onto culture dish in the first few hours after seeding but later began forming aggregates. Time-lapse video microscopy showed the dynamics of the early aggregation, with cells both entering and leaving the aggregates. During this period phagocytosis occurs and was quantified. Later (>4 h), hemocytes formed large spheroidal aggregates that increased in size and also merged with adjacent spheroids (24-96 h). Large single spheroids and spheroid aggregates detach from the bottom surface and float freely in the medium. Correlative confocal, transmission electron and phase contrast microscopy showed a peculiar organization of the spheroids, with a compact core, an intermediate zone with large extracellular lacunae and an outer zone of flattened cells; also, numerous round cells emitting cytoplasmic extensions were seen attaching to the spheroids' smooth surface. Dual DAPI/propidium iodide staining revealed the coexistence of viable and non-viable cells within aggregates, in varying proportions. DNA concentration increased during the first 24 h of culture and stabilized afterward. BrdU incorporation also indicated proliferation. Spontaneous spheroid formation in culture bears interesting parallels with spheroidal hemocyte aggregates found in vivo in P. canaliculata, and also with spheroids formed by tumoral or non-tumoral mammalian cells in vitro.

Cueto JA; Vega IA; Castro-Vazquez A

2013-02-01

260

First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n=34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. PMID:22738194

Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Wang, Hao; Heras, Horacio; Dreon, Marcos S; Ituarte, Santiago; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

2012-07-13

 
 
 
 
261

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with a wide distribution. We report the first provincial survey of the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among wild rodents and snails in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 2929 Pomacea canaliculata and 1354 Achatina fulica were collected from fields in 22 survey sites with a larval infection rates ranging from 0-26.6% to 0-45.4%. In addition, 114 Cipangopaludina sp and 252 Bellamya sp were bought from markets; larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from two survey sites with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Four hundred and ninety-one rodents were captured in nine sites (Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and Bandicota indica. Our survey revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate hosts P. canaliculata and A. fulica in Guangdong. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in wild snails and rats poses a substantial risk for angiostrongyliasis in humans. PMID:21906215

Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Zhang, Qi-Ming; Huang, Shao-Yu; Jones, Jeffrey L

2011-09-09

262

Multicellular spheroid formation and evolutionary conserved behaviors of apple snail hemocytes in culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hemocyte primary culture system for Pomacea canaliculata in a medium mimicking hemolymphatic plasma composition was developed. Hemocytes adhered and spread onto culture dish in the first few hours after seeding but later began forming aggregates. Time-lapse video microscopy showed the dynamics of the early aggregation, with cells both entering and leaving the aggregates. During this period phagocytosis occurs and was quantified. Later (>4 h), hemocytes formed large spheroidal aggregates that increased in size and also merged with adjacent spheroids (24-96 h). Large single spheroids and spheroid aggregates detach from the bottom surface and float freely in the medium. Correlative confocal, transmission electron and phase contrast microscopy showed a peculiar organization of the spheroids, with a compact core, an intermediate zone with large extracellular lacunae and an outer zone of flattened cells; also, numerous round cells emitting cytoplasmic extensions were seen attaching to the spheroids' smooth surface. Dual DAPI/propidium iodide staining revealed the coexistence of viable and non-viable cells within aggregates, in varying proportions. DNA concentration increased during the first 24 h of culture and stabilized afterward. BrdU incorporation also indicated proliferation. Spontaneous spheroid formation in culture bears interesting parallels with spheroidal hemocyte aggregates found in vivo in P. canaliculata, and also with spheroids formed by tumoral or non-tumoral mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:23246811

Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

2012-12-11

263

Feeding and growth of native, invasive and non-invasive alien apple snails (Ampullariidae) in the United States: Invasives eat more and grow more  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The United States hosts one native and five non-native species of aquatic apple snails (Ampullariidae). All are currently found in or around the Everglades in Florida. Two of these introduced species have devastated wetlands in Southeast Asia, but little is known about how they may impact the Everglades. To evaluate potential impacts of introduced apple snails relative to the native species, we investigated plant species preference, consumption rates, growth rates, and growth efficiencies in five introduced and the single native species across eight native macrophytes common in the Everglades. Three of the non-native snails are invasive, one has shown no tendency to expand, and one appears to have minimal direct impact on macrophytes due to its diet. All snails exhibited similar feeding preferences, with Utricularia sp. being the most preferred, Bacopa caroliniana, Sagittaria latifolia, and Nymphaea odorata being of intermediate preference, and Eleocharis cellulosa, Pontederia cordata, Panicum hemitomon and Typha sp. being least preferred (avoided as foods). Consumption and growth was minimal for P. diffusa on all macrophytes. On Utricularia sp. and Bacopa caroliniana, the invasive species Pomacea insularum and P. canaliculata tended to eat more, grow more, and have higher conversion efficiencies than the native P. paludosa or the non-invasive P. haustrum. These contrasts were more often significant for P. insularum than for P. canaliculata. The greater rates of expansion by the invasive species may derive from their enhanced feeding and growth rates.

Morrison WendyE; Hay MarkE

2011-04-01

264

First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n=34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition.

Sun J; Zhang H; Wang H; Heras H; Dreon MS; Ituarte S; Ravasi T; Qian PY; Qiu JW

2012-08-01

265

Epidemiological survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of Guangdong Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was to understand the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of Guangdong Province in China. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. The heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken to check the adult of A. cantonensis. The questionnaire surveys related to the infection of A. cantonensis were taken in local residents randomly selected, and the IgG antibody against A. cantonensis was tested in those residents with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,391 rats including eight kinds of rats, such as Rattus norvegicus, Rattus flavipectus, Bandicota indica, Rattus sladeni, Mus musculus, Rattus rattoides, Suncus Murinus, and Rattus confucianus, were examined and 132 of them were infected by A. cantonensis, with an average infection rate of 9.49% and a mean intensity of A. cantonensis in infected rats was 9.39. A total of 3,184 snails A. fulica and 3,723 snails P. canaliculata were detected. The average infection rates of them were 25.03% (797/3,184) and 6.50% (242/3,723), respectively. There were 180 positive samples of IgG antibody against A. cantonensis in 1,800 serum samples of the residents, with a positive rate of 10.00%. The west-central region of Guangdong Province is the natural focus of A. cantonensis. In comparison with the investigation results in other regions of China, the infection rate of rat definitive host is at the middle level; in the intermediate host, the infection rate of snail A. fulica is above the middle level, and the infection rate of snail Pomacea canaliculata is below the middle level. Some local residents had already been infected by A. cantonensis or at the risk of being infected. PMID:21301874

Chen, Daixiong; Zhang, Yun; Shen, Haoxian; Wei, Yongfang; Huang, Di; Tan, Qiming; Lan, Xianqi; Li, Qingli; Chen, Zecheng; Li, Zhengtu; Ou, Le; Suen, Huibing; Ding, Xue; Luo, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaomin; Zhan, Ximei

2011-02-08

266

Epidemiological survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of Guangdong Province, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study was to understand the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of Guangdong Province in China. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. The heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken to check the adult of A. cantonensis. The questionnaire surveys related to the infection of A. cantonensis were taken in local residents randomly selected, and the IgG antibody against A. cantonensis was tested in those residents with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,391 rats including eight kinds of rats, such as Rattus norvegicus, Rattus flavipectus, Bandicota indica, Rattus sladeni, Mus musculus, Rattus rattoides, Suncus Murinus, and Rattus confucianus, were examined and 132 of them were infected by A. cantonensis, with an average infection rate of 9.49% and a mean intensity of A. cantonensis in infected rats was 9.39. A total of 3,184 snails A. fulica and 3,723 snails P. canaliculata were detected. The average infection rates of them were 25.03% (797/3,184) and 6.50% (242/3,723), respectively. There were 180 positive samples of IgG antibody against A. cantonensis in 1,800 serum samples of the residents, with a positive rate of 10.00%. The west-central region of Guangdong Province is the natural focus of A. cantonensis. In comparison with the investigation results in other regions of China, the infection rate of rat definitive host is at the middle level; in the intermediate host, the infection rate of snail A. fulica is above the middle level, and the infection rate of snail Pomacea canaliculata is below the middle level. Some local residents had already been infected by A. cantonensis or at the risk of being infected.

Chen D; Zhang Y; Shen H; Wei Y; Huang D; Tan Q; Lan X; Li Q; Chen Z; Li Z; Ou L; Suen H; Ding X; Luo X; Li X; Zhan X

2011-08-01

267

Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland) and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT) e o Trifenilestanho (TPT). Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

Ítalo Braga de Castro; Carlos Augusto Oliveira de Meirelles; Helena Matthews-Cascon; Cristina de Almeida Rocha-Barreira; Pablo Penchaszadeh; Gregório Bigatti

2008-01-01

268

Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT) e o Trifenilestanho (TPT). Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil s (more) e conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta. Abstract in english Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium par (more) thenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland) and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.

Castro, Ítalo Braga de; Meirelles, Carlos Augusto Oliveira de; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Rocha-Barreira, Cristina de Almeida; Penchaszadeh, Pablo; Bigatti, Gregório

2008-10-01

269

Cell lineage of the prototroch of Patella vulgata (Gastropoda, Mollusca).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trochophore larva of the archaeogastropod mollusc Patella vulgata has a well-developed locomotory organ, the ciliated prototroch. This structure is formed from specific founder cells, the trochoblasts. Two methods were employed to determine the composition and cell lineage of the prototroch. Fluorescent cell-lineage tracer injection in trochoblasts and trochoblast founder cells was used to show how the various trochoblasts became incorporated into the prototroch. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study both differentiation, more specifically ciliation, of trochoblasts and localization of trochoblasts in the prototroch. The results obtained with both methods are in accordance with each other. During early development all trochoblasts involved in prototroch formation become cell cycle-arrested and develop cilia. Subsequently, the trochoblasts shift in position to form a circular prototroch and a number of trochoblasts deciliate. As a result of these processes the mature prototroch consists of a number of heavily ciliated cells as well as a number of deciliated cells. Comparison of prototrochs from a number of spiralian species shows that this structure is very conserved during evolution. The significance of this is discussed.

Damen P; Dictus WJ

1994-04-01

270

Two new species of Terebra (Gastropoda, Conoidea) from Colombia  

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Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Terebra are described conchologically to the Atlantic coast of Colombia. The species are Terebra colombiensis and T. sterigmoides. They are differentiable mainly because of their sculpture, protoconch and spire angle. They are part of a group of Western Atlantic terebrids informally called "T. doellojuradoi complex" and differ from the Brazilian species in having well-developed pair of folds at columella. This character approaches the species described here to the Argentinean T. doellojuradoi.Duas novas espécies do gênero Terebra são descritas conquiliologicamente para a costa atlântica da Colômbia. As espécies são Terebra colombiensis e T. sterigmoides. Elas são diferenciáveis principalmente com base na escultura, protoconcha e ângulo da espira. Elas pertencem a um grupo de terebrídeos do Atlântico oeste informalmente chamado de "complexo T. doellojuradoi" e diferem das espécies brasileiras por ter um par de pregas bem desenvolvidas na columela. Este caráter aproxima as espécies descritas neste da argentina T. doellojuradoi.

Luiz Ricardo L. Simone; Adriana Gracia C.

2006-01-01

271

Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA). In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, region (more) s of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576). Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Caldeira, Roberta L; Murta, Silvane MF; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z; Carvalho, Omar S

2010-07-01

272

Phylogeny of the land snail family Clausiliidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clausiliidae is one of the most speciose and best-studied families of land snails. The family contributes to land snail diversity on a global scale, with three main centres of diversity: (1) western Eurasia (six subfamilies recognized), (2) East Asia (two subfamilies recognized) and (3) the neotropics (one subfamily recognized i.e. Neniinae). Despite a wealth of shell-morphological and anatomical studies, a well-supported phylogeny is lacking for the family. To provide a phylogenetic framework and reevaluate morphological and biogeographic observations on the family, we compiled a dataset consisting of partial 28S rRNA, histone H3 and histone H4 nucleotide sequences covering all clausiliid subfamilies, and 23 out of 25 tribes. Our analyses (MrBayes, BEAST, PhyML) divide the family into seven highly supported clades, which were retrieved by at least two of the three markers used, and which are more or less geographically confined. Three of these clades coincide with subfamilies recognized in the current classification (Alopiinae, Garnieriinae, Laminiferinae). The monophyly of four of the remaining six hitherto accepted subfamilies is not supported, with the New World subfamily Neniinae divided across two clades. All shell-morphological characters used in classical clausiliid classification were homoplasious at the subfamily level, with the exception of the type of shell aperture formation. In contrast to previous interpretations, our results suggest that the so-called 'apostrophic' aperture found in the neotropical clausiliids, and in a European (Laminiferinae) and a SE Asian (Garnieriinae) subfamily, is in fact the plesiomorphic condition among extant Clausiliidae. The widespread and fragmented geographic distribution of this type of aperture may therefore be considered relictual. Based on an inferred Late Cretaceous or Early Cenozoic European origin of the clade of extant Clausiliidae, the ancestor(s) of the neotropical Clausiliidae must have colonized the New World after the Atlantic Ocean had opened. A taxonomic revision is proposed.

Uit de Weerd DR; Gittenberger E

2013-04-01

273

Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA). In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576). Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

Liana K Jannotti-Passos; Jeronimo C Ruiz; Roberta L Caldeira; Silvane MF Murta; Paulo Marcos Z Coelho; Omar S Carvalho

2010-01-01

274

Neurosecretion in the basommatophoran snail Bulinus truncatus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neurosecretory system of the freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus was investigated. With the Alcian blue-Alcian yellow (AB/AY) staining method at least 10 different types of neurosecretory cells (NSC) were distinguished in the ganglia of the central nervous system. The differences in staining properties of the NSC - with AB/AY the cells take on different shades of green and yellow - are borne out at the ultrastructural level: the NSC types contain different types of neurosecretory elementary granules. The neurosecretory system of B. truncatus is compared to that of Lymnaea stagnalis, the species which has received the most attention among the pulmonates. It appears from the comparison that the systems of both species show many similarities, although some differences are also apparent.

Boer HH; Roubos EW; van Dalen H; Groesbeek JR

1977-01-01

275

On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In this paper, all seven hitherto known species of the hygromiid genus Monacha from Lebanon are briefly characterised and illustrated, and distribution maps are supplied (Monacha (Monacha) syriaca (Ehrenberg, 1831), Monacha (Monacha) nummus (Ehrenberg, 1831), Monacha (Monacha) obstructa (L. Pfeiffer, 1842), Monacha (Monacha) crispulata (Mousson, 1861), Monacha (Monacha) solitudinis (Bourguignat, 1852), Monacha (Monacha) bari Forcart 1981, and Monacha (Monacha) cf. compingtae (Pallary, 1929)). One species, Monacha (Monacha) bari Forcart, 1981, is recorded for the country for the first time, and its relationship to Monacha (Monacha) compingtae (Pallary, 1929) is discussed. Based on recently collected specimens, the genital organs of a long time ignored species, Helix solitudinis Bourguignat, 1852 could be investigated. It is here re-described as a Monacha species endemic for Lebanon.

Neubert, Eike; Bariche, Michel

2013-01-01

276

Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae): a morphological and biochemical study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873) from Lake Valencia (type locality) and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system) and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis). In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated (more) that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

Paraense, W. Lobato; Pointier, J. P.; Delay, B.; Pernot, A. F.; Incani, R. N.; Balzan, C.; Chrosciechowski, P.

1992-06-01

277

Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S.) hanleyi (Pfeiffer) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae)  

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Full Text Available Synapterpes (S.) hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846) is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S.) coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846) and S.(S.) wallisi (Mousson, 1869).

Norma Campos Salgado; Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho

1999-01-01

278

Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S.) hanleyi (Pfeiffer) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Synapterpes (S.) hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846) is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S.) coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846) and S.(S.) wallisi (Mousson, 1869).

Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo C. dos Santos

1999-01-01

279

Introduction to Physidae (Gastropoda: Hygrophila); biogeography, classification, morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Physidae, a world-wide family of freshwater snails with about 80 species, are reclassified by progressive characters of the penial complex (the terminal male reproductive system): form and composition of penial sheath and preputium, proportions and structure of penis, presence or absence of penial stylet, site of pore of penial canal, and number and insertions of penial retractor muscles. Observation of these characters, many not recognized previously, has been possible only by the technique used in anesthetizing, fixing, and preserving. These progressive characters are the principal basis of 23 genera, four grades and four clades within the family. The two established subfamilies are divided into seven new tribes including 11 new genera, with diagnoses and lists of species referred to each. Proposed as new are: in Aplexinae, Austrinautini, with Austrinauta g.n. and Caribnautu harryi g.n., nom.nov.; Aplexini; Amecanautini with Amecanauta jaliscoensis g.n., sp.n., Mexinauta g.n., and Mayabina g.n., with M. petenensis, polita, sanctijohannis, tempisquensis spp.nn., Tropinauta sinusdulcensis g.n., sp.n.; and Stenophysini, with Stenophysa spathidophallus sp.n.; in Physinae, Haitiini, with Haitia moreleti sp.n.; Physini, with Laurentiphysa chippevarum g.n., sp.n., Physa mirollii nom.nou.; and Physellini, with Chiapaphysa g.n., and C. grijalvae, C. pacifica spp.nn., Utahphysa g.n., Archiphysa g.n., with A. ashmuni, A. sonomae spp.nn., Physella hemphilli sp.n., and Ultraphysella sinaloae g.n., sp.n. The simplest reproductive system is found in Austrinauta of the Aplexinae; its penial complex approaches that in the related family Lymnaeidae. Within Physinae a close approximation is found in Haitia. By these two genera the two subfamilies are drawn close together. Four grades of progressive complexity are recognized: (I) penial sheath entirely muscular; (II) penial sheath with both glandular and muscular tissue; (III) penis with penial stylet or other specialization of the tip of the penis; and (IV) pore of penial canal lateral rather than terminal as in the lower grades. In both subfamilies there are clades with glandular tissue in the penial sheath, a penial sheath subdivided into two parts, and tip of penis specialized in various ways. These clades are formalized as new tribes. Of 23 genera of Physidae, 17 occur in Pacific drainages of North and Central America, eight of these restricted to the region. Concentration of primitive genera along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Costa Rica conforms to previous observations that primitive pulmonate families are concentrated within, or along the continental margins of, the Pacific Ocean. An ancestral origin of Physidae along an ancient eastern Pacific coast is probable. From this region the several lineages have spread north, south and east in the Americas, and through Siberia to Europe. Although Physinae have fewer genera than Aplexinae (11 v. 12), they have more species (47 v. 34). Greater land area in the temperate zone has provided more opportunity for speciation of Physinae, in contrast to the generally tropical and warm-temperate range of Aplexinae. Furthermore, 10 species of Physinae are localized in individual lakes, whereas Aplexinae are not lake-dwellers. Both well-developed egg strings and capsular strings are found in the spawn of Sibirenauta elongatus. These structures have been known in Lymnaeidae, but not hitherto in Physidae; they are a link with some marine groups, such as Siphonariidae. Spiral color bands and white streaks in the shell of Mexinauta recall those in Lancidae (Lymnaeacea), whereas the radula of Physidae is like that of Chilinidae. Physidae thus show affinities to various basal stocks of aquatic pulmonates; no clear-cut sister-group can be recognized. Most species have a restricted range; out of 55 with sufficiently detailed information for analysis, 25 are limited to a single 1 degrees x 1 degrees quadrangle. Only a few species are widespread, on one or even two continents. Accordingly, more species of Physidae are threatened by habitat destruction tha

Taylor DW

2003-03-01

280

Loss of Trematode Parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract :? Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 wk, whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some trematode parthenitae.

Sears BF; Rohr JR

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera) Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera)  

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Full Text Available Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distributed mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia and S. plebeia. The occurrence of Leidyula floridana and Phyllocaulis gayi in Mexico needs confirmation. The Los Tuxtlas region, southern Veracruz, is a hotspot where veronicellid slugs have become a pest and farmers have stopped growing beans, switching to other crops as a measure to contain the pest.Se sintetiza la información conocida de los Veronicellidae de México. Los datos provienen de ejemplares depositados en la Colección Nacional de Moluscos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, de salidas complementarias de trabajo al campo y recopilación de la literatura. Estas babosas se distribuyen principalmente en el centro y sur de México, aunque existen algunos registros en el norte del país. Se han registrado 3 géneros y 5 especies: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia, y S. plebeia. Los registros en México de L. floridana y P. gayi deben confirmarse. En la región de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del estado de Veracruz, se localizó un foco donde las babosas Veronicellidae son plaga, los agricultores dejaron de sembrar frijol y cambiaron a otros cultivos para evitar la plaga.

Edna Naranjo-García; José Willibaldo Thomé; José Castillejo

2007-01-01

282

Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Basommatophora) na América do Sul: sistemática e distribuição/ South American Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Basommatophora): systematic and distribution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The family Ancylidae is represented in South America by the genera: Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849, Ferrissia Walker, 1903, Burnupia Walker, 1912 and Laevapex Walker, 1903. The species are caracterized using the combination of shell features and radula by scanning electron microscope, shell muscle and mantle pigmentation. The conchometry is also presented, but it does not help to species identification. The distribution of G. crequi (Bavay, 1904), G. foncki (Philippi, 1866), G (more) . philippiana (Biese, 1948), G. obliqua (Broderip & Sowerby, 1832), G. moricandi (Orbigny, 1837), G. concentrica (Orbigny, 1835), G. radiata (Guilding, 1828), G bakeri Pilsbry, 1913, G ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962), F. gentilis Lanzer, 1991, B. ingae Lanzer, 1991, L. vazi Santos, 1989 and Laevapex sp. in the Neotropical region is based on the bibliography, examination of the material deposited in scientific institutions and in the author's collection.

Lanzer, Rosane

1996-01-01

283

Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Basommatophora) na América do Sul: sistemática e distribuição South American Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Basommatophora): systematic and distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The family Ancylidae is represented in South America by the genera: Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849, Ferrissia Walker, 1903, Burnupia Walker, 1912 and Laevapex Walker, 1903. The species are caracterized using the combination of shell features and radula by scanning electron microscope, shell muscle and mantle pigmentation. The conchometry is also presented, but it does not help to species identification. The distribution of G. crequi (Bavay, 1904), G. foncki (Philippi, 1866), G. philippiana (Biese, 1948), G. obliqua (Broderip & Sowerby, 1832), G. moricandi (Orbigny, 1837), G. concentrica (Orbigny, 1835), G. radiata (Guilding, 1828), G bakeri Pilsbry, 1913, G ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962), F. gentilis Lanzer, 1991, B. ingae Lanzer, 1991, L. vazi Santos, 1989 and Laevapex sp. in the Neotropical region is based on the bibliography, examination of the material deposited in scientific institutions and in the author's collection.

Rosane Lanzer

1996-01-01

284

Carbohydrates and glycoforms of the major egg perivitellins from Pomacea apple snails (Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To better understand how glycans contribute to the multiple roles of perivitellins in embryo development, the carbohydrate moieties and glycoforms of the carotenoglycoproteins ovorubin and scalarin from the eggs of Pomaceacanaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) and Pomaceascalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835) were studied. All subunits of both proteins are glycosylated and appear to be glycoforms with isoelectric points ranging from approximately 5.3 to approximately 9.1. Complete deglycosylation reduced subunit heterogeneity to spots of similar molecular weight (approximately 27 and approximately 25 kDa in scalarin and ovorubin, respectively) but with varying IP. Serine phosphorylation, present in both perivitellins, explains part of the isoforms. Glycosylation patterns of scalarin were determined using biotinylated lectins, PNGaseF treatment and selective chemical deglycosylation, which revealed the presence of hybrid and oligomannose N-linked glycans in all subunits. Scalarin has terminal sialic acid residues possibly resistant to neuraminidase and O-linked residues derived from the T- and Tn antigens. Ovorubin displayed predominantly the same glycans, though in different amounts. Capillary gas chromatography (GC) showed galactose and mannose as the major monosaccharides followed by GlcNAc and fucose. An interesting feature was the important amount of sialylated and fucosylated structures found in both perivitellins determined by GC, spectroscopy and lectins. This is the first report of these structures in gastropods other than heterobranchs.

Ituarte S; Dreon MS; Pasquevich MY; Fernández PE; Heras H

2010-09-01

285

Carbohydrates and glycoforms of the major egg perivitellins from Pomacea apple snails (Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand how glycans contribute to the multiple roles of perivitellins in embryo development, the carbohydrate moieties and glycoforms of the carotenoglycoproteins ovorubin and scalarin from the eggs of Pomaceacanaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) and Pomaceascalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835) were studied. All subunits of both proteins are glycosylated and appear to be glycoforms with isoelectric points ranging from approximately 5.3 to approximately 9.1. Complete deglycosylation reduced subunit heterogeneity to spots of similar molecular weight (approximately 27 and approximately 25 kDa in scalarin and ovorubin, respectively) but with varying IP. Serine phosphorylation, present in both perivitellins, explains part of the isoforms. Glycosylation patterns of scalarin were determined using biotinylated lectins, PNGaseF treatment and selective chemical deglycosylation, which revealed the presence of hybrid and oligomannose N-linked glycans in all subunits. Scalarin has terminal sialic acid residues possibly resistant to neuraminidase and O-linked residues derived from the T- and Tn antigens. Ovorubin displayed predominantly the same glycans, though in different amounts. Capillary gas chromatography (GC) showed galactose and mannose as the major monosaccharides followed by GlcNAc and fucose. An interesting feature was the important amount of sialylated and fucosylated structures found in both perivitellins determined by GC, spectroscopy and lectins. This is the first report of these structures in gastropods other than heterobranchs. PMID:20471490

Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Pasquevich, M Y; Fernández, P E; Heras, H

2010-05-13

286

Human angiostrongyliasis outbreak in Dali, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several angiostrongyliasis outbreaks have been reported in recent years but the disease continues to be neglected in public health circles. We describe an outbreak in Dali, southwest China in order to highlight some key problems for the control of this helminth infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All available medical records of suspected angiostrongyliasis patients visiting hospitals in Dali in the period 1 October 2007-31 March 2008 were reviewed, and tentative diagnoses of varying strengths were reached according to given sets of criteria. Snails collected from local markets, restaurants and natural habitats were also screened for the presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. A total of 33 patients met criteria for infection, and 11 among them were classified as clinically confirmed. An additional eight patients were identified through a surveillance system put in operation in response to the outbreak. The epidemic lasted for 8 months with its peak in February 2008. Of the 33 patients, 97.0% complained of severe headache. 84.8% patients had high eosinophil cell counts either in the peripheral blood or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Three-quarters of the patients were treated with a combination of albendazole and corticosteroids, resulting in significantly improved overall conditions. Twenty-two patients reported the consumption of raw or undercooked snails prior to the onset of the symptoms, and approximately 1.0% of the Pomacea canaliculata snails on sale were found to be infected with A. cantonensis. The snails were also found in certain habitats around Dali but no parasites were detected in these populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The import and sale of infected P. canaliculata is the likely trigger for this angiostrongyliasis outbreak. Awareness of angiostrongyliasis must be raised, and standardized diagnosis and treatment are needed in order to provide clinicians with a guide to address this disease. Health education campaigns could limit the risk, and a hospital-based surveillance system should be established in order to detect future outbreaks.

Lv S; Zhang Y; Chen SR; Wang LB; Fang W; Chen F; Jiang JY; Li YL; Du ZW; Zhou XN

2009-01-01

287

Composição das espécies de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil) com uma avaliação do impacto causado pelas espécies exóticas invasoras/ Species composition of benthic molluscs in the reservoirs of Low Tietê River (São Paulo, Brazil) with an evaluation of the impact of exotic invader species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A composição taxonômica, a densidade e a distribuição espacial de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo) foram analisadas. A amostragem dos moluscos foi realizada em novembro de 2002 e agosto de 2003. As características físicas e químicas dos reservatórios também foram avaliadas buscando-se correlacioná-las à composição taxonômica e à distribuição dos táxons através da Análise de Correspondência Canônica (ACC). A es (more) pécie exótica Melanoides tuberculata esteve distribuída em todas as porções amostradas e foi a espécie mais abundante, correspondendo a 65,9% ou mais da abundância total, sendo dominante em todos os reservatórios, com densidade máxima de 23753 ind.m-2 registrada na profundidade de 2 m da porção superior do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava. As demais espécies exóticas, Corbicula fluminea e Helisoma sp., foram bem menos abundantes e não foram registradas em todas as porções dos reservatórios. As espécies nativas foram Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis e Pomacea canaliculata. Essas espécies representaram menos de 20% das espécies presentes nos reservatórios, ocorreram em abundância baixa e em densidades bem inferiores àquelas das espécies exóticas, principalmente em relação a M. tuberculata, podendo indicar o impacto das espécies exóticas invasoras sobre as populações nativas. Abstract in english The taxonomic composition, density and the spatial distribution of benthic molluscs in low Tietê, São Paulo reservoirs were analyzed in November 2002 and August 2003. The exotic species Melanoides tuberculata was distributed in all portions sampled and was the most abundant species, corresponding to 65.9% or more of the total abundance, being dominant in all reservoirs, with a maximum density of 23,753 ind.m-2 recorded in the depth of 2 m, at the superior portion of Nov (more) a Avanhandava reservoir.The other exotic species, Corbicula fluminea and Helisoma sp., were much less abundant and they were not registered in all portions of the reservoirs. The native species were Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis and Pomacea canaliculata. These species contributed with less than 20% of the total abundance of molluscs in the reservoirs, occurring in low densities, much inferior to those of the exotic species, mainly regarding M. tuberculata, possibly indicating the impact of the exotic invader species on the native populations.

França, Roberta S.; Suriani, Ana L.; Rocha, Odete

2007-03-01

288

Composição das espécies de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brasil) com uma avaliação do impacto causado pelas espécies exóticas invasoras Species composition of benthic molluscs in the reservoirs of Low Tietê River (São Paulo, Brazil) with an evaluation of the impact of exotic invader species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A composição taxonômica, a densidade e a distribuição espacial de moluscos bentônicos nos reservatórios do baixo rio Tietê (São Paulo) foram analisadas. A amostragem dos moluscos foi realizada em novembro de 2002 e agosto de 2003. As características físicas e químicas dos reservatórios também foram avaliadas buscando-se correlacioná-las à composição taxonômica e à distribuição dos táxons através da Análise de Correspondência Canônica (ACC). A espécie exótica Melanoides tuberculata esteve distribuída em todas as porções amostradas e foi a espécie mais abundante, correspondendo a 65,9% ou mais da abundância total, sendo dominante em todos os reservatórios, com densidade máxima de 23753 ind.m-2 registrada na profundidade de 2 m da porção superior do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava. As demais espécies exóticas, Corbicula fluminea e Helisoma sp., foram bem menos abundantes e não foram registradas em todas as porções dos reservatórios. As espécies nativas foram Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis e Pomacea canaliculata. Essas espécies representaram menos de 20% das espécies presentes nos reservatórios, ocorreram em abundância baixa e em densidades bem inferiores àquelas das espécies exóticas, principalmente em relação a M. tuberculata, podendo indicar o impacto das espécies exóticas invasoras sobre as populações nativas.The taxonomic composition, density and the spatial distribution of benthic molluscs in low Tietê, São Paulo reservoirs were analyzed in November 2002 and August 2003. The exotic species Melanoides tuberculata was distributed in all portions sampled and was the most abundant species, corresponding to 65.9% or more of the total abundance, being dominant in all reservoirs, with a maximum density of 23,753 ind.m-2 recorded in the depth of 2 m, at the superior portion of Nova Avanhandava reservoir.The other exotic species, Corbicula fluminea and Helisoma sp., were much less abundant and they were not registered in all portions of the reservoirs. The native species were Aylacostoma tenuilabris, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. intermedia, Physa cubensis and Pomacea canaliculata. These species contributed with less than 20% of the total abundance of molluscs in the reservoirs, occurring in low densities, much inferior to those of the exotic species, mainly regarding M. tuberculata, possibly indicating the impact of the exotic invader species on the native populations.

Roberta S. França; Ana L. Suriani; Odete Rocha

2007-01-01

289

Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta Structure and neotectonics of the Lomas de Olmedo, a transition zone between the Subandean and Santa Bárbara Systems, province of Salta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.The present study shows evidence of neotectonic deformation in the Northwestern Argentina region of Lomas de Olmedo, province of Salta. This region is located in the orogenic front at 24°S latitude and encompasses a transition zone between the Sierras Subandinas to the north, a thin-skinned belt with east vergence, or Subandean System sensu stricto, and a southern segment corresponding to the Santa Bárbara System produced by tectonic inversion of normal faults with west vergence. Between this two segments of different behavior are the Lomas de Olmedo, which have a complex array of active faults. Paleogene deposits of the sag phases produced during thermal subsidence of the Salta rift system, and Neogene synorogenic deposits related to the Andean uplift are folded and thrust on the Quaternary deposits of the El Chorro Formation of Quaternary age. The 14C ages from gastropod shells from this unit belonging to Pomacea canaliculata yielded an age of 7,962 ± 45 BP years for these deposits. The reverse faults with east vergence indicate a shortening rate for most of the Holocene of 2.34 mm/a for the tectonic thrust front in the transition zone between the two fold and thrust belts of the Subandean area.

V.A. Ramos; R.N. Alonso; M. Strecker

2006-01-01

290

Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta/ Structure and neotectonics of the Lomas de Olmedo, a transition zone between the Subandean and Santa Bárbara Systems, province of Salta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fa (more) llas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina. Abstract in english The present study shows evidence of neotectonic deformation in the Northwestern Argentina region of Lomas de Olmedo, province of Salta. This region is located in the orogenic front at 24°S latitude and encompasses a transition zone between the Sierras Subandinas to the north, a thin-skinned belt with east vergence, or Subandean System sensu stricto, and a southern segment corresponding to the Santa Bárbara System produced by tectonic inversion of normal faults with west (more) vergence. Between this two segments of different behavior are the Lomas de Olmedo, which have a complex array of active faults. Paleogene deposits of the sag phases produced during thermal subsidence of the Salta rift system, and Neogene synorogenic deposits related to the Andean uplift are folded and thrust on the Quaternary deposits of the El Chorro Formation of Quaternary age. The 14C ages from gastropod shells from this unit belonging to Pomacea canaliculata yielded an age of 7,962 ± 45 BP years for these deposits. The reverse faults with east vergence indicate a shortening rate for most of the Holocene of 2.34 mm/a for the tectonic thrust front in the transition zone between the two fold and thrust belts of the Subandean area.

Ramos, V.A.; Alonso, R.N.; Strecker, M.

2006-12-01

291

[Survey on the focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis foci in Guangdong Province for making surveillance program. METHODS: Survey sites were chosen by strata sampling according to different geographic locations. Totally 22 survey sites were selected in four regions: East Guangdong, West Guangdong, North Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta. One or two administrative villages in each site were randomly selected for the investigation. Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica collected from fields and other species of freshwater or terrestrial snails obtained in the restaurants and wet markets were examined for the third stage larvae by tissue grinding or lung examination. Rats were captured in the fields, and their hearts and lungs were dissected for adult worms. Rat feces were also collected for the detection of first stage larvae by water precipitation. RESULTS: Large number of P. canaliculata was found in all sites. A. fulica was found in most surveyed sites. Totally 2929 P. canaliculata and 1354 A. fulica were collected with a larva infection rate of 5.9% (172/2929) and 16.5% (223/1354), respectively (P<0.01). The average prevalence among the regions was different (P<0.01) with the highest prevalence in Pearl River Delta (15.6%, 152/975), especially in Dongguan City of the Delta (34.7%, 78/225). 114 Cipangopaludina sp. and 252 Bellamya sp. were bought from wet markets of 9. sites. Larvae were found only in Bellamya snails from Luoding and Kaiping cities with an infection rate of 1.4% (1/70) and 3.3% (3/91), respectively. Totally 491 rats were captured in 9 sites including Rattus norvegicus, R. flavipectus, Suncus murinus, Mus musculus, Bandicota indica, R. losea and R. rattus, with an average infection rate of 11.4% (56/491). Adult worms were found in R. norvegicus, R. flavipectus and B. indica with a prevalence of 19.8% (52/263), 2.5% (3/118) and 10.0% (1/10), respectively. Thirty-four rodent fecal samples were collected in 7 sites and examined with a larva positive rate of 44.1% (15/34). CONCLUSION: Foci of Angiostrongylus cantonensis are widely distributed in Guangdong Province as natural infection has been found in its intermediate and definitive hosts.

Deng ZH; Zhang QM; Lin RX; Huang SY; Zhang Y; Lv S; Liu HX; Hu L; Pei FQ; Wang JL; Ruan CW

2010-02-01

292

De novo assembly of the transcriptome of an invasive snail and its multiple ecological applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying how invasive species respond to environmental stress at the molecular level can help us assess their impact and predict their range expansion. Development of markers of genetic polymorphism can help us reconstruct their invasive route. However, to conduct such studies requires the presence of substantial amount of genomic resources. This study aimed to generate and characterize genomic resources using high throughput transcriptome sequencing for Pomacea canaliculata, a nonmodel gastropod indigenous to Argentina that has invaded Asia, Hawaii and southern United States. De novo assembly of the transcriptome resulted in 128,436 unigenes with an average length of 419 bp (range: 150-8556 bp). Many of the unigenes (2439) contained transposable elements, showing the existence of a source of genetic variability in response to stressful conditions. A total of 3196 microsatellites were detected in the transcriptome; among 20 of the randomly tested microsatellites, 10 were validated to exhibit polymorphism. A total of 15,412 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the ORFs. LC-MS/MS analysis of the proteome of juveniles revealed 878 proteins, of which many are stress related. This study has demonstrated the great potential of high throughput DNA sequencing for rapid development of genomic resources for a nonmodel organism. Such resources can facilitate various molecular ecological studies, such as stress physiology and range expansion. PMID:22994926

Sun, J; Wang, M; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Thiyagarajan, V; Qian, P Y; Qiu, J W

2012-09-21

293

Chance establishment for sexual, semelparous species: overcoming the Allee effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

We formalize the establishment process for a sexual, semelparous organism through the use of hierarchical probability modeling from parameters of survival, probability of being female, probability of being fertilized, and expected fecundity. We show how to calculate the expected per capita growth rate and probability of extinction. An Allee effect is observed if the expected population growth rate decreases as the initial population size decreases. The model can be further extended as a stochastic process to evaluate the probability of extinction in subsequent generations. One of the novel results is the formulation of an analytical probability distribution for the next generation population size. As case studies, we use the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), both of which appear on the World Conservation Union's list of 100 worst invaders. We evaluate the strength of the Allee effect and conclude that apple snails experience a weak Allee effect and Chinese mitten crabs experience a strong Allee effect. We emphasize one scenario where the stochastic process reveals that invasion risk can be estimated by the probability of the survival of one fertilized female, because the expected fecundity for one surviving female overwhelms the system such that population persistence is almost certain. PMID:19368522

Jerde, Christopher L; Bampfylde, Caroline J; Lewis, Mark A

2009-06-01

294

First egg protein with a neurotoxic effect on mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

While many invertebrates sequester toxic compounds to endow eggs with chemical defences, here we show, for the first time to our knowledge, the identification of a neurotoxin of proteinaceous nature localized inside an egg. Egg extracts from the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata displayed a neurotoxic effect in mice upon intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (LD50, 96h 2.3mg/kg). Egg protein and total lipids were analysed separately and the only fraction displaying a highly toxic effect (LD50, 96h 0.25mg/kg, i.p.) was further purified to homogeneity as an oligomeric glyco-lipoprotein of 400kDa and two subunits biochemically and immunologically indistinguishable from the previously described perivitellin PV2. The neurotoxin was heat sensitive and there was evidence of circulating antibody response to sublethal i.p. doses on mice. Clinical signs, histopathological and immunocytochemical studies revealed damage mostly in mice spinal cord. Experiments showed chromatolysis and a decreased response to calbindin D-28K associated with a significant increase of TUNEL-positive cells in the dorsal horn neurons. These results suggest that calcium buffering and apoptosis may play a role in the neurological disorders induced by the toxin in mammalian central nervous system. This is the first report of a mollusc neurotoxin genetically encoded outside the cone-snail species. PMID:18640143

Heras, Horacio; Frassa, M Victoria; Fernández, Patricia E; Galosi, Cecilia M; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Dreon, Marcos S

2008-07-02

295

Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection. PMID:23901378

Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

2013-06-01

296

Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

2010-01-01

297

Bioactive compounds from the bark of Eucalyptus exserta F. Muell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new phenolic compound, 1,3,8,9-tetrahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (6), was isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Eucalyptus exserta F. Muell. by activity-guided isolation method, along with nine known compounds, ?-sitosterol (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2), sideroxylin (3), 3,3?-di-O-methylellagic acid (4), 1-monopalmitin (5), (?)-catechin (7), yangambin (8), (24R)-24-ethyl-5?-cholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol (9) and ?-sitosterol xyloside (10). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4–6 and 8 exhibited moderate molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck). Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura Fabricius cells. Compounds 2, 4–6 and 8 also exhibited nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White). The results demonstrated that the bark of E. exserta is a promising source of valuable compounds. Some of these chemical constituents showed the potential for their molluscicidal and nematicidal applications.

Li J; Xu H

2012-11-01

298

Human Parasitic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophlic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

Tsai HC; Chen YS; Yen CM

2013-06-01

299

Chance establishment for sexual, semelparous species: overcoming the Allee effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We formalize the establishment process for a sexual, semelparous organism through the use of hierarchical probability modeling from parameters of survival, probability of being female, probability of being fertilized, and expected fecundity. We show how to calculate the expected per capita growth rate and probability of extinction. An Allee effect is observed if the expected population growth rate decreases as the initial population size decreases. The model can be further extended as a stochastic process to evaluate the probability of extinction in subsequent generations. One of the novel results is the formulation of an analytical probability distribution for the next generation population size. As case studies, we use the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), both of which appear on the World Conservation Union's list of 100 worst invaders. We evaluate the strength of the Allee effect and conclude that apple snails experience a weak Allee effect and Chinese mitten crabs experience a strong Allee effect. We emphasize one scenario where the stochastic process reveals that invasion risk can be estimated by the probability of the survival of one fertilized female, because the expected fecundity for one surviving female overwhelms the system such that population persistence is almost certain.

Jerde CL; Bampfylde CJ; Lewis MA

2009-06-01

300

Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos – a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from Laos. Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from blood cultures and ascitic fluid, although they are exceedingly rare isolates. Case presentation We describe a farmer who died with Vibrio cholerae O21 bacteremia and peritonitis in Vientiane, Laos, after eating partially cooked apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and mussels (Ligumia species). The cultured V. cholerae were non-motile. PCR detected ompW and toxR gene regions but not the ctxA, ompU, omp K and TCP gene regions. Although the organisms lacked flagellae on scanning electron microscopy, they possessed the Vibrio flagellin flaA gene. Conclusion Severe bacteremic non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae is reported from Laos. The organisms were unusual in being non-motile. They possessed the Vibrio flagellin flaA gene. Further research to determine the reasons for the non-motility and virulence is required.

Phetsouvanh Rattanaphone; Nakatsu Masami; Arakawa Eiji; Davong Viengmone; Vongsouvath Manivanh; Lattana Olay; Moore Catrin E; Nakamura Satoshi; Newton Paul N

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A snail with unbiased population sex ratios but highly biased brood sex ratios.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extraordinary sex ratio patterns and the underlying sex-determining mechanisms in various organisms are worth investigating, particularly because they shed light on adaptive sex-ratio adjustment. Here, we report an extremely large variation in the brood sex ratio in the freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata. In eight rearing series originating from three wild populations, sex ratios were highly variable among broods, ranging continuously from almost exclusively males to almost exclusively females. However, sex ratios were similar between broods from the same mating pair, indicating that sex ratio is a family trait. Irrespective of the large variations, the average sex ratios in all rearing series were not significantly different from 0.5. We argue that Fisher's adaptive sex-ratio theory can explain the equal average sex ratios, and the results, in turn, directly support Fisher's theory. Polyfactorial sex determination (in which sex is determined by three or more genetic factors) is suggested as the most likely mechanism producing the variable brood sex ratio.

Yusa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yoshito

2003-01-01

302

Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

Sri-Aroon P; Chusongsang P; Chusongsang Y; Pornpimol S; Butraporn P; Lohachit C

2010-01-01

303

De novo assembly of the transcriptome of an invasive snail and its multiple ecological applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studying how invasive species respond to environmental stress at the molecular level can help us assess their impact and predict their range expansion. Development of markers of genetic polymorphism can help us reconstruct their invasive route. However, to conduct such studies requires the presence of substantial amount of genomic resources. This study aimed to generate and characterize genomic resources using high throughput transcriptome sequencing for Pomacea canaliculata, a nonmodel gastropod indigenous to Argentina that has invaded Asia, Hawaii and southern United States. De novo assembly of the transcriptome resulted in 128,436 unigenes with an average length of 419 bp (range: 150-8556 bp). Many of the unigenes (2439) contained transposable elements, showing the existence of a source of genetic variability in response to stressful conditions. A total of 3196 microsatellites were detected in the transcriptome; among 20 of the randomly tested microsatellites, 10 were validated to exhibit polymorphism. A total of 15,412 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the ORFs. LC-MS/MS analysis of the proteome of juveniles revealed 878 proteins, of which many are stress related. This study has demonstrated the great potential of high throughput DNA sequencing for rapid development of genomic resources for a nonmodel organism. Such resources can facilitate various molecular ecological studies, such as stress physiology and range expansion.

Sun J; Wang M; Wang H; Zhang H; Zhang X; Thiyagarajan V; Qian PY; Qiu JW

2012-11-01

304

Oligocene pteropods (Gastropoda: Thecosomata) from the Kishima Formation, Saga Prefecture, southwest Japan/ Pterópodos (Gastropoda: Thecosomata) del Oligoceno de la Formación Kishima, Prefectura Saga, suroeste de Japón  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describen cinco especies de dos géneros de pterópodos, Limacina conica (Koenen, 1892), L. hospes Rolle, 1861, L. karasawai nueva especie, Limacina sp. y Creseis kishimaensis nueva especie, correspondientes a la Formación Kishima del Oligoceno en la Prefectura de Saga, al noroeste de Kyushu, suroeste de Japón. Estas especies representan el primer registro de pterópodos del Oligoceno de Japón. La fauna de pterópodos de la Formación Kishima se caracteriza por la p (more) resencia predominante del género Limacina. La fauna de pterópodos del Oligoceno de Japón es discutida brevemente. Abstract in english Five species in two genera of pteropods, Limacina conica (Koenen, 1892), L. hospes Rolle, 1861, L. karasawai new species, Limacina sp. and Creseis kishimaensis new species, are described from the Oligocene Kishima Formation of Saga Prefecture, northwestern Kyushu, southwest Japan. These species constitute the first Oligocene pteropod record from Japan. The pteropod fauna of the Kishima Formation is characterized by the predominate occurrence of the genus Limacina. The Oligocene pteropod fauna from Japan is briefly discussed.

Ando, Yusuke

2011-08-01

305

Nova espécie de Thaumastus da Floresta Atlântica do Paraná, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea)/ New species of Thaumastus from Atlantic Forest of Paraná, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Thaumastus straubei sp. nov. é descrita da Floresta Atlântica do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A atribuição genérica baseou-se a partir de análise morfológica da concha, rádula, mandíbula e das partes moles, evidenciando características únicas e exclusivas que permitem a distinção das demais espécies do gênero conhecidas até o momento. Abstract in english Thaumastus straubei sp. nov. is described from Atlantic Forest of state of Paraná, Brazil. The generic attribution came from morphological analysis of the shell, radula, jaw and soft parts showing unique and exclusive features that allow distinction from all others species of genus known so far.

Colley, Eduardo

2012-03-01

306

Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil/ Thecosomata and Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from Fernando de Noronha chain, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone) from August to September 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to su (more) rface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm), that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836) and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828) were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

Larrazábal, Maria Eduarda de; Oliveira, Valdeni Soares de

2003-06-01

307

Ciclo gonádico de Tegula aureotincta (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en Bahía Asunción, Baja California Sur, México/ Gonadal cycle of Tegula aureotincta (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Bahía Asunción, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe el ciclo gonádico de Tegula aureotincta en Bahía Asunción Baja California Sur. Se recolectaron mensualmente de 25 a 30 organismos de enero a diciembre de 2006. Estos fueron procesados con la técnica histológica de inclusión en parafina, el tejido de la gónada se cortó a 7 ?m de grosor, los cortes fueron teñidos mediante la técnica de Hematoxilina-Eosina. La proporción de sexosfue 1:1, tanto hembras como machos presentaron todo el año gametogé (more) nesis y madurez, con dos eventos principales de expulsión de gametos: uno en otoño-invierno y otro en primavera. La madurez y los momentos de expulsión de gametos guardan aparentemente estrecha relación con los cambios estacionales de la temperatura. Abstract in english The histological gonadal cycle of Tegula aureotincta was determined at Bahia Asuncion Baja California Sur. Monthly samples of 25 to 30 organisms were collected from January to December 2006. They were processed by histological technique, embedded in paraffin, sections 7- ?m thick were stained with hematoxylin-eosin.The sex ratio was 1:1. Both sexes presented gametogénesis and maturity stages the year through. Two major spawning events were identified in autumn-winte (more) r and spring. The maturity and spawning times have close relations with the seasonal change of sea water temperature.

Vélez-Arellano, Nurenskaya; Mendoza-Santana, Laura E.; Ortíz-Ordóñez, Esperanza; Guzmán del Proó, Sergio A.

2011-08-01

308

Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae) among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Posición evolutiva de caracoles terrestres peruanos (Orthalicidae) entre los Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

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Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus), formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus), result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.Los géneros Bostryx y Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) son endémicos de América del Sur y están principalmente distribuidos en la vertiente occidental de los Andes del Perú. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar su posición evolutiva dentro de los gastrópodos Stylommatophora basada en el marcador mitocondrial 16S rRNA. Fueron obtenidas cuatro secuencias las que, junto con 28 de otros Stylommatophora disponibles en el GenBank, fueron alineadas con ClustalX. La reconstrucción filogenética se realizó mediante los métodos de Neighbor-Joining, Máxima Parsimonia, Máxima Verosimilitud e Inferencia Bayesiana. El alineamiento resultó en 371 sitios, con presencia de indels. Los dos géneros de la Familia Orthalicidae por primera vez incluidos en una filogenia molecular (Bostryx y Scutalus), formaron un grupo monofilético con otro miembro de la superfamilia Orthalicoidea (Placostylus), tal como lo obtenido con marcadores nucleares. Se discute también su relación evolutiva con otros caracoles terrestres.

Jorge Ramirez; Rina Ramírez; Pedro Romero; Ana Chumbe; Pablo Ramírez

2011-01-01

309

Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae) Relato de um acidente em ser humano causado por Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae)  

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Full Text Available Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae.Conus regius é um molusco venenoso da família Conidae, que inclui espécies responsáveis por acidentes graves ou mesmo fatais em humanos. Os autores relatam pela primeira vez um caso clínico envolvendo a espécie, que inclui uma punctura na mão direita de um mergulhador submarino, que apresentou parestesias e dificuldade de movimentação do membro todo. O quadro desapareceu em cerca de doze horas, sem seqüelas.

Vidal Haddad Junior; Marcus Coltro; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

2009-01-01

310

Optimización de la solución de extracción de moléculas antibacterianas de Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae) Optimization of extracting solutions of antibacterial molecules from Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae)  

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Full Text Available Introducción: los moluscos marinos constituyen un reservorio natural de moléculas con potencialidades terapéuticas para el tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas en momentos en que se han descrito numerosas cepas resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales. Objetivo: comparar 3 soluciones: ácido acético 30 %, metanol 50 % y salina-ácida (NaCl 0,6 mol/L, HCl 1 %) atendiendo a sus capacidades extractivas de moléculas con actividad antibacteriana del molusco marino Cenchritis muricatus. Métodos: para el procesamiento del material biológico se utilizaron las 3 soluciones de extracción y se analizaron los extractos obtenidos de acuerdo con la concentración de proteínas totales y la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli, mediante un bioensayo turbidimétrico en microplacas de 96 pocillos en medio Luria-Bertani. Resultados: se obtuvo mayor concentración de proteínas totales (7,8 mg/mL) con el extracto total de C. muricatus obtenido con la solución salina-ácida. Además con 200 mg/mL de proteínas totales del extracto se obtuvo inhibición significativa (pIntroduction: marine mollusks are natural reservoirs of molecules with therapeutic potential for the treatment of infectious diseases, at a time when many antibiotic-resistant strains are being described. Objective: to compare three solutions: 30% acetic acid, 50% methanol and saline-acid (NaCl 0.6 mol/L, 1% HCl) according to their capacities to extract molecules with antimicrobial activity from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus. Methods: the three extraction solutions were used to process the biological material, and then, the obtained extracts were analyzed in terms of total protein concentration and the bacterial growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains by means of a turbidimetric bioassay using 96 well microplates in Luria-Bertani (LB) culture medium. Results: the highest total protein concentration (7.8 mg/mL) was found in the C. muricatus extract from the saline-acid solution. Additionally, 200 mg/mL of total proteins from the extract caused significant growth inhibition (p<0.001) of S. aureus (12.64 %) and E. coli (12.1 %) compared to the positive control of growth inhibition using chloramphenicol. Conclusions: according to these results, the saline-acid solution proved to be more efficient in extracting molecules with antibacterial activity that are likely to be antimicrobial peptides from C. muricatus.

Annia Alba Menéndez; Carlos López Abarrategui; Antonio A Vázquez Perera; Anselmo J Otero González

2011-01-01

311

Optimización de la solución de extracción de moléculas antibacterianas de Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae)/ Optimization of extracting solutions of antibacterial molecules from Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: los moluscos marinos constituyen un reservorio natural de moléculas con potencialidades terapéuticas para el tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas en momentos en que se han descrito numerosas cepas resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales. Objetivo: comparar 3 soluciones: ácido acético 30 %, metanol 50 % y salina-ácida (NaCl 0,6 mol/L, HCl 1 %) atendiendo a sus capacidades extractivas de moléculas con actividad antibacteriana del molusco marin (more) o Cenchritis muricatus. Métodos: para el procesamiento del material biológico se utilizaron las 3 soluciones de extracción y se analizaron los extractos obtenidos de acuerdo con la concentración de proteínas totales y la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli, mediante un bioensayo turbidimétrico en microplacas de 96 pocillos en medio Luria-Bertani. Resultados: se obtuvo mayor concentración de proteínas totales (7,8 mg/mL) con el extracto total de C. muricatus obtenido con la solución salina-ácida. Además con 200 mg/mL de proteínas totales del extracto se obtuvo inhibición significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction: marine mollusks are natural reservoirs of molecules with therapeutic potential for the treatment of infectious diseases, at a time when many antibiotic-resistant strains are being described. Objective: to compare three solutions: 30% acetic acid, 50% methanol and saline-acid (NaCl 0.6 mol/L, 1% HCl) according to their capacities to extract molecules with antimicrobial activity from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus. Methods: the three extraction soluti (more) ons were used to process the biological material, and then, the obtained extracts were analyzed in terms of total protein concentration and the bacterial growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains by means of a turbidimetric bioassay using 96 well microplates in Luria-Bertani (LB) culture medium. Results: the highest total protein concentration (7.8 mg/mL) was found in the C. muricatus extract from the saline-acid solution. Additionally, 200 mg/mL of total proteins from the extract caused significant growth inhibition (p

Menéndez, Annia Alba; López Abarrategui, Carlos; Vázquez Perera, Antonio A; Otero González, Anselmo J

2011-08-01

312

La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas/ The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda) in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S) y Los Vilos (31º S), y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Dilo (more) ma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala) distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívoras Abstract in english This study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery) samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S) and Los Vilos (ca 31º S). The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal an (more) d shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

VELIZ, DAVID; VASQUEZ, JULIO A

2000-12-01

313

Nova espécie de Thaumastus da Floresta Atlântica do Paraná, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea) New species of Thaumastus from Atlantic Forest of Paraná, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thaumastus straubei sp. nov. é descrita da Floresta Atlântica do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A atribuição genérica baseou-se a partir de análise morfológica da concha, rádula, mandíbula e das partes moles, evidenciando características únicas e exclusivas que permitem a distinção das demais espécies do gênero conhecidas até o momento.Thaumastus straubei sp. nov. is described from Atlantic Forest of state of Paraná, Brazil. The generic attribution came from morphological analysis of the shell, radula, jaw and soft parts showing unique and exclusive features that allow distinction from all others species of genus known so far.

Eduardo Colley

2012-01-01

314

ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata) PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez) e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp) foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento) para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

S. E. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

2008-01-01

315

RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça) e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá) com um grupo controle (escargot), animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e 25g (considerados pela Escargoteria animais padrão de abate). De interesse industrial, o rendimento em carne observado no lote de escargot de peso inferior (14,08 a 19,98g) ao lote controle, mostra que podemos aproveitá-los para a comercialização, pois podem ser abatidos antes dos 4 meses de idade, pelo menor custo de produção. Já os lotes de aruá (espécie selvagem) apresentaram discrepâncias quando comparado ao lote controle o que sugerem estudos zootécnicos para melhorar o rendimento em carne. Na composição centesimal da carne 02 lotes de escargot (1 e 2) e 02 lotes de aruá (4 e 5) são estatisticamente igual ao lote controle indicando o potencial nutricional da espécie aruá.

S. H. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

2008-01-01

316

Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 ?g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

2008-01-01

317

Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 {mu}g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

Hoang, Tham C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rogevich, Emily C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Rand, Gary M. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)], E-mail: randg@fiu.edu; Gardinali, Piero R. [Florida International University, Department of Chemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, FL 32960 (United States)

2008-07-15

318

Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): implications in Everglades restoration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 microg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. PMID:18068282

Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Frakes, Robert A; Bargar, Timothy A

2008-02-20

319

The effect of stocking density on the reproductive output of hatchery-reared Florida apple snails, Pomacea paludosa  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of stocking density on the reproductive output of Florida apple snails was investigated with the goal of developing a captive breeding program that would sustain year-round production and yield a high number of juvenile snails. We examined stocking densities of 50, 100, and 150 snails/m2 to determine the threshold at which density negatively affects reproduction. Adult snails were added to tanks in a recirculating aquaculture system at a 1:1 sex ratio and reproductive output was followed for 8weeks. The total number of clutches per tank and the number of eggs per clutch were recorded daily. The number of egg clutches produced in each tank was standardized per female to assess among treatment differences. Once hatched, the juveniles were counted and the percent hatch rates were determined for each clutch. The findings of the study demonstrated that density affected the mean number of clutches laid per female per week with snails in the 50 snails/m2 treatment having higher egg production than snails stocked at 100 and 150 snails/m2 treatments. Similarly, the number of juveniles produced per female was also higher in the lowest density treatment. There were no significant differences between treatments for egg characteristics (number of eggs per clutch and percent hatch rate). Based on these results, it is recommended that adult snails be stocked at 50 snails/m2 to yield optimum egg production per female, attain the highest number of juveniles, and to sustain production for a reliable captive breeding program.

Posch H; Garr AL; Pierce R; Davis M

2012-09-01

320

Pagodulina subdola (Gredler, 1856) (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Orculidae) fait bien partie de la faune de France  

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Full Text Available Although Pagodulina subdola may have been collected in France as soon as 1850, taxonomical and geographical confusions and lacks have led to consider it as a species distributed from the southern side of central Alps to the Peloponnese through the Balkans. Here we report the westernmost populations for that species and confirm its occurrence in France from the Southern Alps, in beech forests mainly facing north above 700 m elevation.

Olivier Gargominy; Theo E. J. Ripken; Alexis Matamoro-Vidal; Daniel Reboul

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda : Bulimulidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Placostylus hongii (Lesson) is recorded from sites between Whangaroa and Whangarei on the mainland Northland coast, and from the Poor Knights, Chicken, Mokohinau and Great Barrier islands offshore. There is considerable variation in shell morphology between the various populations, commonly with marked morphological divergence at a local scale but with overlapping variation overall across all populations of the taxon. Patterns of morphological variation show no clear geographic trends and are at least in part related to local environmental factors. Correlations are identified between shell shape and substratum type, and between shell size and vegetation type. Placostylus hongii has a very restricted stratigraphic distribution in mainland Northland, with most if not all of the few known fossil populations post-dating Polynesian settlement at c. 900-700 years BP. We suggest that P. hongii populations on the Poor Knights and possibly also those on the Mokohinau islands are endemic, whereas the mainland populations and those on Great Barier and the Chicken islands have originated from anthropic redistribution of snails in prehistoric time. A high proportion of the mainland P. hongii populations and some offshore island populations became extinct in the last few hundred years as a result of predation by introduced mammals and the modification and destruction of shrubland and forest habitat. (author). 54 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

1999-01-01

322

Three new species of Scissurellidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) from the coast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Pela leitura das descrições originais dos gêneros de Scissurellidae , conclue-se que os nomes validos destes gêneros são: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescriçao por Sowerby, 1824), Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Inoisura Hedley,1904, Soissurona Iredale, 1924 e Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella e Anatoma são cosmopolitas; o primeiro encontra-se geralmente em águas rasas e associado a algas; o segundo habita Iguas profundas. Os três últimos gêneros são restritos à (more) Australásia. Três novas espécies são descritas para a costa do Brasil: Scissurella alexandrei, Soissurelía eleotilis e Scissurella morretesi. Da primeira foi estudada a anatomia interna. Estas tres espécies novas foram encontradas em ãguas rasas; S. alexandrei e S.eleotilis provem de amostras de algas do mesolitoral inferior. Conhece-se uma quarta espécie de Scissure11idae para o Brasil: Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886), dragada em 1873 pelo 'Challenger', ao largo da costa de Pernambuco, em profundidade de 640 m. Abstract in english A consultation of the original descriptions of the genera of Scissurellidae led the author to conclude that the valid names for the genera of this family are: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescription by Sowerby, 1824), Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Inoisura Hedley, 1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924, Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella and Anatoma are cosmopolites, the first generally living in shallow waters, associated to sea-weeds, while the second is found in deep waters. The (more) three last genera are restricted to Australasia. Three new species are described from the Brazilian coast: Soissu rella alexandrei, Scissurella eleotilis and Scissurella morretesi. The internal anatomy of S. alexandrei is described. These three new species have been found in littoral shallow waters, the two first on the northeast Brazilian coast, the third on the coast of the State of São Paulo. The fourth known species of Scissurellidae from Brazil, Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886), was dredged by H.M.S, "Challenger", in 1873, off Pernambuco, 350 fm (640 m).

Montouchet, Pierre Ch.

1972-01-01

323

[Localization of biogenic amines in the central nervous system of Crepidula fornicata (Phil.), Mollusca, Gastropoda, Prosobrancha  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two categories of neurones at least can be demonstrated in Crepidula fornicata, some containing catecholamines (DA) others indolamines (5 HT). These cells, which are well localized, are often close to azanophilous neurosecretory cells but nevertheless distinct from the latter.

Catania R

1978-05-01

324

Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) on a mixed shore of rocks and sand  

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Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767) snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

Marcos G. Papp; Luiz F.L. Duarte

2001-01-01

325

ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and ?-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime (?) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 ± 0.01 eV (3.6 ± 0.7) x 1013 s-1 and 2.02 x 108 years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional ?-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 ± 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna

2006-01-01

326

Aspectos da ecologia e da reprodução de Leptinaria unilamellata (Orbigny, 1835) (Gastropoda, Subulinidae)  

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Full Text Available Leptinaria unilamellata is a species of veterinary importance, being cited here in Pernambuco for the first time. Accounts of both environment and reproduction are made. Ecological observations in a population of Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, show predominance in relation to the sympatric snail: Bulimulus tenuissimus, Subulina octona and Sarasinula sp., and showed exceptional ability to adapt to environmental conditions. From August 1982 to November 1983 a total of 1.169 specimens were collected and classified into 8 class sizes. The average occurences in each month indicate that the population is in a state of reproductive equilibrium. Sexual maturity begins at a body length of 6.1 - 7.0 mm, when the specimens (still at half their final lenght) already manifest embryos in the uterus, numbering 1 to 8.

Ana Virginia Calógeras Dutra

1988-01-01

327

Characterization of the bacterial microbiota of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Roughly 200 000 000 people in 74 countries infected with schistosomes all share the fact that they came in contact freshwater harbouring infected snails. The aim of the study is to characterize the microbiota of wild and laboratory-reared snails of Biomphalaria glabrata from Pernambuco, Brazil. The microbiota of these molluscs was identified biochemically by the VITEK 2 automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disc diffusion method with ß-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, quinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, fenicols and tetracyclines. The results showed that all bacteria identified were gram-negative, including 11 bacterial genera: Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Cupriavidus, Rhizobium, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Vibrio and Sphingomonas. Regarding the antimicrobial susceptibility, all the isolates exhibited resistance to amoxicillin and sensitivity to meropenem (beta-lactam antimicrobials). The microbiota of the wild snails consisted predominantly of Enterobacter cloacae, while the laboratory-reared snails predominantly showed Citrobacter freundii and Aeromonas sobria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Biomphalaria glabrata is a Brazilian freshwater Planorbidae of great medical relevance as an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. About a month after being infected by one or more miracidia larvae of a compatible schistosome, B. glabrata sheds thousands of cercariae into the water where they seek human skin and, if successful, penetrate to establish infection, eventually taking up residence and maturing in blood vessels of the small intestine. Results obtained from this study aim at targeting novel biological control strategies for schistosomiasis such as paratransgenesis. This is the first study on the microbiota of B. glabrata from Brazil.

Silva TM; Melo ES; Lopes AC; Veras DL; Duarte CR; Alves LC; Brayner FA

2013-07-01

328

[Dominant structural and functional adaptations of distant chemosensory systems in phylogenesis of Gastropoda  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invasion of land by gastropods independent and repeated in the course of their evolution, was shown to be accompanied by appearance of organisationally similar olfactory tentacular organs and special integrative centres. The majority of primary and secondary water gastropods in different phylogenetic groups had a different, more primitive organisation of the tentacular sensory system as compared to the terrestrial species. Regularities of the phylogenetic adaptations of mollusks to the habitat media and lifestyle are discussed.

Za?tseva OV

2000-08-01

329

Molecular evidence for the polyphyly of Bostryx (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) and genetic diversity of Bostryx aguilari  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Bostryx is largely distributed in Andean Valleys and Lomas formations along the coast of Peru and Chile. One species, Bostryx aguilari, is restricted to Lomas formations located in the Department of Lima (Peru). The use of genetic information has become essential in phylogenetic and population studies with conservation purposes. Considering the rapid degradation of desert ecosystems, which threatens the survival of vulnerable species, the aim of this study was, first, to (more) resolve evolutionary relationships within Bostryx and to determine the position of Bostryx within the Bulimulidae, and second, to survey the genetic diversity of Bostryx aguilari, a species considered rare. Sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear rRNA regions were obtained for 12 and 11 species of Bulimulidae, respectively, including seven species of Bostryx. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained for 14 individuals (from four different populations) of Bostryx aguilari. Phylogenetic reconstructions were carried out using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The monophyly of Bostryx was not supported. In our results, B. solutus (type species of Bostryx) grouped only with B. aguilari, B. conspersus, B. modestus, B. scalariformis and B. sordidus, forming a monophyletic group that is strongly supported in all analyses. In case the taxonomy of Bostryx is reviewed in the future, this group should keep the generic name. Bostryx aguilari was found to have both low genetic diversity and small population size. We recommend that conservation efforts should be increased in Lomas ecosystems to ensure the survival of B. aguilari, and a large number of other rare species restricted to Lomas.

Ramirez, Jorge L.; Ramírez, Rina

2013-02-01

330

Distribution and habitat preferences of the genus Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Cuba  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the distribution and habitat preferences of several species of the genus Biomphalaria. Samples were taken at 350 freshwater locations in Cuba. Three species of Biomphalaria (Biomphalaria havanensis, Biomphalaria helophila and Biomphalaria pallida) were recorded based on their distribution. Of the three species, B. havanensis has the weakest distribution because it was identified in only one locality. The other species, B. helophila and B. pallida, are abundant in rivers and dams and have large populations in Cuba. However, the only species that appears to occur in ecosystems shared with thiarids is B. pallida, possibly due to recent introduction of thiarids, but always in fewer numbers. Here we discuss the possibility of these species to act as intermediary hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Cuba over the basis of occurrence in natural and anthropic habitats.

Antonio Alejandro Vázquez Perera; Jorge Sánchez Noda; Yosvania Hevia Jiménez

2010-01-01

331

Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50?m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50?m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

Ávila SP; Goud J; de Frias Martins AM

2012-01-01

332

Monoamines in the pedal plexus of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

Science.gov (United States)

In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. Moreover, the foot of the terrestrial species has been studied less than that of the aquatic species. As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus, the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. Adult land snails weighing 48-80 g, obtained from the counties of Barra do Ribeiro and Charqueadas (RS, Brazil), were utilized. Monoaminergic fibers were detected throughout the pedal musculature. Blue fluorescence (catecholamines, probably dopamine) was observed in nerve branches, pedal and subepithelial plexuses, and in the pedal muscle cells. Yellow fluorescence (serotonin) was only observed in thick nerves and in muscle cells. However, when immunohistochemical methods were used, serotonergic fibers were detected in the pedal nerve branches, the pedal and subepithelial plexuses, the basal and lateral zones of the ventral integument epithelial cells, in the pedal ganglion neurons and beneath the ventral epithelium. These findings suggest catecholaminergic and serotonergic involvement in locomotion and modulation of both the pedal ganglion interneurons and sensory information. Knowledge of monoaminergic distribution in this snail s foot is important for understanding the pharmacological control of reflexive responses and locomotive behavior. PMID:15264012

Faccioni-Heuser, M C; Zancan, D M; Achaval, M

2004-06-22

333

Acetylcholinesterase distribution in the central nervous system of the Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Megalobulimus oblongus was demonstrated by using Koelle and Friedenwald's procedure. The AChE positive reaction was revealed in the nervous cell bodies and processes in the different ganglia of the CNS. The largest number of strong positive neuronal subsets reside in pedal and buccal ganglia. Other positive cell bodies are also located in clusters in the left portion of the visceral ganglion, meso and postcerebrum, and pleural ganglia. In some neurons the enzymatic reaction only appeared at trophospongium level. The neuropilian synaptic areas also exhibited AChE reactivity. These data provide further evidence that AChE is present in neuronal bodies of the CNS of this pulmonate snail, and in some areas is probably involved in cholinergic circuits.

Zancan DM; Nóblega HG; Severino AG; Achaval M

1994-01-01

334

Vascular supply of the central nervous system of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The vascularization of the central nervous system of the snail Megalobulimus oblongus was studied by injection of carmine-gelatin solution into the arterial system and using a histochemical technique for the detection of alkaline phosphatase. The central nervous system of M. oblongus is irrigated by the anterior aorta, from which a series of small branches emerge that supply the subesophageal nervous ganglia. In turn, these branches give rise to a series of smaller vessels that irrigate the buccal bulb, the anterior portion of the foot, the cerebral ganglia, the dorsal body gland, and the anterior portion of the reproductive system. No hemolymph vessels were detected within nervous tissue although such vessels were found in the periganglionic connective sheath. This connective sheath contains vascular loops and had a series of overlaps and projections that follow the contour of the nervous ganglia. This arrangement permits a larger area of interaction between the surface of the nervous tissue and the hemolymph and reduces the distance between the deepest portion of a given ganglion and the hemolymph vessels. PMID:12937793

Nóblega, H G; Missaglia, V; Stenert, C; Faccioni-Heuser, M C; Achaval, M

2003-08-19

335

Acetylcholinesterase distribution in the central nervous system of the Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central nervous system (CNS) of the Megalobulimus oblongus was demonstrated by using Koelle and Friedenwald's procedure. The AChE positive reaction was revealed in the nervous cell bodies and processes in the different ganglia of the CNS. The largest number of strong positive neuronal subsets reside in pedal and buccal ganglia. Other positive cell bodies are also located in clusters in the left portion of the visceral ganglion, meso and postcerebrum, and pleural ganglia. In some neurons the enzymatic reaction only appeared at trophospongium level. The neuropilian synaptic areas also exhibited AChE reactivity. These data provide further evidence that AChE is present in neuronal bodies of the CNS of this pulmonate snail, and in some areas is probably involved in cholinergic circuits. PMID:8881557

Zancan, D M; Nóblega, H G; Severino, A G; Achaval, M

336

Vascular supply of the central nervous system of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The vascularization of the central nervous system of the snail Megalobulimus oblongus was studied by injection of carmine-gelatin solution into the arterial system and using a histochemical technique for the detection of alkaline phosphatase. The central nervous system of M. oblongus is irrigated by the anterior aorta, from which a series of small branches emerge that supply the subesophageal nervous ganglia. In turn, these branches give rise to a series of smaller vessel (more) s that irrigate the buccal bulb, the anterior portion of the foot, the cerebral ganglia, the dorsal body gland, and the anterior portion of the reproductive system. No hemolymph vessels were detected within nervous tissue although such vessels were found in the periganglionic connective sheath. This connective sheath contains vascular loops and had a series of overlaps and projections that follow the contour of the nervous ganglia. This arrangement permits a larger area of interaction between the surface of the nervous tissue and the hemolymph and reduces the distance between the deepest portion of a given ganglion and the hemolymph vessels.

Nóblega, H.G.; Missaglia, V.; Stenert, C.; Faccioni-Heuser, M.C.; Achaval, M.

2003-09-01

337

Monoamines in the pedal plexus of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. Moreover, the foot of the terrestrial species has been studied less than that of the aquatic species. As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus, the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. Adult land snails weighing 48-80 g, obtained from the counties of Barra do Ribeiro and Charqueadas (RS, Brazil), were utilized. Monoaminergic fibers were detected throughout the pedal musculature. Blue fluorescence (catecholamines, probably dopamine) was observed in nerve branches, pedal and subepithelial plexuses, and in the pedal muscle cells. Yellow fluorescence (serotonin) was only observed in thick nerves and in muscle cells. However, when immunohistochemical methods were used, serotonergic fibers were detected in the pedal nerve branches, the pedal and subepithelial plexuses, the basal and lateral zones of the ventral integument epithelial cells, in the pedal ganglion neurons and beneath the ventral epithelium. These findings suggest catecholaminergic and serotonergic involvement in locomotion and modulation of both the pedal ganglion interneurons and sensory information. Knowledge of monoaminergic distribution in this snail s foot is important for understanding the pharmacological control of reflexive responses and locomotive behavior.

Faccioni-Heuser MC; Zancan DM; Achaval M

2004-07-01

338

Vascular supply of the central nervous system of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vascularization of the central nervous system of the snail Megalobulimus oblongus was studied by injection of carmine-gelatin solution into the arterial system and using a histochemical technique for the detection of alkaline phosphatase. The central nervous system of M. oblongus is irrigated by the anterior aorta, from which a series of small branches emerge that supply the subesophageal nervous ganglia. In turn, these branches give rise to a series of smaller vessels that irrigate the buccal bulb, the anterior portion of the foot, the cerebral ganglia, the dorsal body gland, and the anterior portion of the reproductive system. No hemolymph vessels were detected within nervous tissue although such vessels were found in the periganglionic connective sheath. This connective sheath contains vascular loops and had a series of overlaps and projections that follow the contour of the nervous ganglia. This arrangement permits a larger area of interaction between the surface of the nervous tissue and the hemolymph and reduces the distance between the deepest portion of a given ganglion and the hemolymph vessels.

Nóblega HG; Missaglia V; Stenert C; Faccioni-Heuser MC; Achaval M

2003-09-01

339

Invasion of ancient Lake Titicaca by the globally invasive Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygrophila)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vital population of Physa acuta, a globally invasive species of freshwater gastropods was dicovered in ancient Lake Titicaca in April 2007. The population was found near Chucuito (Bahia de Puno) on the Peruvian side in close proximity to a boat landing of the aquaculture facility of the University of Puno. Physids occured in great abundances at this site on macrophytes in depths from 0 to 2 m. Physa acuta was associated with members of the Heleobia andicola species complex as well as with Heleobia otorni, Biomphalaria andecola, and Uncancylus crequi. Species identity was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods. We discuss the mode of introduction and raise a cautionary note on the potential impact of this global invader on the endemic gastropod fauna of ancient Lake Titicaca.

Albrecht Christian; Kroll Oliver; Moreno Terrazas Edmundo; Wilke Thomas

2009-10-01

340

Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d’Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

Abraham Breure; Jonathan Ablett

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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